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# Gear Trains 1

## !!.8 SUN AND PLANT CAR

When an annular wheel A is added to the epicyclic
gear train of Fig. 11.4, the combination is usually,
referred to as sun and planet gear (Fig. 11.14). The
annular wheel gears with the wheel P which can ro-
tate freely on the arm a. The wheels S and P are
generally called the sun and the planet wheels respec-
tively due to analogy of motion of a planet around the
sun.
In general, S, A and a are free to rotate indepen-
dently of each other. It is also possible that either S or
A are fixed. If A is fixed, S will be the driving mem-
ber and if S is fixed, A will be the driving member. In
each case the driven member is the arm a.
Let N
S
= speed of the sun wheel S
N
A
= speed of the annular wheel A
N
a
= speed of the arm a
T
S
= number of teeth on S
T
A
= number of teeth on A
Then the table can be prepared as usual.
TabIe !!.9
Action Arm a S P A
a fixed, S + 1 rev. 0 1
S
P
T
T
S S P
P A A
T T T
T T T

- = -

a fixed, S + x rev. 0 x
S
P
T
T
x
S
A
T
T
x
All given y rev. (add y) y y + x y
S
P
T
T
x y
S
P
T
T
x
\ x + y = N
S
(i)
and y
S
A
T
T
x = N
A
(ii)
Subtracting (ii) from (i),
x 1
S
A
T
T

+

= N
S
N
A
or x
A S
A
T T
T
+

= N
S
N
A
or x =
S A
A S
N N
T T
-

+
T
A
lig. !!.!4
2 Theory of Machines
and y = N
S
x = N
S

S A A A
A S
N T N T
T T
-
+
=
S A S S S A A A
A S
N T N T N T N T
T T
+ - +
+
N
a
= y =
S S A A
S A
N T N T
T T
+
+
(11.11)
If the sun wheel S is fixed, N
S
= 0,
Speed of the arm, N
a
=
A A
S A
N T
T T +
or
1
/ 1
a
A S A
N
N T T
=
+
If the annular wheel A is fixed, N
A
= 0,
Speed of the arm, N
a
=
S S
S A
N T
T T +
or
/
1 /
a S A
S S A
N T T
N T T
=
+
The number of teeth on the sun wheel can vary from 0 to T
A
, i.e. from zero
to the number of teeth on the annular wheel. Therefore, the ratio of the number
of teeth on the sun wheel to that on the annular wheel, i.e., T
S
/ T
A
can vary
from 0 to 1. If a graph T
S
/ T
A
vs. N
a
/N
A
(S is fixed) is plotted, the curve C
1
is
obtained (Fig. 11.15) which shows that the sun and the planet gear always acts
as a reduction gear. The speed of the arm decreases from N
A
to 1/2 N
A
as the
number of teeth of the sun wheel increases from zero to T
A
. Similarly, if A is
fixed T
S
/ T
A
vs. N
a
/N
S
is plotted, the curve C
2
is obtained. This shows that it
again acts as a reduction gear in which the speed of the arm varies from zero to
1/2N
S
.
lig. !!.!5
S
A
T
T
In both cases, the direction of the arm is the same as that of the driving
member.
Gear Trains 3
Horizontal dotted lines l
1
and l
2
show the practical limits of the ratio of
T
S
/T
A
and of the corresponding speeds of the arm, where middle portion shows
the range.
ampIe !!.8 Determine the velocity ratio of the two shafts B and C of the
compound gear shown in Fig. 11.16(a) in which the sun wheel S
2
is fixed. The
numbers of teeth on different gears are mentioned alongside the respective gear.
Also, find the torque required to fix the gear S
2
when a clockwise torque of 160 N.m
is applied to the gear S
1
.
lig. !!.!
5KJE
For the first sun and planet gear [Fig. 11.16(b)]
N
a1
=
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1
60 20 3
60 20 4
A A S S A S A S
A S
N T N T N N N N
T T
+ + +
= =
+ +
(i)
For the second sun and planet gear (S
2
is fixed),
N
a2
=
2 2
50 0 10
50 15 13
A A
N N +
=
+
or N
a2
= 0.769 N
A2
(ii)
From the figure of the gear, it can be seen that
Annular wheel A
1
is the arm a
2
of the second sun and planet gear.
Thus, N
A1
= N
a2
Annular wheel A
2
is the arm a
1
of the first sun and planet gear.
Thus N
A2
= N
a1
Also N
B
= N
S1
and N
c
= N
A2
From (ii), N
A1
= 0.769N
A2
From (i), N
A2
=
1 1 2 1
3 3 0.769
4 4
A S A S
N N N N + +
=
or 1.693 N
A2
= N
S1
or
1
2
S B
A C
N N
N N
= = 1.693
4 Theory of Machines
If T denotes the torque,
T
S1
N
S1
+ T
S2
N
S2
+ T
A2
N
A2
= 0
or T
S1
N
S1
+ 0 + T
A2
N
A2
= 0
or T
A2
=
1
2
S
A
N
N
T
S1
= 1.693 160 = 270.9 N.m
Also T
S1
+ T
S2
+ T
A2
= 0
or 160 + T
S2
270.9 = 0
or Torque required to fix the wheel S
2
, T
S2
= 110.9 N.m clockwise
ampIe !!.9 Figure 11.17 shows a compound gear in which an input torque of
150 N.m is given to shaft B at 1000 rpm. The sun and planet gears are all of the
same diameter and pitch. What will be the speed and the torque at the output shaft C
assuming an efficiency of 97%?
Also, find the torque required to hold stationary the annulus A
1
.
5KJE
N
A2
= N
a1
, N
S1
= N
S2
= 1000 rpm
Speed of arm a
1
, N
a1
=
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
A A S S S S
A S A A
N T N T N T
T T T T
+
=
+ +
(N
A1
= 0)
Similarly, N
a2
=
2 2 2 2
2 2
A A S S
A S
N T N T
T T
+
+
All the sun and the planet gears are of the same
diameter and pitch,
\ T
A1
= 2
1 1
1 1
2
2 2
S S
P S
T T
T T

+ = +

= 3T
S1
Thus, T
A1
= T
A2
= 3T
S1
= 3T
S2
= 3T
P1
= 3T
P2
Then N
a1
=
1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
3 4
S S S S S
A S S S
N T N T N
T T T T
= =
+ +
and N
a2
=
2 2
3
4
A S
N N +
=
1 1
3
4
a S
N N +
(N
A2
= N
a1
)
=
1 1
3 / 4
4
S S
N N +
or N
a2
=
7
16
1000 = 437.5 rpm, Speed of shaft C = 437.5 rpm
If T denotes the torque,
T
S
N
S
+
2 2 a a
T N
h
= 0
150 1000 +
2
437.5
0.97
a
T
= 0, T
a2
= 332.6.m
Also T
S1
+ T
a2
+ T
A1
= 0
150 332.6 + T
A1
= 0
or Holding torque, T
A1
= 182.6 N.m in the same direction as the input torque.
lig. !!.!1