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Present Perfect

FORM
[has/have + past participle]
Examples:
You have seen that movie many times.
Have you seen that movie many times?
You have not seen that movie many times.
Complete List of Present Perfect Forms
USE 1 Unspecified Time Before Now

We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified
time before now. The exact time is not important. You CANNOT use the
Present Perfect with specific time expressions such as: yesterday, one year
ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that
day, one day, etc. We CAN use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions
such as: ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already,
yet, etc.
Examples:
I have seen that movie twenty times.
I think I have met him once before.
There have been many earthquakes in California.
People have traveled to the Moon.
People have not traveled to Mars.
Have you read the book yet?
Nobody has ever climbed that mountain.
A: Has there ever been a war in the United States?
B: Yes, there has been a war in the United States.
How Do You Actually Use the Present Perfect?
The concept of "unspecified time" can be very confusing to English learners. It
is best to associate Present Perfect with the following topics:
TOPIC 1 Experience
You can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience. It is like saying, "I
have the experience of..." You can also use this tense to say that you have
never had a certain experience. The Present Perfect is NOT used to describe a
specific event.
Examples:
I have been to France.
THIS SENTENCE MEANS THAT YOU HAVE HAD THE EXPERIENCE OF BEING IN FRANCE.
MAYBE YOU HAVE BEEN THERE ONCE, OR SEVERAL TIMES.
I have been to France three times.
YOU CAN ADD THE NUMBER OF TIMES AT THE END OF THE SENTENCE.
I have never been to France.
THIS SENTENCE MEANS THAT YOU HAVE NOT HAD THE EXPERIENCE OF GOING TO
FRANCE.
I think I have seen that movie before.
He has never traveled by train.
Joan has studied two foreign languages.
A: Have you ever met him?
B: No, I have not met him.
TOPIC 2 Change Over Time
We often use the Present Perfect to talk about change that has happened over
a period of time.
Examples:
You have grown since the last time I saw you.
The government has become more interested in arts education.
Japanese has become one of the most popular courses at the
university since the Asian studies program was established.
My English has really improved since I moved to Australia.
TOPIC 3 Accomplishments
We often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and
humanity. You cannot mention a specific time.
Examples:
Man has walked on the Moon.
Our son has learned how to read.
Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.
Scientists have split the atom.
TOPIC 4 An Uncompleted Action You Are Expecting
We often use the Present Perfect to say that an action which we expected has
not happened. Using the Present Perfect suggests that we are still waiting for
the action to happen.
Examples:
James has not finished his homework yet.
Susan hasn't mastered Japanese, but she can communicate.
Bill has still not arrived.
The rain hasn't stopped.
TOPIC 5 Multiple Actions at Different Times
We also use the Present Perfect to talk about several different actions which
have occurred in the past at different times. Present Perfect suggests the
process is not complete and more actions are possible.
Examples:
The army has attacked that city five times.
I have had four quizzes and five tests so far this semester.
We have had many major problems while working on this project.
She has talked to several specialists about her problem, but nobody
knows why she is sick.
Time Expressions with Present Perfect
When we use the Present Perfect it means that something has happened at
some point in our lives before now. Remember, the exact time the action
happened is not important.

Sometimes, we want to limit the time we are looking in for an experience. We
can do this with expressions such as: in the last week, in the last year, this
week, this month, so far, up to now, etc.

Examples:
Have you been to Mexico in the last year?
I have seen that movie six times in the last month.
They have had three tests in the last week.
She graduated from university less than three years ago. She has
worked for three different companies so far.
My car has broken down three times this week.
NOTICE
"Last year" and "in the last year" are very different in meaning. "Last year"
means the year before now, and it is considered a specific time which
requires Simple Past. "In the last year" means from 365 days ago until now. It is
not considered a specific time, so it requires Present Perfect.
Examples:
I went to Mexico last year.
I WENT TO MEXICO IN THE CALENDAR YEAR BEFORE THIS ONE.
I have been to Mexico in the last year.
I HAVE BEEN TO MEXICO AT LEAST ONCE AT SOME POINT BETWEEN 365 DAYS AGO AND
NOW.
USE 2 Duration From the Past Until Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)

With Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use
the Present Perfect to show that something started in the past and has
continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday"
are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect.
Examples:
I have had a cold for two weeks.
She has been in England for six months.
Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl.
Although the above use of Present Perfect is normally limited to Non-
Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live,"
"work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they
are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.
ADVERB PLACEMENT
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as:
always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
You have only seen that movie one time.
Have you only seen that movie one time?
ACTIVE / PASSIVE
Examples:
Many tourists have visited that castle. ACTIVE
That castle has been visited by many tourists. PASSIVE

Modal Verb Tutorial
Modals are special verbs which behave very irregularly in English.
Englishpage.com has created one of the most in-depth modal tutorials in print
or online. Study the modal explanations and complete the associated exercises
and take another step toward English fluency. If you want to use the Modal Verb
Tutorial as a reference only and do not want to complete the tutorial Click Here .
The tutorial should be completed as follows:
1. Read this introduction page including the section below titled "What are
Modal Verbs?"
2. Complete the exercises below. After each exercise, we have listed the
modals covered. Just click on the modal link to learn more about its use.
EXERCISES TOPICS COVERED
Modal
Exercise 1
Can , Could , Have to , Must , Might and Should
Modal
Exercise 2
Have to and Must
Modal
Exercise 3
Might , Must and Should . Afterwards, you can repeat the
exercise using Could , Have toand Ought to
Modal
Exercise 4
Couldn't and Might not
Modal
Exercise 5
Have got to , Had Better , May and Shall
Modal
Exercise 6
Could , Might , Should and Would
Modal
Exercise 7
Modal Verbs Forms
Modal Final
Test
Cumulative Modal Test
What are Modal Verbs?
Modal verbs are special verbs which behave very differently from normal verbs.
Here are some important differences:
1. Modal verbs do not take "-s" in the third person.
Examples:
He can speak Chinese.
She should be here by 9:00.
2. You use "not" to make modal verbs negative, even in Simple Present and
Simple Past.
Examples:
He should not be late.
They might not come to the party.
3. Many modal verbs cannot be used in the past tenses or the future tenses.
Examples:
He will can go with us. Not Correct
She musted study very hard. Not Correct
Common Modal Verbs
Can
Could
May
Might
Must
Ought to
Shall
Should
Will
Would
For the purposes of this tutorial, we have included some expressions which are
not modal verbs including had better, have to, and have got to. These
expressions are closely related to modals in meaning and are often
interchanged with them.



Modal Forms
Modal verbs can be used in a variety of different forms. Study the examples
below.
Modal Simple
I could swim at the beach.
Modal Continuous
I could be swimming at the beach
right now.
Modal Perfect
I could have swum at the beach
yesterday.
Modal Perfect Continuous
I could have been swimming at the
beach instead of working in the
office.
Passive Modal Simple
The room should be cleaned once a
day.
Passive Modal Continuous
The room should be being cleaned
now.
Passive Modal Perfect
The room should have been cleaned
yesterday.
Passive Modal Perfect Continuous
The room should have been being
cleaned but nobody was there. (Rare
form)

Phrasal Verb Dictionary
To look up a phrasal verb, click a letter in the menu on the left.
separable verbs (talk * into)
inseparable verbs (run into +)
object can be in both positions (look * up +)

What are phrasal verbs?
1. A phrasal verb is a verb plus a preposition or adverb which creates
a meaning different from the original verb.
Example:
I ran into my teacher at the movies last night. RUN +INTO =MEET
He ran away when he was 15. RUN +AWAY =LEAVE HOME
2. Some phrasal verbs are intransitive. An intransitive verb cannot be
followed by an object.
Example:
He suddenly showed up. "SHOW UP" CANNOT TAKE AN OBJ ECT
3. Some phrasal verbs are transitive. A transitive verb can be followed
by an object.
Example:
I made up the story. "STORY" IS THE OBJ ECT OF "MAKE UP"
4. Some transitive phrasal verbs are separable. The object is placed
between the verb and the preposition. In this Phrasal Verb Dictionary,
separable phrasal verbs are marked by placing a * between the verb
and the preposition / adverb.
Example:
I talked my mother into letting me borrow the car.
She looked the phone number up.
5. Some transitive phrasal verbs are inseparable. The object is placed
after the preposition. In this Phrasal Verb Dictionary, inseparable
phrasal verbs are marked by placing a + after the preposition / adverb.
Example:
I ran into an old friend yesterday.
They are looking into the problem.
6. Some transitive phrasal verbs can take an object in both places. In
this Phrasal Verb Dictionary, such phrasal verbs are marked with both
* and + .
Example:
I looked the number up in the phone book.
I looked up the number in the phone book.
7. WARNING! Although many phrasal verbs can take an object in both
places, you must put the object between the verb and the preposition if
the object is a pronoun.
Example:
I looked the number up in the phone book.
I looked up the number in the phone book.
I looked it up in the phone book. CORRECT
I looked up it in the phone book. INCORRECT

relative clauses

Subject Object Possessive
who whom, who whose
which which whose
that that

We use who and whom for people, and which for things.
We use that for people or things.
We use relative pronouns to introduce relative clauses, which tell us more about people and things.
2. Relative clauses to postmodify a noun
We use relative clauses to postmodify a noun - to make clear which person or thing we are talking about.
In these clauses we can have the relative pronoun who, which, whose or that
as subject (see Clauses Sentences and Phrases)
Isnt that the woman who lives across the road from you?
The police said the accident that happened last night was unavoidable
The newspaper reported that the tiger which killed its keeper has been put down.
WARNING:
The relative pronoun is the subject of the clause.
We do not repeat the subject:
*The woman who [she] lives across the road
*The tiger which [it] killed its keeper
as object of a clause (see Clauses, Sentences and Phrases)
Have you seen those people who we met on holiday?
You shouldnt believe everything that you read in the newspaper.
The house that we rented in London was fully furnished.
The food was definitely the thing which I enjoyed most about our holiday.
- Sometimes we use whom instead of who when the relative pronoun is the object:
Have you seen those people whom we met on holiday?
- When the relative pronoun is object of its clause we sometimes leave it out:
Have you seen those people we met on holiday?
You shouldnt believe everything you read in the newspaper.
The house we rented in London was fully furnished.
The food was definitely the thing I enjoyed most about our holiday.
WARNING:
The relative pronoun is the object of the clause.
We do not repeat the object:
Have you seen those people who we met [them] on holiday?
The house that we rented [it] in London was fully furnished.
The food was definitely the thing I enjoyed [it] most about our holiday.
as object of a preposition. When the relative pronoun is the object of a preposition we usually put
the preposition after the verb.:
You were talking to a woman >>> Who was the woman who you were talking to?
My parents live in that house >>> Thats the house that my parents live in.
You were talking about a book. I havent read it. >>> I havent read the book which you were
talking about.
- When the relative pronoun is the object of a preposition we usually leave it out:
Who was the woman you were talking to?
Thats the house my parents live in.
- Sometimes we use whom instead of who:
Who was that woman whom you were talking about.
- When we use whom or which the preposition sometimes comes at the beginning of the clause:
I havent read the book about which you were talking.
- We can use the possessive form, whose, in a relative clause:
I always forget that womans name >>> Thats the woman whose name I always forget.
I met a man whose brother works in Moscow.
3. Times and places
We also use when with times and where with places to make it clear which time or place we are talking
about:
England won the world cup in 1996. It was the year when we got married.
I remember my twentieth birthday. It was the day when the tsunami happened.
Do you remember the place where we caught the train?
Stratford-upon-Avon is the town where Shakespeare was born.
... but we can leave out the word when:
England won the world cup in 1996. It was the year we got married.
I remember my twentieth birthday. It was the day the tsunami happened.
4. Giving additional information
We use who, whom, whose, and which (but not that) in relative clauses to tell us more about a person
or thing.
as subject (see Clauses, Sentences and Phrases)
My uncle, who was born in Hong Kong, lived most of his life overseas.
I have just read Orwells 1984, which is one of the most frightening books ever written.
WARNING:
The relative pronoun is the subject of the clause.
We do not repeat the subject:

My uncle, who [he] was born in Hong Kong, lived most of his life overseas.
I have just read Orwells 1984, which [it] is one of the most frightening books ever written.
as object (see Clauses, Sentences and Phrases)
We saw the latest Harry Potter film, which we really enjoyed.
My favourite actor is Marlon Brando, who I saw in On the Waterfront.
- we can use whom instead of who as object:
My favourite actor was Marlon Brando, whom I saw in On the Waterfront.
WARNING:
The relative pronoun is the object of the clause.
We do not repeat the object:
We saw the latest Harry Potter film, which we really enjoyed [it].
My favourite actor is Marlon Brando, who I saw [him] in On the Waterfront.
as object of a clause :
He finally met Paul McCartney, whom he had always admired.
We are going back to Venice, which we first visited thirty years ago.
We can also use who as the object.
He finally met Paul McCartney, who he had always admired.
WARNING:
The relative pronoun is the object of the clause.
We do not repeat the object:
He finally met Paul McCartney, whom he had always admired [him].
We are going back to Venice, which we first visited [it] thirty years ago.
as object of a preposition:
He decided to telephone Mrs. Jackson, who he had read about in the newspaper.
Thats the programme which we listened to last night.
- We sometimes use whom instead of who:
He decided to telephone Mrs. Jackson, whom he had read about in the newspaper.
- The preposition sometimes comes in front of the relative pronoun whom or which:
He decided to telephone Mrs. Jackson, about whom he had read in the newspaper.
Thats the programme to which we listened last night.
5. Quantifiers and numbers with relative pronouns
We often use quantifiers and numbers with relative pronouns:
many of whom - most of whom - one of which - none of whom
some of which - lots of whom - two of which - etc.
We can use them as subject, object or object of a preposition.
She has three brothers two of whom are in the army.
I read three books last week, one of which I really enjoyed.
There were some good programmes on the radio, none of which I listened to.
6. Using "which" to give more information
We often use the relative pronoun which to say something about a clause:
He was usually late, which always annoyed his father.
Weve missed our train, which means we may be late.
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