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MOTIVATION

Definitions:
Motivation has been variously defined by scholars. Some definitions are discussed as follows:
Berelson and Steiner: -" A motive is an inner state that energizes activates, or moves and directs
or channels behavior goals".
Lills: -"It is the stimulation of any emotion or desire oerating uon one!s will and romoting or
driving it to action".
Nature of Motivation
Motivation is a sychological henomena which generates within an individual. A erson feels the
lac" of certain needs, to satisfy which he feels wor"ing more. #he need satisfying ego motivates a
erson to do better than he normally does. $rom definitions given earlier the following inferences
can be derived:
%. Motivation is an inner feeling which energizes a erson to wor" more
&. #he emotions or desires of a erson romt him for doing a articular wor"
'. #here are unsatisfied needs of a erson which disturb his e(uilibrium
). A erson moves to fulfill his unsatisfied needs by conditioning his energies
*. #here are dormant energies in a erson which are activated
Importance of Motivation
%. Hig !erformance: -.Motivated emloyees writ ut ma+imum efforts for achieving
organizational goals. #he untaed reservoirs of hysical and mental abilities are taed to
the ma+imum. ,etter erformance will also result in higher roductivity. #he cost of
roduction can also be brought down if roductivity is raised.
&. Lo" emplo#ee Turnover and A$senteeism: --hen the emloyees are not satisfied with
their .ob then they will leave it whenever they get an alternative offer. #he dissatisfaction
among emloyees also increases absenteeism. #he emloyment training of new
emloyees costs dearly to the organization.
'. Better Organi%ational Images: -#hose enterrises which offer better monetary and non-
monetary facilities to their emloyees have a better image among them. Such concerns are
successful in attracting better (ualified and e+erienced ersons. Since there is a better
man-ower to develoment rogramme, the emloyees will li"e to .oin such organizations.
Motivational efforts will simlify ersonnel functions also.
). Better Industrial &elations: -A good motivational system will create .ob satisfaction among
emloyees. #he emloyment will offer them better service conditions and various other
incentives. #here will be an atmoshere of confidence among emloyers and emloyees.
#here will be no reason for conflict and cordial relations among both sides will create a
healthy atmoshere. So motivation among emloyees will lead to better industrial relations.
*. Accepta$ilit# to 'ange: -#he changing social an industrial situations will re(uire changes
and imrovements in the wor"ing of enterrises. #here will be a need to introduce new and
better methods of wor" from time to time. /enerally emloyees resist changes for fear of an
adverse effect on their emloyment.
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Teories of Motivation
Maslo"(s Need Hierarc#
Motivation is influenced by the needs of a erson. #here is a riority of certain needs over others.
#he imortance of needs will influence the level of motivation. A)H) Maslo"* an American social
scientist, has given a framewor" that hels to e+lain the strength of certain needs. 0e has
categorized human needs into five categories. 0e is of the oinion that a erson tries to achieve
first category first and then moves on to the ne+t and so on.
%. !#siological Needs: -#hese needs are most essential for the survival and maintenance
of body. #hese include food, clothing, drin"ing, shelter, rest, e+ercise etc. A man will try to
satisfy these needs first. 1nless hysiological needs are satisfied no other needs will
motivation him. 2nce these needs and satisfied then these will cease to motivate him and
he will want to satisfy the other .needs.
&. Safet# Needs: - 2nce hysiological needs are satisfied then safety needs ta"e the
recedence. #hese are the needs to be free from hysical danger and the fear of loss of
.ob, roerty, shelter, etc. 2ne would li"e to be free from economic worries li"e loss of .ob,
sic"ness, old age ension etc. #he hysical safety against murder, accident, fire, etc is also
essential. #he hysical and economic needs act as motivation uto the time they are not
roerly met.
"According to Mc+regor, "Safety needs may serve as motivators in such circumstance as
arbitrary management actions, behavior which arouses uncertainty with resect to
continued unemloyment and unredictable administration of olicy. #he organization can
meet safety needs by installing safety devices at wor" and can start ension scheme,
insurance lan etc.
'. Social Needs: -Since eole are human beings, they need to belong, to be acceted by
others. -hen social needs become dominant, human being will stri"e to have meaningful
association with others. In an organization wor"ers may form informal grous for e+change
of ideas. If management tries to have close suervision and control then wor"ers may retort
against such environment. #he communication among wor"ers should be encourage to
remove the irritants.
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5eeds
). ,steem or ,go Needs: -#he needs are concerned with self- resect, self- confidence,
feeling of being uni(ue, recognition, etc. #he satisfaction of these needs brings confidence,
ower, control and restige. Some of the social roblems have their roots in the unfulfilment
of these needs.
*. Self fulfillment or Actuali%ation Needs: -Self-fulfillment is the highest need in Maslow!s
hierarchy. #his refers to the needs which hel an individual to develo his otentialities. 0e
tries to do whatever he can and has a sort of self-develoment. A erson tries to do what
ever he is caable of doing. 0e tries to bring out something hidden in him. #he self-
fulfillment needs give satisfaction to the erson concerned and are good for the society
also.
Maslow has categorized the needs in order of riority. An individual sends money from one
need to another. -hen one need is satisfied the other becomes the motivator. All the needs
are interdeendent. It is not necessary that only one need is satisfied at one time. A erson
may move to other needs even if earlier needs are not fully satisfied. -hen the ea" of a
need asses then it causes to be a motivator.
'ritical Anal#sis of Maslo"-s Teor#
A number of research studies have been underta"en to see the validity of hierarchy of needs.
La"ler and Suttle collected data on %<= Managers in two different organizations for a eriod of
si+ months to one year. 5o evidence was found to suort Maslow!s theory. #hey found there
were two level of needs-biological and other needs- and that other needs would emerge only
when biological needs were reasonably satisfied. A survey conducted in India of &>> factory
w?r"er revealed that they give to riority to .ob security, earnings and ersonal benefits-all lower
other needs.
It is generally seen that needs do not follow Maslow!s hierarchy. #he hierarchy is determined by
individuals differently. #hey roceed to follow their own attern of needs satisfaction. Some eole
may try for self-actuating needs rather than lower needs. $or some ersons esteem needs are
more imortant than social needs.
#here is no cause effect relation between and need and behavior. A articular need may cause
behavior in different ways in different erson. Similarly, one articular behavior may result due to
different needs. It is said that higher needs motivate a erson when lower needs are reasonably
satisfied. #he word !reasonably satisfied! is a sub.ective matter. #he level of satisfaction may be
different for ersons.
Her%$erg(s Motivation.H#giene Teor#
#he riority of needs characterizes the tye of behavior. #he satisfaction of some needs may not
have ositive effect on motivation but their non-satisfaction may act as negative factor. A (uestion
arises as to what tyes of needs are imortant for imroving motivation. /rederic0 Her$erg and
his associates conducted a study of need satisfaction &>> engineers and accountants emloyed
by firms in an around ;ittsburgh.
#he erson were as"ed to describe a few revious .ob e+eriences in which they felt e+cetionally
good or e+cetionally bad about .obs. #he influence of these e+eriences on .ob was also studied.
Her$erg concluded that there were two sets of conditions. $irst tyes of conditions, described as
maintenance of hygiene factors, do not motivate emloyees by their resence but their absence
dissatisfies them. #he other conditions, called motivational factors, oerate to build strong
motivation and high .ob satisfaction, but their absence hardly roves strongly dissatisfies them.
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#he other conditions, called motivational factors, oerate to build strong motivation and high .ob
satisfaction, but their absence hardly roves strongly dissatisfying.
Maintenance or H#giene /actor
#hese were called maintenance or hygiene factors since they were necessary to maintain current
status i.e., reasonable level of satisfaction. #hese factors are more dissatisfied by their absence but
their resence will not motivate. #he additional of more and more of these factors will not hel in
motivating once they are satisfactory.
Her$erg named te #giene factors:
7omany olicy and administration, technical suervision, inter- ersonal relations with suervisor,
inter-ersonal relations with eers, life, wor" relations with subordinates, status. #hese factors
relate to conditions under which the .ob is erformed. #hey roduce no growth in wor"ers but
restrict loss of growth. #hese factors are necessary to maintain reasonable level of satisfaction in
emloyees.
Motivational /actors
#he resence of these factors builds high motivations and .ob satisfaction. 0owever, if these
conditions are not resent, they do not cause dissatisfaction. #here are si+ factors: Achievement,
@ecognition, advancement, wor" itself, ossibilities of ersonal growth, resonsibility. Most of these
factors relate to .ob content. #heir erformance of an emloyee on the .ob and the satisfaction
which he achieves from them from the contents of these factors. #he increase in these factors will
be essential for in?reasing motivation of emloyees.
Her$erg ointed out the mangers have been very much concerned with hygiene factors only. #hey
could not enlist the full co-oeration of emloyees .by increasing salaries etc. #hey did not realize
the imortance of motivating factors. #he emloyees are motivated by the content of the .ob. #he
satisfaction which an emloyee will derive from the .ob will go to increase his outut. #he
management should try to reduce dissatisfaction arising out of hygiene factor and building u the
satisfaction from motivators.
Mcgregor(s Teor# 1 and 2
Douglas Mcgergor introduced these two theories i.e., #heory A and #heory 4, based on two
distinct views of human beings. 0e roosed, at oosite e+tremes, two airs of assumtions
about human beings which he thought were imlied by the actions of the mangers. #heory A deals
with one e+treme, based on one set of assumtions and #heory y deals with another e+treme
based on another set of assumtions. #hese theories are not based on any research, but
according to Mc/regor, these are intuitive deduction.
Teor# 1: -#his theory is based on the traditional aroach to human behavior. #he assumtions
generally, held by the managers in their theory are: -
%. #he average human beings inherently disli"e wor" and will try to avoid it, whenever
ossible
&. A the emloyee are lazy, they must be controlled, coerced, threatened with unishment to
achieve goals, to which they are indifferent
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'. Average emloyee will try to avoid resonsibility and see" formal directions whenever
ossible, because they have relatively little ambition.
). Most wor"ers lace security above all other factors associated with wor". #hese
assumtions about human nature are negative in their aroach. Manager who advocate
these views feel that e+treme control is most aroriate for dealing with irresonsible and
immature emloyees. #his is an autocratic style of leadershi based on the traditional
theory of what wor"ers are li"e and what management must do to motivate them. -or"ers
have to be ersuaded and ushed into erformance.
Teor# #: -#his aroach assumes that management by direction and control is (uestionable
method for motivating such eole whose hysiological and social needs have been satisfied and
whose socialB esteem and self actualization needs are becoming more imortant. $or such eole,
#heory 4, seems to be alicable, which is the contrast of #heory A. #his theory ma"es the
following assumtions about eole:
%. #he average human being does not inherently disli"e wor". 0e can view wor" as natural or
en.oyable as rest or lay
&. 3mloyees will e+ercise self direction and self control in the attainment of the ob.ectives to
which they are committed
'. /iven roer wor"ing conditions, average erson can learn to accet and even to see"
resonsibility
). 7ommitment to ob.ectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement
*. All the eole are caable of ma"ing innovative and creative decision and the decision
ma"ing is not the sole rovince of the eole in management osition.
#his theory has assumed a new aroach in management. It emhasizes on co- oeration
between management and emloyees. #he individual and organizational goals do not conflict in
this aroach. #his theory laces greater emhasis a satisfaction of high level needs of the
emloyees. Mcgregor himself holds that the assumtions of theory 4 are more valid than #heory
A. #hus, delegations of authority, .ob enlargement, management by ob.ective and articiative
management techni(ues are great motivators for the emloyee.
Applica$ilit# of Teor# 1 and Teor# #
#heory A and the #heory 4 reresent two e+treme. 5o erson can being to these two e+treme
situations. 3ach erson ossesses the traits of #heory A and #heory 4, though the degrees may be
different under different situations. #hough, no generalization can be made, still it aears that
theory A is more alicable to uns"illed and uneducated lower class wor"ers who wor" for the
satisfaction of their hysiological needs only. #heory 4 aears to be alicable to the educated,
s"illed and rofessional emloyee who understand their resonsibilities and do not need any
direction and control. 0owever, there can be e+cetions. A lower revel emloyee may be more
resonsible and mature than a will (ualified high level emloyee. Still these theories are very
imortant tools is understanding the behavior of human beings and in designing the motivational
schemes. #he management should used a combination of both the theories to motivate different
emloyees.
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