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Republic of the Philippines

G.R. No. 187298 July 03, 2012
JA"JUL, Petitioners,
GO&. A'"USAKUR M. TAN, ($ )(* +#,#+(-y #* Go./0$o0 o1 Sulu2 GEN. JUANC!O SA'AN, COL. EUGENO
CLEMEN PN, P3SUPT. JULASRM KASM #$% P3SUPT. 'EN&EN"O G. LATAG, ($ -)/(0 +#,#+(-y #* o11(+/0* o1 -)/
P)(l. M#0($/* #$% P)(l. N#-(o$#l Pol(+/, 0/*,/+-(./ly, Respondents.
n !" #anuar$ %&&', three (e(bers fro( the International Co((ittee of the Red Cross )ICRC* +ere ,idnapped in the
vicinit$ of the Provincial Capitol in Pati,ul, Sulu.
Andres Notter, a S+iss national and head of the ICRC in -a(boan.a
Cit$, Eu.enio /, an Italian national and ICRC dele.ate, and Marie #ean 0acaba, a 1ilipino en.ineer, +ere purportedl$
inspectin. a +ater and sanitation pro2ect for the Sulu Provincial #ail +hen inspectin. a +ater and sanitation pro2ect for the
Sulu Provincial #ail +hen the$ +ere sei3ed b$ three ar(ed (en +ho +ere later confir(ed to be (e(bers of the Abu
Sa$$af 4roup )AS4*.
5he leader of the alle.ed ,idnappers +as identified as Raden Abu, a for(er .uard at the Sulu
Provincial #ail. Ne+s reports lin,ed Abu to Albader Parad, one of the ,no+n leaders of the Abu Sa$$af.
n %! #anuar$ %&&', a tas, force +as created b$ the ICRC and the Philippine National Police )PNP*, +hich then
or.ani3ed a parallel local .roup ,no+n as the 0ocal Crisis Co((ittee.
5he local .roup, later rena(ed Sulu Crisis
Mana.e(ent Co((ittee, convened under the leadership of respondent Abdusa,ur Mahail 5an, the Provincial 4overnor of
Sulu. Its ar(ed forces co(ponent +as headed b$ respondents 4eneral #uancho Saban, and his deput$, Colonel Eu.enio
Cle(en. 5he PNP co(ponent +as headed b$ respondent Police Superintendent Bienvenido 4. 0ata., the Police Deput$
Director for perations of the Autono(ous Re.ion of Musli( Mindanao )ARMM*.
4overnor 5an or.ani3ed the Civilian E(er.enc$ 1orce )CE1*, a .roup of ar(ed (ale civilians co(in. fro( different
(unicipalities, +ho +ere redeplo$ed to surroundin. areas of Pati,ul.
5he or.ani3ation of the CE1 +as e(bodied in a
8Me(orandu( of 9nderstandin.8
entered into
bet+een three parties; the provincial .overn(ent of Sulu, represented b$ 4overnor 5an< the Ar(ed 1orces of the
Philippines, represented b$ 4en. Saban< and the Philippine National Police, represented b$ P=S9P5. 0ata.. 5he >hereas
clauses of the Me(orandu( alluded to the e?traordinar$ situation in Sulu, and the +illin.ness of civilian supporters of the
(unicipal (a$ors to offer their services in order that 8the earl$ and safe rescue of the (a$ be achieved.8
5his Me(orandu(, +hich +as labeled AsecretB on its all, also outlined the responsibilities of each of the part$
si.natories, as follo+s;
Responsibilities of the Provincial 4overn(ent;
!* 5he Provincial 4overn(ent shall source the funds and lo.istics needed for the activation of the CE1<
%* 5he Provincial 4overn(ent shall identif$ the 0ocal 4overn(ent 9nits +hich shall participate in the operations
and to propose the( for the approval of the parties to this a.ree(ent<
6* 5he Provincial 4overn(ent shall ensure that there +ill be no unilateral action)s* b$ the CE1 +ithout the
,no+led.e and approval b$ both parties.
Responsibilities of A1P=PNP= 51 ICRC )5as, 1orce ICRC*;
!* 5he A1P=PNP shall re(ain the authorit$ as prescribed b$ la+ in (ilitar$ operations and la+ enforce(ent<
%* 5he A1P=PNP shall ensure the orderl$ deplo$(ent of the CE1 in the perfor(ance of their assi.ned tas,)s*<
6* 5he A1P=PNP shall ensure the safe (ove(ents of the CE1 in identified areas of operation)s*<
7* 5he A1P=PNP shall provide the necessar$ support and=or assistance as called for in the course of
operation)s*=(ove(ents of the CE1.
Mean+hile, Ronaldo Puno, then Secretar$ of the Depart(ent of Interior and 0ocal 4overn(ent, announced to the (edia
that .overn(ent troops had cornered so(e one hundred and t+ent$ )!%&* Abu Sa$$af (e(bers alon. +ith the three )6*
Do+ever, the AS4 (ade
contact +ith the authorities and de(anded that the (ilitar$ pull its troops bac, fro( the 2un.le area.
5he .overn(ent
troops $ielded and +ent bac, to their barrac,s< the Philippine Marines +ithdre+ to their ca(p, +hile police and civilian
forces pulled bac, fro( the terroristsB stron.hold b$ ten )!&* to fifteen )!"* ,ilo(eters. 5hreatenin. that one of the +ill be beheaded, the AS4 further de(anded the evacuation of the (ilitar$ ca(ps and bases in the different
baran.a$s in #olo.
5he authorities +ere .iven no later than %;&& oBcloc, in the afternoon of 6! March %&&' to co(pl$.
n 6! March %&&', 4overnor 5an issued Procla(ation No. !, Series of %&&' )Procla(ation !E&'*, declarin. a state of
e(er.enc$ in the province of Sulu.
It cited the ,idnappin. incident as a .round for the said declaration, describin. it as a
terrorist act pursuant to the Du(an Securit$
Act )R.A. '6@%*. It also invo,ed Section 7:" of the 0ocal 4overn(ent Code of !''! )R.A. @!:&*, +hich besto+s on the
Provincial 4overnor the po+er to carr$ out e(er.enc$ (easures durin. (anE(ade and natural disasters and cala(ities,
and to call upon the appropriate national la+ enforce(ent a.encies to suppress disorder and la+less violence.
In the sa(e Procla(ation, respondent 5an called upon the PNP and the CE1 to set up chec,points and cho,epoints,
conduct .eneral search and sei3ures includin. arrests, and other actions necessar$ to ensure public safet$. 5he pertinent
portion of the procla(ation states;
!. 5he settin.Eup of chec,points and cho,epoints in the province<
%. 5he i(position of curfe+ for the entire province sub2ect to such 4uidelines as (a$ be issued b$ proper
6. 5he conduct of 4eneral Search and Sei3ure includin. arrests in the pursuit of the ,idnappers and their
supporters< and
7. 5o conduct such other actions or police operations as (a$ be necessar$ to ensure public safet$.
6!S5DAF 1 MARCD %&&'. S.d. Abdusa,ur M. 5an 4overnor.
n ! April %&&', SP! Sattal #ad2uli +as instructed b$ his superior to report to respondent P=S9P5. #ulasiri(
9pon arrivin. at the police station, he +as boo,ed, and intervie+ed about his relationship to Musin, #aiton, and
#ula(in, +ho +ere all his deceased relatives. 9pon ad(ittin. that he +as indeed related to the three, he +as detained.
After a fe+ hours, for(er Punon. Baran.a$ #ul2ahan A+adi, Dad2i Dad2irul Ba(bra, Abdu.a2ir Dad2irul, as +ell as P%
Marcial Da2an, SP6 Muhil(i Is(ula, Punon. Baran.a$ Alano Moha((ad and 2eepne$ driver Abduhadi Sabdani, +ere
also arrested.
5he affidavit
of the apprehendin. officer alle.ed that the$ +ere suspected AS4 supporters and +ere
bein. arrested under Procla(ation !E&'. 5he follo+in. da$, % April %&&', the hosta.e Mar$ #ane 0acaba +as released b$
the AS4.
n 7 April %&&', the office of 4overnor 5an distributed to civic or.ani3ations, copies of the 84uidelines for the
I(ple(entation of Procla(ation No. !, Series of %&&' Declarin. a State of E(er.enc$ in the Province of Sulu.8
4uidelines suspended all Per(its to Carr$
1irear(s utside of Residence )P5C1Rs* issued b$ the Chief of the PNP, and allo+ed civilians to see, e?e(ption fro(
the .un ban onl$ b$ appl$in. to the ffice of the 4overnor and obtainin. the appropriate identification cards. 5he said
.uidelines also allo+ed .eneral searches and sei3ures in desi.nated chec,points and cho,epoints.
n !: April %&&', #a(ar M. Gula$an, 5e(o.en S. 5ula+ie, Dad2i Moha((ad Fusop Is(i, Aha2an A+adi, and SP! Sattal
D. #ad2uli, residents of Pati,ul, Sulu, filed the present Petition for Certiorari and Prohibition,
clai(in. that Procla(ation !E
&' +as issued +ith .rave abuse of discretion a(ountin. to lac, or e?cess of 2urisdiction, as it threatened funda(ental
freedo(s .uaranteed under Article III of the !'C@ Constitution.
Petitioners contend that Procla(ation No. ! and its I(ple(entin. 4uidelines +ere issued ultra vires, and thus null and
void, for violatin. Sections ! and !C, Article /II of the Constitution, +hich .rants the President sole authorit$ to e?ercise
e(er.enc$ po+ers and callin.Eout po+ers as the chief e?ecutive of the Republic and co((anderEinEchief of the ar(ed
Additionall$, petitioners clai( that the Provincial 4overnor is not authori3ed b$ an$ la+ to create civilian ar(ed
forces under his co((and, nor re.ulate and li(it the issuances of P5C1Rs to his o+n private ar($.
In his Co((ent, 4overnor 5an contended that petitioners violated the doctrine on hierarch$ of courts +hen the$ filed the
instant petition directl$ in the court of last resort, even if both the Court of Appeals )CA* and the Re.ional 5rial Courts
)R5C* possessed concurrent 2urisdiction +ith the
Supre(e Court under Rule :".
5his is the onl$ procedural defense raised b$ respondent 5an. Respondents 4en.
#uancho Saban, Col. Eu.enio Cle(en, P=S9P5. #ulasiri( Gasi(, and P=S9P5. Bienvenido 0ata. did not file their
respective Co((ents.1wphi1
n the substantive issues, respondents den$ that Procla(ation !E&' +as issued ultra vires, as 4overnor 5an alle.edl$
acted pursuant to Sections !: and 7:" of the 0ocal 4overn(ent Code, +hich e(po+ers the Provincial 4overnor to carr$
out e(er.enc$ (easures durin. cala(ities and disasters, and to call upon the appropriate national la+ enforce(ent
a.encies to suppress disorder, riot, la+less violence, rebellion or sedition.
1urther(ore, the San..unian.
of Sulu authori3ed the declaration of a state of e(er.enc$ as evidenced b$ Resolution No. 7, Series of %&&' issued on 6!
March %&&' durin. its re.ular session.
5he threshold issue in the present case is +hether or not Section 7:", in relation to Section !:, of the 0ocal 4overn(ent
Code authori3es the respondent .overnor to declare a state of e(er.enc$, and e?ercise the po+ers enu(erated under
Procla(ation !E&', specificall$ the conduct of .eneral searches and sei3ures. Subsu(ed herein is the secondar$ Huestion
of +hether or not the provincial .overnor is si(ilarl$ clothed +ith authorit$ to convene the CE1 under the said provisions.
>e .rant the petition.
I. Transcendental public Importance warrants a relaxation of the Doctrine of Hierarchy of Courts
>e first dispose of respondentsB invocation of the doctrine of hierarch$ of courts +hich alle.edl$ prevents 2udicial revie+
b$ this Court in the present case, citin. for this specific purpose, Montes v. Court of Appeals and Puro, Ba.on. Silan.
Association, Inc. v. Fuipco.
Si(pl$ put, the
doctrine provides that +here the issuance of an e?traordinar$ +rit is also +ithin the co(petence of the CA or the R5C, it is
in either of these courts and not in the Supre(e Court, that the specific action for the issuance of such +rit (ust be unless special and i(portant la+s are clearl$ and specificall$ set forth in the petition. 5he reason for this is that this
Court is a court of last resort and (ust so re(ain if it is to perfor( the functions assi.ned to it b$ the Constitution and
i((e(orial tradition. It cannot be burdened +ith decidin. cases in the first instance.
5he said rule, ho+ever, is not +ithout e?ception. In Chave3 v. PEAEA(ari,
the Court stated;
PEA and AMARI clai( petitioner i.nored the 2udicial hierarch$ b$ see,in. relief directl$ fro( the Court. 5he principle of
hierarch$ of courts applies .enerall$ to cases involvin. factual Huestions. As it is not a trier of facts, the Court cannot
entertain cases involvin. factual issues. 5he instant case, ho+ever, raises constitutional Huestions of transcendental
i(portance to the public. 5he Court can resolve this case +ithout deter(inin. an$ factual issue related to the case. Also,
the instant case is a petition for (anda(us +hich falls under the ori.inal 2urisdiction of the Court under Section ", Article
/III of the Constitution. >e resolve to e?ercise pri(ar$ 2urisdiction over the instant case.
5he instant case ste(s fro( a petition for certiorari and prohibition, over +hich the Supre(e Court possesses ori.inal
More cruciall$, this case involves acts of a public official +hich pertain to restrictive custod$, and is thus
i(pressed +ith transcendental public i(portance that +ould +arrant the rela?ation of the .eneral rule. 5he Court +ould be
re(iss in its constitutional duties +ere it to dis(iss the present petition solel$ due to clai(s of 2udicial hierarch$.
In David v. Macapa.alEArro$o,
the Court hi.hli.hted the transcendental public i(portance involved in cases that concern
restrictive custod$, because 2udicial revie+ in these cases serves as 8a (anifestation of the crucial defense of civilians Ain
police po+erB cases due to the di(inution of their basic liberties under the .uise of a state of e(er.enc$.8
ther+ise, the
i(portance of the hi.h tribunal as the court of last resort +ould be put to, considerin. the nature of 8e(er.enc$8
cases, +herein the procla(ations and issuances are inherentl$ shortElived. In finall$ disposin. of the clai( that the issue
had beco(e (oot and acade(ic, the Court also cited transcendental public i(portance as an e?ception, statin.;
Sa kabila n paiin akademiko na laman n ma isyu tunkol sa mahipit na pananalaa !restricti"e custody# at
pamonitor n .ala+ )(onitorin. of (ove(ents* n. na.pepetis$on, dedesis$unan na(in ito )a* dahil sa
na interes n. (adla na na,apaloob dito,
!b# dahil sa posibilidad na maaarin maulit an panyayari at !c# dahil kailanan maturuan an kapulisan tunkol dito.
5he (oot and acade(ic principle is not a (a.ical for(ula that can auto(aticall$ dissuade the courts in resolvin. a case.
Courts +ill decide cases, other+ise (oot and acade(ic, if; first, there is a .rave violation of the Constitution< second, the
e?ceptional character of the situation and the para(ount public interest is involved< third, +hen ItheJ constitutional issue
raised reHuires for(ulation of controllin. principles to .uide the bench, the bar, and the public< and fourth, the case is
capable of repetition $et evadin. revie+.
K5here is no Huestion that the issues bein. raised affect the public interest, involvin. as the$ do the peopleBs basic ri.hts
to freedo( of e?pression, of asse(bl$ and of the press. Moreover, the
Court has the dut$ to for(ulate .uidin. and controllin. constitutional precepts, doctrines or rules. It has the s$(bolic
function of educatin. the bench and the bar, and in the present petitions, the (ilitar$ and the police, on the e?tent of the
protection .iven b$ constitutional .uarantees. And lastl$, respondents contested actions are capable of repetition.
Certainl$, the petitions are sub2ect to 2udicial revie+.
Evidentl$, the triple reasons >e advanced at the start of ur rulin. are 2ustified under the fore.oin. e?ceptions. Ever$
bad, unusual incident +here police officers fi.ure in .enerates public interest and people +atch +hat +ill be done or not
done to the(. 0ac, of disciplinar$ steps ta,en a.ainst the( erode public confidence in the police institution. As petitioners
the(selves assert, the restrictive custod$ of police(en under investi.ation is an e?istin. practice, hence, the issue is
bound to crop up ever$ no+ and then. 5he (atter is capable of repetition or susceptible of recurrence. It better be
resolved no+ for the education and .uidance of all concerned.
)E(phasis supplied*
Dence, the instant petition is .iven due course, i(pressed as it is +ith transcendental public i(portance.
II. $nly the %resident is "ested with callin&out powers' as the commander&in&chief of the (epublic
i. $ne executi"e' one commander&in&chief
As earl$ as /illena v. Secretar$ of Interior,
it has alread$ been established that there is one repositor$ of e?ecutive
po+ers, and that is the President of the Republic. 5his (eans that +hen Section !, Article /II of the Constitution spea,s of
e?ecutive po+er, it is .ranted to the President and no one else.
As e(phasi3ed b$ #ustice #ose P. 0aurel, in his
ponencia in /illena;
>ith reference to the E?ecutive Depart(ent of the .overn(ent, there is one purpose +hich is cr$stalEclear and is readil$
visible +ithout the pro2ection of 2udicial, and that is the establish(ent of a sin.le, not plural, E?ecutive. 5he first
section of Article /II of the Constitution, dealin. +ith the E?ecutive Depart(ent, be.ins +ith the enunciation of the
principle that 85he e?ecutive po+er shall be vested in a President of the Philippines.8 5his (eans that the President of the
Philippines is the E?ecutive of the 4overn(ent of the Philippines, and no other.
Corollaril$, it is onl$ the President, as E?ecutive, +ho is authori3ed to e?ercise e(er.enc$ po+ers as provided under
Section %6, Article /I, of the Constitution, as +ell as +hat beca(e ,no+n as the callin.Eout po+ers under Section @,
Article /II thereof.
ii. The exceptional character of Commander&in&Chief powers dictate that they are exercised by one president fro( the +ellEentrenched constitutional precept of ne President is the notion that there are certain acts +hich,
b$ their ver$ nature, (a$ onl$ be perfor(ed b$ the president as the Dead of the State. ne of these acts or prero.atives
is the bundle of Co((anderEinEChief po+ers to +hich the 8callin.Eout8 po+ers constitutes a portion. 5he PresidentBs
E(er.enc$ Po+ers, on the other hand, is balanced onl$ b$ the le.islative act of Con.ress, as e(bodied in the second
para.raph of Section %6, Article : of the Constitution;
Article :, Sec %6)%*. In ti(es of +ar or other national e(er.enc$, the Con.ress (a$, b$ la+, authori3e the President, for a
li(ited period and sub2ect to such restrictions as it (a$ prescribe, to e?ercise po+ers necessar$ and proper to carr$ out a
declared national polic$. 9nless sooner +ithdra+n b$ resolution of the Con.ress, such po+ers shall cease upon the ne?t
ad2ourn(ent thereof.
Article @, Sec !C. 5he President shall be the Co((anderEinEChief of all ar(ed forces of the Philippines and +henever it
beco(es necessar$, he (a$ call out such ar(ed forces to prevent or suppress la+less violence, invasion or rebellion. In
case of invasion or rebellion, +hen the public safet$ reHuires it, he (a$, for a period not e?ceedin. si?t$ da$s, suspend
the privile.e of the +rit of habeas corpus or place the Philippines or an$ part thereof under (artial la+. >ithin fort$
hours fro( the procla(ation of (artial la+ or the suspension of the privile.e of the +rit of habeas corpus, the President
shall sub(it a report in person or in +ritin. to the Con.ress. 5he Con.ress, votin. 2ointl$, b$ a vote of at least a (a2orit$ of
all its Me(bers in re.ular or special session, (a$ revo,e such procla(ation or suspension, +hich revocation shall not be
set aside b$ the President. 9pon the initiative of the President, the Con.ress (a$, in the sa(e (anner, e?tend such
procla(ation or suspension for a period to be deter(ined b$ the Con.ress, if the invasion or rebellion shall persist and
public safet$ reHuires it.
5he Con.ress, if not in session, shall, +ithin t+ent$Efour hours follo+in. such procla(ation or suspension, convene in
accordance +ith its rules +ithout need of a call.
5he po+er to declare a state of (artial la+ is sub2ect to the Supre(e CourtBs authorit$ to revie+ the factual basis
B$ constitutional fiat, the callin.Eout po+ers, +hich is of lesser .ravit$ than the po+er to declare (artial la+, is
besto+ed upon the President alone. As noted in /illena, 8)t*here are certain constitutional po+ers and prero.atives of the
Chief E?ecutive of the Nation +hich (ust be e?ercised b$ hi( in person and no a(ount of approval or ratification +ill
validate the e?ercise of an$ of those po+ers b$ an$ other person. Such, for instance, is his po+er to suspend the +rit of
habeas corpus and proclai( (artial la+ ? ? ?.
Indeed, +hile the President is still a civilian, Article II, Section 6
of the Constitution (andates that civilian authorit$ is, at
all ti(es, supre(e over the (ilitar$, (a,in. the civilian president the nationBs supre(e (ilitar$ leader. 5he net effect of
Article II, Section 6, +hen read +ith Article /II,
Section !C, is that a civilian President is the cere(onial, and ad(inistrative head of the ar(ed forces. 5he
Constitution does not reHuire that the President (ust be possessed of (ilitar$ trainin. and talents, but as Co((anderEinE
Chief, he has the po+er to direct (ilitar$ operations and to deter(ine (ilitar$ strate.$. Nor(all$, he +ould be e?pected to
dele.ate the actual co((and of the ar(ed forces to (ilitar$ e?perts< but the ulti(ate po+er is his.
As Co((anderEinE
Chief, he is authori3ed to direct the (ove(ents of the naval and (ilitar$ forces placed b$ la+ at his co((and, and to
e(plo$ the( in the (anner he (a$ dee( (ost effectual.
In the case of Inte.rated Bar of the Philippines v. -a(ora,
the Court had occasion to rule that the callin.Eout po+ers
belon. solel$ to the President as co((anderEinEchief;
>hen the President calls the ar(ed forces to prevent or suppress la+less violence, invasion or rebellion, he necessaril$
e?ercises a discretionar$ po+er solel$ vested in his +isdo(. 5his is clear fro( the intent of the fra(ers and fro( the te?t
of the Constitution itself. 5he Court, thus, cannot be called upon to overrule the PresidentBs +isdo( or substitute its o+n.
Do+ever, this does not prevent an e?a(ination of +hether such po+er +as e?ercised +ithin per(issible constitutional
li(its or +hether it +as e?ercised in a (anner constitutin. .rave abuse of discretion. In vie+ of the constitutional intent to
.ive the President full discretionar$ po+er to deter(ine the necessit$ of callin. out the ar(ed forces, it is incu(bent upon
the petitioner to sho+ that the PresidentBs decision is totall$ bereft of factual basis.
5here is a clear te?tual co((it(ent under the Constitution to besto+ on the President full discretionar$ po+er to call out
the ar(ed forces and to deter(ine the necessit$ for the e?ercise of such po+er.
)E(phasis supplied*
9nder the fore.oin. provisions, Con.ress (a$ revo,e such procla(ation or suspension and the Court (a$ revie+ the
sufficienc$ of the factual basis thereof. Do+ever, there is no such eHuivalent provision dealin. +ith the revocation or
revie+ of the PresidentBs action to call out the ar(ed forces. 5he distinction places the callin. out po+er in a different
cate.or$ fro( the po+er to declare (artial la+ and the po+er to suspend the privile.e of the +rit of habeas corpus,
other+ise, the fra(ers of the Constitution +ould have si(pl$ lu(ped to.ether the three po+ers and provided for their
revocation and revie+ +ithout an$ Hualification.
5hat the po+er to call upon the ar(ed forces is discretionar$ on the president is clear fro( the deliberation of the
Constitutional Co((ission;
1R. BERNAS. It +ill not (a,e an$ difference. I (a$ add that there is a .raduated po+er of the President as Co((anderE
inEChief. 1irst, he can call out such Ar(ed 1orces as (a$ be necessar$ to suppress la+less violence< then he can
suspend the privile.e of the +rit of habeas corpus, then he can i(pose (artial la+. 5his is a .raduated seHuence.
>hen he that it is necessar$ to i(pose (artial la+ or suspend the privile.e of the +rit of habeas corpus, his
2ud.(ent is sub2ect to revie+. >e are (a,in. it sub2ect to revie+ b$ the Supre(e Court and sub2ect to concurrence b$ the
National Asse(bl$. But +hen he e?ercises this lesser po+er of callin. on the Ar(ed 1orces, +hen he sa$s it is necessar$,
it is ($ opinion that his 2ud.(ent cannot be revie+ed b$ an$bod$.
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
MR. RE4A0AD. 5hat does not reHuire an$ concurrence b$ the le.islature nor is it sub2ect to 2udicial revie+.
5he reason for the difference in the treat(ent of the afore(entioned po+ers hi.hli.hts the intent to .rant the President the
+idest lee+a$ and broadest discretion in usin. the po+er to call out because it is considered as the lesser and (ore
beni.n po+er co(pared to the po+er to suspend the privile.e of the +rit of habeas corpus and the po+er to i(pose
(artial la+, both of +hich involve the curtail(ent and suppression of certain basic civil ri.hts and individual freedo(s, and
thus necessitatin. safe.uards b$ Con.ress and revie+ b$ this Court.
? ? ? 5hus, it is the unclouded intent of the Constitution to vest upon the President, as Co((anderEinEChief of the Ar(ed
1orces, full discretion to call forth the (ilitar$ +hen in his 2ud.(ent it is necessar$ to do so in order to prevent or suppress
la+less violence, invasion or rebellion.
)E(phasis Supplied*
In the (ore recent case of Constantino, #r. v. Cuisia,
the Court characteri3ed these po+ers as e?clusive to the President,
precisel$ because the$ are of e?ceptional i(port;
5hese distinctions hold true to this da$ as the$ re(ain e(bodied in our funda(ental la+. 5here are certain presidential
po+ers +hich arise out of e?ceptional circu(stances, and if e?ercised, +ould involve the suspension of funda(ental
freedo(s, or at least call for the supersedence of e?ecutive prero.atives over those e?ercised b$ coEeHual branches of
.overn(ent. 5he declaration of (artial la+, the suspension of the +rit of habeas corpus, and the e?ercise of the
pardonin. po+er, not+ithstandin. the 2udicial deter(ination of .uilt of the accused, all fall +ithin this special class that
de(ands the e?clusive e?ercise b$ the President of the constitutionall$ vested po+er. 5he list is b$ no (eans e?clusive,
but there (ust be a sho+in. that the e?ecutive po+er in Huestion is of si(ilar ra"itas and e?ceptional i(port.
In addition to bein. the co((anderEinEchief of the ar(ed forces, the President also acts as the leader of the countr$Bs
police forces, under the (andate of Section !@, Article /II of the Constitution, +hich provides that, 85he President shall
have control of all the e?ecutive depart(ents, bureaus, and offices. De shall ensure that the la+s be faithfull$ e?ecuted.8
Durin. the deliberations of the Constitutional Co((ission on the fra(in. of this provision, 1r. Bernas defended the
retention of the +ord 8control,8 e(plo$in. the sa(e rationale of sin.ularit$ of the office of the president, as the onl$
E?ecutive under the presidential for( of .overn(ent.
Re.ardin. the countr$Bs police force, Section :, Article L/I of the Constitution states that; 85he State shall establish and
(aintain one police force, +hich shall be national in scope and civilian in character, to be ad(inistered and controlled b$ a
national police co((ission. 5he authorit$ of local e?ecutives over the police units in their 2urisdiction shall be provided b$
A local chief e?ecutive, such as the provincial .overnor, e?ercises operational supervision over the police,
and (a$
e?ercise control onl$ in da$EtoEda$ operations, "i);
Mr. Natividad; B$ e?perience, it is not advisable to provide either in our Constitution or b$ la+ full control of the police b$
the local chief e?ecutive and local e?ecutives, the (a$ors. B$ our e?perience, this has spa+ned +arlordis(, bossis( and
sanctuaries for vices and abuses. If the national .overn(ent does not have a (echanis( to supervise these !,"&& le.all$,
technicall$ separate police forces, plus :! cit$ police forces, fra.(ented police s$ste(, +e +ill have a lot of difficult$ in
presentin. a (odern professional police force. So that a certain a(ount of supervision and control +ill have to be
e?ercised b$ the national .overn(ent.
1or e?a(ple, if a local .overn(ent, a to+n cannot handle its peace and order proble(s or police proble(s, such as riots,
confla.rations or or.ani3ed cri(e, the national .overn(ent (a$ co(e in, especiall$ if reHuested b$ the local e?ecutives.
9nder that situation, if the$ co(e in under such an e?traordinar$ situation, the$ +ill be in control. But if the da$EtoEda$
business of police investi.ation of cri(e, cri(e prevention, activities, traffic control, is all lod.ed in the (a$ors, and if the$
are in co(plete operational control of the da$EtoEda$ business of police service, +hat the national .overn(ent +ould
control +ould be the ad(inistrative aspect.
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Mr. de los Re$es; so the operational control on a da$EtoEda$ basis, (eanin., the usual duties bein. perfor(ed b$ the
ordinar$ police(en, +ill be under the supervision of the local e?ecutivesM
Mr. Natividad; Fes, Mada( President.
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Mr. de los Re$es; But in e?ceptional cases, even the operational control can be ta,en over b$ the National Police
Mr. Natividad; If the situation is be$ond the capacit$ of the local .overn(ents.
)E(phases supplied*
1urther(ore accordin. to the fra(ers, it is still the President +ho is authori3ed to e?ercise supervision and control over
the police, throu.h the National Police Co((ission;
Mr. Rodri.o; #ust a fe+ Huestions. 5he President of the Philippines is the Co((anderEinEChief of all the ar(ed forces.
Mr. Natividad; Fes, Mada( President.
Mr. Rodri.o; Since the national police is not inte.rated +ith the ar(ed forces, I do not suppose the$ co(e under the
Co((anderEinEChief po+ers of the President of the Philippines.
Mr. Natividad; 5he$ do, Mada( President. B$ la+, the$ are under the supervision and control of the President of the
Mr. Rodri.o; Fes, but the President is not the Co((anderEinEChief of the national police.
Mr. Natividad; De is the President.
Mr. Rodri.o; Fes, the E?ecutive. But the$ do not co(e under that specific provision that the President is the Co((anderE
inEChief of all the ar(ed forces.
Mr. Natividad; No, not under the Co((anderEinEChief provision.
Mr. Rodri.o; 5here are t+o other po+ers of the President. 5he
President has control over (inistries, bureaus and offices, and supervision over local .overn(ents. 9nder +hich does the
police fall, under control or under supervisionM
Mr. Natividad; Both, Mada( President.
Mr. Rodri.o; Control and supervision.
Mr. Natividad; Fes, in fact, the National Police Co((ission is under the ffice of the President.
In the discussions of the Constitutional Commission reardin the abo"e pro"ision it is clear that the framers ne"er
intended for local chief executi"es to exercise unbridled control o"er the police in emerency situations. 5his is +ithout
pre2udice to their authorit$ over police units in their 2urisdiction as provided b$ la+, and their prero.ative to see,
assistance fro( the police in da$ to da$ situations, as conte(plated b$ the Constitutional Co((ission. But as a civilian
a.enc$ of the .overn(ent, the police, throu.h the NAP0CM, properl$ co(es +ithin, and is sub2ect to, the e?ercise b$
the President of the po+er of e?ecutive control.
iii. The pro"incial o"ernor does not possess the same callin&out powers as the %resident
4iven the fore.oin., respondent provincial .overnor is not endo+ed +ith the po+er to call upon the ar(ed forces at his
o+n biddin.. In issuin. the assailed procla(ation, 4overnor 5an e?ceeded his authorit$ +hen he declared a state of
e(er.enc$ and called upon the Ar(ed 1orces, the police, and his o+n Civilian E(er.enc$ 1orce. 5he callin.Eout po+ers
conte(plated under the Constitution is e?clusive to the President. An e?ercise b$ another official, even if he is the local
chief e?ecutive, is ultra vires, and (a$ not be 2ustified b$ the invocation of Section 7:" of the 0ocal 4overn(ent Code, as
+ill be discussed subseHuentl$.
Respondents, ho+ever, 2ustif$ this stance b$ statin. that no+here in the se(inal case of David v. Arro$o, +hich dealt
sHuarel$ +ith the issue of the declaration of a state of e(er.enc$, does it li(it the said authorit$ to the President alone.
Respondents contend that the rulin. in David e?pressl$ li(its the authorit$ to declare a national e(er.enc$, a condition
+hich covers the entire countr$, and does not include e(er.enc$ situations in local .overn(ent units.
5his clai( is
belied b$ the clear intent of the fra(ers that in all situations involvin. threats to securit$, such as la+less violence,
invasion or rebellion, even in locali3ed areas, it is still the President +ho possesses the sole authorit$ to e?ercise callin.E
out po+ers. As reflected in the #ournal of the Constitutional Co((ission;
5hereafter, Mr. Padilla proposed on line %' to insert the phrase R P9B0IC DISRDER in lieu of 8invasion or rebellion.8
Mr. Su(ulon. stated that the co((ittee could not accept the a(end(ent because under the first section of Section !",
the President (a$ call out and (a,e use of the ar(ed forces to prevent or suppress not onl$ la+less violence but even
invasion or rebellion +ithout declarin. (artial la+. De observed that b$ deletin. 8invasion or rebellion8 and substitutin.
P9B0IC DISRDER, the President +ould have to declare (artial la+ before he can (a,e use of the ar(ed forces to
prevent or suppress la+less invasion or rebellion.
Mr. Padilla, in repl$ thereto, stated that the first sentence conte(plates a li.hter situation +here there is so(e la+less
violence in a s(all portion of the countr$ or public disorder in another at +hich ti(es, the ar(ed forces can be called to
prevent or suppress these incidents. De noted that the Co((anderEinEChief can do so in a (inor de.ree but he can also
e?ercise such po+ers should the situation +orsen. 5he +ords 8invasion or rebellion8 to be eli(inated on line !7 are
covered b$ the follo+in. sentence +hich provides for 8invasion or rebellion.8 De (aintained that the proposed a(end(ent
does not (ean that under such circu(stances, the President cannot call on the ar(ed forces to prevent or suppress the
)E(phasis supplied*
III. Section *+, of the -ocal
.o"ernment Code cannot be in"oked to /ustify the powers enumerated under %roclamation 1&01
Respondent .overnor characteri3ed the ,idnappin. of the three ICRC +or,ers as a terroristic act, and used this incident
to 2ustif$ the e?ercise of the po+ers enu(erated under Procla(ation !E&'.
De invo,es Section 7:", in relation to Section
!:, of the 0ocal 4overn(ent Code, +hich purportedl$ allo+s the .overnor to carr$ out e(er.enc$ (easures and call
upon the appropriate national la+ enforce(ent a.encies for assistance. But a closer loo, at the said procla(ation sho+s
that there is no provision in the 0ocal 4overn(ent Code nor in an$ la+ on +hich the broad and un+arranted po+ers
.ranted to the 4overnor (a$ be based.
Petitioners cite the i(ple(entation of 84eneral Search and Sei3ure includin. arrests in the pursuit of the ,idnappers and
their supporters,8
as bein. violative of the constitutional proscription on .eneral search +arrants and .eneral sei3ures.
Petitioners ri.htl$ assert that this alone +ould be sufficient to render the procla(ation void, as .eneral searches and
sei3ures are proscribed, for bein. violative of the ri.hts enshrined in the Bill of Ri.hts, particularl$;
5he of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects a.ainst unreasonable searches and
sei3ures of +hatever nature and for an$ purpose shall be inviolable, and no search +arrant or +arrant of arrest shall issue
e?cept upon probable cause to be deter(ined personall$ b$ the 2ud.e after e?a(ination under oath or affir(ation of the
co(plainant and the +itnesses he (a$ produce, and particularl$ describin. the place to be searched and the persons or
thin.s to be sei3ed.
In fact, respondent .overnor has arro.ated unto hi(self po+ers e?ceedin. even the (artial la+ po+ers of the President,
because as the Constitution itself declares, 8A state of (artial la+ does not suspend the operation of the Constitution, nor
supplant the functionin. of the civil courts or le.islative asse(blies, nor authori3e the confer(ent of the 2urisdiction on
(ilitar$ courts and a.encies over civilians +here civil courts are able to function, nor auto(aticall$ suspend the privile.e
of the +rit.8
>e find, and so hold, that there is nothin. in the 0ocal 4overn(ent Code +hich 2ustifies the acts sanctioned under the
said Procla(ation. Not even Section 7:" of the said Code, in relation to Section !:, +hich states;
Section 7:". 5he Chief E?ecutive; Po+ers, Duties, 1unctions, and Co(pensation.
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
)b* 1or efficient, effective and econo(ical .overnance the purpose of +hich is the .eneral +elfare of the province and its
inhabitants pursuant to Section !: of this Code, the provincial .overnor shall;
)!* E?ercise .eneral supervision and control over all pro.ra(s, pro2ects, services, and activities of the provincial
.overn(ent, and in this connection, shall;
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
)vii* Carr$ out such e(er.enc$ (easures as (a$ be necessar$ durin. and in the after(ath of (anE(ade and natural
disasters and cala(ities<
)%* Enforce all la+s and ordinances relative to the .overnance of the province and the e?ercise of the appropriate
corporate po+ers provided for under Section %% of this Code, i(ple(ent all approved policies, pro.ra(s, pro2ects,
services and activities of the province and, in addition to the fore.oin., shall;
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
)vi* Call upon the appropriate national la+ enforce(ent a.encies to suppress disorder, riot, la+less violence, rebellion or
sedition or to apprehend violators of the la+ +hen public interest so reHuires and the police forces of the co(ponent cit$
or (unicipalit$ +here the disorder or violation is happenin. are inadeHuate to cope +ith the situation or the violators.
Section !:. 4eneral >elfare. E Ever$ local .overn(ent unit shall e?ercise the po+ers e?pressl$ .ranted, those necessaril$
i(plied therefro(, as +ell as po+ers necessar$, appropriate, or incidental for its efficient and effective .overnance, and
those +hich are essential to the pro(otion of the .eneral +elfare. >ithin their respective territorial 2urisdictions, local
.overn(ent units shall ensure and support, a(on. other thin.s, the preservation and enrich(ent of culture, pro(ote
health and safet$, enhance the of the people to a balanced ecolo.$, encoura.e and support the develop(ent of
appropriate and selfEreliant scientific and technolo.ical capabilities, i(prove public (orals, enhance econo(ic prosperit$
and social 2ustice, pro(ote full e(plo$(ent a(on. their residents, (aintain peace and order, and preserve the co(fort
and convenience of their inhabitants. )E(phases supplied*
Respondents cannot rel$ on para.raph !, subpara.raph )vii* of Article 7:" above, as the said provision e?pressl$ refers to
cala(ities and disasters, +hether (anE(ade or natural. 5he .overnor, as local chief e?ecutive of the province, is certainl$
e(po+ered to enact and i(ple(ent e(er.enc$ (easures durin. these occurrences. But the ,idnappin. incident in the
case at bar cannot be considered as a cala(it$ or a disaster. Respondents cannot find an$ (oorin. under this
provision to 2ustif$ their actions.
Para.raph %, subpara.raph )vi* of the sa(e provision is eHuall$ inapplicable for t+o reasons. 1irst, the Ar(ed 1orces of
the Philippines does not fall under the cate.or$ of a 8national la+ enforce(ent a.enc$,8 to +hich the National Police
Co((ission )NAP0CM* and its depart(ents belon..
Its (andate is to uphold the soverei.nt$ of the Philippines, support the Constitution, and defend the Republic a.ainst all
ene(ies, forei.n and do(estic. Its ai( is also to secure the inte.rit$ of the national territor$.
Second, there +as no evidence or even an alle.ation on record that the local police forces +ere inadeHuate to cope +ith
the situation or apprehend the violators. If the$ +ere inadeHuate, the recourse of the provincial .overnor +as to as, the
assistance of the Secretar$ of Interior and 0ocal 4overn(ent, or such other authori3ed officials, for the assistance of
national la+ enforce(ent a.encies.
5he 0ocal 4overn(ent Code does not involve the di(inution of central po+ers inherentl$ vested in the National
4overn(ent, especiall$ not the prero.atives solel$ .ranted b$ the Constitution to the President in (atters of securit$ and
5he intent behind the po+ers .ranted to local .overn(ent units is fiscal, econo(ic, and ad(inistrative in
nature.1wphi1 5he Code is concerned onl$ +ith po+ers that +ould (a,e the deliver$ of basic services (ore effective to
the constituents,
and should not be undul$ stretched to confer callin.Eout po+ers on local e?ecutives.
In the sponsorship re(ar,s for Republic Act @!:&, it +as stated that the devolution of po+ers is a step to+ards the
autono($ of local .overn(ent units )049s*, and is actuall$ an e?peri(ent +hose success heavil$ relies on the po+er of
ta?ation of the 049s. 5he underpinnin.s of the Code can be found in Section ", Article II of the !'@6 Constitution, +hich
allo+ed 049s to create their o+n sources of revenue.
Durin. the interpellation (ade b$ Mr. 5irol addressed to Mr. de
Pedro, the latter e(phasi3ed that 8Decentrali3ation is an ad(inistrative concept and the process of shiftin. and dele.atin.
po+er fro( a central point to subordinate levels to pro(ote independence, responsibilit$, and Huic,er decisionE(a,in.. K
!I#t does not in"ol"e any transfer of final authority from the national to field le"els' nor diminution of central office powers
and responsibilities. Certain o"ernment aencies' includin the police force' are exempted from the decentrali)ation
process because their functions are not inherent in local o"ernment units.2
I4. %ro"incial o"ernor is not authori)ed to con"ene C56
Pursuant to the national polic$ to establish one police force, the or.ani3ation of private citi3en ar(ies is proscribed.
Section %7 of Article L/III of the Constitution (andates that;
Private ar(ies and other ar(ed .roups not reco.ni3ed b$ dul$ constituted authorit$ shall be dis(antled. All para(ilitar$
forces includin. Civilian Do(e Defense 1orces )CDD1* not consistent +ith the citi3en ar(ed force established in this
Constitution, shall be dissolved or, +here appropriate, converted into the re.ular force.
Additionall$, Section %!of Article LI states that, 85he preservation of peace and order +ithin the re.ions shall be the
responsibilit$ of the local police a.encies +hich shall be or.ani3ed, (aintained, supervised, and utili3ed in accordance
+ith applicable la+s. 5he defense and securit$ of the re.ions shall be the responsibilit$ of the National 4overn(ent.8
5a,en in con2unction +ith each other, it beco(es clear that the Constitution does not authori3e the or.ani3ation of private
ar(ed .roups si(ilar to the CE1 convened b$ the respondent 4overnor. 5he fra(ers of the Constitution +ere the(selves
+ar$ of ar(ed citi3ensB .roups, as sho+n in the follo+in. proceedin.s;
MR. 4ARCIA; I thin, it is ver$ clear that the proble( +e have here is a para(ilitar$ force operatin. under the cloa,, under
the (antle of le.alit$ is creatin. a lot of proble(s precisel$ b$ bein. able to operate as an independent private ar($ for
(an$ re.ional +arlords. And at the sa(e ti(e, this I thin, has been the thrust, the intent of (an$ of the discussions and
ob2ections to the para(ilitar$ units and the ar(ed .roups.
MR. PADI00A; M$ proposal covers t+o parts; the private ar(ies of political +arlords and other ar(ed torces not
reco.ni3ed b$ constituted authorit$ +hich shall be dis(antled and dissolved. In ($ trips to the provinces, I heard of (an$
abuses co((itted b$ the CDD1 )Civilian Do(e Defense 1orces*, speciall$ in Escalante, Ne.ros ccidental. But I do not
,no+ +hether a particular CDD1 is approved or authori3ed b$ co(petent authorit$. If it is not authori3ed, then the CDD1
+ill have to be dis(antled. If so(e CDD1s, sa$ in other provinces, are authori3ed b$ constituted authorit$, b$ the Ar(ed
1orces of the Philippines, throu.h the Chief of Staff or the Minister of National Defense, if the$ are reco.ni3ed and
authori3ed, then the$ +ill not be dis(antled. But I cannot .ive a cate.orical ans+er to an$ specific CDD1 unit, onl$ the
principle that if the$ are ar(ed forces +hich are not authori3ed, then the$ should be dis(antled.
)E(phasis supplied*
5hus, +ith the discussions in the Constitutional Co((ission as .uide, the creation of the Civilian E(er.enc$ 1orce )CE1*
in the present case, is also invalid.
>DERE1RE, the instant petition is 4RAN5ED. #ud.(ent is rendered co((andin. respondents to desist fro( further
proceedin.s ( i(ple(entin. Procla(ation No. !, Series of %&&', and its I(ple(entin. 4uidelines. 5he said procla(ation
and .uidelines are hereb$ declared N900 and /ID for havin. been issued in .rave abuse of discretion, a(ountin. to
lac, or e?cess of 2urisdiction.
Sabah Claim is Non-Negotiable
The Struggle of the Philippine Muslims: A
Historical Perspective
State of Emergency in Sulu llegal !
Supreme Court
Posted by AhlussuluK on September 2, 2012
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SE&EN6, -%:

On 15 January 2009, three members from the Internatonal
!ommttee of the "ed !ross #I!"!$ %ere &dnapped n the
'(nty of the Pro'n(al !aptol n Pat&ul, Sulu)
,otter, a S%ss natonal and head of the I!"! n -amboan.a
!ty, /u.eno 0a.n, an Italan natonal and I!"! dele.ate, and
1are Jean 2a(aba, a 3lpno en.neer, %ere purportedly
nspe(tn. a %ater and nspe(tn. a %ater santaton pro4e(t for
the the Sulu Pro'n(al Jal %hen nspe(tn. a %ater and
santaton pro4e(t for the Sulu Pro'n(al Jal %hen they %ere
se5ed by three armed men %ho %ere later (onfrmed to be
members of the Abu Sayyaf 6roup #AS6$)
7he leader of the
alle.ed &dnappers %as dentfed as "aden Abu, a former .uard
at the Sulu Pro'n(al Jal) ,e%s reports ln&ed Abu to Albader
Parad, one of the &no%n leaders of the Abu Sayyaf)
On 21 January 2009, a tas& for(e %as (reated by the I!"! and
the Phlppne ,atonal Pol(e #P,P$, %h(h then or.an5ed a
parallel lo(al .roup &no%n as the 2o(al !rss !ommttee)
lo(al .roup, later renamed Sulu !rss 1ana.ement !ommttee,
(on'ened under the leadershp of respondent Abdusa&ur 1ahal
7an, the Pro'n(al 6o'ernor of Sulu) Its armed for(es
(omponent %as headed by respondents 6eneral Juan(ho Saban,
and hs deputy, !olonel /u.eno !lemen) 7he P,P (omponent
%as headed by respondent Pol(e Superntendent 9en'endo 6)
2ata., the Pol(e :eputy :re(tor for Operatons of the
Autonomous "e.on of 1uslm 1ndanao #A"11$)
6o'ernor 7an or.an5ed the !'lan /mer.en(y 3or(e #!/3$, a
.roup of armed male ('lans (omn. from dfferent
mun(paltes, %ho %ere redeployed to surroundn. areas of
7he or.an5aton of the !/3 %as emboded n a
<1emorandum of =nderstandn.>
entered nto bet%een three
partes@ the pro'n(al .o'ernment of Sulu, represented by
6o'ernor 7anA the Armed 3or(es of the Phlppnes, represented
by 6en) SabanA and the Phlppne ,atonal Pol(e, represented
by PBS=P7) 2ata.) 7he Whereas (lauses of the 1emorandum
alluded to the eCtraordnary stuaton n Sulu, and the
%lln.ness of ('lan supporters of the mun(pal mayors to
offer ther ser'(es n order that <the early and safe res(ue of
the may be a(he'ed)>
7hs 1emorandum, %h(h %as labeled Ese(retF on ts all,
also outlned the responsbltes of ea(h of the party s.natores,
as follo%s@
"esponsbltes of the Pro'n(al 6o'ernment@
1) The Provincial Government shall source the funds and logistics needed for the activation of the CEF;
2) The Provincial Government shall identify the Local Government Units hich shall !artici!ate in the
o!erations and to !ro!ose them for the a!!roval of the !arties to this agreement;
") The Provincial Government shall ensure that there ill #e no unilateral action$s) #y the CEF ithout the
%noledge and a!!roval #y #oth !arties&
"esponsbltes of A3PBP,PB 73 I!"! #7as& 3or(e I!"!$@
1) The 'FP(P)P shall remain the authority as !rescri#ed #y la in military o!erations and la enforcement;
2) The 'FP(P)P shall ensure the orderly de!loyment of the CEF in the !erformance of their assigned tas%$s);
") The 'FP(P)P shall ensure the safe movements of the CEF in identified areas of o!eration$s);
*) The 'FP(P)P shall !rovide the necessary su!!ort and(or assistance as called for in the course of
o!eration$s)(movements of the CEF&
1ean%hle, "onaldo Puno, then Se(retary of the :epartment of
Interor and 2o(al 6o'ernment, announ(ed to the meda that
.o'ernment troops had (ornered some one hundred and t%enty
#120$ Abu Sayyaf members alon. %th the three #8$
Go%e'er, the AS6 made (onta(t %th the authortes and
demanded that the mltary pull ts troops ba(& from the 4un.le
7he .o'ernment troops yelded and %ent ba(& to ther
barra(&sA the Phlppne 1arnes %thdre% to ther (amp, %hle
pol(e and ('lan for(es pulled ba(& from the terrorstsF
stron.hold by ten #10$ to ffteen #15$ &lometers) 7hreatenn.
that one of the %ll be beheaded, the AS6 further
demanded the e'a(uaton of the mltary (amps and bases n the
dfferent barangays n Jolo)
7he authortes %ere .'en no
later than 2@00 oF(lo(& n the afternoon of 81 1ar(h 2009 to
On 81 1ar(h 2009, 6o'ernor 7an ssued Pro(lamaton ,o) 1,
Seres of 2009 #Pro(lamaton 1H09$, de(larn. a state of
emer.en(y n the pro'n(e of Sulu)
It (ted the &dnappn.
n(dent as a .round for the sad de(laraton, des(rbn. t as a
terrorst a(t pursuant to the Guman Se(urty A(t #")A) 98D2$) It
also n'o&ed Se(ton ;?5 of the 2o(al 6o'ernment !ode of 1991
#")A) D1?0$, %h(h besto%s on the Pro'n(al 6o'ernor the
po%er to (arry out emer.en(y measures durn. manHmade and
natural dsasters and (alamtes, and to (all upon the
approprate natonal la% enfor(ement a.en(es to suppress
dsorder and la%less 'olen(e)
In the same Pro(lamaton, respondent 7an (alled upon the P,P
and the !/3 to set up (he(&ponts and (ho&eponts, (ondu(t
.eneral sear(h and se5ures n(ludn. arrests, and other a(tons
ne(essary to ensure publ( safety) 7he pertnent porton of the
pro(lamaton states@
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9J 2AI, I, A9:=SAK=" 1AGAI2 7A,, 6O0/",O" O3 7G/
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1)7he settn.Hup of (he(&ponts and (ho&eponts n the
2)7he mposton of (urfe% for the entre pro'n(e
sub4e(t to su(h 6udelnes as may be ssued by proper
8)7he (ondu(t of 6eneral Sear(h and Se5ure n(ludn.
arrests n the pursut of the &dnappers and ther
supportersA and
;)7o (ondu(t su(h other a(tons or pol(e operatons as
may be ne(essary to ensure publ( safety)
:O,/ A7 7G/ P"O0I,!IA2 !API7O2, P"O0I,!/ O3
S=2= 7GIS 81
:AJ O3 1A"!G 2009)
S.d) Abdusa&ur 1) 7an
On 1 Aprl 2009, SPO1 Sattal Jad4ul %as nstru(ted by hs
superor to report to respondent PBS=P7) Julasrm Kasm)
=pon arr'n. at the pol(e staton, he %as boo&ed, and
nter'e%ed about hs relatonshp to 1usn, Jaton, and Julamn,
%ho %ere all hs de(eased relat'es) =pon admttn. that he %as
ndeed related to the three, he %as detaned) After a fe% hours,
formerPunong Barangay Jul4ahan A%ad, Gad4 Gad4rul 9ambra,
Abdu.a4r Gad4rul, as %ell as PO2 1ar(al Ga4an, SPO8 1uhlm
Ismula, Punong Barangay Alano 1ohammad and 4eepney dr'er
Abduhad Sabdan, %ere also arrested)
7he affda't
of the
apprehendn. off(er alle.ed that they %ere suspe(ted AS6
supporters and %ere ben. arrested under Pro(lamaton 1H09)
7he follo%n. day, 2 Aprl 2009, the hosta.e 1ary Jane 2a(aba
%as released by the AS6)
On ; Aprl 2009, the off(e of 6o'ernor 7an dstrbuted to ('(
or.an5atons, (opes of the <6udelnes for the Implementaton
of Pro(lamaton ,o) 1, Seres of 2009 :e(larn. a State of
/mer.en(y n the Pro'n(e of Sulu)>
7hese 6udelnes
suspended all Permts to !arry 3rearms Outsde of "esden(e
#P7!3O"s$ ssued by the !hef of the P,P, and allo%ed ('lans
to see& eCempton from the .un ban only by applyn. to the
Off(e of the 6o'ernor and obtann. the approprate
dentf(aton (ards) 7he sad .udelnes also allo%ed .eneral
sear(hes and se5ures n des.nated (he(&ponts and
On 1? Aprl 2009, Jamar 1) Kulayan, 7emo.en S) 7ula%e, Gad4
1ohammad Jusop Ism, Aha4an A%ad, and SPO1 Sattal G)
Jad4ul, resdents of Pat&ul, Sulu, fled the present Petton for
!ertorar and Prohbton,
(lamn. that Pro(lamaton 1H09
%as ssued %th .ra'e abuse of ds(reton amountn. to la(& or
eC(ess of 4ursd(ton, as t threatened fundamental freedoms
.uaranteed under Art(le III of the 19KD !onsttuton)
Pettoners (ontend that Pro(lamaton ,o) 1 and ts
Implementn. 6udelnes %ere ssued ultra vires, and thus null
and 'od, for 'olatn. Se(tons 1 and 1K, Art(le 0II of the
!onsttuton, %h(h .rants the Presdent sole authorty to
eCer(se emer.en(y po%ers and (alln.Hout po%ers as the (hef
eCe(ut'e of the "epubl( and (ommanderHnH(hef of the armed
Addtonally, pettoners (lam that the Pro'n(al
6o'ernor s not author5ed by any la% to (reate ('lan armed
for(es under hs (ommand, nor re.ulate and lmt the ssuan(es
of P7!3O"s to hs o%n pr'ate army)
In hs !omment, 6o'ernor 7an (ontended that pettoners
'olated the do(trne on herar(hy of (ourts %hen they fled the
nstant petton dre(tly n the (ourt of last resort, e'en f both
the !ourt of Appeals #!A$ and the "e.onal 7ral !ourts #"7!$
possessed (on(urrent 4ursd(ton %th the Supreme !ourt under
"ule ?5)
7hs s the only pro(edural defense rased by
respondent 7an) "espondents 6en) Juan(ho Saban, !ol) /u.eno
!lemen, PBS=P7) Julasrm Kasm, and PBS=P7) 9en'endo 2ata.
dd not fle ther respe(t'e !omments)
On the substant'e ssues, respondents deny that Pro(lamaton
1H09 %as ssued ultra vires, as 6o'ernor 7an alle.edly a(ted
pursuant to Se(tons 1? and ;?5 of the 2o(al 6o'ernment !ode,
%h(h empo%ers the Pro'n(al 6o'ernor to (arry out emer.en(y
measures durn. (alamtes and dsasters, and to (all upon the
approprate natonal la% enfor(ement a.en(es to suppress
dsorder, rot, la%less 'olen(e, rebellon or sedton)
3urthermore, the Sangguniang Panlalawigan of Sulu
author5ed the de(laraton of a state of emer.en(y as e'den(ed
by "esoluton ,o) ;, Seres of 2009 ssued on 81 1ar(h 2009
durn. ts re.ular sesson)
7he threshold ssue n the present (ase s %hether or not
Se(ton ;?5, n relaton to Se(ton 1?, of the 2o(al 6o'ernment
!ode author5es the respondent .o'ernor to de(lare a state of
emer.en(y, and eCer(se the po%ers enumerated under
Pro(lamaton 1H09, spe(f(ally the (ondu(t of .eneral sear(hes
and se5ures) Subsumed heren s the se(ondary Lueston of
%hether or not the pro'n(al .o'ernor s smlarly (lothed %th
authorty to (on'ene the !/3 under the sad pro'sons)
5e grant the petition%
I. Transcendental public importance
warrants a relaxation of the Doctrine
of Hierarchy of Courts
Ie frst dspose of respondentsF n'o(aton of the do(trne of
herar(hy of (ourts %h(h alle.edly pre'ents 4ud(al re'e% by
ths !ourt n the present (ase, (tn. for ths spe(f(
purpose, Montes v. Court of Appeals and Purok Bagong Silang
Association, nc. v. !uipco)
Smply put, the do(trne pro'des
that %here the ssuan(e of an eCtraordnary %rt s also %thn
the (ompeten(e of the !A or the "7!, t s n ether of these
(ourts and not n the Supreme !ourt, that the spe(f( a(ton for
the ssuan(e of su(h %rt must be unless spe(al and
mportant la%s are (learly and spe(f(ally set forth n the
petton) 7he reason for ths s that ths !ourt s a (ourt of last
resort and must so reman f t s to perform the fun(tons
ass.ned to t by the !onsttuton and mmemoral tradton) It
(annot be burdened %th de(dn. (ases n the frst nstan(e)
7he sad rule, ho%e'er, s not %thout eC(epton) In Chave" v.
the !ourt stated@
P/A and A1A"I (lam pettoner .nored the 4ud(al herar(hy by
see&n. relef dre(tly from the !ourt) 7he prn(ple of herar(hy
of (ourts apples .enerally to (ases n'ol'n. fa(tual Luestons)
As t s not a trer of fa(ts, the !ourt (annot entertan (ases
n'ol'n. fa(tual ssues) 7he nstant (ase, ho%e'er, rases
(onsttutonal Luestons of trans(endental mportan(e to the
publ() 7he !ourt (an resol'e ths (ase %thout determnn. any
fa(tual ssue related to the (ase) Also, the nstant (ase s a
petton for mandamus %h(h falls under the or.nal 4ursd(ton
of the !ourt under Se(ton 5, Art(le 0III of the !onsttuton)
Ie resol'e to eCer(se prmary 4ursd(ton o'er the nstant
7he nstant (ase stems from a petton for (ertorar and
prohbton, o'er %h(h the Supreme !ourt possesses or.nal
1ore (ru(ally, ths (ase n'ol'es a(ts of a publ(
off(al %h(h pertan to restr(t'e (ustody, and s thus
mpressed %th trans(endental publ( mportan(e that %ould
%arrant the relaCaton of the .eneral rule) 7he !ourt %ould be
remss n ts (onsttutonal dutes %ere t to dsmss the present
petton solely due to (lams of 4ud(al herar(hy)
In :a'd ') 1a(apa.alHArroyo,
the !ourt h.hl.hted the
trans(endental publ( mportan(e n'ol'ed n (ases that (on(ern
restr(t'e (ustody, be(ause 4ud(al re'e% n these (ases ser'es
as <a manfestaton of the (ru(al defense of ('lans En pol(e
po%erF (ases due to the dmnuton of ther bas( lbertes under
the .use of a state of emer.en(y)>
Other%se, the mportan(e
of the h.h trbunal as the (ourt of last resort %ould be put to, (onsdern. the nature of <emer.en(y> (ases, %heren
the pro(lamatons and ssuan(es are nherently shortHl'ed) In
fnally dsposn. of the (lam that the ssue had be(ome moot
and a(adem(, the !ourt also (ted trans(endental publ(
mportan(e as an eC(epton, statn.@
Sa kabila ng pagiging akade%iko na la%ang ng %ga isyu
tungkol sa %ahigpit na pangangalaga &restrictive custody' at
pag%onitor ng galaw &%onitoring of %ove%ents' ng
nagpepetisyon, dedesisyunan na%in ito &a' dahil sa
nangingibabaw na interes ng %adla na nakapaloob dito, &b'
dahil sa posibilidad na %aaaring %aulit ang pangyayari at &c'
dahil kailangang %aturuan ang kapulisan tungkol dito.
7he moot and a(adem( prn(ple s not a ma.(al formula that
(an automat(ally dssuade the (ourts n resol'n. a (ase) !ourts
%ll de(de (ases, other%se moot and a(adem(, f@ frst, there
s a .ra'e 'olaton of the !onsttutonA se(ond, the eC(eptonal
(hara(ter of the stuaton and the paramount publ( nterest s
n'ol'edA thrd, %hen *the+ (onsttutonal ssue rased reLures
formulaton of (ontrolln. prn(ples to .ude the ben(h, the bar,
and the publ(A and fourth, the (ase s (apable of repetton yet
e'adn. re'e%)
<There is no =uestion that the issues being raise> affect
the public interest, involving as they >o the people?s basic
rights to free>om of e@pression, of assembly an> of the
press% Moreover, the Court has the >uty to formulate
gui>ing an> controlling constitutional precepts, >octrines
or rules% t has the symbolic function of e>ucating the
bench an> the bar, an> in the present petitions, the
military an> the police, on the e@tent of the protection
given by constitutional guarantees% An> lastly,
respon>ents conteste> actions are capable of repetition%
Certainly, the petitions are subAect to Au>icial revieB%
Evi>ently, the triple reasons 5e a>vance> at the start of
6ur ruling are Austifie> un>er the foregoing e@ceptions%
Every ba>, unusual inci>ent Bhere police officers figure in
generates public interest an> people Batch Bhat Bill be
>one or not >one to them% 3acC of >isciplinary steps taCen
against them ero>e public confi>ence in the police
institution% As petitioners themselves assert, the
restrictive custo>y of policemen un>er investigation is an
e@isting practice, hence, the issue is boun> to crop up
every noB an> then% The matter is capable of repetition
or susceptible of recurrence% t better be resolve> noB
for the e>ucation an> gui>ance of all concerne>)
#/mphass suppled$
Gen(e, the nstant petton s .'en due (ourse, mpressed as t
s %th trans(endental publ( mportan(e)
II. Only the President is vested
with callingout powers! as the
commanderinchief of the "epublic
i. One executive! one commanderinchief
As early as (illena v. Secretary of Interor,
t has already been
establshed that there s one repostory of eCe(ut'e po%ers,
and that s the Presdent of the "epubl() 7hs means that %hen
Se(ton 1, Art(le 0II of the !onsttuton spea&s of eCe(ut'e
po%er, t s .ranted to the Presdent and no one else)
emphas5ed by Just(e Jose P) 2aurel, n hs ponencia n (illena@
Ith referen(e to the /Ce(ut'e :epartment of the .o'ernment,
there s one purpose %h(h s (rystalH(lear and s readly 'sble
%thout the pro4e(ton of 4ud(al sear(, and that s the
establshment of a sn.le, not plural, /Ce(ut'e) 7he frst se(ton
of Art(le 0II of the !onsttuton, dealn. %th the /Ce(ut'e
:epartment, be.ns %th the enun(aton of the prn(ple that
<7he eCe(ut'e po%er shall be 'ested n a Presdent of the
Phlppnes)> 7hs means that the Presdent of the Phlppnes s
the /Ce(ut'e of the 6o'ernment of the Phlppnes, and no
!orollarly, t s only the Presdent, as /Ce(ut'e, %ho s
author5ed to eCer(se emer.en(y po%ers as pro'ded under
Se(ton 28, Art(le 0I, of the !onsttuton, as %ell as %hat
be(ame &no%n as the (alln.Hout po%ers under Se(ton D,
Art(le 0II thereof)
ii. The exceptional character of
CommanderinChief powers
dictate that they are exercised
by one president
Sprn.n. from the %ellHentren(hed (onsttutonal pre(ept of
One Presdent s the noton that there are (ertan a(ts %h(h, by
ther 'ery nature, may only be performed by the presdent as
the Gead of the State) One of these a(ts or'es s the
bundle of !ommanderHnH!hef po%ers to %h(h the <(alln.Hout>
po%ers (onsttutes a porton) 7he PresdentFs /mer.en(y
Po%ers, on the other hand, s balan(ed only by the le.slat'e
a(t of !on.ress, as emboded n the se(ond para.raph of
Se(ton 28, Art(le ? of the !onsttuton@
Art(le ?, Se( 28#2$) In tmes of %ar or other natonal
emer.en(y, the !on.ress may, by la%, author5e the Presdent,
for a lmted perod and sub4e(t to su(h restr(tons as t may
pres(rbe, to eCer(se po%ers ne(essary and proper to (arry out
a de(lared natonal pol(y) =nless sooner %thdra%n by
resoluton of the !on.ress, su(h po%ers shall (ease upon the
neCt ad4ournment thereof)
Art(le D, Se( 1K) 7he Presdent shall be the !ommanderHnH
!hef of all armed for(es of the Phlppnes and %hene'er t
be(omes ne(essary, he may (all out su(h armed for(es to
pre'ent or suppress la%less 'olen(e, n'ason or rebellon) In
(ase of n'ason or rebellon, %hen the publ( safety reLures t,
he may, for a perod not eC(eedn. sCty days, suspend the
pr'le.e of the %rt of habeas corpus or pla(e the Phlppnes or
any part thereof under martal la%) Ithn hours
from the pro(lamaton of martal la% or the suspenson of the
pr'le.e of the %rt ofhabeas corpus, the Presdent shall submt
a report n person or n %rtn. to the !on.ress) 7he !on.ress,
'otn. 4ontly, by a 'ote of at least a ma4orty of all ts 1embers
n re.ular or spe(al sesson, may re'o&e su(h pro(lamaton or
suspenson, %h(h re'o(aton shall not be set asde by the
Presdent) =pon the ntat'e of the Presdent, the !on.ress
may, n the same manner, eCtend su(h pro(lamaton or
suspenson for a perod to be determned by the !on.ress, f the
n'ason or rebellon shall persst and publ( safety reLures t)
7he !on.ress, f not n sesson, shall, %thn t%entyHfour hours
follo%n. su(h pro(lamaton or suspenson, (on'ene n
a((ordan(e %th ts rules %thout need of a (all)
7he po%er to de(lare a state of martal la% s sub4e(t to the
Supreme !ourtFs authorty to re'e% the fa(tual bass
9y (onsttutonal fat, the (alln.Hout po%ers, %h(h
s of lesser .ra'ty than the po%er to de(lare martal la%, s
besto%ed upon the Presdent alone) As noted n(illena, <#t$here
are (ertan (onsttutonal po%ers and'es of the !hef
/Ce(ut'e of the ,aton %h(h must be eCer(sed by hm n
person and no amount of appro'al or ratf(aton %ll 'aldate the
eCer(se of any of those po%ers by any other person) Su(h, for
nstan(e, s hs po%er to suspend the %rt of habeas (orpus and
pro(lam martal la% C C C)
Indeed, %hle the Presdent s stll a ('lan, Art(le II, Se(ton
of the !onsttuton mandates that ('lan authorty s, at all
tmes, supreme o'er the mltary, ma&n. the ('lan presdent
the natonFs supreme mltary leader) 7he net effe(t of Art(le II,
Se(ton 8, %hen read %th Art(le 0II, Se(ton 1K, s that a
('lan Presdent s the (eremonal, and admnstrat'e
head of the armed for(es) 7he !onsttuton does not reLure that
the Presdent must be possessed of mltary trann. and talents,
but as !ommanderHnH!hef, he has the po%er to dre(t mltary
operatons and to determne mltary strate.y) ,ormally, he
%ould be eCpe(ted to dele.ate the a(tual (ommand of the
armed for(es to mltary eCpertsA but the ultmate po%er s hs)
As !ommanderHnH!hef, he s author5ed to dre(t the
mo'ements of the na'al and mltary for(es pla(ed by la% at hs
(ommand, and to employ them n the manner he may deem
most effe(tual)
In the (ase of ntegrated Bar of the Philippines v. )a%ora,
the !ourt had o((ason to rule that the (alln.Hout po%ers
belon. solely to the Presdent as (ommanderHnH(hef@
5hen the Presi>ent calls the arme> forces to prevent or
suppress laBless violence, invasion or rebellion, he
necessarily e@ercises a >iscretionary poBer solely veste>
in his Bis>om) 7hs s (lear from the ntent of the framers and
from the teCt of the !onsttuton tself) 7he !ourt, thus, (annot
be (alled upon to o'errule the PresdentFs %sdom or substtute
ts o%n) Go%e'er, ths does not pre'ent an eCamnaton of
%hether su(h po%er %as eCer(sed %thn permssble
(onsttutonal lmts or %hether t %as eCer(sed n a manner
(onsttutn. .ra'e abuse of ds(reton) In 'e% of the
(onsttutonal ntent to .'e the Presdent full ds(retonary
po%er to determne the ne(essty of (alln. out the armed
for(es, t s n(umbent upon the pettoner to sho% that the
PresdentFs de(son s totally bereft of fa(tual bass)
There is a clear te@tual commitment un>er the
Constitution to bestoB on the Presi>ent full >iscretionary
poBer to call out the arme> forces an> to >etermine the
necessity for the e@ercise of such poBer)
=nder the fore.on. pro'sons, !on.ress may re'o&e su(h
pro(lamaton or suspenson and the !ourt may re'e% the
suff(en(y of the fa(tual bass thereof) Go%e'er, there s no
su(h eLu'alent pro'son dealn. %th the re'o(aton or re'e%
of the PresdentFs a(ton to (all out the armed for(es) 7he
dstn(ton pla(es the (alln. out po%er n a dfferent (ate.ory
from the po%er to de(lare martal la% and the po%er to suspend
the pr'le.e of the %rt of habeas corpus,other%se, the framers
of the !onsttuton %ould ha'e smply lumped to.ether the three
po%ers and pro'ded for ther re'o(aton and re'e% %thout any
7hat the po%er to (all upon the armed for(es s ds(retonary on
the presdent s (lear from the delberaton of the !onsttutonal
3") 9/",AS) It %ll not ma&e any dfferen(e) I may add
that there is a gra>uate> poBer of the Presi>ent as
Comman>er-in-Chief% 9irst, he can call out such Arme>
9orces as may be necessary to suppress laBless violence:
then he can suspen> the privilege of the Brit of habeas
corpus! then he can impose martial laB% This is a
gra>uate> se=uence%
Ihen he that t s ne(essary to mpose martal la% or
suspend the pr'le.e of the %rt of habeas corpus, hs 4ud.ment
s sub4e(t to re'e%) Ie are ma&n. t sub4e(t to re'e% by the
Supreme !ourt and sub4e(t to (on(urren(e by the ,atonal
Assembly) 9ut %hen he eCer(ses ths lesser po%er of (alln. on
the Armed 3or(es, %hen he says t s ne(essary, t s my opnon
that hs 4ud.ment (annot be re'e%ed by anybody)
1") "/6A2A:O) 7hat does not reLure any (on(urren(e by the
le.slature nor s t sub4e(t to 4ud(al re'e%)
7he reason for the dfferen(e n the treatment of the
aforementoned po%ers h.hl.hts the ntent to .rant the
Presdent the %dest lee%ay and broadest ds(reton n usn. the
po%er to (all out be(ause t s (onsdered as the lesser and more
ben.n po%er (ompared to the po%er to suspend the pr'le.e of
the %rt ofhabeas corpus and the po%er to mpose martal la%,
both of %h(h n'ol'e the (urtalment and suppresson of (ertan
bas( ('l r.hts and nd'dual freedoms, and thus ne(esstatn.
safe.uards by !on.ress and re'e% by ths !ourt)
@ @ @ Thus, it is the unclou>e> intent of the Constitution
to vest upon the Presi>ent, as Comman>er-in-Chief of the
Arme> 9orces, full >iscretion to call forth the military
Bhen in his Au>gment it is necessary to >o so in or>er to
prevent or suppress laBless violence, invasion or
#/mphass Suppled$
In the more re(ent (ase of Constantino, *r. v. Cuisia,
!ourt (hara(ter5ed these po%ers as eC(lus'e to the Presdent,
pre(sely be(ause they are of eC(eptonal mport@
7hese dstn(tons hold true to ths day as they reman emboded
n our fundamental la%) 7here are (ertan presdental po%ers
%h(h arse out of eC(eptonal (r(umstan(es, and f eCer(sed,
%ould n'ol'e the suspenson of fundamental freedoms, or at
least (all for the superseden(e of eCe(ut'e'es o'er
those eCer(sed by (oHeLual bran(hes of .o'ernment) 7he
de(laraton of martal la%, the suspenson of the %rt of habeas
(orpus, and the eCer(se of the pardonn. po%er,
not%thstandn. the 4ud(al determnaton of .ult of the
a((used, all fall %thn ths spe(al (lass that demands the
eC(lus'e eCer(se by the Presdent of the (onsttutonally 'ested
po%er) 7he lst s by no means eC(lus'e, but there must be a
sho%n. that the eCe(ut'e po%er n Lueston s of
smlar gravitas and eC(eptonal mport)
In addton to ben. the (ommanderHnH(hef of the armed
for(es, the Presdent also a(ts as the leader of the (ountryFs
pol(e for(es, under the mandate of Se(ton 1D, Art(le 0II of the
!onsttuton, %h(h pro'des that, <7he Presdent shall ha'e
(ontrol of all the eCe(ut'e departments, bureaus, and off(es)
Ge shall ensure that the la%s be fathfully eCe(uted)> :urn. the
delberatons of the !onsttutonal !ommsson on the framn. of
ths pro'son, 3r) 9ernas defended the retenton of the %ord
<(ontrol,> employn. the same ratonale of sn.ularty of the
off(e of the presdent, as the only /Ce(ut'e under the
presdental form of .o'ernment)
"e.ardn. the (ountryFs pol(e for(e, Se(ton ?, Art(le M0I of
the !onsttuton states that@ <7he State shall establsh and
mantan one pol(e for(e, %h(h shall be natonal n s(ope and
('lan n (hara(ter, to be admnstered and (ontrolled by a
natonal pol(e (ommsson) 7he authorty
of lo(al eCe(ut'es o'er the pol(e unts n ther 4ursd(ton shall
be pro'ded by la%)>
A lo(al (hef eCe(ut'e, su(h as the pro'n(al .o'ernor,
eCer(ses operatonal super'son o'er the pol(e,
and may
eCer(se (ontrol only n dayHtoHday operatons, vi"@
1r) ,at'dad@ "y e@perience, it is not a>visable to provi>e
either in our Constitution or by laB full control of the
police by the local chief e@ecutive an> local e@ecutives,
the mayors% "y our e@perience, this has spaBne>
Barlor>ism, bossism an> sanctuaries for vices an>
abuses) If the natonal .o'ernment does not ha'e a me(hansm
to super'se these 1,500, te(hn(ally separate pol(e
for(es, plus ?1 (ty pol(e for(es, fra.mented pol(e system, %e
%ll ha'e a lot of dff(ulty n presentn. a modern professonal
pol(e for(e) So that a certain amount of supervision an>
control Bill have to be e@ercise> by the national
9or e@ample, if a local government, a toBn cannot han>le
its peace an> or>er problems or police problems, such as
riots, conflagrations or organiDe> crime, the national
government may come in, especially if re=ueste> by the
local e@ecutives% 2n>er that situation, if they come in
un>er such an e@traor>inary situation, they Bill be in
control% 9ut f the dayHtoHday busness of pol(e n'est.aton of
(rme, (rme pre'enton, a(t'tes, traff( (ontrol, s all lod.ed n
the mayors, and f they are n (omplete operatonal (ontrol of
the dayHtoHday busness of pol(e ser'(e, %hat the natonal
.o'ernment %ould (ontrol %ould be the admnstrat'e aspe(t)
1r) de los "eyes@ so the operatonal (ontrol on a dayHtoHday
bass, meann., the usual dutes ben. performed by the
ordnary pol(emen, %ll be under the super'son of the lo(al
1r) ,at'dad@ Jes, 1adam Presdent)
Mr% >e los &eyes: "ut in e@ceptional cases, even the
operational control can be taCen over by the National
Police CommissionE
Mr% Nativi>a>: f the situation is beyon> the capacity of
the local governments%
#/mphases suppled$
3urthermore a((ordn. to the framers, t s stll the Presdent
%ho s author5ed to eCer(se super'son and (ontrol o'er the
pol(e, throu.h the ,atonal Pol(e !ommsson@
1r) "odr.o@ Just a fe% Luestons) 7he Presdent of the
Phlppnes s the !ommanderHnH!hef of all the armed for(es)
1r) ,at'dad@ Jes, 1adam Presdent)
1r) "odr.o@ Sn(e the natonal pol(e s not nte.rated %th the
armed for(es, I do not suppose they (ome under the
!ommanderHnH!hef po%ers of the Presdent of the Phlppnes)
1r) ,at'dad@ 7hey do, 1adam Presdent) 9y la%, they are
under the super'son and (ontrol of the Presdent of the
1r) "odr.o@ Jes, but the Presdent s not the !ommanderHnH
!hef of the natonal pol(e)
1r) ,at'dad@ Ge s the Presdent)
1r) "odr.o@ Jes, the /Ce(ut'e) 9ut they do not (ome under
that spe(f( pro'son that the Presdent s the !ommanderHnH
!hef of all the armed for(es)
1r) ,at'dad@ ,o, not under the !ommanderHnH!hef pro'son)
1r) "odr.o@ 7here are t%o other po%ers of the Presdent) 7he
Presdent has (ontrol o'er mnstres, bureaus and off(es, and
super'son o'er lo(al .o'ernments) =nder %h(h does the pol(e
fall, under (ontrol or under super'sonN
1r) ,at'dad@ 9oth, 1adam Presdent)
1r) "odr.o@ !ontrol and super'son)
1r) ,at'dad@ Jes, n fa(t, the ,atonal Pol(e !ommsson s
under the Off(e of the Presdent)
In the discussions of the Constitutional Commission
regarding the above provision it is clear that the framers
never intended for local chief executives to exercise
unbridled control over the police in emergency
situations. 7hs s %thout pre4ud(e to ther authorty o'er
pol(e unts n ther 4ursd(ton as pro'ded by la%, and ther'e to see& assstan(e from the pol(e n day to day
stuatons, as (ontemplated by the !onsttutonal !ommsson)
9ut as a ('lan a.en(y of the .o'ernment, the pol(e, throu.h
the ,APO2!O1, properly (omes %thn, and s sub4e(t to, the
eCer(se by the Presdent of the po%er of eCe(ut'e (ontrol)
iii. The provincial governor does
not possess the same callingout
powers as the President
$iven the foregoing, respon>ent provincial governor
is not en>oBe> Bith the poBer to call upon the arme>
forces at his oBn bi>>ing% n issuing the assaile>
proclamation, $overnor Tan e@cee>e> his authority Bhen
he >eclare> a state of emergency an> calle> upon the
Arme> 9orces, the police, an> his oBn Civilian Emergency
9orce% The calling-out poBers contemplate> un>er the
Constitution is exclusive to the Presi>ent) An eCer(se by
another off(al, e'en f he s the lo(al (hef eCe(ut'e, s ultra
vires, and may not be 4ustfed by the n'o(aton of Se(ton ;?5
of the 2o(al 6o'ernment !ode, as %ll be ds(ussed
"espondents, ho%e'er, 4ustfy ths stan(e by statn. that
no%here n the semnal (ase of +avid v. Arroyo, %h(h dealt
sLuarely %th the ssue of the de(laraton of a state of
emer.en(y, does t lmt the sad authorty to the Presdent
alone) "espondents (ontend that the ruln. n +avid eCpressly
lmts the authorty to de(lare a national emer.en(y, a
(ondton %h(h (o'ers the entre (ountry, and does not n(lude
emer.en(y stuatons n lo(al .o'ernment unts)
7hs (lam s
beled by the (lear ntent of the framers that n all stuatons
n'ol'n. threats to se(urty, su(h as la%less 'olen(e, n'ason
or rebellon, e'en n lo(al5ed areas, t s stll the Presdent %ho
possesses the sole authorty to eCer(se (alln.Hout po%ers) As
refle(ted n the Journal of the !onsttutonal !ommsson@
7hereafter, 1r) Padlla proposed on lne 29 to nsert the phrase
O" P=92I! :ISO":/" n leu of <n'ason or rebellon)> 1r)
Sumulon. stated that the (ommttee (ould not a((ept the
amendment be(ause under the frst se(ton of Se(ton 15, the
Presdent may (all out and ma&e use of the armed for(es to
pre'ent or suppress not only la%less 'olen(e but e'en n'ason
or rebellon %thout de(larn. martal la%) Ge obser'ed that by
deletn. <n'ason or rebellon> and substtutn. P=92I!
:ISO":/", the Presdent %ould ha'e to de(lare martal la%
before he (an ma&e use of the armed for(es to pre'ent or
suppress la%less n'ason or rebellon)
Mr% Pa>illa, in reply thereto, state> that the first sentence
contemplates a lighter situation Bhere there is some
laBless violence in a small portion of the country or
public >isor>er in another at Bhich times, the arme>
forces can be calle> to prevent or suppress these
inci>ents% He note> that the Comman>er-in-Chief can >o
so in a minor >egree but he can also e@ercise such
poBers shoul> the situation Borsen) 7he %ords <n'ason or
rebellon> to be elmnated on lne 1; are (o'ered by the
follo%n. senten(e %h(h pro'des for <n'ason or rebellon)> Ge
mantaned that the proposed amendment does not mean that
under su(h (r(umstan(es, the Presdent (annot (all on the
armed for(es to pre'ent or suppress the same)
III. #ection $%& of the 'ocal (overnment
Code cannot be invo)ed to *ustify the powers
enumerated under Proclamation +,-
"espondent .o'ernor (hara(ter5ed the &dnappn. of the three
I!"! %or&ers as a terrorst( a(t, and used ths n(dent to
4ustfy the eCer(se of the po%ers enumerated under
Pro(lamaton 1H09)
Ge n'o&es Se(ton ;?5, n relaton to
Se(ton 1?, of the 2o(al 6o'ernment !ode, %h(h purportedly
allo%s the .o'ernor to (arry out emer.en(y measures and (all
upon the approprate natonal la% enfor(ement a.en(es for
assstan(e) 9ut a (loser loo& at the sad pro(lamaton sho%s that
there s no pro'son n the 2o(al 6o'ernment !ode nor n any
la% on %h(h the broad and un%arranted po%ers .ranted to the
6o'ernor may be based)
Pettoners (te the mplementaton of <6eneral Sear(h and
Se5ure n(ludn. arrests n the pursut of the &dnappers and
ther supporters,>
as ben. 'olat'e of the (onsttutonal
pros(rpton on .eneral sear(h %arrants and .eneral se5ures)
Pettoners r.htly assert that ths alone %ould be suff(ent to
render the pro(lamaton 'od, as .eneral sear(hes and se5ures
are pros(rbed, for ben. 'olat'e of the r.hts enshrned n the
9ll of ".hts, part(ularly@
7he of the people to be se(ure n ther persons, houses,
papers, and effe(ts a.anst unreasonable sear(hes and se5ures
of %hate'er nature and for any purpose shall be n'olable, and
no sear(h %arrant or %arrant of arrest shall ssue eC(ept upon
probable (ause to be determned personally by the 4ud.e after
eCamnaton under oath or affrmaton of the (omplanant and
the %tnesses he may produ(e, and part(ularly des(rbn. the
pla(e to be sear(hed and the persons or thn.s to be se5ed)
In fa(t, respondent .o'ernor has arro.ated unto hmself po%ers
eC(eedn. e'en the martal la% po%ers of the Presdent,
be(ause as the !onsttuton tself de(lares, <A state of martal
la% does not suspend the operaton of the !onsttuton, nor
supplant the fun(tonn. of the ('l (ourts or le.slat'e
assembles, nor author5e the (onferment of the 4ursd(ton on
mltary (ourts and a.en(es o'er ('lans %here ('l (ourts are
able to fun(ton, nor automat(ally suspend the pr'le.e of the
Ie fnd, and so hold, that there s nothn. n the 2o(al
6o'ernment !ode %h(h 4ustfes the a(ts san(toned under the
sad Pro(lamaton) ,ot e'en Se(ton ;?5 of the sad !ode, n
relaton to Se(ton 1?, %h(h states@
Section FGH% ,he Chief #-ecutive. Powers, +uties, /unctions,
and Co%pensation)
#b$ 3or eff(ent, effe(t'e and e(onom(al .o'ernan(e the
purpose of %h(h s the .eneral %elfare of the pro'n(e and ts
nhabtants pursuant to Se(ton 1? of ths !ode, the pro'n(al
.o'ernor shall@
#1$ /Cer(se .eneral super'son and (ontrol o'er all pro.rams,
pro4e(ts, ser'(es, and a(t'tes of the pro'n(al .o'ernment,
and n ths (onne(ton, shall@
#'$ Carry out such emergency measures as may be
necessary >uring an> in the aftermath of man-ma>e an>
natural >isasters an> calamitiesA
#2$ /nfor(e all la%s and ordnan(es relat'e to the .o'ernan(e of
the pro'n(e and the eCer(se of the approprate (orporate
po%ers pro'ded for under Se(ton 22 of ths !ode, mplement
all appro'ed pol(es, pro.rams, pro4e(ts, ser'(es and a(t'tes
of the pro'n(e and, n addton to the fore.on., shall@
#'$ !all upon the approprate natonal la% enfor(ement
a.en(es to suppress dsorder, rot, la%less 'olen(e, rebellon or
sedton or to apprehend 'olators of the la% %hen publ(
nterest so reLures and the pol(e for(es of the (omponent (ty
or mun(palty %here the dsorder or 'olaton s happenn. are
nadeLuate to (ope %th the stuaton or the 'olators)
Section 'G) 0eneral Welfare) O /'ery lo(al .o'ernment unt
shall eCer(se the po%ers eCpressly .ranted, those ne(essarly
mpled therefrom, as %ell as po%ers ne(essary, approprate, or
n(dental for ts eff(ent and effe(t'e .o'ernan(e, and those
%h(h are essental to the promoton of the .eneral %elfare)
Ithn ther respe(t'e terrtoral 4ursd(tons, lo(al .o'ernment
unts shall ensure and support, amon. other thn.s, the
preser'aton and enr(hment of (ulture, promote health and
safety, enhan(e the of the people to a balan(ed e(olo.y,
en(oura.e and support the de'elopment of approprate and selfH
relant s(entf( and te(hnolo.(al (apabltes, mpro'e publ(
morals, enhan(e e(onom( prosperty and so(al 4ust(e,
promote full employment amon. ther resdents, mantan pea(e
and order, and preser'e the (omfort and (on'enen(e of ther
nhabtants) #/mphases suppled$
"espondents (annot rely on para.raph 1, subpara.raph #'$ of
Art(le ;?5 abo'e, as the sad pro'son eCpressly refers to
(alamtes and dsasters, %hether manHmade or natural) 7he
.o'ernor, as lo(al (hef eCe(ut'e of the pro'n(e, s (ertanly
empo%ered to ena(t and mplement emer.en(y measures
durn. these o((urren(es) 9ut the &dnappn. n(dent n the
(ase at bar (annot be (onsdered as a (alamty or a dsaster)
"espondents (annot fnd any moorn. under ths pro'son
to 4ustfy ther a(tons)
Para.raph 2, subpara.raph #'$ of the same pro'son s eLually
nappl(able for t%o reasons)/irst, the Armed 3or(es of the
Phlppnes does not fall under the (ate.ory of a <natonal la%
enfor(ement a.en(y,> to %h(h the ,atonal Pol(e !ommsson
#,APO2!O1$ and ts departments belon.) Its mandate s to
uphold the so'ere.nty of the Phlppnes, support the
!onsttuton, and defend the "epubl( a.anst all enemes,
fore.n and domest() Its am s also to se(ure the nte.rty of
the natonal terrtory)
Second, there %as no e'den(e or e'en
an alle.aton on re(ord that the lo(al pol(e for(es %ere
nadeLuate to (ope %th the stuaton or apprehend the
'olators) If they %ere nadeLuate, the re(ourse of the pro'n(al
.o'ernor %as to as& the assstan(e of the Se(retary of Interor
and 2o(al 6o'ernment, or su(h other author5ed off(als, for the
assstan(e of natonal la% enfor(ement a.en(es)
7he 2o(al 6o'ernment !ode does not n'ol'e the dmnuton of
(entral po%ers nherently 'ested n the ,atonal 6o'ernment,
espe(ally not the'es solely .ranted by the
!onsttuton to the Presdent n matters of se(urty and defense)
7he ntent behnd the po%ers .ranted to lo(al .o'ernment unts
s fs(al, e(onom(, and admnstrat'e n nature) 7he !ode s
(on(erned only %th po%ers that %ould ma&e the del'ery of
bas( ser'(es more effe(t'e to the (onsttuents,
and should
not be unduly stret(hed to (onfer (alln.Hout po%ers on lo(al
In the sponsorshp remar&s for "epubl( A(t D1?0, t %as stated
that the de'oluton of po%ers s a step to%ards the autonomy of
lo(al .o'ernment unts #26=s$, and s a(tually an eCperment
%hose su((ess hea'ly reles on the po%er of taCaton of the
26=s) 7he underpnnn.s of the !ode (an be found n Se(ton 5,
Art(le II of the 19D8 !onsttuton, %h(h allo%ed 26=s to (reate
ther o%n sour(es of re'enue)
:urn. the nterpellaton made
by 1r) 7rol addressed to 1r) de Pedro, the latter emphas5ed
that <:e(entral5aton s an admnstrat'e (on(ept and the
pro(ess of shftn. and dele.atn. po%er from a (entral pont to
subordnate le'els to promote ndependen(e, responsblty, and
Lu(&er de(sonH ma&n.) P .I/t does not involve any
transfer of final authority from the national to field
levels! nor diminution of central office powers and
responsibilities. Certain government agencies! including
the police force! are exempted from the decentrali0ation
process because their functions are not inherent in local
government units.1
I2. Provincial governor is not
authori0ed to convene C34
Pursuant to the natonal pol(y to establsh one pol(e for(e, the
or.an5aton of pr'ate (t5en armes s pros(rbed) Se(ton 2;
of Art(le M0III of the !onsttuton mandates that@
Pr'ate armes and other armed .roups not re(o.n5ed by duly
(onsttuted authorty shall be dsmantled) All paramltary for(es
n(ludn. !'lan Gome :efense 3or(es #!G:3$ not (onsstent
%th the (t5en armed for(e establshed n ths !onsttuton,
shall be dssol'ed or, %here approprate, (on'erted nto the
re.ular for(e)
Addtonally, Se(ton 21of Art(le MI states that, <7he
preser'aton of pea(e and order %thn the re.ons shall be the
responsblty of the lo(al pol(e a.en(es %h(h shall be
or.an5ed, mantaned, super'sed, and utl5ed n a((ordan(e
%th appl(able la%s) 7he defense and se(urty of the re.ons
shall be the responsblty of the ,atonal 6o'ernment)>
7a&en n (on4un(ton %th ea(h other, t be(omes (lear that the
!onsttuton does not author5e the or.an5aton of pr'ate
armed .roups smlar to the !/3 (on'ened by the respondent
6o'ernor) 7he framers of the !onsttuton %ere themsel'es %ary
of armed (t5ensF .roups, as sho%n n the follo%n.
1") 6A"!IA@ thinC it is very clear that the problem Be
have here is a paramilitary force operating un>er the
cloaC, un>er the mantle of legality is creating a lot of
problems precisely by being able to operate as an
in>epen>ent private army for many regional Barlor>s%
An> at the same time, this thinC has been the thrust,
the intent of many of the >iscussions an> obAections to
the paramilitary units an> the arme> groups%
1") PA:I22A@ 1y proposal (o'ers t%o parts@ the pr'ate armes
of polt(al %arlords and other armed tor(es not re(o.n5ed by
(onsttuted authorty %h(h shall be dsmantled and dssol'ed)
In my trps to the pro'n(es, I heard of many abuses (ommtted
by the !G:3 #!'lan Gome :efense 3or(es$, spe(ally n
/s(alante, ,e.ros O((dental) 9ut I do not &no% %hether a
part(ular !G:3 s appro'ed or author5ed by (ompetent
authorty) If t s not author5ed, then the !G:3 %ll ha'e to be
dsmantled) If some !G:3s, say n other pro'n(es, are
author5ed by (onsttuted authorty, by the Armed 3or(es of the
Phlppnes, throu.h the !hef of Staff or the 1nster of ,atonal
:efense, f they are re(o.n5ed and author5ed, then they %ll
not be dsmantled) 9ut I (annot .'e a (ate.or(al ans%er to any
spe(f( !G:3 unt, only the prn(ple that f they are armed
for(es %h(h are not author5ed, then they should be
#/mphass suppled$
7hus, %th the ds(ussons n the !onsttutonal !ommsson as
.ude, the (reaton of the !'lan /mer.en(y 3or(e #!/3$ n the
present (ase, s also n'ald)
5HE&E96&E, the nstant petton ts 6"A,7/:) Jud.ment s
rendered (ommandn. respondents to desst from further
pro(eedn.s n mplementn. Pro(lamaton ,o) 1, Seres of
2009, and ts Implementn. 6udelnes) 7he sad pro(lamaton
and .udelnes are hereby de(lared N233 and867 for ha'n.
been ssued n .ra'e abuse of ds(reton, amountn. to la(& or
eC(ess of 4ursd(ton)
S6 6&7E&E7%
Carpio, (elasco, *r., 1eonardo$+e Castro, Brion, Peralta, +el
Castillo, (illara%a, *r., Pere", Mendo"a, 2eyes, and Perlas$
Bernabe, **., (on(ur)
Bersa%in, and Abad, **., on lea'e)
Petton for !ertorar and Probhton, rollo, p) K)
<"ed (ross %onFt return to Sulu yet,> 2D O(tober 2010,
5@;;@00, by Jerome Ann.,
ction;vieB%phpE>bI'JarticleI*.'.'.*)-*+++)+) 2ast
'sted 11 September 2011)
Supra note 1)
2ollo, p) 9)
<State of emer.en(y n SuluA atta(& looms,> 7he Phlppne
Star, updated 1 Aprl 2009, 12@00, by "oel PareQo and James
1anan.haya, at http:;;BBB%philstar%com;Article%asp@E
articlei>IFHF.HH) 2ast 'sted 11 September 2011)
2ollo, pp) 2;2H 2;;)
Id) at 2;2)
1emorandum of =nderstandn., p) 2 of 8A rollo, p) 2;8)
Supra note 5)
Petton for !ertorar and Prohbton, rollo, p) 9)
Supra note 5)
Supra note 10)
Petton for !ertorar and Prohbton, rollo, pp) 9H10)
Id) at KH9)
Id) at 9)
Affda't of the Apprehendn. Off(er, atta(hed as AnneC 9 to
respondentsF !omment, d) at 2;5)
Atta(hed as AnneC 9 to Petton, d) at ?9HD8)
Id) at 8H ??)
Id) at 1;)
Id) at 11K)
!omment, pp) DH10A d) at 128H12?)
Atta(hed as AnneC A to the !omment, d) at 2;DH2;9)
"espe(t'ely, 6)") ,o) 1;8D9D, ; 1ay 200?, ;K9 S!"A ;82,
and 6)") ,o) 185092, ; 1ay 200?, ;K9 S!"A 8K2)
Montes v. CA, supra note 2;)
;88 Phl) 50? #2002$)
Id) at 52;)
In relaton to Se(tons 1 and 2, "ule ?5 of the "e'sed "ules
of !ourt, par) 2, Se() ; thereof states@ <7he petton shall be
fled n the Supreme !ourt or, f t relates to the a(ts or
omssons of a lo%er (ourt or of a (orporaton, board, off(er or
person, n the "e.onal 7ral !ourt eCer(sn. 4ursd(ton o'er
the terrtoral area as defned by the Supreme !ourt) It may also
be fled n the !ourt of Appeals %hether or not the same s n ad
of ts appellate 4ursd(ton, or n theSandiganbayan f t s n ad
of ts appellate 4ursd(ton) If t n'ol'es the a(ts or omssons of
a LuasH4ud(al a.en(y, and unless other%se pro'ded by la% or
these rules, the petton shall be fled n and (o.n5able only by
the !ourt of Appeals)>