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r

11

Substituting these values in the equations determined in Prob. 1.25, compute the voltages at the nodes of Fig. 1.23. Numerically determine the corresponding

Zbus matrix.

Solution:

Using the Y bus solution of Problem 1.25, substitute the given admittance values:

r -j14.5 j8.0 j4.0 j2.5

Compute voltages:

j8.0 -j17.0 j4.0 j5.0

j4.0 j40 -j8.8 jO

j2.51 r V1 1 r 0 1

j5.0 V2 _ 0

jO V3 - 1.0 ;_900

-j8.3 V4 0.68;-1350

= Ybus -11

r jO.7187 jO.6688 = Zbus = jO.6307

jO.6194

Ybus V = 1

where Y bus -1

jO.668.8 jO.6307 jo.61941 jO.7045 jO.6242 jO.6258

jO.7045 jO.6840 jO.5660 jO.6258 jO.5660 jO.6840

V = Ybus -11

l jO.7187 jO.6688 jO.6307 jo.61941l 0 1

jO.6688 jO.7045 jO.6242 jO.6258 0

=

jO.6307 jO.7045 jO.6840 jO.5660 1.0 / _900

jO.6194 jO.6258 jO.5660 jO.6840 0.68 / -135°

r 0.9285-jo.29781 r 0.9750;-17.78° 1

0.9251-jO.3009 0.9728;-18.020

= =

0.9562 - jO.2721 0.9941 / -15.89°

0.8949 - jO.3289 0.9534;-20.18°

Chapter 2 Problem Solutions

2.1 A single-phase transformer rated 7.2 kVA, 1.2kV /120 V has a primary winding of 800 turns. Determine (a) the turns ratio and the number of turns in the secondary winding, (b) the currents carried by the two windings when the transformer delivers its rated kVA at rated voltages. Hence, verify Eq. (2.7).

Solution:

(a)

Therefore, N2

V1 1.2 X 103

=

V2 120

N1 800

= 10=10=80

= 10

12

(b)

Srated =

1V11rated 111 Ira ted = 1V21rated Ih Irated 1.2 x 103 Ih Irated = 120 Ih Irated

7.2 x 103

= 6 A 1.2 X 103

7.2 X 103

120 h 6

h = 60 = 0.1

N2 1

- = - = 0.1

N1 10

= Right-hand side of Eq. (2.7)

= 60 A

7.2 x 103 =

Ihlrated =

Ihlrated =

Left-hand side of Eq. (2.7):

Right-hand side of Eq. (2.7):

Left-hand side of Eq. (2.7)

2.2 The transformer of Prob. 2.1 is delivering 6 kVA at its rated voltages and 0.8 power factor lagging. (a) Determine the impedance Z2 connected across its secondary terminals. (b) What is the value of this impedance referred to the primary side (i.e. Z~)? (c) Using the value of Z~ obtained in part (b), determine the magnitude of the primary current and the kVA supplied by the source.

Solution:

(a)

S2 = IS21 Li = 6 x 103 /36.9° VA

12 = (~r

Z2 V2 V2 1V212
= = S· /V,. =
t, S·
2 2 2
( 120)2 n
= 6 x lOS / -36.9°
= 2.4/36.9° n = (1.92+j1.44) n (b)

Z~ = (~~ y Zl = (~~ y z, = 100 x 2.4;36.9° n

= 240 / 36.9° n = 192 + j144 n

( c)

1111 = 1V11 = 1.2 x 103 A = 5 A

IZ21 240

IS11 = IVd 1111 = 1.2 x 103 x 5 VA = 6 kVA

13

2.3 With reference to Fig. 2.2, consider that the flux density inside the center-leg of the transformer core, as a function of time i, is E (t) = Em sin (27i It) where Em is the peak value of the sinusoidal flux density and I is the operating frequency in Hz. If the flux density is uniformly distributed over the cross-sectional area A m2 of the center-leg, determine

(a) the instantaneous flux ¢ (t) in terms of Em, I, A and t,

(b) the instantaneous induced-voltage el (t), according to Eq. (2.1).

(c) Hence show that the rms magnitude of the induced voltage of the primary . is given by lEI I = v27i I N1BmA.

(d) If A = 100 em", I = 60 Hz, Em = 1.5 T and Ns = 1000 turns, compute IEll·

Solution: (a)

cj>(t) = B(t) A = BmAsin(27rft)

(b)

(c)

(c) With given values,

El = v27r X 60 x 1000 x 1.5 x 100 x 10-4 V = 4.0 kV

2.4 For the pair of mutually coupled coils shown in Fig. 2.4, consider that Lll = 1.9 H, L12 = L21 = 0.9 H, L22 = 0.5 H and Tl = T2 = 0 il. The system is operated at 60 Hz.

(a) Write the impedance form [Eq. (2.24)] of the system equations (b) Write the admittance form [Eq. (2.26)] of the system equations

(c) Determine the primary voltage VI and the primary current h when the secondary is

(i) open circuited and has the induced voltage V2 = 100LlL. V (ii) short circuited arId carries the current 12 = 2/90° A

14

Solution:

(a) From Eq. (2.22) and (2.23),

[~] = jW[ f~~ f~;][}~] = jI207r( b:§ g:~][}~] = j102 [&j~~ r:~~~] [ J~ ]

(b) From Eq. (2.25),

[ 1121 ] '10-2 [7.163 3.393] -J [ Y.J. ]

= -J 3.393 1.885 V2

= _j10-2 [-?:~6~ -1:~gg] [ ~ ]

(c) (i)

[VI 0] - 100; 90° [ 37'.316933 ] II

100LQ:. -

hence II = 0.295;-90° A VI = 211.1l~ V

(ii)

[ 2/~0] = 10-2 X 1;-900 (-~J6~] VI

hence VI = 117.30 L.Q: V 11 = 1.11;-90° A

2.5 For the pair of mutually coupled coils shown in Fig. 2.4, develop an equivalent- T network in the form of Fig. 2.5. Use the parameter values given in Prob. 2.4 and assume that the turns ratio a equals 2. What are the values of the leakage reactances of the windings and the magnetizing susceptance of the coupled coils?

Solution:

LlI = L11 - aL21 = 1.9 - 2 x 0.9 H = 0.1 H

L21 = L22 - L12/a = 0.5 - 2 x 0.9/2 H = 0.05 H a2 L21 = 4 x 0.05 H = 0.2 H

Lm = aL21 = 2 x 0.9 H = 1.8 H

w 12071" rad/sec

j 37.70

j 75.4 0

Leakage reactances: Xl = 37.7 n

15

I 75.4 n
x2 =
75.4 n 18.85 n
X2 = - =
4
Magnetizing susceptance: Bm 1 1
= = S
wLm 12071" x 1.8
1.474 x 10-3 S 2.6 A single-phase transformer rated 1.2 kV /120 V, 7.2 kVA has the following winding parameters: Tl = 0.8 0, Xl = 1.2 0, T2 = 0.01 Oand X2 = 0.01 O. Determine

( a) the combined winding resistance and leakage reactance referred to the primary side, as shown in Fig. 2.8,

(b) the values of the combined parameters referred to the secondary side

(c) the voltage regulation of the transformer when it is delivering 7.5 kVA to a load at 120 V and 0.8 power factor lagging.

Solution:

(a) With turns ratio a = 1.2 x lOS/120 = 10,

Rl = rl + a2r2 = 0.8 + 100 x 0.01 n = 1.8 n Xl = Xl + a2X2 = 1.2 + 100 x 0.01 n = 2.2 n

(b)
R2 L::. Rda2 1.8/100 n 0.D18 n
= =
X2 L::. Xda2 2.2/100 n 0.022 n
= =
Zl
~ 12
II ~ jx, a
lv' I·v,
(c)

Zl = (1.8 + j2.2) n
12,FL IS2/V21 /-8 = 7200 ° 60.:::-36.9° A
120 /-36.9 A =
h,FL = h,FL = 6.0.:::-36.90 A
a
aV2,FL = 1200 V
V1,FL = aV2,FL + h,FLZI 'v

16

= 1200+6.01-36.9C(1.8+j2.2) v = 1216.57/0.19c V I~2. FLI = 120 V

Ilt2.KLI - Vl.FL/a = 121.66 V

% Regulation = (121.66 - 120) /120 = 1.38 %

2.7 A single-phase transformer is rated 440/220 V, 5.0 kVA. When the low-voltage side is short circuited and 35 V is applied to the high-voltage side, rated current flows in the windings and the power input is 100 W. Find the resistance and reactance of the high-and low-voltage windings if the power loss and ratio of reactance to resistance is the same in both windings.

Solution:
Rated J =
=
R =
Z
X = 5000 220 5000

= 11.36 A (high voltage) 440

100

-2 = 0.7i4 n 11.36

35 .

11.36 = 3.08 n (R, Z, X high-voltage)

X 2.98

= 22.73 A (low voltage)

J3.082 - 0.7742 = 2.98 11

= 3.85

=

R

0.774

For equal loss in high- and low-voltage windings,

High voltage: r 0.774 0.387 11
= =
2
x = 3.85 x 0.387 = 1.49 11
Low voltage: r (220) 2
= 0.387 x - = 0.097 11
440
x = 1.49 (!!~) 2 = 0.373 11 2.8 A single-phase transformer rated l.2 kV /120 V, 7.2 kVA yields the following test results:

Open-Circuit Test (Primary Open)

Voltage V2 = 120 V; Current 12 = 1.2 A; Power W2 = 40 W

Short-Circuit Test (Secondary Shorted)

Voltage VI = 20 V; Current II = 6.0 A; Power WI = 36 W

17

-

Determine

(a) the parameters RI = TI + a2T2: Xl = Xl + a2X2' C; and Em referred to the primary side, Fig. 2.7

(b) the values of the above parameters referred to the secondary side

(c) the efficiency of the transformer when it delivers 6 kVA at 120 V and 0.9 power factor.

Solution:

(a) From open-circuit test,

G~ = W2/V22 = 40/1202 S = 2.78 X 10-3 S IY~ 1 = h/V2 = 1.2/120 S = 0.01 S

B'

m

= )1Y~12 - G~2 = 9.606 X 10-3 S a = 1.2 x 103/120 = 10

Therefore,

Gc = G~/a2 = 2.78 x 10-5 S s; = B'm/ a2 = 9.606 x 10-5 S

From the short-circuit test,

R = Wdl? = 36/6.02 n = 1.0 n IZI = Vdh = 20/6.0 n = 3.33 n

X = )IZI2 - R2 = 3.18 n

(b)

R' = R/a2 = 0.01 n X' = X/a2 = 0.0318 n

G~ = 2.78 X 10-3 S B;" = 9.606 X 10-3 S

(c) When S2 = 6.0 kVA and V2 = 120 V,

12 = 6 X 103 A = 50 A 120

Core loss at V2 Winding loass at 12 Power output at S2

120 V = 40 W

= 50 A = 11212 R' = 502 x 0.01 W = 25 W

= 6.0 kVA at 0.9 p.I. = 6 x 103 x 0.9 W = 5400 W 5400

«.

TJ =

5400 +40 + 25

2.9 A single-phase transformer rated 1.2 kV /120 V, 7.2 kVA has primary-referred parameters RI = TI +a2r2 = 1.0 0 and Xl = Xl +a2X2 = 4.0 O. At rated voltage its core loss may be assumed to be 40 W for all values of the load current.

= 98.81 %

\j

18

(a) Determine the efficiency and regulation of the transformer when it delivers 7.2 kVA at V2 = 120 V and power factor of (i) 0.8 lagging, (ii) 0.8 leading.

(b) For a given load voltage and power factor it can be shown that the efficiency of a transformer attains its maximum value at the kVA load level which makes the J2 R winding losses equal to the core loss. Using this result, determine the maximum efficiency of the above transformer at rated voltage and 0.8 power factor, and the kVA load level at which it occurs.

Solution:

(a) (i) cosO = 0.8, lagging 0 = -36.9°

V2 = 120L.JL V

7200 °

h = 120 ;-36.9 = 60 ;-36.9° A

Total loses = 40 + 602 X 1.0 W = 76 W 100

Output power = 7.2 x 103 x 0.8 W = 5760 W 5760

TJ = 5760 + 76 = 98.698 %

h.FL .

aV2 FL + -- (Rl + JXd

. a

60

120 x 10 d + 10 ;-36.9° (1.0 + j4.0) V = 1219.3/0.73°

120 V I"S,FLI = 1V1,FLI fa = 121.93 V

121.93 -120

120 = 1.61 %

(ii) cosO = 0.8, leading 0 = 36.9°

TJ = 98.698% because it does not depend on whether e is leading or lagging.

V1,FL =
V1,FL =
jV2,FLI =
% Regulation = V1,FL

I2,FL .

= aV2,FL + -a- (Rl + JX1)

'60

= 120 x 10LlL + 10; 36.9° (1.0 + j4.0) V = 1190.6L..LL_

= 119.06 - 120 = -0 78 CTf

120 . 70

V1,FL

% Regulation

(b) Load current at which TJ is maximum is given by

11*12 R P.

2 a2 = core

Therefore,

11;1 = ~ A = 63.245 A Winding loss at 11;1 = 40 W

19

Output

= 120 x 63.245 x 0.8 W = 6071.57 W 6071.57

TJmax =

6071.57 + 40 + 40 = 120 x 63.245 VA = 7.589 kVA

= 98.700 %

Corresponding k VA level

2.10 A single-phase system similar to that shown in Fig. 2.10 has two transformers A-B and B-C connected by a line B feeding a load at the receiving end C. The

ratings and parameter values of the components are .

Transformer A-B: 500 V /1.5 kV, 9.6 kVA, leakage reactance = 5% Transformer B-C: 1.2 kV /120 V, 7.2 kVA, leakage reactance = 4% Line B: series impedance = (0.5 + j3.0) n

Load C: 120 V, 6 kVA at 0.8 power factor lagging

(a) Determine the value of the load impedance in ohms and the actual ohmic impedances of the two transformers referred to both their primary and secondary sides.

(b) Choosing 1.2 kV as the voltage base for circuit B and 10 kVA as the systemwide kVA base, express all system impedances in per unit.

(c) What value of sending-end voltage corresponds to the given loading conditions?

Solution:

(a) Ohmic impedances

Load:

Primary: 5002
9.6 x 103 x jO.05 = j1.302 n
Secondary: 1.52 x 106
9.6 X 103 x jO.OS = j11.719 n
Primary: 1.22 X 106 n
7.2 x 103 x jO.04 = j8.0
Secondary: 1202 .
7.2 X 103 x jO.04 = jO.08 n
IVl2 1202
Wd = 6 x 103 I cos-1 0.8 = 2.4/36.9° n
Transformer A-B

Transformer B-C

(b) Impedance bases

Circuit B: 1.22 x 106
10 X 103 n = 144 n
Circuit C: 1202
10 x 103 n = 1.44 n , 0 'J "

20

Per unit impedances on new bases:

Transformer A-B: .11.719 jO.08138 per unit
)144 =
Transformer B-C: 8 jO.0556 per unit
) 144
Line B: (1.5 + j3.0) 0.0104 + jO.0208 per unit
144
Load: 2.4 36.90 = 1.667 ! 36.9° per unit
1.44~ (c) Sending-end voltage calculations

R.E.

--......--(0.0104 + j 0.15778) p.u.

1.667 L36.9° p.u.

VR = 120 V = 1.0 per unit

1.667 (36.9° + (0.0104 + j0.15778)

Vs = 1.0 x 1.667 a§JE = 1.0642 per unit

The sending-end voltage base is

500 3

VS, base = 3 X 1.2 X 10 = 400 V

1.5 X 10

Therefore, the required sending-end voltage is

Vs = 400 X 1.0642 = 425.69 V

2.11 A balanced ~-connected resistive load of 8000 kW is connected to the lowvoltage, ~-connected side of a Y-~ transformer rated 10,000 kVA, 138/13.8 kV. Find the load resistance in ohms in each phase as measured from line to neutral on the high-voltage side of the transformer. Neglect transformer impedance and assume rated voltage is applied to the transformer primary.

Solution:

8,000 = 33.47 A .J3 x 138

138,OOO/V3 = 2380 n 33.47

2.12 Solve Prob. 2.11 if the same resistances are reconnected in Y.

Ihnel =

R =

Solution:

If the ..6.-connected resistors are reconnected in Y, then the resistance to neutral will be three times as great and

R = 3 x 2380 = 7140 n

r

;,

f r

21

2.13 Three transformers, each rated 5 kVA, 220 Von the secondary side, are conected 6-6 and have been supplying a balanced 15 k W purely resistive load at 220 V. A change is made which reduces the load to 10 k\\T, still purely resistive and balanced. Someone suggests that, with two-thirds of the load, one transformer can be removed and the system can be operated open-A. Balanced three-phase voltages will still be supplied to the load since two ofthe line voltages (and thus also the third) will be unchanged.

To investigate further the suggestion

(a) Find each of the line currents (magnitude and angle) with the 10 kW load and the transformer between a and c removed. (Assume Vab = 220 &. V, sequence abc.)

(b) Find the kilovoltamperes supplied by each of the remaining transformers. (c) What restriction must be placed on the load for open-A operation with these transformers?

(d) Think about why the individual transformer kilovolt amp ere values include a Q component when the load is purely resistive.

Solution:

a

(a) Vab and Vbe remain the same after removing the third transformer, so Vea is also the same and we have a three-phase supply, and these voltages are: Vab = 220 /0° V, Vbe = 220; 2400 V and Vea = 220; 120° V. Then, Van = 127/-30° V, Vbn = 127/210° V and Ven = 127 190° V. The line currents are

Ia = 10,000 -300 = 26.24;-30° A
J3 x220~
t, 26.24/2100 A
Ie = 26.24; 90° A (b) kVAsupplied = 220 X 26.24 X 10-3 = 5.772 kVA

(c) The load must be reduced to (5.0/5.772) x 100 = 86.6% or 4.33 kW for each transformer. (d) The current and voltage in each of the remaining two transformers are not in phase.

Output of each transformer before the reduction in load is,

51 VabI~ = 220 10c x 26.24/ 30° = 5000 + j2886 VA

52 = VcbI~ = 220/60° x 26.24/270° = 5000 - j2886 VA

22

Note that Q is equal in magnitude but opposite in sign. There is no Q output from the open delta. After the load reduction,

Sl = 4333 + j2500 VA S2 = 4333 - j2500 VA

2.14 A transformer rated 200 MVA, 345Y /20.5~ kV connects a balanced load rated 180 MVA, 22.5 kV, 0.8 power factor lag to a transmission line. Determine

(a) the rating of each of three single-phase transformers which when properly connected will be equivalent to the above three-phase transformer and

(b) the complex impedance of the load in per unit in the impedance diagram if the base in the transmission line is 100 MVA, 345 kV.

Solution:

(a) Each single-phase transformer is rated 200/3 = 66.7 MVA. Voltage rating is (345/v3) /20.5 or 199.2/20.5 kV.

(b)

Load Z

(22.5)2 -108 2.81! 36.87c n (low-voltage side)

180 ! cos. = -

At the load,

Base V = 20.5 kV
BaseZ (20.5)2 4.20 n
= =
100
Load Z = 2.81 3687° = 0.669/36.87° per unit
4.20 ( . 2.15 A three-phase transformer rated 5 MVA, 115/13.2 kV has per-phase series impedance of (0.007 + jO.075) per unit. The transformer is connected to a short distribution line which can be represented by a series impedance per phase of (0.02 + jO.lO) per unit on a base of 10 MVA, 13.2 iv. The line supplies a balanced three-phase load rated 4 MVA, 13.2 kV, with lagging power factor 0.85.

(a) Draw an equivalent circuit of the system indicating all impedances in per unit. Choose 10 MVA, 13.2 kVA as the base at the load.

(b) With the voltage at the primary side of the transformer held constant at 115 kV, the load at the receiving end of the line is disconnected. Find the voltage regulation at the load.

23

Solution:

( a) Base voltages are shown on the single-line diagram.

115 kV § ~~_13_.2_kV ---l~ Load

Transformer Z = 1_0 (0.007 + jO.075) = 0.014 + jO.150 per unit
0
Vs = 1.0 per unit
Line Z = 0.02 + jO.lO per unit
Load IZI (13.2? x 1000 = 43.56 n
=
3400/0.85
Base Z at load (13.2? 17.42 n
= =
10
Load Z 43.56 -108- 2.50/31.8°
17.42/cOS .oo =

2.125 + j1.317 per unit Va

1

2.125

Vs

j1.317

(values are in per unit)

(b) Voltage regulation calculations

I =

1.0 1.0

=

0.014 + 0.02 + 2.125 + j(0.150 + 0.10 + 1.317) 2.668/35.97°

= 0.375/-35.97° per unit

VR,FL = 0.375/-35.97° x 2.S/ 31.8° = 0.937 /-4.17° per unit VR,NL = Vs = 1.0

V.R. = 1 - 0.937 x 100 = 6.72 o/c

0.937 0

2.16 Three identical single-phase transformers, each rated 1.2 kV /120 V, 7.2 kVA and having a leakage reactance of 0.05 per unit, are connected together to form a three-phase bank. A balanced Y-connected load of 5 n per phase is connected across the secondary of the bank. Determine the Y-equivalent perphase impedance (in ohms and in per unit) seen from the primary side when the transformer bank is connected (a) Y-Y, (b) Y-.6., (c) D.-Y and (d) D.-D.. Use Table 2.1.

v

24

Solution:

(a) Y- Y connection:

= 1.2 X 103 x v3 V = 120v3 V

R'r = 5 x (1200~)2 = 500 n 120y3

(1.2.13/ x 106 = 200 n 7.2 x 103 x 3

XI = 0.05 per unit = 200 x 0.05 n =

ZL = (500 + jl0) n

IVLLI I VII I

(b) Y-~ connection:

fVLLI = 1200 x Vi V IVzIi = 120 V

(1200V3)2

RL' 5

= x 120 =

XI = 10 n from part (a)

ZL (1500 + jlO) n

1500 n

( c) b,.- Y connection:

fVLLI =
I ViIi =
R'r =
Zb
XI =
ZL = 1200 V 120v3 V

5 x ( 1200 )2 = 120V3

12002

500 3

= 166.67 n

= 66.67 n 7.2 x 3 x 103

0.05 per unit = 66.67 x 0.05 n =

(166.67 + j3.33) n

( d) L!o.-L!o. connection:
IVLLI = 1200 V
I Viti = 120 V
R'r = 5 C200) 2 = 500 n
x 120
XI = 3.33 n from part (c)
Z' = (500 + j3.33) n
L 10 n

l.2fjkV 1120 V

3.33 n

12 tV 1120V

~xmA

z.:

2.17 Figure 2.17a shows a three-phase generator supplying a load through a threephase transformer rated 12 kVA/600 V Y, 600 kVA. The transformer has perphase leakage reactance of 10%. The line-to-line voltage and the line current at

25

the generator terminals are 11.9 kV and 20 A, respectively. The power factor seen by the generator is 0.8 lagging and the phase sequence of supply is ABC.

(a) Determine the line current and the line-to-line voltage at the load, and the per-phase (equivalent- Y) impedance of the load.

(b) using the line-to-neutral voltage VA at the transformer primary as reference, draw complete per-phase phasor diagrams of all voltages and currents. Show the correct phase relations between primary and secondary quantities.

(c) Compute the real and reactive power supplied by the generator and consumed by the load.

Solution:

(a)

a: 1

Voltage ratio = a = 12 6~~03 ;30° = 20;30° Current ratio = ~ = 0.05/30°

a*

Xl =
Let Vs =
Then, Is
i, =
V'
L
= (12 x 103)2

600 x 103 x 0.1 = 24.0 n

11.90

v3 LQ_ kV = 6.87 kV

II- = 20 / -36.9° A

ILa* = 20 x 20 ;-36.9° - 30° A = 400 / -66.9° A

V _ 'X I = 6.87 0° _ (24.0~ x 20;-36.9°) kV

s J I S L![_ 1000

6.593;-3.34° kV

VL = VL/a = 6.593;-3.34° kV 20/30°

329.65; -33.34° V

Line voltage at the load Line current at the load

v3WLI = 571 V = Ihl = 400 A

= V II - 329.65/-33.34° n

L L - 400 / -66.90

= 0.824; 33.6° n

Load irr:pedance - ZL

(b)

26

"2(_'_3_3_4' ...:.VS = 6.87 kV

30' ....

VL' = 6.593 iv

VL= 329.65 V

ref •

ref

IL =400 A

(c) Pg + jQg from the generator is 3Vs1s, where

3Vs1s = 3 x 6.87 L.!L. x 20( 36.9° kVA = 412.2/36.9° kVA = 329.8 kW + j247.3 kvar

3 x 329~65/-33.34° x 400L..§.QJE kVA = 1000

= 329.7 kW + j218.7 kvar

395.6/33.56° kVA

(a) Final answers remain the same except for the following intermediate results:

2.18 Solve Prob. 2.17 with phase sequence ACB.

Solution:

a = 20/-30°

l/a· = 0.05/-30°

h = ILa· = 400;-36.9° + 30° A = 400/-6.9° A

VL = Vila = 329.65;-3.34° + 30° V = 329.65/26.7° V

(b)

VL= 329.65 v

... ~~===30='==:J:I~::::==:re~f~.

I 3.34" Ys = 6.87 rv

....

VL =6.593 leV

'GEJd

30°

IL' = Is = 20A

ref •

(c) Same results as in Problem 2.17.

2.19 A single-phase transformer rated 30 kVA, 1200/120 V is connected as an autotransformer to supply 1320 V from a 1200 V bus.

( a) Draw a diagram of the transformer connections showing the polarity marks on the windings and directions chosen as positive for current in each winding so that the currents will be in phase.

27

( b) Mark on the diagram the values of rated current in the windings and at the input and output.

(c) Determine the rated kilovoltamperes of the unit as an autotransformer. (d) If the efficiency of the transformer connected for 1200/120 V operation at rated load unity power factor is 97%, determine its efficiency as an autotransformer with rated current in the windings and operating at rated voltage to supply a load at unity power factor.

Solution:

250A ~

+

1320 V

rated IHv 30,000 25 A
= =
1200
rated fLv 30,000 250 A
= =
120 Connected for 1200/120-V operation (regular transformer),

Pout = 30,000 W Loss = 928 W

Pin = 30, 928 W

Loss remains the same in the autotransformer because current in the windings and voltage across the windings are unchanged. For the autotransformer,

Pout = 250.x 1320 = 330,000 W ~n = 330,928 W

330,000

TJ = 330 928 x 100 = 99.7% Rated kVA = 330,000

t

Note that, once we consider loss, we no longer have an ideal transformer; and both winding resistance and reactance as well as magnetizing current and core loss must be considered. The applied voltage and input current will be greater than the values shown to achieve rated output, in which case the equivalent circuit corresponding to Fig. 2.7 would be used.

28

'1.·· .......•.... ·.·

~I

1

2.20 Solve Prob. 2.19 if the transformer is to supply 1080 V from a 1200 V bus.

Solution:

250 A __.

As in Prob. 2.19, Loss = 928 W. As an autotransformer,

r.: = 250 x 1080 = 270,000 W
Pin = 270,928 W
TJ = 270,000 x 100 = 99.7 %
270,928 Rated kVA = 270,000, but see the note which accompanies the solution of Problem 2.19.

2.21 Two buses 0 and ® are connected to each other through impedances Xl = 0.1 and X2 = 0.2 per unit in parallel. Bus b is a load bus supplying a current 1 = 1.0 /-30° per unit. The per-unit bus voltage Vb is 1.0 LJL.. Find P and Q into bus b through each of the parallel branches (a) in the circuit described, (b) if a regulating transformer is connected at bus b in the line of higher reactance to give a boost of 3% in voltage magnitude toward the load (a = 1.03), and ( c) if the regulating transformer advances the phase 2° (a = €j1f /90). Use the circulating-current method for parts (b) and (c), and assume that v~ is adjusted for each part of the problem so that Vb remains constant. Figure 2.26 is the single-line diagram showing buses a and b of the system with the regulating transformer in place. Neglect the impedance of the transformer.

Solution:

ImcC

(a) Thru XI the current is II = % x 1.0 (-30° = 0.577 - jO.333 and thru X2 the current is h = -k x 1.0 (-30° = 0.289 - jO.167. Into bus ® thru Xl,

P + jQ = Vb1i = 0.577 + jO.333 per unit

29

and into bus @ thru X2,

P+jQ = VbI:i

0.03 '0

(b) ~V = 0.03; Icirc = jO.3 = -J .1

h = 0.577 - jO.333 - (-jO.l) 0.577 - jO.233 12 = 0.289 - jO.167 + (-jO.l) = 0.289 - jO.267

0.289 + jO.167 per unit

Into bus @ thru Xl,

P + jQ = 0.577 + jO.233 per unit

and into bus @ thru X 2,

P + jQ = 0.289 + jO.267 per unit

(e)

~V

LOa. - 1.0 = 0.9994 + jO.0349 - 1.0 = -0.0006 + jO.0349 -0.0006 + jO.0349 = 0.116 '0.002

jO.3 + J

0.577 - jO.333 - (0.116 + jO.002) = 0.461 - jO.335 0.289 - jO.167 + 0.116 + jO.002 = 0.405 - jO.165

Into bus @ thru x.,

P + jQ = VbI'" = 0.461 + jO.335 per unit and into bus @ thru X2,

P + jQ = VbI'" = 0.405 + jO.165 per unit Note: Compare P and Q found in parts (b) and (e) with part (a).

2.22 Two reactances Xl = 0.08 and X2 = 0.12 per unit are in parallel between two buses 0 and ® in a power system. If Va = 1.05/10° and Vb = 1.0L.JL. per unit, what should be the turns ratio of the regulating transformer to be inserted in series with X2 at bus ® so that no vars flow into bus ® from the branch whose reactance is Xl? Use the circulating-current method, and neglect the reactance of the regulating transformer. P and Q of the load and Vb remain constant.

Solution:

In reactance Xl,

1.05L1.!E - 1.0

lAb = =

jO.08

1.034 + jO.1823 - 1.0 jO.08

= 2.279 - j0.425

To eliminate vars to bus ® thru Xl, we need in the X2 branch -j0.425

Iob,circ =

~V

= -j0.425

jO.8 + jO.12

a-I ~V = -j0.425(jO.08 + jO.12) = 0.0850

a = 1.085 turns ratio

'VAW ~'vt = (;O'I/St) 0'1 peo] a:mpall

0(;0'1 =

0(;

YAW stst = Sf: x 0'1 x v~v·O VAW v·~ = S~ x O'I x £8S'0 v~v'o = ISSI"or - sssol = £SS'o = IL IV'Or - Lov'ol = znor- = (SLsro + £E91"O)r' = 9~0'0

v'O(; = l1:sl = lisl

I""F'I - 1:11 I""F'I + III

S6(;'0{ - £6£'0 = (9'Of - S'o)_gg_ = 1:1
. (;'LI
SO£'or - LOv'O = (g' or - S'O) S~~l = iI VAW (;'LI ££91"0 + SLS1"O
= S£ x
SLSt·O
VAW S'LI ££91"0 + SLS1"O
= c~ x
- ££91"0
'1!Un lad ££91'0 = (SI/S£) x W'O
atun lad SLS1'O = (O(;/S£) x 60'0 = l1:sl = lisl = 1:X = iX

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