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SAVANNAS

Savannas nature
A savanna, or savannah, is a grassland ecosystem characterized by the trees
being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close. The
term savanna is originally come from an Arawak word describing "land which is
without trees but with much grass either tall or short"
by the late 1800s it was used to mean "land with both grass and trees". It now
refers to land with grass and either scattered trees or an open canopy of trees.
Spanish explorers familiar with the term sabana called the grasslands they
found around the Orinoco River llanos, as well as calling Venezuelan and
Colombian grasslands by that specific term Cerrado was used on higher
savannas of the Brazilian Central Plateau.
Rainfall amount in savannah is ranging to 800 mm to 1200 mm annually or in
some areas the amount is 500 mm.
Locations of Savannas
Savannas are located near the equator (pink to the right). They have short wet
seasons and long dry seasons.

Location
The primary location of the African Savanna is in the central region of Africa.
Located in: Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Cote D'ivore, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria,
Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, and the
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya,
Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Botswana, and South Africa.
Coordinates: latitude 15 North and 30 degrees S and longitude 15 degrees W and 40
West.
Seasons in the Savanna
During the dry season, which is exceptionally long and distinct in tropical
grasslands, grasses and trees wither and die, many times being consumed in
raging fires.
When the wet season returns, grasses grow at incredible rates, up to 2.5
centimeters a day.
The dry season is in winter while wet season in savannah is in summer.

The Climate
The Savanna climate consists of a tropical climate with a dry winter season. This
climate is called the Aw climate in the Kppen climate* system.
During the dry season many plants shrivel and die, forcing many animals to
migrate in search of food. During the wet season the animals return to the lush
vegetation that awaits them.
The range of temperature can be from 68 to 86 F (20 - 30 C). Summer
temperatures range from 78 to 86 F (25 - 30 C) and winter ranges from 68 to 78 F
(20 - 25 C). Most rainfall takes place between March to November, with an average
annual rainfall of 10 to 30 inches (100 to 150 cm).
* Kppen climate classification is a climate classification system based on the
distribution of vegetation in a certain area.
Faunas in the Savanna
Animal life on the savanna is extremely diverse, far more so than the temperate
grassland
Life consists of everything from small grazers, like hyraxes, to large grazers, like
zebras, to predators, like lions, to fast grazers in woody areas, like dik-dik, to
slow grazers in watery areas, like hippos.
Dominant Animals
Lion
-Lions are the biggest predator in the Savanna and can reach up to 10 feet in length.
They can attack prey because their fur provides camouflage and because of the lions
shear size. They have adapted by developing padded paws, retracting claws, and razor
sharp teeth.
African Elephant
-Elephants can reach 12 feet in height and can weigh up to 10,000 lbs. They are rarely
ever bothered by any animals because they are just too big to kill. Elephants are also
protected from predators because of their thick grey skin.

Other Dominant Animals.
Chacma Baboon
Zebra
Koala Bear
Giraffe
Hyena
African black rhino
Javan rhino
Indian rhino
African white rhino
Sumatran rhino
Floras in Savanna
Different groups of plants are prominent in the savannas of different regions. Across
large parts of the tropical American savannas, the most common broad-leaved trees
belong to the genera Curatella, Byrsonima, and Bowdichia, their place being taken in
some seasonally waterlogged sites by the palms Copernica and Mauritia. Grasses
include species of Leersia and Paspalum. In Argentina the most common woody plant is
the bean relative Prosopis.
Dominant plants in Savanna
Bermuda Grass
Baobab
Kangaroo Paw
Elephant Grass
Gum Tree Eucalyptus
Candelabra Tree
Jackal Berry Tree
Senegal Gum Acacia

Simple Foodweb of the Savannas Environment

Human Impact
Although some steps have been taken to conserve a portion of the Savannas, it has not
been enough. Only a small portion of the Savanna is conserved because the national
parks that are located in and around the Savanna territory. Humans still have a negative
impact on wildlife in the Savanna because of poaching and fire making. Elephants are
poached for their tusks and other animals are poached for their skins. Fires are started
to burn plants to their roots so that brush and trees will not grow back. This allows the
Africans to create farmlands in the Savanna. The consolidation of herded animals in a
small area has caused rich Savanna soil to become scrubland because of overgrazing.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Savannah
Some of the savannahs were cleaned and planted by trees thats why the supply of
livestock(meat) becomes less while some savannah trees are being cut which causes
warm temperature or global warming.

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