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American Society of Church History Monasteries without Walls: Secret Monasticism in the Soviet Union, 1928-39

American Society of Church History

Monasteries without Walls: Secret Monasticism in the Soviet Union, 1928-39 Author(s): Jennifer Wynot Source: Church History, Vol. 71, No. 1 (Mar., 2002), pp. 63-79

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Monasterieswithout Walls:

SecretMonasticismin the Soviet Union,

1928-39

JENNIFER

WYNOT

When discussing

Orthodoxy.

With the

the state of religion during the Soviet period,

that

religion, particularly

have remained in rural areas,

interpretation have held

was

those

following the Communist Party

Russian

the

Churches and monasteries stood in ruins as testaments to the

of atheism

the traditional historical

While

successfully eradicated

vestiges may

Russian Orthodox Church as

over religion.1

collapse

of

destroyed.

victory

the Soviet Union in 1991, archival sources

an institution

became much more available to researchers. This new spirit of

of the church

to emerge. The relationship between the Orthodox Church and the

Soviet state

outlasted the

very done a wonderful job of

doxy's resilience, very

monasticism. The

church is mainly due to the spirit of monasticism, the backbone of the

Orthodox

of the

paid to the role of

contribution to Ortho-

ness allowed a different

open-

interpretation

complex

of the

experience

proved immense hardship,

more

than

generally thought. Despite

the church

survived, and ultimately

state that threatened its existence. While

discussing the laity's

little attention has

been

some historians have

argument can be made that the persistence

Church. Men's and

women's monasteries functioned as

places of spiritual refuge and in the eighteenth

turies acted as the

and nineteenth cen-

revivals.2 During the Soviet

genesis for religious

This article is based upon

dissertation,

1917-1939," Emory University,

doctoral research. For a more comprehensive

Orthodox

Monasticism

in the

view,

see

my

Soviet

Union,

"Keeping

the Faith: Russian

2000.

my

1. Such

interpretations were primarily

The Russian Churchand

this

is

a

very

found in work of the 1950s and 1960s, such as John

the Soviet State, 1917-1950 (Gloucester, Mass.: Peter well-researched work, its author did not have

S. Curtiss,

Smith, 1965). Although

access to the archival resources that are now available.

2. For more on the monastic

see

Brenda Meehan, Holy Women of Russia (San Francisco, Calif.: Harper, 1993); Abbot

Herman, "Bishop

revivals

of the eighteenth

and nineteenth

centuries,

Theofan the Recluse: Instructor of Monastic Women," The Orthodox

JenniferWynot is an assistant professor in the Departmentof History at the

Metropolitan State Collegeof Denver.

@ 2002, The American Society of Church History

Church History 71:63 (March2002)

63

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64

CHURCHHISTORY

period, they contributed to the

served as the last bastion of

Orthodoxy and in large part

in the relations between

preservation of the faith.

The year 1928 marked a turning point

and state. Although the

church

there were occasions

Christianity, during

when the state allowed monasticism some forms of freedom. Author-

ities had allowed some monasteries to function as

brief relax-

renewed the

passed a law for-

bidding priests

of the monasteries

in the Soviet Union were closed. As it became

to practice religion openly, monasticism necessarily had to adapt in

order to survive. Part of this adaptation involved a change in monas-

ticism's character. Without their

buildings tion, monks and nuns were forced to

phenomenon of secret monasticism became widespread, forcing peo-

to think about what it meant to be a monk or a nun. Could

The

legal protec-

ation of its anti-religious policies,

munes while others remained

Bolshevism had always been hostile to

agricultural

com-

early years of the regime

open as museums.3 After a

the

government again

government

struggle against religion. and monastics to wear

In 1929 the

religious garb in public. It also

forbade clergy to live in cities. By 1930 virtually all

increasingly dangerous

and with no

redefine monasticism.

ple monasticism survive without the monasteries? Does a

person even have to be tonsured to be considered a monk or a nun? What

guide-

lines, if any, should govern these "monasteries without walls"? These

questions were not merely academic; they served to change totally

Russian monasticism's characterand in a sense contributed to another

Russian Ortho-

monastic revival. In

dox monasticism as it was

practiced closely resembled monasticism as practiced by the early Christians.

many ways, due to persecution,

in the late 1920s and 1930smore

I.

THE

BEGINNING

OF THE END

Early signs

of the monasteries' fate occurred

during a meeting

of

protocol for the aim of

stated

the

that "the further

anti-religious propaganda."

commission that would draw

ies.

liquidation of the monasteries the

not lie empty." The Politburo also expressed

the displaced monastics, although not

Communist Party Politburo in June 1928. A new

liquidation

of monasteries [is] vital

They

measures for

up stressed that it was

closing

necessary "to ensure

monastery

lands and

Therefore, members voted to establish a

the monaster-

that after the

buildings concern over the fate of

out of altruism. It claimed that

do

Word, Mar.-Apr. 1987, 83; Fr. Sergei Chetverikov, Starets Paisii Velichovskii (Belmont,

Mass.: Nordland,

"Keeping the

Faith."

1980).

3. For more on the phenomenon

of monastery

communes,

see Wynot,

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SECRETMONASTICISMIN THESOVIETUNION

65

monks and nuns were more

than when they were in their monasteries. Itinerant monks and nuns

were more

and anti-Soviet feeling. The politburo

government permanently and where

them.4

faced in closing the monasteries

keep watch over

"settlements" where these monastics could live

therefore recommended that the

up sympathy

dangerous when they were dispossessed

villagers

and stir

could

of

spirituality, espe-

to the villagers,

the

in

women's

likely to seek refuge with

establish

the government

One obstacle that the

feeling.

government

was public

cially churches. Monks and nuns were not abstractideas

rather were real The Soviet

ships.

could

therefore

against the monasteries and

lifestyles.

monasteries was immoral sexual

Such behavior was

were not legitimate.

Monasteries were a source

in rural areas where the monasteries often served as the

people

with whom

they

authorities realized

provoke protest on the part

embarked

on

a

public

The most common

parish

but

relation-

personal

monasteries

religious population. They

the

anti-communist

press

had close

that closing

of the

relations

campaign

and

their "parasitic" used

justification

for closing

of the nuns.

part not appropriate, and therefore the monasteries

behavior on the

for

monastics to continue their

support

help

posed religiosity

an advantage

according to

some

could be easier. Cities were spared the violence that occurred in the

countryside during collectivization.

ties for

port.

school. Moscow in monastic life because the

cases

Despite

them

the closure of monasteries, there were still

opportunities

of life. Rural monastics often had the

peasants to

way of village assemblies as well as that of individual

preserve

their communities. The closeness and the

counterparts.

However,

many

sup-

of the peasants would appear to give rural monastics

over their urban

personal

accounts, the lives of urban monastics in

even in a

City

that

life offered more

required

society

opportuni-

pass-

anonymity,

an internal

It was

also easier for former monastics to find work in a

particular often exiled

therefore

factory offered a haven for clandestine

bishops

there so it could

of

majority

embod-

Church, the

is the living

prayer

life. These

served as meet-

monastics who

these bishops for

or

regime better keep watch over them. In the Orthodox

bishops

iment of monastic

exiled bishops

ing

had been

a

are in fact monks. The bishop

spirituality

obtained their

and

for local

religious

the liturgical

own apartments,

people.

As

well,

which

many

places

turned out of their monasteries came to

4. Russian

Center for the Preservation and Study of Documents

(RTsKhIDNI), fond 17, opis 60, d. 509, 96-99.

of Most Recent History

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66

CHURCHHISTORY

spiritual guidance.5 Dispossessed monks and nuns also found refuge

in the homes

monks and nuns to live in their homes did so at a

professions and even their lives. If caught,

entsy6

Despite the hardship that monks and nuns faced during these years,

of

nearby parishioners.

These people who allowed

risk to their

great they could become lish-

or face

exile, imprisonment,

"spiritual blooming

world";

or death.

there was also what writer and secret monastic A. E. Levitin-Krasnov

described as a

was a "monk in the

formally tonsured. His account of

valuable insight into how urban monastics preserved their commu-

nities. Levitin-Krasnov claims that monasticism was at its finest dur-

persecution that the

monks and nuns endured. "Semi-legal, constrained on all sides, ex-

pecting because of the

had left monasticism."7 Others also spoke

in the midst of persecution.

pilgrims coming

being especially

of monasticism." Levitin-Krasnov

that is, he lived as a monk but was never

religious life in Leningrad gives

ing this period, despite

to be arrested at

purity

or maybe because of the

any minute,

of its life. All

monasticism at this time differed

mercenary, unscrupulous people

of a

deepening spirituality

Mother Serafimaof Moscow described the

in central Russia as

monastery connected to monasticism. The

involved discouraged any casual

to Diveevo women's devout and

strongly

physical hardships and the danger

visitors.8

II.

SECRET MONASTICISM

The closure of monasteries led to the phenomenon of "monasteries

topic

of

Sventitsky

served

Ironically,

a married

as the parish priest

Although

applying

monastic

discipline

to

daily

as

"prayer of

the heart." Father Valen-

one of the

greatest proponents Father Valentin

priest.

Nicholas church on Elias Street in Moscow.

himself, he often traveled to

became a disciple of Elder Anatole. He admired the discipline of

Optina Pustyn monastery where he

not a monastic

of St.

parish

without walls" and "monasticism in the world." of secret monasticism was

monastics and delivered a series of lectures in Moscow from 1921 to

life in a

Christianity.9 In these

the necessity of striving for

secular world that was often hostile toward

1926 on the

lectures, he particularly emphasized

ceaseless prayer, also known

5. Monakhina Anna (Tepliakova), Vospominanie(Moscow:

6. A term describing a person deprived of his or her civil rights, such as the right to vote

"Novaia

Kniga," 1998), 12.

1996.

and the right to live in a city.

7. A. E. Levitin-Krasnov,

8. Interview with Mother Serafima, All Saints Church, Moscow, 26

Likhie gody,

1925-1941, (Paris: YMCA, 1977), 194.

August

9. These lectures have recently been compiled into two volumes, entitled Monastyr' v

Miru [Monasteries in

the

World] (Moscow: Trim, 1995).

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SECRETMONASTICISMIN THESOVIETUNION

67

tin's

ticism. Because the

teries, Father Valentin's instructions stressed that one did not need to

live in a monastery to become a monastic. He

of monasticism

world

spiritual

monasticism."'0 These lectures became a cornerstone for a secret

monastic movement after the closure of the monasteries. These "mon- asteries in the world" became a regular feature of Orthodox life in the

walls. But all people have the possibility

the

preaching

came at a crucial moment for Orthodoxy and monas-

more and more monas-

government was closing

"the walls

spoke

of the real walls

as being

between

the heart and

Very few people

at this time can live behind

monastery to live in a state of

Soviet period. A contemporary of

"It is a remarkable fact that even in 1925 in the

Valentin's, S. I. Frudel, remarked,

city of Moscow, this

man managed to arouse people in his parish to a life of intense prayer.

He did much for the

arrested in 1928 and died

types Krasnov who desired the monastic life would often obtain the bless-

ing of a bishop

outwardly living

vows and prayer life. They never actually

many times they returned to the

marrying.

sheltered three

eldresses

who

pharmacist desired to become

was denied entrance to

medical school because of her father's connection to the church. She

and earned a

eventually gained

acquainted with a

degree

formally

who

with

Some went on to have successful careers. This was the case

general

defense of faith.""1Father Valentin was

in exile in Siberia. of secret monastics. Those like Levitin-

There were two

or elder monastic to lead a monastic life while

a secular lifestyle. They tried to follow the monastic

took monastic vows, and

secular world-sometimes even

respected Moscow

surgeon

Nina Frolovna, a well-known and

along

They in their apartment in the 1930s.12 Another such monastic

daughter

of a Moscow

Serafima initially

University

with her sister was a secret nun.

was Mother Serafima. The

also served as a deacon, Mother

a doctor. However, the

seventeen-year-old

admittance to Moscow

in medicine. At the same time, she became

bishop tonsured her into monasticism. She did not

however.

she studied medicine and worked as a nurse, while

private to live according to the monastic rule.13 Such women and men

continuing in

the rest of the Stalinist era, she led a double life;

give up her secular life,

who introduced her to the monastic life. In 1922 he

Throughout

professional

were often able to use their

their advantage and thus escape

success and social prestige to

detection.

10.

11.

Monastyr'

Abbot

Word, July-Aug.

v Miru, 8, 12.

Herman, "New

Russian Confessor Archpriest Valintin Svetitsky," The Orthodox

1983, 133.

12. Monakhina Anna, Vospominanie, 75.

13. Mother Serafima, interview.

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68

CHURCHHISTORY

The other group

of secret monastics received secret tonsure and

They This latter group was

left

immediately

their

mainly composed

monastics made

their parents.

or

from their families. Many secret monastics

did not tell their families in order to

to

priests and bishops, many young men and

women

religious

literature and

ever, was ordered

her monastic life

religious her father confessor.

lived there. She was

remaining ordained a deaconess and had contact with other deaconesses when

she went to church, but never

any relationships

secrecy this secret was

need for

visit with some of the

and met

from each other. Mother Serafima, how-

by her father confessor, a bishop, never to speak of

any for her conversations with

Occasionally she would go to Sergeev Posad and

severed all contacts with the outside world.

Some of these

young this decision with the

families and lived as virtual hermits.

of

women.

young blessing and knowledge

secret

of

Others, such as Nun Anna from Moscow, came from

away

either to

join a monastery

protect

them. As the Soviets

to the monastic life formed their own societies

would

pray

and read

involved herself in

non-believing households and ran away

to live a secret life

closed more monasteries, and as it became more dangerous to go

churches and meet with

who aspired

together secretly. There they

gain courage

with

She never

except

anyone. circles and remained alone

monks who

spoke

with them and never cultivated

with them outside of church. When asked if the

ever made her feel isolated or lonely, she replied that

"her

deepest happiness."14

was

Vysoko-Petrovskii

monas-

city,

center of

One center for secret monasticism

served as an

this fourteenth-

tery in Moscow. Located in the center of the

century monastery

and monastic life from 1923 until its closure in 1929.One nun, Mother

spirituality

unusually strong

Ignatia, referred to Vysoko-Petrovskii as the "desert in the capital.""'

It was

rienced its

during this period

persecution that Vysoko-Petrovskii expe- revival.

from serving as a haven for uprooted monks, Vysoko-

and men who desired to

received secret tonsure and

Filaret of Moscow, later became

church officials. Others continued to live in the secular

to the monastic routine of

of

greatest spiritual

Aside

Petrovskii also

attracted many young women

way of life. They

Metropolitan

follow the monastic

some of them, such as

high-ranking

world while

adhering work, prayer, celibacy, and obedience to an elder.

at the same time

14. Mother Serafima, interview.

15. Monakhina Ignatia, "Vysoko-Petrovskii monastyr v 20-30x

gody" [Vysoko-Petrovskii

monastery in the 1920s and

1930s], Alfa i Omega (1996): 116.

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SECRETMONASTICISMIN THESOVIETUNION

69

One of these secret nuns was Mother Ignatia, a Muscovite

she went on to become a

Nevertheless,

as a monastic. Her memoirs

Mother

provide

birth.

in 1924, she did not receive

degree in anthropology from

specialist in the path-

of tuberculosis. By the time she retired in the early

by

Although she first came to the monastery

tonsure until 1938. Having earned a

Moscow University,

omorphology

1980s, she had reached the pinnacle of her profession and was a noted

specialist.

her "real" profession

description of monastic life in Moscow in the 1920s and early 1930s.16

for

preserving monasticism during the 1920s and 1930s. "The Fathers

considered that monasticism must not be allowed to die out. For this

the traditions

of

the few monasteries that had not been turned into an artel (workshop)

or museum but was

until its closure in 1929.

solely as a monastery

in that it was one of

reason, all of their strength was devoted to maintaining

she considered her secular work secondary to

a detailed

Ignatia believed that Vysoko-Petrovskii was responsible

spiritual life.""17 Vysoko-Petrovskii

actually

was

unique

allowed to function

any of its original

that

Several of its churches were closed and monks ar-

Vysoko-Petrovskii continued to attract not only

the monastery functioned as a parish

intellectuals and artists as well as

services. the world was the most common

Therefore, it had not lost

character. The monastery

time, however.

rested. Nevertheless,

did not remain unmolested

during

monastics but also laity, since

church. Many Muscovites, including

"simple people," came to the daily

Although being

a monastic in

form of secret monasticism, there were other cases of monks and nuns

establishing secret monasteries in caves or in the forests. After serving

a prison sentence for "counterrevolutionary activities," Abbess Anto-

Tuapse

of this

haven spread throughout the

escaping persecution joined Abbess An-

tonina's

the nuns survive. in 1927, most of the

monks and nuns were immediately shot. As the leader, Abbess An-

When they were discovered by the secret police

lived and worshiped

nina of Kizliar took twelve nuns

and went to the town of

where she founded a secret monastery in the mountains. News

soon many nuns who were

group.

underground monastic network, and

In the same area there were also fourteen monks who

in

nearby caves and helped

16. Mother Ignatia's

17.

published

poslednikh vremen [Monasticism

mainly focuses on her experiences in Vysoko-Petrovsky

Mother Ignatia, Monashestvo poslednikh vremen, 114.

memoirs have

recently

in

been

times past]

(Moscow,

in their

entirety. 1998) tells her

Monashestvo life story and

monastery.

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70

CHURCHHISTORY

tonina was arrested and taken away. Her exact fate remains un-

known."8

alive the tradition of

monasticism after she and the other nuns were evicted from their

convent during

Bogoslovskii convent formed the Bogoroditsa

society. They became itinerants, moving from place to place and

sympathetic laypeople. They finally emigrated to China in

living

the late 1920s.19

Aside from meeting in people's houses, monks and nuns frequently

met in cemeteries.

a cemetery

in

worship."20 There was less chance of getting caught, and if the militia

did come, they could scatter easily or pretend they were visiting

graves churches hearkened back to the

persecuted Christians met in the catacombs to

In

orate cathedrals,

from tombs to elab-

pray and gain strength.

Abbess Rufina from Perm

guberniia also kept

the Civil War. The nuns from the former loanno-

Smolenskii Traveler's

with

One group

they

bought could be close

of nuns

a house near

to "their new

Sergeev

Posad so

place

of

of friends or relatives. This

practice of using graves as informal

days

of

early Christianity, when

many ways, Christianity

had come full circle;

and back to tombs.

III. THE "GOOD FRIDAY" OF RUSSIAN MONASTICISM:

18 FEB. 1932

on the

abruptly of 18 Feb. 1932. On that night, "all of Russian monasticism" was

beginning of a two

closed

monks and nuns had not been

subject to arrest on a massive scale. Arrests had occurred before, but

two years previously, dispossessed

year purge. Although the monasteries

arrested and

night

The relative calm that existed in the cities ended

put

into labor

camps, signaling

the

had all been

officially

they were mainly sporadic.

"sweep" of monastics occurred. In Leningrad

nuns were arrested and exiled to various labor

This was the first time that a

systematic alone 316 monks and

camps throughout the

regular-

Soviet Union.21

Mass executions of clergy

clergy

also occurred with

were executed in 1932.After these

ity. In Rostov 120 monks and

purges Leningrad began

in one year. This was partly due to the declaration by the League of

a "wild bacchanalia"of church

closings-335

18. Monakhina Taisia, Russkoe Pravoslavnoe ZhenskoeMonashestvo XVII-XX vv. [Russian Orthodox Women's Monasticism, Eighteenth to Twentieth Centuries] (Jordanville,

N.Y.: Holy Trinity Monastery, 1992), 262.

19. Taisia,

20. Mother Serafima, interview.

21. Levitin-Krasnov, Likhie Gody, 222.

Russkoe PravoslavnoeZhenskoe Monashestvo, 275.

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SECRETMONASTICISMIN THESOVIETUNION

71

the Militant Godless22

claimed would "remove God from the territory of the Soviet Union by

of a "Five Year Anti-religious Plan" that it

May 1, 1937.'"23

In

keeping

with the Soviets' desire to control the whereabouts of the

newly

camps. zakhstan and Siberia. Despite exile, monks and nuns were still able to

ons

pris-

dispossessed

monks and nuns,

they

often exiled them to

and forced labor

a sense of

Two common destinations were

Ka-

keep

fellow monastics

described how she and her friends, all secret nuns,

the

evenings trains that carried

on

monastics and nuns.

exiled monks and nuns what was

and

at various train stations.

community who remained free. Nun Anna,

people

and even maintain contact with their

living

in Moscow,

gather

would

in

the different

if a train had lattice

mainly carrying

would meet these trains, find out from the

They recognized

example,

is,

it

was

into exile. For

crow" train; that

it, it was

a "black

They

occurring

in

in other areas of Russia, Moscow.24 This informal

the methods of the Soviets better

then report back to the bishops

prepare

possible to gauge

for

situations.

network made it

and to

coming described the sense of

Monks

and nuns

community

that often

aspired to be voluntarily

and

age

of a Moscow

developed

monastics

went into exile with

assistance. This was the case

twenty, and Nastya, age twenty-four. They

community

church and

mentor

decided

had they

reported

it bearable.25Some monastics found relief from the horrors of exile

with

perished

three

in exile. Young women and men who either

or had

already

their

taken secret vows sometimes

of

religious

the remaining

spiritual elders to provide comfort

with

two young women-Nina,

were

who

was

arrested and sent

into

part attended services at

possible. When their

exile, they

women

young monasteries whenever

Bishop Augustine

to go

with

him.

He later said that he would have

the

hardship

priests

not been with him. Despite

that the

companionship

of exile, the

of other

and monastics made

sympathetic villagers.

a peasant

Such was the case with Mother Fomara,

cottage during her

Mother Fomara,

who lived with

three-year

who

man and his son in their

Siberian exile. Without their assistance,

was quite elderly, would not have survived her sentence.26

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

The

dedicated to

formed in 1922 under the direction of Emelian

more on the

Militant Godless

Fr. Vladislav Tsipin, Istoriia Russkoi Tserkv

Monakhina

Monakhina Anna,

League

of the Militant Godless was a state-sponsored

spreading

League,

anti-religious

see Daniel

anti-religious organization

It was

and disbanded in 1941. For

the Heavens: The Soviet League of the

Press, 1998).

(Moscow: Valaam Monastery, 1997), 9:197.

propaganda throughout

Yaroslavsky

the Soviet Union.

Peris, Storming

University

(Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell

19.

6, 14.

Anna, Vospominanie,

Vospominanie,

Nun Serafima, Zhizneopisanie

Mat'ia schemamonakhinin Fomary (Moscow,

1991), 6.

This content downloaded from 143.239.136.229 on Wed, 24 Sep 2014 12:01:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

72

CHURCHHISTORY

Prisons and labor

to preserve

singled

camps

also

provided opportunities

despite

in the

for the mo-

brutal conditions. Camp

especially

nastics

officials

severe treatment. Aleksandr

prisoners received the harshest labor. There

they

their communities

out the

religious prisoners

Solzhenitsyn

for

camps described how the

religious

where

were favorite candidates for

the penalty compound,

they

kept

whole

barracks of

the

water.

nuns, were also frequently

"nuns" who "had refused to do the devils work." For

guards put them in a penalty block up

Religious

sexually

women

assaulted

prisoners,

by

especially

punishment,

in

despair,

to their knees

guards.27

and

both male and female

However, even in this

atmosphere of suffering

in

some cases

monas-

clandes-

tics were able to meet and

tinely. One account described how a group of nuns at Butyrskiiprison

prison. They

dressed in white, set up a makeshift altar on an old

continuation of these church

helped to preserve a sense of normality despite the

surroundings. It also proved inspirational to

in the camps. Sometimes non-believers who were in the camps sought

out the monks and nuns for comfort and wisdom. There were also

many ironies: The authorities exiled and

cause they were afraid of their influence

in

exile than

camps and in

among the people. However,

sang rituals in prison

many regular prisoners

conduct services

decaying

in Moscow managed to celebrate Easter service while in

the Easter

hymn

at midnight.28 The

table and

cases of secret tonsure. This illustrates one of the

imprisoned

greatest these monastics be-

many ways, they

they

reached more non-believers in the

had when they were free.

IV. THE1936 CONSTITUTION

The situation of clergy and monastics

appeared

to

improve

in 1936

with the promulgation of the 1936 Constitution, also known as the

"Stalin Constitution."29

The most controversial article in the new

Constitution was article 135, which restored political rights to clergy

Aleksandr

27. Solzhenitsyn,

2:420-21.

The Gulag Archipelago (New

York: Harper and Row, 1974),

28. Irina Reznikova, Pravoslaviena Solovkakh (St.

29. Much has been written about the Constitution

Petersburg:

Memorial, 1994), 41.

of 1936. For a full

English York: Soviet Russia

translation of

Today,

the Constitution, see "The New Soviet Constitution" (New

1936). Forthe

(Moscow, 1957), 345-59. For a full text of Stalin's

Constitution of the U.S.S.R. (Moscow,

see Kathleen Barnes, "The Soviet Constitution of

Union 1, no. 9, 30 Sept. 1936; J. R Starr, "New

American Political Science

text in Russian, see Istoriia sovetskoikonstitutsiiv dokumentakh, 1917-1956

speech, see J. V. Stalin, On the Draft

1936). For Western contemporary commentary,

of the Soviet Union,"

1936," in ResearchBulletin on the Soviet

Constitution

Review, 1936, 1143-152; Beatrice and Sidney Webb, Soviet

Communism:A New SovietConstitution:A Study in Socialist Democracy(New York:H.

Holt, 1937).

This content downloaded from 143.239.136.229 on Wed, 24 Sep 2014 12:01:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

SECRETMONASTICISMIN THESOVIETUNION

73

and allowed them to run for

departure from previous government

clergy

about the wisdom

for local offices, Stalin

first

place, hostile to the Soviet

some places do elect hostile work was

disgrace. If however, our propaganda

vik

bodies."30

It was clear from these remarks

represented a radical

policy of marginalizing the

life. When confronted

by

to run

"What is there to be afraid of? In the

and White Guards are

government. In the second place, if the people in

propaganda

fully work is conducted in a Bolshe-

deserve such a

public

office. This

from

public

of

other

party

the

members

allowing former "non-persons"

replied,

right

not all of the former kulaks, priests,

it shows that our

persons, and we shall

very badly organized

let

way, the people will not

hostile persons slip into their supreme

that Stalin regarded removing