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Chapter 7 Problem Solutions

7.1 Using the building-block procedure described in Sec. 7.1, determine Ybus for the circuit of Fig. 7.18. Assume there is no mutual coupling between any of

the branches.

Solution:

First the voltage sources are converted to current sources. Then, the building blocks are given as follows:

<D <D e <D ~
<D [l](-jl.O) <D [-~ -~] (-j2.0) <D [ -~ -~] (-j2.5)
@ (2)
~ @ @ @ ~ ®
~ [ -i -1] . @ [ -i -~] (-jS.O) e [ -i -~] (-j5.0)
@ I (-;4.0) @ ®
@ @ @
@ [ -i -i] (-j2.0) @ [1](-j8.0)
@
Combining these together yields
CD e @ @ @
<D [_j5.5 j2.5 j2 jO jO 1
@ j2.5 -jll.5 j4 jO j5
@ j2 j4 -j14 j8 jO
@ jO jO j8 -jlO j2
@ jO j5 jO j2 -j7.8 86

7.2 Using the Ybus modification procedure described in Sec. 7.4 and assuming no mutual coupling between branches, modify the Ybus obtained in Prob. 7.1 to reflect removal of the two branches CD-@ and ~-@ from the circuit of Fig. 7.18.

Solution:

To remove branches <D-<ID and (J}-@, we add the following blocks to Y bus :

<D @ @ @
<D [-i -1 ] @ [-i -1 ]
@ 1 (j2.0) <ID 1 (i5.0)
This results in the following modified Y bus :
<D (J) @ @ <ID
<D [ -j35 j2.5 jO jO jO 1
@ j2.5 -j6.5 j4 jO jO
@ jO j4 -j12 j8 jO
@ jO jO j8 -jl0 j2
@ jO jO jO j2 -j2.8 7.3 The circuit of Fig. 7.18 has the linear graph shown in Fig. 7.19 with arrows indicating directions assumed for the branches a to h. Disregarding all mutual coupling between branches

(a) determine the branch-to-node incidence matrix A for the circuit with node 0 as reference.

(b) find the circuit Ybus using Eq. (7.37).

Solution:
(a) The branch-to-node incidence matrix is found to be
<D @ @ @ <ID
@ 1 -1 0 0 0
® -1 0 1 0 0
0 0 -1 1 0 0
A= @ 0 -1 0 0 1
0 0 0 1 -1 0
(J) 0 0 0 1 -1
® -1 0 0 0 0
@ 0 0 0 0 -1 87

( b) Y pr is given by
0 ® @ @ 0 (j) @ ®
0 -j2.5
® -j2
@ -j4
Ypr @ -j5
0 -j8·
(j) -j2
@ -j1
® -jO.8
Q) (2) @ ® @
CD [ -j5.5 j2.5 j2 jO jO 1
(2) j2.5 -j11.5 j4 jO j5
Ybus = ATYprA = @ j2 j4 -j14 j8 jO
® jO jO j8 -j10 j2
@ jO j5 jO j2 -j7.8 7.4 Consider that only the two branches CD-@ and @-@ in the circuit of Fig. 7.18 are mutually coupled as indicated by the dots beside them and that their mutual impedance is jD.15 per unit (that is, ignore the dot on branch ~-@). Determine the circuit Ybus by the procedure described in Sec. 7.2.

Solution:

The primitive impedance matrix for the mutually coupled branches CD-@ and (2)-@ is inverted as a single entity to yield the primitive admittance matrix

(D-@ (2)-@ -1 <D-@ [jO.5 jO.15] = (2)-@ jO.15 jO.25

(D-@ (2)-@

[ -j2.43902 j1.46341]

j1.46341 -j4.87805

Building blocks of the two mutually coupled branches CD-@ and ®-@ are

<D @ (2) @
CD [ -~ -1 ] (2) [ 1 -~] (j1.46341)
@ 1 (-j2.43902) @ -1
<J) @ (2) @
<J) [ -~ -1 ] (2) [ .: -1 ]
@ 1 (j1.46341) @ 1 (-j4.87805)
Building blocks of the remaining branches are determined as
<D CD (2) ® @
<D [ 1 ](-j1.0) CD [ -~ -i](-j2.5) @ [-~ -i](-j8.0)
(2) @
(2) @ ® @ @
@ [-~ -i](-j5.0) ® [-~ -1 ]
@ ® 1 (-j2.0) ® [1] (-j8.0) 88

Combining all the above building blocks gives

CD ~

(j) [_j5.93902 j3.96341

~ j3.96341 -j12.37805

@ jO.97561 j3.41464

@ jO jO

@ jO j5

@ jO.97561 j3.41464 -j12.39025 j8

jO

@ jO jO j8

-j10 j2

(W

jO I

j5

jO j2

-j7.8

7.5 Solve Prob. 7.4 using Eq. (7.37). Determine the branch-to-node incidence matrix A from the linear graph of Fig. 7.19 with node 0 as reference.

Solution:

The branch-to-node incidence matrix found in Prob. 7.3 can be used here. Y pr is obtained by inverting Zpr as follows.

@ ® e @ 0 (f) @ ® -1
@ jO.4
® jO.5 jO.15
@ jO.15 jO.25
Ypr = Z-l = @ jO.2
pr @ jO.l25
(J) jO.5
@ j1
® j1.25
@ ® @ @ 0 (j) @ ®
@ -j2.5
® -j2.43902 j1.46341
@ j1.46341 -j4.87805
= @ -j5
0 -j8
(J) -j2
@ -j1
® -jO.8
Using Eq. (7.27), we have
m ~ @ @ @
<D [-j5.93902 j3.96341 jO.97561 0 o I
CJ) j3.96341 -j12.37805 j3.41464 0 j5
@ jO.97561 j3.41464 -j12.39025 j8 0
@ 0 0 j8 -jl0 j2
® 0 j5 0 j2 -j7.8 89

(7.6) Using the modification procedure of Sec. 7.4, modify the YBUS solution of Prob. 7.4 (or Prob. 7.5) to reflect removal of the branch 2-3 from the circuit.

Solution:

We first remove both branches (1-3) and (2-3) which are mutually coupled, and the new branch (1-3) is then reconnected. Thus, the following building blocks are subtracted from Y BUS:

<D

CD [ 1

® -1

<D

0[ 1

® -1

G> Q) G)

-1 ] (-j2.43902) <D [1 -1] U1.46341)

1 ® -1 1

0) Q) G)

-1 ]U1.46341) G[ 1 -1 ] (-j4.87805)

1 ® -1 1

And the following building block is added to Y BUS:

<DO)

CD [1 -1] (-j2.0) ® -1 1

90
Giving YBUS =
(D (l) (2) @) (2)
<D -j5.5 ;2.5 j2 0 0
(6) ;2.5 -;7.5 0 0 j5
(2) ;2 0 -j10 j8 0
® 0 0 j8 -jI0 J2
(2) 0 j5 0 j2 -;7.8 91

(7.7) Modify the Y BUS determined in Example 7.3 to reflect removal of the mutually coupled branch 1-3 from the circuit of Fig. 7.11. Use the modification procedure of Sec. 7.4.

Solution:

First, both branches (1-3) and (2-3) are removed, and then branch (2-3) is reconnected. Thus, the following are subtracted from YBUS:

CD@

CD [1 -1] (-j6.2S) ® -1 1

CD®

o [1 -1] (;3.75) ® -1 1

Q)@

CD [1 -1]

® . (;3.75)

-1 1

Q)@

o [1 -1] (-"6.25) ® -II}

And the building block for the new branch (2-3) is added to Y BUS:

a> ®
0[ 1 -~ ] (-j4.0)
® -1
Giving Y BUS =
4) ~ o ~
q) -jl0.S jS 0 j2.5
~ j8 -j17 j4 jS
e 0 j4 -j4.8 0
o j2.S jS 0 -j8.3 92

(7.8) A new branch having a self-impedance of jO.2 per unit is added between nodes 2 and 3 in the circuit of Fig. 7.11. Mutual impedance of jO.1 per unit couples this new branch to the branch already existing between nodes 2 and 3. Modify the YBUS obtained in Example 7.3 to account for the addition of the new branch.

Solution:

Since the existing branch (2-3) is mutually coupled to branch (1-3), we remove these simultaneously. Then we reconnect these branches along with a new branch between nodes 2 and 3.

Thus, we subtract the following from YBUS:

(DO)

CD [1 -1] (-j6.25) ® -1 1

(DO)

o [1 -1] (J3.75) ® -1 1

G)(j)

<D [1 -1]

IT\ (J3.75)

\::V -1 1

G)Q)

o [1 -1] (-.6.25)

® -1 1 "]

And, to reconnect these branches, along with a new mutually coupled branch between nodes 2 and 3, the primitive admittance matrix is first found:

1-3 2-3 2-3new 1-3 2-3 2-3new
1-3 [jO.2S p.15 0 r [-]7.27273 j5.45455 -j2.72727 ]
2-3 jO.15 p.25 jO.1 = j5.45455 ~j9.09091 j4.54545
2-3new 0 jO.1 jO.2 -j2.72727 j4.54545 -J7.27273 93

And from these, the additional building blocks:

CD G:> Q) G) (l) e

<D[ 1 -1 ](-;727273) <D[ 1 -1 ] (j5.45455) <D[ 1 -11 ](-j2.72727)

® -1 1 ® -1 1 ® -1

CD G) Q) G) Q) G)

@[ 1 -1] (j5.45455) ® [1 -1 ] (-j9.09 091 ) ® [1 -1] (j4S4545)

® -1 1 ® -1 1 ® -1 1

_ CD a> (1)?~. ._ Q)G>

(1) [1 -1] (-/2.72727) [ ] (j4.54545) <6> [1 -1 1 ( ~ 27773)

® -1 1 (2) -1 1 (2) -1 1 -]1.-

Giving YBUS =

-j17.77273 j10.72728 j4.54S4S

-j20.27274 j4.54S46

-j9.89091

Symmetric

j2.5 jS.O o -j8.3

(7.9) Suppose that mutual coupling exists pairwise between branches 1-3 and 2-3, and also between branches 2-3 and 2-S of Fig. 7.18, as shown by the dots in that figure. The mutual impedance between the former pair of branches is jO.IS per unit (the same as in Probe 7.4) and between the latter pair is jO.1 per unit. Use the procedure of Sec. 7.2 to find YBUS for the overall circuit induding the three mutually coupled branches.

94 Solution:

The primitive impedance matrix is inverted as a single entity to

yield:

3-1 3-1 [ jO.5 3-2 .o.is

5-2 0

3-2 }V.15 jO.25 jO.l

5-2 o jO.l jO.2

3-1

]-1 [ -j2.58065 = }1.93548 -jO.96774

3-2 j1.93548 -j6.45161 j3.22581

5-2 -jO.96774] j3.22581

-j6.61290

All other admittances are determined on an element-by-element basis.

The resulting admittance diagram is shown below:

-j6.6129

-J).8

O.72L:l.2O:..

95

The building blocks are:

(j) CD (2) ~ ~ ~

o [1 -1] (-j2.58065) o [1 -1 ]U1.93548) 0 [1 -1 ] <-jO.96774)

<D -1 1 CD -1 1 <D -1 1

G)(D @Q) ®G>

0[ 1 -1 ](;1.93548) ®[ 1 -1 ](-j6.45161) 0[ 1 -1 ](;3.22581)

(£) -1 1 0 -1 1 (£) -1 1

CD ~[?> ~] ~ G) Q)

-1 ] (-jO.96774) U3.22581) \;;:..I [1 -1] (-j6.6129)

1 <V -1 1 <V -1 1

@

(2) [ 1

o -1

Q) <D a> G)

(V [1 -1 ](-J2.5) ® [1 -1] (-1'8) <D -11@)-1 1

(2) @ <D C5>

® [ 1-1 ](-)2) CD [1] (-jl.O) o [1] (-jO.8) @ -1 1

Giving Y BUS =

-j6.08065 j3.46774 jO.64517 0 jO.96774

-j9.11289 j2.25806 0 j3.38709

-j13.16130 j8 j2.25807

Symmetric -jl0 j2

-j9.41290

96

(7.10) Solve for the YBUS of Prob. 7.9 using Eq. (7.37). Use the linear graph of Fig. 7.19 with reference node 0 to determine the branch-to-

node incidence matrix A.
Solution:
(a) The branch-to-node matrix is:
(D 00 ®~
® 1 -1 0 0 0
® -1 0 1 0 0
© 0 -1 1 0 0
A= @ 0 -1 0 0 1
® 0 0 1 -1 0
<D 0 0 0 1 -1
® -1 0 0 0 0
® 0 0 0 0 -1 (b) The primitive admittance matrix is:
® @ © @ ® <D o @
e jO.4 -1
e jO.S jO.1S
e jO.1S jO.2S jO.1
Ypr = ~ = @ jO.1 jO.2
® jO.12S
<D jO.S
® jl.O
@ j1.2S 97 1
® @ © @ e CD CD ® iii
~
® -)2.5 i
@ \1
-j2.58065 j1.93548 -J).96774 fl
!~
e j1.93548 -j6.45161 j3.22581 ti
= ® -jO.96774 j3.22581 -j6.61290
e -j8
<D -]2
® -j1.0
@ -jO.8 And YBUS = ATyprA =

-j6.08065 j3.46774 jO.64517 0 jO.96774

-j9.11289 j2.25806 0 j3.38709

-J13.16130 j8 j2.25807

Symmetric -j10 j2

-j9.41290

(as in Pro b. 7.9.)

98

(7.11). Suppose that the direction of branch d in Fig. 7.19 is reversed so that it is now directed from node 2 to node 5. Find the branch-tonode incidence matrix A of this modified graph and then solve for the YBUS ofProb. 7.9 using Eq. (7.37).

Solution:
A is given by:
<D 00 @)<2)
® 1 -1 0 0 0
@ -1 0 1 0 0
© 0 -1 1 0 0
A= @ 0 -1 0 0 1
® 0 0 1 -1 0
CD 0 0 0 1 -1
® -1 0 0 0 0
® 0 0 0 0 -1 The primitive impedance matrix can be written as follows where the sign of the mutual impedance between branches c and d is changed since the directions of the branch c to d does not match the polarities indicated by the dots of Fig. 7.18.

® @

Ypr = ~ = CD

e <D e @

e
® -j2.5
@
@
@
<D
®
® 99
® @ e @ e CD e @
jOA -1
jO.5 jO.15
jO.15 jO.25 -jO.1
-jO.1 jO.2
jO.125
jO.5
j1.0
j1.25
(0) e e CD Ci e -j8

-)2.58065 j1.93548 jO.96774 )1.93548 -16.45161 -J3.22581 fJ.96774 -13.22581 -j6.61290

-j2

-j1.0

-jO.8

And YBUS = ATyprA =
CD <6> (2) @) G:>
© -j6.08065 j3.46774 jO.64517 0 jO.96774
GD -)9.11289 j2.25806 0 j3.38709
G) -j13.16130 j8 j2.25807
® Symmetric -j10 j2
~ -j9.41290 Note that regardless of the directions of the branches in the linear graph, a proper primitive impedance matrix can be chosen to give the correct result.

100

(7.12) Using the YBUS modification procedure described in Sec. 7.4, remove branch 2-3 from the YBUS solution obtained in Prob. 7.9 (or Prob. 7.10 or Prob. 7.11).

Solution:

Since line (2-3) is mutually coupled to lines (1-3) and (2-5), we first remove all three mutually coupled lines. The we reconnect lines (1-3) and (2-5) resulting in the removal of line (2-3) only.

The following building blocks are subtracted from YBUS:

Q)(] Q)

(2) [1 -1] (-j2.58065) ® [ 1

<D -1 1 <D -1

G)(D Q)

(2)[ 1 -1 ]01.93548) ®[ 1 <6> -1 1 (6) -1

G) (?)G)

-1 ]U1.93548) ® [1 -1 ] (-jO.96774)

1 <D -1 1

~ ~G>

-1 ](-j6.45161) ®[ 1 -1 ]us

1 (6) -1 1 .22581)

@(] Q)Q) G)Q)

® [1 -1] (-jO.96774) e [1 -1 ]U3.22581) ~ [1 -1] (-j6.6129)

<6> -1 1 <V -1 1 ® -1 1

And the following building blocks are added:

(D@

CD[ 1 -1 ](_Q) ® -1 1 "j

(1)G)

<D [1 -1]

® -1 1 (-j5)

101
Giving:
Q) (6) <D @) (2)
<D -j5.5 /2.5 j2 0 0
0 j2.5 -J7.5 0 0 j5
(2) j2 0 -jl0 j8 0
(±) 0 0 j8 -j10 j2
0 0 j5 0 j2 -J7.8
(As in Prob. 7.6) (7.13) Write nodal admittance equations for the circuit of Fig. 7.18 disregarding all mutual coupling. Solve the resultant equations for the bus voltages by the method of gaussian elimination.

Solution:
-j5.5 }2S j2 0 0 vl 1.1/-2Q·
j2S -}11.5 j4 0 j5 V2 0
}2 j4 -j14 j8 0 V3 0
0 0 j8 -jl0 j2 v4 0
0 j5 0 }2 -}7 .8 Vs 0.72/-120·

Forward elimination gives:
1 -0.45455 -0.36364 0 0 Vl 02
0 -j1036364 j4.90909 0 j5 V2 -jOS
0 j4.90909 -}13.27273 j8 0 V3 -jO.4
0 0 j8 -}10 }2 V4 0
0 j5 0 j2 -;7 .8 Vs -O.36-jO.62354 102
1 -0.45455 -0.36364 0 0 VI 02
0 1 -0.47368 0 -0.48246 V~ 0.04825
0 0 -}10.94737 j8 j2.36842 V3 -p.63684
0 0 j8 -}10 ;2 V4 0
0 0 ]236842 ]2 -j538772 Vs -O.36-jO.62354
l
1 -0.45455 -0.363641 0 0 VI 02
0 1 -0.47368 i 0 -0.48246 V2 0.04825
0 0 1 I 0.73077 -0.21635 V3 0.05817
0 0 0 ! -j4.15385 j3.73077 V4 -P.46538
0 0 0 1 ;3.73077 -j4.87532 Vs -O.36-jO.62354
,
1 -0.45455 -0.36364 0 0 VI 02
0 1 -0.47368 0 -0.48246 V2 0.04825
0 0 1 -0.73077 -0.21635 V3 0.05817
0 0 0 1 -0.89815 V4 0.11204
0 0 0 0 -j152454 Vs -O.36-jO.62354
1 -0.45455 -036364 0 0 VI 0.2
0 1 -0.47368 0 -0.48246 V2 0.04825
0 0 1 -0.73077 -021635 V3 0.05817
0 0 0 1 -0.89815 V4 0.11204
0 0 0 0 1 Vs 0.93178-JD23614
Back substitution yields the bus voltages:
V 5 = 0.93178 -jO.23614 = 0.96124/-14.22100

V 4 = 0.94891 -jO.21209 = 0.97232/-12.59910

V3 = 0.95319 -jO.20607 = 0.9752/-12.19900

Vz = 0.94930 -jO.21154 = 0.97258L-1 2 56240

VI = 0.97812 -jO.17109 = 0.99297/-9.92160 103

(7.14) Prove Eq. (7.69) based on Eq. (7.68).

Solution:

Consider the nodal admittance equations in the form:

Yl1 YIp YIn VI h
Ypl Ypp Ypn Vp = Ip
Ynl . . . Ynp ... Ynn Vn In
The pcb equation is written as If Ip = 0, Vp is given by:

By substitution of the above V p into the jth equation, the jth equation becomes:

104

i Yjk Vk = i (ljk - YjPYPk) v,

k=l k=l Ypp k*p

n

= L ljk,new Vk k=l

k*p

In this reduced set of equations, the new coefficient is as defined in Eq. (7.69).

(7.15) Using the gaussian-elimination calculations ofProb. 7.13, find the triangular factors ofYBUS for the circuit of Fig. 7.18.

Solution:

Elements of two matrices Land U are (refer to Prob. 7.14):

-j5.5 0 0 0 0
J2.5 -J10.36364 0 0 0
L= J2 j4.90909 -j10.94737 0 0
0 0 j8 -j4.15385 0
0 j5 J2.36842 j3.73077 -j1.52454 1 -0.45455 -0.36364 0 0
0 1 -0.47368 0 -0.48246
u= 0 0 1 -0.73077 -0.21635
0 0 0 1 -0.89815
0 0 0 0 1 105

(7.16) Use the triangular factors obtained in Prob. 7.15 to calculate new bus voltages for Fig. 7.18 when the voltage source at bus 5 is changed to 1.01-45° per unit. Follow the procedure of Example 7.9.

Solution:

The new voltage source at bus 5 is converted to a current source, 1.01-45° -;- j1.25 = 0.8/-125° per unit. Using the Land U of Prob.

7.15, the equation to solve is

1.1/-90° o

LW =1 = 0

o 0.8/-125"

We first let UV = V' and solve LV' = 1 for V' as follows:

-j5.5 0 0 0 0 · 1.1~
Vl
j2.5 -j10.36364 0 0 0 v; 0
j2 j4.90909 -;10.94737 0 0 ·
V3 = 0
0 0 j8 -j4.15385 0 ·
V4 0
0 j5 ;2.36842 j3.73077 ·
-j1.52454 Vs 0.8/-125°

Solving by back substitution: 0.2 0.04825

V' = 0.05817

0.11204 0.89383 -j)37105

106

V is then determined from solution of UV = V':

1 -0.45455 -0.36364 0 0 VI 0.2
0 1 -0.47368 0 -0.48246 V2 0.04825
0 0 1 -0.73077 -0.21635 V3 0.05817
0 0 0 1 -0.89815 V4 0.11204
0 0 0 0 1 Vs 0.89383 -j037105 From which we get:

0.95063 -]\).26884 0.98791/-15.791 e
0.91531 -]\).33240 0.973801-19.9588°
V= 0.92008 -jO.32381 = 0.97540L-J 9 3BBBo
0.91483 -jO.33326 0.97364/-20 OJ 6°
0.89383 -jO.37105 O.96779L-225:t=1:5° (7.17) Using the triangular factors obtained in Example 7.9, find the voltage at bus 3 of the circuit of Fig. 7.11 when an additional current of 0.2/-120° per unit is injected at bus 2. All other conditions of Fig. 7.11 are unchanged.

Solution:

The equations to be solved are:

o LUV = I = 0.2/-120° 1.01-90°

0.68/-J 35°

107 Land U are given in Example 7.9. Let IN = V' ; solve LV' = I for V':

-j16.75 0 0 0 0
jl1.75 -]11.00746 0 0 V' 0.2/-12Qo
=
j2S j4.25373 -)3.78305 0 1.0/-90°
j2S fo.7~3 73 )2.98305 -)1.43082 0.68L-] 35° Solving by back substitution:

0.28203 -jO.01022 0.99832 -jOA0023

o

V' 0.01574 -jO.00908

=

V is next determined from solution of UV = V':

1 o o o

-0.70149 -{).14925 -{).14925 0
1 -{).38644 -{).61356 V 0.01574 -jD.OO908
=
0 1 -0.78853 0.28203 -jD.01022
0 0 1 0.99832 -jD.40023 From which we get:

1.10486/-19.8585° 1.10881/-20.0723° Ll1778/-16,9466° 1.07556/-21.8460°

v

1.03916 -jO.37532 1.04146 -jO.38055 1.06924 -jO.32581 0.99832 -jOA0023

=

=

(7.18) (e) Kron reduce YBUS of the circuit of Fig. 7.18 to reflect elimination of node 2. (b) Use the Y-D. transformation of Table 1.2 to

eliminate note 2 from the circuit of Fig. 7.18 and find Y BUS for the resulting reduced network. Compare results of parts («) and (b).

108
Solution:
Y BUS of the circuit of Fig. 7.18 is given by:
CD @. Q) @ (2)
-5.5 2.5 2
2.5 -11.5 4 5
YBUS = j 2 4 -14 8
8 -10 2
5 2 -7.8 After Kron reduction of row 2 and column 2:

<D Q) @ G)
-4.95652 2.86957 0 1.08696
yreduced _ j 2.86957 -12.60870 8 1.73913
BUS - 0 8 -10 2
1.08696 1.73913 2 -5.62609 (b) Node 2 is connected to nodes 1,3 and 5 as shown, all impedances are in per-unit.

109

The z-equivalent circuit is:

/0.575

where:

ZIS = UOA)(jO.2) Ilj'S = jO.92 Z13 = UOA)UO.2S)Df- = jl.IS Z3S = Uo.2S)UO.2)Df- = jO.S7S

When the z-equivalent circuit replaces the original star, the following results:

jO.125

jO.5

;1..25

110
Giving:
CD @ @ (2)
-4.95652 2.86957 0 1.08696
2.86957 -12.60870 8 1.73913
YBUS =j 0 8 -10 2
.
1.08696 1.73913 2 -5.62609
confirming the earlier result. (7.19) Find the Land U triangular factors of the symmetric matrix

[2 1 3]

M= 154

347

Verify the result using Eq. (7.75).

III

Solution:

Forward elimination yields the following:

[ 2 1 3 ]
1 5 4
3 4 7
[ 1 1/2 3/2 ]
0 9/2 5/2
0 5/2 5/2
[ 1 1/2 312 ]
0 1 5/9
0 0 10/9
Land U are:
L =[ 2 0 ~ ]; U =l 1 112 312]
1 9/2 0 1 5/9
3 5/2 10/9 0 o 1
And
(1 0 0 ]( 2 0 l;/J
UTD= 1/2 1 0 0 9/2
3/2 5/9 1 0 0
= ( ~ 0 o 1
9/2 o =L
5/2 10/9
Which verifies Eq. (7.75).