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ISSN: 2249-8389

Journal of Positive Philosophy

Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS)
Milestone Education Society (Regd.), Ward No.06, Pehowa
(Kurukshetra)-136128 (Haryana)
Volume IV, No. 02
(September, 2014)

Desh Raj Sirswal

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Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN 2249-8389)
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy is an online bi-annual interdisciplinary journal of the Center for
Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS). The name Lokyata can be traced to Kautilya's
Arthashastra, which refers to three nvkiks (logical philosophies), Yoga, Samkhya and Lokyata.
Lokyata here still refers to logical debate (disputatio, "criticism") in general and not to a materialist doctrine
in particular. The objectives of the journal are to encourage new thinking on concepts and theoretical
frameworks in the disciplines of humanities and social sciences to disseminate such new ideas and research
papers (with strong emphasis on modern implications of philosophy) which have broad relevance in society
in general and mans life in particular. The Centre publishes two issues of the journal every year. Each
regular issue of the journal contains full-length papers, discussions and comments, book reviews,
information on new books and other relevant academic information. Each issue contains about 100 Pages.
Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies, Pehowa (Kurukshetra)

Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal (P.G. Govt. College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh)
Associate Editors:
Dr. Merina Islam, Dr. Sandhya Gupta
Editorial Advisory Board
Prof. K.K. Sharma (Former-Pro-Vice-Chancellor, NEHU, Shillong)
Prof.Sohan Raj Tater (Former Vice-Chancellor, Singhania University, Rajasthan)
Dr. Anamika Girdhar (Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra)
Dr.Ranjan Kumar Behera (Patkai Christian College (Autonomous), Nagaland)
Fr. V. John Peter (St. Josephs Philosophical College, Nilgiris, T.N.)
Dr. Aayam Gupta (Kurukshetra, Haryana)
Dr. Geetesh Nirban (Kamala Nehru College, University of Delhi)
Dr. Vaishali Dev (Mahamakut Buddhist University, Thailand)
Dr. Narinder Singh (GHSC-10, Chandigarh)
Dr. Vijay Pal Bhatnagar (Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra)
Mr. Praveen Kumar Anshuman ( Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi, Delhi)

Declaration: The opinions expressed in the articles of this journal are those of the individual
authors, and not necessary of those of CPPIS or the Chief-Editor.

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In this issue..

Author & Title of the Paper Page No.
Hossein Roohani, Alireza Aghahosseini, Javad Emamjomezade: A
Pankaj K. Mishra, Dinesh Chahal : REALIZATION AND
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Hossein Roohani, Alireza Aghahosseini, Javad Emamjomezade
After the victory of the Islamic Revolution of Iran, scholars and thinkers encountered new scientific
conditions, modern political ideas and newly established time and ground, and each, responding to these
new upheavals, which were the governance and fulfillment of Islamic commandments in all political,
social, cultural and economic fields, presented ideas appropriate to their thought constellation. Reza
Davari as a Fardidian thinker, following the ideas of the famous German philosopher, Martin Heidegger,
criticizes the West philosophically and phenomenologically and knows the only redemptive path for
Iranians as leaving the West as an integrated whole and criticizes modernity in a severe way. Contrary to
this uncompromising approach to the West, another approach, particularly in the second and third decades
of the Islamic Revolution gradually appeared which practiced sympathetic approaches to the West and
Abdul Karim Soroush as the forerunner of this approach, tried to pave that path for establishing
modernism by an epistemological reading of religion. In the present article, it has been tried to discuss
and compare the ideas and thoughts of Davari and Soroush to the West.
Key words: Davari, Soroush, subjectivism, the West

Undoubtedly, one of the conflicting concepts in the literature of the thought constellation of
contemporary Iran is the concept of the West which every intellectual movement has spoken of it
based on its own intellectual requirements. With little tolerance, one can discuss that the point of
departure of Iranians' encountering the West refers to the Constitutional Revolution Period when
some of the thinkers and clergies of that historical period started to think how to practice a
strategy for the West. A group of intellectuals was interested with the West and knew the
solution in accepting indubitably the culture and civilization the West and started to oppose the
tradition and primarily the religion. The opposite point of this movement of advocating the West,
there was a movement which rejected the West as a hegemonic and irreligion civilization and
tried severely to oppose it. Also, there was another group who wanted to make a bridge between
tradition and modernity and through this constructed a third way whose result was interaction
between the West and the East civilizations. Since the ancient, this conflict between
Westernizers and those who oppose the West has been common in the intellectual constellation
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of Iran and the conflict between these two approaches can still be observed whether in
intellectual arena whether in political, social and cultural arenas. The advent of Iran's Islamic
Revolution and the formation of the Islamic system resulted in this issue that the anti-west
approach in the intellectual constellation of Iran survived and could present its own ideas in the
field of evidence and proof through the dominant discursive environment in the first anti-West
decade of the Islamic revolution. Reza Davari Ardakani is among those intellectuals who
influenced by his master Ahmad Fardid, tried to form a discourse through writing books and
articles which the constructive elements of this discourse can be identified in the light of indices
such as opposition to the West as an integrated whole and leaving subjectivism and exploiting a
Heideggerian approach in criticizing modernity. Davari, influenced by the context of his time
which was an anti-West environment and also inspired by the atmosphere created by the Islamic
Revolution, tried to stand against westernizers and religious intellectuals. He, influenced by
Martin Heidegger's ideas and also his master Fardid, claimed that the West is not like a chair
which is placed in a place and can be pointed. The West is a kind of look which human beings
have to the world and the basic problem of the West is subjectivism and humanism which by the
collapse of the Church, this humanism reaches its peak. Descartes as the forerunner of
subjectivism, locates subject as axis and center of the universe. To Davari who is influenced by
the phenomenological method of Heidegger, the West is an unavoidable event in human history
which should be accepted, but this does not mean that one cannot come out of westernization. He
emphasizes that one should not surrender to the calamity of the time, but one should think of this
event-the West- and not imitate it. Davari knows the Islamic revolution as the advent of the sign
of the end of western history and the beginning of another age in the shadow of God's mercy and
tries to present a new plan which paves the path along passing westernization and subjectivism.
Simultaneous to shaping the ideas of intellectuals such as Davari and Fardid who wanted to
present some strategies for passing from westernization with the advent of the Islamic revolution,
another approach was about to be given birth and developed in Iran which after the end of Iran-
Iraq war and influenced by the environment created due to the collapse of the Soviet Union,
obviously and blatantly showed itself in the intellectual and thought filed of Iran. One of the
most important theoreticians of this approach, later known as the Popperian approach, is Abdol
Karim Soroush who, with ups and downs in his intellectual constellation, practically welcomed
modernity and criticized tradition by standing on the peak of modernity. Soroush in early
revolution, as he did not speak of his enthusiasm to modernity and in some cases he criticized
modernity and technology, but gradually shaped a combination of modernist, post-modernist and
mystical ideas particularly during Reconstruction and Reform influenced by the post-modernist
environment in the world. The result of this combination of thoughts is writing and publishing
different and multiple works which are still the arena of conflict among thinkers and
intellectuals. Soroush, opposing the ideas of those who reject the West as an integrated whole,
influenced by liberalism, applies his secularist consideration of the religion and tries to
modernize the religion and criticize ideological and jurisprudential Islam, and consequently pave
that path for the conditions and requirements for reinforcing the root of the tree of modernity in
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the soul of Iran. However Soroush calls himself religious intellectual, he is about to thin religion;
by religion he means is ethics and spirituality which is seriously contrary to the definition of
religion as tradition, decrees and commandments. Inspired by the ideas of scholars such as
Popper, Quine and Gadamer, practically and really stands against anti-modernist scholars such as
Fardid and Davari and with a positive and sympathetic approach to the western civilization,
makes an intellectual conflict official which is known as the conflict between two westernization
and anti-West approaches. A hypothesis presented to be tested is that the different approach and
interpretation of the West is the main reason of Soroush and Davari regarding the concept of the
The quiddity of the West from Reza Davari's view point
Representing the West is considered as one of the theoretical basics of Davari. Davari is about to
organize his own intellectual system through representing otherness of what can be known as
modernity and in general the West. Davari's works are filled with presenting absolute otherness
of the West; he through this representation tries to represent as a tradition and integrated whole
(Pedram, 2004: 78). The first point in Davari's Occidentalism refers to this important issue that
he considers the West more than a civilization and a particular geography and he considers it as a
relevance and relationship with the existence, universe and human. Regarding this discussion, he
writes "the West is not fixed Platonic ideas, the West is a mode of view which humans have
towards the Universe" (Davari, 1988: 85). Davari knows those who do not believe in the unity of
the west as disbelievers in intellect, advocates of the status quo of the world and the apologists of
egoism and arrogance. Accordingly he writes that "some of the authors of contemporary
philosophy who merely have the name of philosophy with them and repeatedly deny intellect,
apparently to defend the status quo of the world and in order that the unity of the West be
untouched, rejects the project if the West's nature and deny its unity in order to consider the ugly
results of justified arrogance and conceitedness as unrelated to the West and claim that what is
called the West is a collection of goddess and badness, beauties and ugliness, which goodness
should be selected and badness should be left. With what criterion does one select goodness and
leave badness? The answer is the criterion of reason" (Davari, 1988: 74). By these words, Davari
rejects the West as an integrated whole because in his view, denying the nature of the West
results in ignoring the nature of the West and considering the apparent conflicts between
Marxism and Liberalism as serious, while the origin and problem of both is one thing (Nasri,
2011: 273). Among the most important characteristics of the West is the new consideration of the
world which human being is the criterion and scale of measuring everything, and this issue, in
Davari's view, does not mean that human beings ignore the reason, but in the new system of the
West, the reason ignores the guidance and rejects the absolute reason (Davari, 1988: 84). In
Davari's view, the west is a world which in historical age has been created with the mode of
thought and by opening a horizon in which human beings have gradually attained centrality of
the creatures (Davari, 1996: 117). Davari knows the new age as the age of Reign of Man and
emphasizes the components such as "the age of falling heavenly thought and nostalgia for human
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beings" and "human being's loss in a meaningless world" (Davari, 1998: 32). The main concern
for Davari is to bare the nature of the collapse of the West, particularly modernity and find a path
to exit the comprehensive reign of the West. Davari defines the West using philosophy and
metaphysics. He sees philosophical thought as the basis of modernity and traces its origin in
Plato's and Aristotle's ideas (Pedram, 2004: 80). He analyzes that "when thought appeared in the
form of philosophy, philosophy had had its own technological science, it means that from the
very beginning, it should have been in a path of scientific form. If in the new age, the desire of
philosophy's being scientific in the form of different philosophies appeared, this desire is briefly
has been presented in the principles and basics of all philosophies (Davari, 1984: 104). Davari
traces the origin of modernity in 18
century and Enlightenment which "philosophers such as
Descartes by presenting proposition of "cogito ergo sum", raise officially and obviously the flag
of subjectivism and in the new history of the West, i.e. modernity, another human being
appeared who was the legislator itself and according to the requirements and capabilities which
was present in each ethnic group and every group, legislates laws. It is obvious that legislating
such law is not based on flightiness; however, when human beings legislate laws by calculating
capabilities and considering requirements and according to it investigate the world, give all
things the human shape and in politics, judgment, science and teachings and everywhere the
human power appears (Davari, 1980: 18). In addition, Davari discuss this issue that "in fact the
West should not be divided into good and bad and beautiful and ugly. The West is not the sum of
atoms and elements which are located close to each other, but it is as an integrated whole whose
components cannot be entered in any new integration" (Davari, 1984: 22). Therefore, to Davari,
the main and root conflict between western and eastern identity is due to not being additive of
their humanisms. Because the West and the East are representative of two kinds of existence,
humanism is not merely a kind of philosophy, but is a kind of being based on which the human
concept appears in the form of the West's unitary issue (Davari, 1984: 59). According to Davari,
because after the invasion of the West and modernity, the order of Eastern human existence has
been cluttered, identity crisis and loss crisis appear which we consider it as duality crisis. Duality
crisis is there where human is standing between the worlds, he is neither here nor there or he is
both here and there (Davari, 1996: 144). In other words, the crisis of the easterners is related to
the crisis of not having history. Because we have neither real connections to our own past nor to
that of the West, we do not have history (Davari, 1984: 5). Davari states these words that "new
history of the West was not such that an ethnic group voluntarily be interested in it and another
ethnic group reject it, but all people of the world should enter this history. Then, regarding the
West's forcible expansion I have stated that true journey in the land of the West is better than
exhaustion and frustration" (Davari, 1978: 10). Davari in this statement speaks of forcibility and
inevitability of the western civilization and that the West is an event and we should ponder in
this event to exit the rank of imitation (Davari, 1988: 132). Furthermore, he emphasizes this
point that if the West has been able to dominate the world and make the farness and ignorance of
the easterners from their own heritages more and more, their main reason is that before the
invasion of the West, the foundation of other histories and particularly easterners became loose
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(Davari, 1996: 10). This Iranian thinker, then states that "undoubtedly, without familiarity with
the past and remark about that, the serious connection with the western thought and civilization
is not possible. But considering these nonsense habits instead of the past culture and civilization
is farness from the past and persistence on it cause that we be far from it, and more than ever it
makes us confused and lost" (Davari, 2001: 95). Davari considers the condition of passing
subjectivism which is filled with the western civilization, in this point that "the East is not a
collection of traditions and rituals of eastern ethnics if the reality of our East is these rituals
and traditions, orientalists would have found the reality of the East. The East cannot be known by
methodology and in general scientific epistemology. The East is neither a geographical region
nor a collection of behaviors and rituals of its residents. We cannot approach to the East without
confronting the East and the West" (Davari, 1978: 42). This statement of Davari means that
although the East apparently is a past which has got the substance of the history of the West, it is
in fact the future of the West (Davari, 1978: 59). Although Davari speaks of the defeat and basics
of modernity and states that the column of modernity has been broken and unfaithful (Davari,
1991a: 17), he immediately emphasized that "what has been said regarding the results of the fall
of the West does not confirm any advantage for us. It should be noted that denying the West does
not result in freeing from the force and domination of the western civilization and it may be
advantageous for the world filled with possibilities; however, in any world, possibilities and their
boundaries are different; the residents of the West are involved with these possibilities which
guide their thought and behavior" (Davari, 1999: 8). Completing his ideas regarding the West,
Davari writes that "we cannot deny the technological developments and technological sciences,
but to reach higher ranks it is necessary that we be free from being too scientific and technical"
(Davari, 2000: 49). Davari considers one of the requirements and tools needed for passing
westernization as familiarity with the West and Post-modernism and writes: "in the present time
and condition, one of the ways of the necessity of familiarity with postmodernism is that we can
know the West through them. Postmodernism is a preparatory thought. In the preparatory period,
referring to the East and returning to the words of the instructors of heavenly thought lead us to
the light of the future world" (Davari, 1999: 40). This thinker critic of the West takes this age as
the age of limbo of postmodernism, it means the ages that insecurity has been penetrated in the
basics of modernity and the West is in a crisis (Davari, 1988: 24). Although Davari in most of his
works rejects the approach to select the West, he emphasizes this point that "from these
statements and words it is never used that we should deny and ignore all things that in the new
age called science, industry and development appear. My issue is that we should not surrender
the force of the time" (Davari, 1988: 132).
The quiddity of the West from Soroush's viewpoint
Soroush's viewpoint regarding the West is not unitary and stable. In the early Islamic revolution,
he had an aggressive approach to the West and saw the western thought as a whole and stated:
"they claimed that if one can take the science of the westerners, he cannot take their morality. It
is true, but in practice, we saw that this not so easy. Their issues is not separable in this way.
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They (westerners) are complicated systems which one should be so nave to imagine that you
yourself did not understand this and confuses them; however, we understood it well. We put
aside the bad parts of it and took the good ones. These are impossible" (Soroush, 1979: 13-14).
Soroush also attacks the technology of the West: "this illusion that industrialization results in
being more powerful and needless and convenient is absolutely wrong. Technique does not
lessen needs, but it increases them and managing and controlling a collection and simple society
is not more complicated than a complicated one, but is so easier" (Soroush, 1987: 312). He adds:
"regarding the power which is the child of industry, we should discuss more. The point is that
technique is the last need and need is frustrating, consequently it is not empowering, but
humiliating" (Soroush, 1987: 314). that Soroush in these clear sentences written in early
Revolution and influenced by the anti-West discourse environment of the day attacks being too
technical and states that our revolutionary society has no business with industry and how one can
manage this severe upheaval which has feared its creators (Soroush, 1987: 2-3). This critical
viewpoint of Soroush regarding the West and technology reflected in early Islamic Revolution,
after the year 1988 transformed fundamentally and this time, Soroush challenges the anti-West
thoughts of thinkers such as Davari and Fardid and states: "they think that as soon as they claim-
albeit without any reason- that the relationship of westerners with the nature or the existence is
changed and humanity is about to dominate the Universe and human beings and is becoming far
from God and is surrounded by the West's lust and spirituality, they have the key of all problems
and the analysis of all approvals and make themselves and others filled with other's
interpretation and explication and by this unproved claim clarify to all people the destiny of
philosophy and science and technology and literature and art of westerners" (Soroush, 1994:
246). Soroush, criticizing those who deny the West as an integrated whole, refers to the
complicated concept of the West among Iranians and by presenting the question of the quiddity
of the West, recalls the complicatedness of this concept in such a way that "is the West a
particular set of thoughts or a mode of the existence of humanity or a method of living and
managing, or the very sensuality or a mode of history realization or the invasion of technology
and the fall of tradition or US foreign policy or other things?" (Soroush, 1996: 9). Then he
answers this question as such: "the correct path of knowing the West is that we separate the
verdict of motivation from motivation and do not replace credit unity by true unity and do not
imagine that returning affairs to their basics and natures will make us needless of everything"
(Soroush, 1996: 241). Because Soroush does not consider any single real and genuine unity for
the West, he easily can analyze it and take its desired elements and leave its undesired ones and
select those elements from the West which he considers as right. Because in Soroush's view, "no
right is strange for another one. Rights are all relatives and goods and purity are all friends.
Lights are all from the same nature and beauties are all from the same origin" (Soroush, 1987:
249). Among the pillars of modernity, Soroush indicates a particular interest to the modern
science and states that:" universality and cosmopolitanism as well as barrier breaking is such that
comply with all and do not remain in the domain of anybody" (Soroush, 1994: 5). He knows the
scientific knowledge successful in changing the world and concludes that the future path should
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be taken by the modern science (Soroush, 1996: 1-8). Soroush by presenting this issue that
epistemic unreligious knowledge of scholars is in continuous development and evolution, claims
that understanding religion is developing and religious knowledge like other kinds of knowledge
is the result of human search and thought and is always a combination of philosophies, rights and
wrongs (Soroush, 1992: 115-119). Soroush's emphasis on prophecy of religious knowledge and
its development due to the development other human knowledge can provide a basis for shaping
a humanistic image of religion (Pedram, 2004: 119). In his thought constellation, Soroush
considers a significant status for western reason and emphasizes modernity. He writes that "the
critical status of religious intellectuals is modernity. In other words, the explorations conducted
in the modern era, including new sciences, new philosophy, new politics and art and ethics all
give the religious intellectual a critical status, it means that the new reason gives the religion a
scale and eyeglasses to look through the tradition and religious power and scale them" (Soroush,
1383: 7). He even in explicating a religious democratic government which he himself trust,
emphasizes that "religious government should start with human rights, judgment and limiting
power which all are extra-religious issues and then it should modify its religious understanding
by them" (Soroush, 1997: 302). Therefore, to Soroush, religious government is that whose laws
are determined by a non-religious self-founded reason (Soroush, 2000: 51). Furthermore,
Soroush is interested in liberalism and by reciting a famous statement of Kant telling "Have the
courage to know" praises liberalism of the west and identifies constructive elements of liberalist
discourse in the light of indices such as considering understanding the truth as non-exclusive,
free from sanctities, considering human fallibility, the existence of natural right and
individualism and tolerance and moderation (Soroush: 2004: 13). Accordingly, it can be
concluded that Soroush does not deny the West as an integrated whole and on the contrary, in
many of his works except some of his works, not only does not rejects the west, but also he
praises modernity and consider defending religion as rightful as far as it does not have any
contradiction to modernity and elements related to it.

Comparative investigation of Davari's and Soroush's viewpoints regarding the West
One of the most important and fundamental intellectual conflicts between Davari and Soroush is
that Davari rejects the West as an integrated whole and warns that the western civilization is not
a combination of separated components some of which can be selected and some can be left. If
an ethnic group want to imitate the west based on an incorrect image and does not consider the
intellectual basics of this civilization and does not know what the basis of magnificent ground of
that founder is and how it is extended, it will be confused and disorganized and consequently it
drops behind (Davari, 2001: 95). Meanwhile, Soroush presents this issue that there are different
decrees for different aspects of the West and accordingly he offers the analysis and selection and
writes that "our statement is that the western system is neither unitary nor unique one should
select fearlessly" (Soroush, 1987). He speaks of religious pluralism, separation of religion and
religious knowledge and the linkage of religious knowledge with other human knowledge and
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states that "firstly, there is no understanding of religion which is not based on the knowledge and
understandings outside the religion. Secondly, if the external understandings change, the
understanding of the religion will change Thirdly, the understandings outside the religion will
change" (Soroush, 1994: 157).
These views held by Soroush regarding separation of the religion from religious knowledge and
interpretability of religion is in line with subjectivism and this is the opposite point of Davari's
views because Davari rejects subjectivism and criticizes the West for neglecting ontology and
being interested in epistemology. Davari cast criticism upon new sciences because of making
dominant materialism and rationalism and asks why the West has not brought about religious
philosophers in recent centuries (Davari, 1990: 35). Davari presents this statement which the
only solution for the west reached to the end is that it should give up collective and individual
arrogance and humanism, leave skepticism, cut the carious tree of modernity, give up
subjectivism and reject the West as an integrated whole (Davari, 1990: 36). Responding the
rejection of the west as an integrated whole proposed by Davari, Soroush states that Davari's
philosophical hypothesis regarding the West as an integrated whole is a Hegelian reformulation
which leaves no place for constructive dialogue. He criticizes Davari's propositions from one
perspective that people should accept the West totally or reject it completely (Soroush, 1987:
231). Soroush who paves the path for interaction of religious and nonreligious knowledge by the
theory of Theoretical Contraction and Expansion of Shari'a, states that Iranians are bound to and
heir of three national, religious and western cultures and should try to make a compromise
among these three (Soroush, 1990: 11). Although Soroush apparently emphasizes the interaction
between extra- and inter-religious knowledge, finally he believes in modernity and requirements
related to it and states that "if inter-religious assignments or rights contradict with extra-religious
ones, extra-religious ones are prioritized" (Soroush, 2000: 155). Contrary to Soroush, Davari
rejects the West and writes about the imposing and importing nature of modernity in Iran and the
rest of Islam: "modernity is a tree whose origin can be followed in the West; it covers all over.
We lived under the shadow of the rotten branches of this tree for many years and it is still over
us. In spite that we seek refuge in Islam, what should we do with this withered branches?"
(Davari, 1982: 83). Davari's answer is clear. In his view, not only branches but also the tree of
modernity itself should be cut and this work can be possible only by organizing a particular
reason, a reason which is distinguished and prioritized to the western one. Davari rejects the
western patterns of democracy which are based on the separation of politics from religion as a
degenerate issue. Contrary to Soroush who believes in religious pluralism, he is about to
organize another type of reason which is based on Guardianship and Prophecy (concepts in
Shiite) (Davari, 1982: 85). Davari attacks religious intellectuals such as Soroush who try to
interpret religion based on humanism and subjectivism and states that "those who try to serve the
religion through modernizing it using ideas and views of western ideologies, are hurting religion,
science, reason and understanding of humans and they are in the lowest levels of westernization"
(Davari, 1986: 228). Davari criticizes the western liberal democracy which those like Popper
defend and states that "Popper is a Sophist dependent to intellectualism of 18
century of Europe
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whose interpretation of freedom is in fact freedom of religion" (Davari, 1986: 12). Davari attacks
Popper's positivist interpretation and presents this issue that Popper does not perceive the
language of philosophers; therefore, he distorts the ideas of Plato, Aristotle, Hegel and Marx. He
also warns this issue that Popper prioritizes falsification over religious intuition by this claim that
science deals with what exists and religion deals with what should exist (Davari, 1985: 23-26).
Responding the Davari's criticisms of Popper and ideas assigned to him, Soroush accuses Davari
to determinism and historicism. To Soroush, Davari's thoughts inspired by Heidegger and
Nietzsche is mystical and idealistic thoughts which reduce all things to history and consider no
originality for human and human will. Soroush criticizes Hegel for his theoretical philosophy of
history and his emphasis on historical determinism and considers such a philosopher as the
vindicator Prussian and Heidegger as the advocate of Fascism. In Soroush's view, Hegel's theory
of the state and Heidegger's existential phenomenology all are introductions of political and
knowledge totalitarianism and tyranny (Soroush, 1980: 3-25). Responding Soroush's views
regarding Heidegger who challenges subjectivism, Davari considers Heidegger as the intellectual
who could challenges the 2500 year old history of western metaphysics and speak of negligence
of the existence. Davari introduces Heidegger as the great wise of our age and the master of
future thought (Davari, 1980: 210).
Soroush who has a sympathetic approach to modernity, states that jurisprudence as a human
science is based on the nature of interpretation and it is theoretical and because science and
philosophy are developing, understanding Shari'ah which is based on sacred texts and tradition,
should be transformed. Soroush concludes that because philosophy and natural sciences are
always incomplete and are in search of completeness, jurisprudence is incomplete, hence
transient and moribund (Soroush, 1992: 50-56). Davari who challenges all philosophical
hypotheses of modernity, considers the renewal of the project of Soroush's jurisprudence doom
to failure and states that "we are thinking of modernizing religion, universities, traffic, culture
and belief, but we do not consider that modernity itself is a belief. Modernity is not a
combination of things. In other words, we want to modernize the belief itself. But westerners did
not such a work for themselves and now they are doing for us. They did not modernize their
belief, but gave up a belief and replace it with another belief called modernity" (Davari, 1991b:
12). He adds: "we should not speak of religion or jurisprudence repeatedly. We should consider
that jurisprudence neither revolutionizes nor save the world but it is the agenda of everyday
life we in the age of postmodern are owners of modernity! This is a tragedy. In the age when
humanity does not have history, we want to realize a history" (Davari, 1991b: 13). Soroush,
contrary to Davari who rejects all schools and ideologies related to modernity because of
humanistic and subjectivist approach, shows a great sympathy to the western basics and writes:
"liberalism is the result of an epistemological message which knows certainty as a late-found but
unfound issue; therefore, calls all fallible human beings to gather around the table of knowledge
and give up the arrogance and this means leaving affairs for collective reason and rejecting
epistemological, political and religious tyranny" (Soroush, 2001: 8). Meanwhile, Davari is
interested in neither socialism nor liberalism and states in this regards that "Islam approves
13 | P a g e
neither capitalism nor socialism" (Davari, 1982: 22). It seems that however Soroush and Davari
belong to two different even contradictory intellectual approaches, they share this issue which is
the dichotomous view of these two contemporary intellectuals. In Soroush's project, what attracts
attentions is the implicit acceptance of modernity and creation of a dichotomy of tradition-
modern which in fact is falling in the land of renewal theories. In Davari's intellectual
constellation, contrary to that of Soroush, modernity is going to be vanished and any compromise
between tradition and modernity is discouraged (Pedram, 2004: 73).
Undoubtedly, the intellectual conflict between westernizers and anti-West intellectuals since
early Constitution has been the arena of thinking and debating among scholars and intellectuals
and each intellectual approach has spoken this issue in terms of its intellectual richness. In Iran
of after the Islamic Revolution, two intellectual approaches stood against each other. Abdol
Karim Soroush as the representative of the religious intellectualism approach with a sympathetic
approach with the West tried to criticizes the status of modernity. Soroush selected a selective
approach regarding the West and spoke that the West could be divided into good and bad
components and create a kind of modernized Islam whose constructive element and components
can identified in the light of indices like religious pluralism, religious democratic state and
praising modernity and achievements related to it. Undoubtedly, the reason of Soroush's interest
to the West and its achievements particularly in the second and third decades of the Revolution
was the upheavals which had occurred in the internal and global levels. The collapse of the
Soviet Union and the advent of new ideas such as Hermeneutics resulted in the fact that religious
intellectuals such as Soroush influenced by the environments created due to liberalism and
globalization, took a sympathetic approach to the West.
In this arena, Reza Davari Ardakani as one of the forerunners of the approaches critical of the
West, influenced by the critical environment of the Islamic Revolution stood against Soroush and
stated that modernity is the tree that has originated in the West and is pervasive everywhere. The
only way coming out of modernity is that not only its branches but also the tree of modernity
itself should be cut. Davari knows postmodernism not as the time of after modernism but its final
and critical stage and attacks the western subjectivism. In this line, criticizes those intellectuals
who attack tradition. In addition, Davari stands against those like Soroush who are about to
modernize the religion and Islam and believes that technology is not an instrument but is a belief
and a mode of thinking which passes all human aspects and cannot make a compromise between
the West and the East by modernizing Islam and compromising tradition and modernity. For
Davari, the West is a forceful issue which has happened and it is inevitable that the only way of
passing it is to know the nature of the West and consequently giving up subjectivism. It seems
that Soroush, contrary to Davari, takes a positive approach regarding the West and tries to follow
the project of rationalizing the religion whose logical results is acceptance of modernity and
falling in the land of subjectivism and epistemology, but Davari tries to reject western
subjectivism and replace ontology b rejecting the West as an integrated whole and a
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philosophical and phenomenological approach. It should be noted that in spite of the
contradictory approaches of these two Iranian scholars, both use western thinkers for shaping
their ideas and views.

Pedram, M. (2004). Religious intellectuals and modernity in Iran after the Islamic Revolution.
Tehran: Gam-e-Now publication.
Davari, R. (1978). The status quo of thought in Iran. Tehran: Soroush publication.
Davari, R. (1980). What is philosophy? Tehran: Islamic Association Wisdom and Philosophy.
Davari, R. (1982). Islamic Revolution and the status quo of the world. Tehran: Allameh
Tabatabaei Cultural Center publication.
Davari, R. (1984). Introduction to history of our westernization. Tehran: Soroush publication.
Davari, R. (1985). "Some considerations regarding the open society and its enemies". Keyhan-e-
farhangi Journal. 2
year. No.10.
Davari, R. (1986). "Yes to science and freedom, no to hybridization". Keyhan-e-farhangi. 3

year No. 1.
Davari, R. (1988). Philosophy in crisis. Tehran: Amir Kabir publication.
Davari, R. (1990). "Where is the rendezvous of technique?"Work and development journal. 1

year. No. 1.
Davari, R. (1991a). "Separation in principles and basics of modernity". Editorial of Name-e-
farhang journal. No, 23.
Davari, R. (1991b). "Tradition, modernity and postmodernism". Keyhan-e-havaei journal. No.
Davari, R. (1996). Tradition, modernity, postmodernism. A. Ganji (Ed.). Tehran: Serat
Davari, R. (1998). Farabi, the founder of Islamic philosophy. Tehran: Institute for Humanities
and cultural studies.
Davari, R. (1999). Culture, reason and freedom. Tehran: Saghi publication.
Davari, R. (2000). Of science. Tehran: Hermes publication.
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Davari, R. (2001). Civilization and western thought. Tehran: Saghi publication.
Soroush, A. (1979). "An interview with Dr. Abdol Karim Soroush". Tehran: Muslim Women's
Soroush, A. (1980). From historicism to Deism. Islamic Student Association of America and
Soroush, A. (1992). Theoretical Contraction and Expansion of Shari'a. Tehran: Serat
Soroush, A. (1994). Thicker than ideology. Tehran: Serat publication.
Soroush, A. (1996). Disturbed mentality, confused identity. Kian journal. No. 30.
Soroush, A. (1997). Tolerance and Management. Tehran: Serat publication.
Soroush, A. (2000). Rituals of monarchy and religiosity. Tehran: Serat publication.
Soroush, A. (2001). Gods' morality. Tehran: Tarh-e-Now publication.
Soroush, A. (2004). Knowing Secrets intellectuality and religiosity. Tehran: Serat publication.
Soroush, A. (2006). "Tradition of religious intellectuality". Madseseh journal. 2
year. No. 2.
Nasri, A. (2011). Encountering modernity. Tehran: Elm publication.

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Devendra Nath Tiwari
The term environment is used differently in different context but generally it is taken for our
surroundings and circumstances affecting the life organism the relations of which to one another
is studied in ecology. It does not mean that environment is confined to flora and fauna because it
inheres the human species, the interdependence of human being and their environment also and
this is why an environmental approach becomes the religious approach.
Environment for my concern in the present discussion comprises of : (i) Natural environment
consisting of earth, air, water, fire, space and different planets that have an effect on the life
organism, (ii) Bio- environment containing forest and aquatic- communities. The relation and
interdependence of life organisms are studied in ecology, (iii) Social environment comprising of
communities and groups interacting and sharing with one another culturally, that is socio-
ethical, religious, political and other interactions and (iv) Environment of the inner-self and its
relation with other layers of environment that are studied by religions and moral philosophies.
Environmental ethics is a contemporary idea that is studied in applied ethics. Applied ethics
believes that men by his actions have an effect positive or negative on environment. Mens
attitude towards world, his own position in the nature and his relation with environment direct
his actions towards environment.
Different attitudes towards human relation to environment:
Thinkers all over the world down the decades have responded differently on the issues of human
obligation to forces in the biotic domain and the natural environment as well. Human behavior to
environment is evaluated mostly on the basis of three basic ethical beliefs regarding it. They are:
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1. Utility value: environment is naturally given for mens enjoyment; it has only utility
2. Existence Value: Everything in the nature constitutes its perfection; has existence or a
place in the universe. Not only earthly but also the solar system, planets, stars and other
elements including human beings complete the creation. For creation and maintenance of
life their existence is meaningfully inevitable. Their mutual gravitational force affecting
on each other matters for their dependency, proportionate balance, disproportionate
imbalance and accordingly acts on for their existence, health, alteration, decomposition,
3. A blend of the earlier two ideologies that believes that environment has both the utility
and the existence value as well. Consequent upon these outlooks, we have the theories of
Anthropocentricism, Bio-centrism, and Cosmo-centrism regarding the relation of human
being with environment.
I observe the impact of geographical situation and needs of human persons living in a specific
kind of geographical territory on their ideology about environment. For example, in Arabian
territory from where the Islam originated, petroleum materials are found in heavy amount and
that only man can procure them by digging in to the earth. It has less opportunity for agricultural
prosperity and in that case they have all reasons for industrial development even without caring
of the soundness of environment. Things constituting nature have only utility value. Likewise,
the territory comprising European countries, USA, UK are almost cold. Forests, seas, and wild
and aquatic communities are covered with snow falls throughout the year except two or three
months in summer. Apart from that this territory since long even after the dawn of Christ, was
surviving in the primitive stage of hunters, shepherds, sailors. It was to develop rapidly and now
it is developed. Industrial revolution realized the need of better living status of the people of the
territory and this goal was achieved by their anthropocentric ideology having its seeds in Bible.
In Ancient time, Asian Countries, specially, India was highly developed in thought and practice.
It was prosperous enough and that is the reason religion of the Indian origin especially Vedic
santana religion considered life not only as confined to individual life but the life on the earth,
its continuity from past to present and maintenance in future. Life has the utmost value whether
it is in me or in you or in trees or in ocean that is supreme, it has the existence value.
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Different Theories Concerning Environmental Ethics:
Christianity and Islam believe in an ideology for which man is the center in the gamut of
evolution. God has created everything for men who are ends. It is for them that God has created
environment which they can enjoy as per their requirement and will. Everything is for men and
they have no obligation to non-humans which lack sense of obligation and reason. This ideology
is called Anthropocentricism, a theory which gives only utility value to environment.
Man is the highest end and we all are members of the kingdom of ends this maxim of
Immanuel Kant overlooks the fact that human species are integral part of the whole organism
and it is by living for the whole that he can live for himself. This ideology has caused great
damage to all the spheres of environment. Against this ideology man has now the realization that
if men are to live on earth they have to let others live.
Buddhism is nihilistic about the external world which for them is a hypostatization of the ideas
as external things; they are association of fleeting qualities and hence have no existence value.
Despite of their nihilistic metaphysical position they accept the importance of environment for
life on earth in general and human life in particular. They give importance to the logic of
compassion because of which they realize their moral duty towards bio-community, aquatic
community, wild-life community, human community and mountains, rivers etc. Compassion has
no boundary of space, time, individual and community. It is for the welfare of all. Thus by
introducing the logic of compassion the anthropocentric ideology of Buddhism makes rooms not
only for preserving the environment but also for making and keeping it sound.
Jainism with its ideology of separation of material elements (pudgala nairsya) from the
conscious Individual provides subordinate status to the things constituting nature; they serve as
bonds that attach the consciousness with their limitations. However, their view that everywhere
and in everything there is presence of conscious atoms that are of utmost value gives importance
to the theory of non-violence (ahins). Their theory of non-violence makes their anthropocentric
ideology eco-friendly.

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Bio-centric ideology insists that man has to protect and promote the interest of flora and fauna
which have not only utility value for humans but have their existence value as well. Life cannot
survive without the life- sustaining elements. It is not only human being that is on earth but the
plants, trees, and other earthly elements also.
In India, planting trees which in modern idiom is the natural air conditioners of the universe, the
construction of large tanks which captures the monsoons rain and the ground water replenish to
ensure constant source of sweet water, the digging of wells for drinking water and irrigation are
considered as the religious duties by performing which we earn merit (puya) and because of
which we enjoy heaven. Worshiping of trees is indigenous ritual having religious significance in
Hinduism. We in the name of development cutting the trees brutally without an awareness that a
large number of demy Gods and ancestors have been cursed to get birth in the form of trees and
that how much of them are still waiting to be planted for release. I remember a story of
Bhgvadpura according to which the two sons of Kubera got release from their cursed life of
trees when Bla Ka uprooted them.
Different tribal communities worship different forest and aquatic animals and trees as their gods
and the scientific discoveries have claimed that their disappearance from the earth amounts to the
destruction of Bio-sphere and of the life as such. We have the stories that Bhagiratha brought
the Ganges on the earth by utmost penance and the king Santanu married the Ganges who for the
sake of religious purpose of redemption of cursed sages and seers agreed to be a spouse of the
king. For Hindus, the Ganga is not the name of a river only; it redeems the aspirants from their
sins and, graces liberation.
Cosmo- centrism:
Different from other Indian Philosophical systems, Smkhya accepts nature (prakti) as eternal.
It is matter and is the cause of things in the universe including subtle antakaraa that comprises
of ego, intellect and mind. Purua is also eternal in the dualistic ontology of Smkhya. Many
commentators have tried to give ultimate position to purua and have accepted its separation
from prakti as the final goal. Giving subordinate position to nature (prakti), these
commentaries seem contradicting to a dualistic philosophy that accepts nature (prakti) like
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purusa is eternal. Smkhya always philosophizes liberation as the wisdom of distinctive
knowledge of nature the realization of which does not subordinate purua but merits both of the
eternal substances as having existence value- purua has existence as purua and prakti as
prakti. Neither of the two is subordinate. Creativity is a joint process and the process effects the
eternity and independence of none of them.
Cosmo- centrism believes that much before the origin of life forms, there was the atmosphere,
water and salutary conditions. Human species was a latter phenomenon. But on account of being
self conscious, man has the ability to tamper with the state of nature. Non-humans live in
consonance with the ways of nature and man is under the obligation to subscribe to a Cosmo-
centric conduct with love and concern with forces in inanimate nature. The idea of pan-
consciousness is the metaphysical justification to cosmo-centrism. There is no conflict or
antithesis between matter and man. Their difference is only of degree and not of kind. The
inanimate is conscious at the core and thus matter, life and consciousness form continuity.
Synchronic theory:
The idea of holographic universe or synchronic theory of universe presents a three dimensional
image of the things in which every part sundered from the whole; retains the structure of the
whole. The universe is ultimately interconnected. Any defect in the morphic field adversely
affects the whole. For Hindu ideology, nothing is useless, redundant and dispensable; everything
has its important place in the cosmic web. Every part is related to every other part. If a part is
endangered, it has its necessary repercussion on the whole. If an ant is trod upon causing its
premature end, it causes disharmony in the cosmos. I remember the story from Indian Mythology
of five years old child named Dhruva, who standing on one leg slowed his breathing down to the
point and after four months he managed to fix his mind on God and stopped breathing
completely suspended the inward and outward breath. As the story goes, the gods of heaven, the
sun, the moon, the planets and the whole life-organism began to feel as if they too could not
breathe. This story of Mahbhrata points that even synchronizing ones breathing with that of
the whole universe can cause great suffocation.
For Indians, life is an obligation. Had there been no occasion to pay off the debts one owes by
birth, no life could be human .There is birth because there are debts (a) it borrows from the
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earlier life to payoff. Indians believe in grossly three kinds of debts to pay out i. to seers, sages
and teachers (ia), ii. to fellow beings and deities (devaa) and iii. to manes
(pita).Tattirya samhit 6/3/10/5 says that by practicing celibacy, by performing sacrifices,
and by begetting a son respectively, one pays off those debts ). According to a view, the debts
are not three but five but according to Brhmaa- texts they are three only because the bhtaa
is included in devaa and na is included in pita. In brief, paying off those debts forms
religious, social, socio-ethical and environmental practices of life of man reasonable, lively, and
interesting. According to atapatha Brhmaa 1/7/2/11 from the debts of seers, ancestors and
deities and human beings one by learning Vedas, by performing sacrifices, giving alms to
ancestors, hosting the guests and by begetting a son, pays off those debts respectively. One has
obligation to all elements constituting nature, fellow beings, animals, plants, river, mountains etc.
The philosophy lying behind it is that if all of them are healthy and balanced, the life will be
peaceful and peace will be blissful. Thus, our utmost effort is to insure their health and to protect
the balance. For paying off these debts the scheme of pacamahyajas are properly worked out
in the stras. Out of these the bhtayaja is of utmost importance. It comprises negatively of
refraining one from misusing or polluting the natural elements, destroying spheres of
environment that causes demerit and because of which one has to suffer hell. Positively, it
comprises of our obligation to the physical sphere, bio-sphere and to all the elements of the
cosmos. We have obligation not only to our fellow beings but to rivers, mountains, trees, fishes
and ants. Hindus even at present time worship these elements and provide food to them as a part
of their religious performance.
All the ten incarnations (avatras) mentioned in Hindu scriptures are purposive; the purpose
lying there is to protect the natural, biological, social and inner environment from their dangers.
First three incarnations namely matsya , krma and vrhvatra are specifically graced for
protecting and maintaining of the earth which in Hinduism in the mother. Rest of the
incarnations as the story goes are against prevailing social, religious and spiritual evils.
The God (Nsinhvatra) can come out from a sand post for maintaining and protecting life
values. He can incarnate as cosmic fish (Matsyvatra) to save the earth against universal
dissolution, can incarnate as cosmic boar (Vrhvatra) to save the earth from devil destroyer.
It believes that prosperity and happiness are the natural result of religious life in harmony with
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all the spheres and layers of environment. There is life in inanimate also. If a stone is crushed, it
also affects, feels pain to understand that aberrations in the cosmic symphony, the psyche must
be subtle. This entails that even a particle of the universe be seen kindred and addressed with
Upaniadic Message on Creating Soundness of the Environment:
Life emerges out of an environment. The environment sustains it. It is, perhaps, for the first time
in the history of thought that the vision of human creation by healthy environment under the
Vedic teaching of pancgnividy comes forward in the older Upaniads like Bhadrayaka
and Chndogya, a version of it is to be found in Gt and Manusmti as well. This vidy
envisages the science of creation of man through the consecutive offering in five fires namely -
The Lustrous fire (Dyulokgni) to which the religious faith is offered, The rain fire
(Parjanygni) to which the subtle water produced from the oblation of faith in the first sort of the
fires) is offered that produces rain. The Earth fire (Ihalokgni) to which the rain is offered and
that oblation produces grain including fruits, medicinal plants and all edibles which are offered
in the man (Purugni) the forth sort of fires and out of that offering semen is produced which
when offered in the young women, the fifth of the fires called yogni a baby is produced. This
vidy points to the fact that if the environment is not pure and healthy, there will be no
possibility of the birth of babies with divinely excellent, positively brilliant and healthy qualities.
The rain is the cause of grains and as per the qualities of rain -water there will be the quality of
the grains produced and the purity and diversity of rain -water depend on the formation of clouds
which are formed out of smokes, air etc. If we offer ghee, honey and other materials that are
known for brilliance and purifiers of the environment in the fire, we will get the rain, the grains,
the semen and lastly the baby having those qualities.
Hindu theory of Five Layered Environment (Pancakoas):
Soul is centered by five layered environment namely: 1. Annamaya, 2.Pramaya, 3.Manomaya,
4.Vijnamaya and 5. nandamaya. Layer first is the outer or external that consists of material
bodies and the elements of them. Layer second covers the bio-spare. Layer third includes the part
of bio-sphere endowed with life forces and the competence of thinking, imagination and taking
decision. Layer forth comprises of knowledge, illumination, reflecting on and wisdom. Layer
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fifth is the subtlest and goal to which all others are interconnected. Had these layers not the bliss
as their goal they might have not been of any relevance. The bliss is the heart by that circulation
of bliss the circulation in all the layers possible. The Upaniad says that the anna gets destroyed
without Life (pra) and pra is dried out without carbonic elements (anna). In human body all
the layers are enliven because of the circulation of bliss and the circulation of bliss is possible
only when all the layers are healthy and balanced. From external forward if any of the layers are
polluted or contaminated their mutual circulation system is disturbed and that disturbs not only
the life on earth but the life of the earth also. They all are mutually related and the bliss acts on
for their existence and life-value. This philosophy of five layered environment and their mutual
harmony is the foundation insight not only of classical but of Indian philosophical systems also.
The astronomy accepts that even part of the environment is not only related but have an have an
effect on each other element because of which affects like birth, death, life and future of not
only humans but of all the animates and inanimate are caused.
Difference of Indian & Western attitude towards Environment:
We at present age of marketization are trying to replace the natural order with an artificial one
aimed at satisfying material desires. The whole edifice is warrantably insecure; we are trying to
solve our problem by making constant adjustment to the balance of life without a clear vision of
what the consequence may be. The corporate ideology, prevailing at present, for which any
action, any business that enhance capital is worth sanctioned and is good, is causing great loss to
the environment; the soil, the air the water, the space, the sun, moon all are exploited, even at the
risk of future, to a great extent for earning capital that enforces man to self-suicidal.
There is radical difference between Indian and Western views of environment. Western
ideologies believe that there is no life before ones birth and after his death. It is the only life that
is to live with all conquer and getting pleasure from exploiting surrounding. Indian classics,
heterodox (excluding Crvka), orthodox systems of Indian philosophy in general and Pauric
Religion (santana dharma) believe that death is not the death of life but death of present body
which is an outcome of the fruits of the actions accumulated in the past life and the future life is
in order that has to be shaped by the actions in the present life. It believes that the man exists
with his identity in the present life and his identity remains constant in the form of his children
24 | P a g e
and the children of children. He aspires for a future living in the form of his son. Life is a
continuous and everlasting process and that is of utmost importance. Life is possible only in an
environment and that I cannot put my future life at risk by polluting or destroying it. Let me
illustrate it. A man found an ornate antique birdcage. He carefully restored it, cleaning and
polishing it upside down and down side up all the day without caring the bird inside the cage.
When he displayed the bird cage, the people got shocked to find that the bird inside is dead.
Opposed to it, the Indian care is to find the bird chanting and singing inside the cage despite of
the brightness of cage comparatively less.
Now a days, persons spend a lot for purchasing liquor that damages his social and inner
environment but never remembers to purchase camphor of even two rupees for offering in the
fire, the offering that can make the environment fresh for healthy life, the offering that can
regulate the ecological relationship between the human community, the bio-community and the
Science and religion understand the environment in their own ways. Despite of differences in
their approaches, they all agree on the point that life is caused out of an environment, resides in
an environment and finally creates an environment of its own. They observe that the man has
caused danger against and has deceased the environment to a great extent. They suggest
measures of its conservation and protection. The basic difference between their approaches is
that science can suggest only some prohibitive measures, can warn us not to make further harm
to the environment while Hinduism is privileged with the ideas and practices for creating the
healthy environment, curing the ills of environment, suggesting the natural measures useful for
purifying and protecting the environment. The Hindu religious practices of Yaja, yoga, ytr
and other ritualistic practices including digging pond, planting trees on their sides, worshiping
animals, rivers, trees, mountains, etc., by taking them as divinities may serve as great measures
for environmental health. The Vedic tradition believes the divinity of and in all. There is no
theological dogma in Hinduism. Deities, demons, animals, trees even stones and any element of
environment including all forms and constituents of life in a single interdependent whole are the
objects of human worship.
Against different popular ideologies like anthropocentricism, bio-centrism and cosmo-centrism
on the relation and interaction between humans and environment, the synchronic theory is
25 | P a g e
importantly covetous. This theory gives importance to both the scientific as well as religious
approaches to environment. According to it as below so is above. If a tiny element of the
environment or an atom is defected the whole is affected. And, therefore, the soundness of the
part is inevitable for the same of the whole. The holistic approach of the Indian classics takes the
influence of the all layers of environment on man and the vice versa and, therefore, the seer
prays :
i ziil-- ~--l-i ziil--. lii ziil-- ~i ziil-- ~i ii ziil-- ---
ziil--.lz<i ziil-- ziil-- = ziil-- ziil--ziil-- =i ni ziil--li
The peace/ balance (nti) be with the luminaries, with the lord of the space, the earth, the
water, the plants, the vegetables, the universe, the Brahma and even with the peace itself. In the
end of every mantra, the term nti is uttered thrice alternatively. The uttering of the term
nti thrice is highly significant in Hinduism. Very few knows that the uttering of the term for
the first occurrence stands for peace with nature, for the second stands for the peace with
biological environment and that for the last stands for the peace for the spirit which is peace
itself. The term environment embraces all the three. I feel the environmental awareness must be
linked with the religion for better results.
Those believing in anthropocentric ideology have now realized the suicidal effects of exploiting
environment. They have realized the true essence of placing human beings as the master of
environment in their religious texts. If the environment is polluted, they cannot survive. They
are now doing utmost effort for saving the wild lives, rivers, trees, plants, mountains and other
ingredients of environment. It should not be too late; they have to realize the existence value of
environment on which the human existence is dependent.
Environmental ethics concerns with the good of the entire non-living and living organism. It may
have a metaphysical basis that concerns with the controversy between the meaning of human life
and the value of other lives that is between different moral ideologies. Theoretically, morality is
a position that is normally acceptable to all human beings. In the changed present scenario of
scientific and technological advancement, we find brutal exploitation of the environmental
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resources. However, it requires a new search so that the harmony between industrialization,
scientific achievements and environment can be achieved.
Summing the discussion up, I can say that in the history of ideas on environment only Pauric
literatures equate it with divinity. The God can come out of a post as we find in the paurika
concept of Nsinha. Buddhism inflicts the concept of compassion (karu) and Jainism divinizes
the concept of Ahins for satisfying an inevitable need of balancing environment. These devices
have caused great influence on ideologies of different religions of the world and have inspired
them for healthy practices regarding nature. Modern measures of preservation and the ancient
remedies for purifying and creating healthy environment are different but collaborative activities
and they jointly can serve as human achievement of the present time against the risk of life and
welfare of the coming generations. A perfect harmony between scientific and technological
development and environmental ethics is feasible only if the development is observed
proportionate to the care of soundness of the environment.

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Pankaj K. Mishra, Dinesh Chahal
We know that a man, like other living beings, act instinctively; but he can also do so deliberately.
This means he can consciously set before himself ends, and work for them. It is this conscious
pursuit that transforms them into Purushartha. The term Purushartha consists of two words, viz.,
Purusha and Artha. Purusha means person or self. Artha means aim or goal of human life. The
concept of Purushartha basically indicates different values to be realized in human life through
human efforts. There are four Purusharthas or aims of life as propounded by Manu, viz., Dharma
(virtue), Artha (wealth), Kama (pleasure), and Moksha (liberation). One can find the reference of
these Purusharthas in various texts of Indian Philosophy. These Purusharthas are studied in-depth,
with its origin to its first occurrence and also its different interpretations by different thinkers.
Today these Purusharthas have taken a new form and to an ordinary, lay-man dharma is equated
with duty, Artha with money, Kama with pleasure, and Moksha with death. This paper attempts to
explore the relevance of these Purusharthas and the meaning that it brings out in our lives. Being
aims or goals of life, what is the right path to achieve them? And how, when, followed in a correct
manner, can still add sense to our lives? These are the concerns which we are going to deal in this
Keywords: Purusharth, Dharma, Artha, Kama, Moksha, Ekatvam.

Millennia ago, the seers of Indian tradition articulated the blueprint for the fulfillment of the
objectives of human birth as was shown to them in the highest supreme levels of consciousness.
The Supreme Self pervades and exists in all dimensions in all beings, sentient and insentient. It is
that Supreme Self that exists inside each individual self. And, therefore, every individual person
is none other than the Supreme Self, for how can the part be different from the whole.
28 | P a g e
In order for an individual to realize their supreme Self, they need to identify the reasons and
objectives why they came into being on this earth plane, and fulfill them. The Seers clearly
articulated the objectives of humankind as Purusharthas. The idea of Purushartha has played a
very vital role in the history of Indian Culture. The term Purushartha literally signifies what is
sought by men, so that it may be taken as equivalent to a human end or purpose. Thus even the
ends which man shares with other animal, like food and rest, may become Purushartha provided
they are sought knowingly. We may thus define a Purushartha as an end which is consciously
sought to be accomplished either for its own sake or for the sake of utilizing it as a means to the
accomplishment of further end or goal.
The word purushartha consists of two words, viz, purusa meaning person or human beings
and artha meaning aim or end. Hence, as defined earlier, purushartha means aim or goal of
human life. The purusharthas that have been recognized in India from very early times are four:
Dharma (duty), Artha (wealth), Kama (pleasure), and Moksa (liberation). Of the four, dharma
and moksa are the one that man ought to seek but ordinarily does not; while artha and kama are
the one that man is naturally inclined to seek. Human life without purpose would be
meaningless. One needs to have an end or purpose in life towards which our actions can be
directed. Dharma, Artha, Kama, and Moksa are the aims or goals of human life which man ought
to strive for attaining it throughout his life, and in all births. It was there earlier; it is sought
today, and is going to be there till man lives. In other words:
4i-ii4f-a fn4 ufaz rtan+
-ii-sf4f-a ni+i 4i u+faf4++
Accordingly these four Purusharthas are articulated as:
Dharma: Righteousness,Duty
Artha : Wealth
Kama : Desire
Moksha : Liberation
The four purusharthas are really the objectives of God, of the Supreme Self, the qualities
of God. And since an individual person is a reflection of God, is a part of God, it is the
29 | P a g e
rightful pursuit of a person to fulfill these four purusharthas. In fact, it is both your
individual and soul purpose.
An individual can realize him or herself by balancing and fulfilling these four objectives.
These four objectives are not independent of each other and should not be viewed in a
stand-alone manner. They define and refine the other objectives and allow the other
objectives to define and refine it. The activity of fulfilling one objective should also
support the fulfillment of the other objectives. By maintaining a balance between the
definition and fulfillment of the four purusharthas, a symbiotic evolution of the individual
self takes place. Exclusive pursuit of one purushartha creates an imbalance in a person's
life, and prevents the person from reaching the ultimate destination of their life. As a
person progresses through the evolution of their soul, they find that some of the objectives
eventually lose their place and importance to more predominant objectives. For example,
the desire to earn wealth may diminish and disappear, or a person may come to the
realization that there is no more material desires that they need to pursue, and hence more
room is created for the pursuit of the ultimate objective, Moksha.
Ekatvam is founded on the four pillars of Dharma, Artha, Kama, and Moksha. The mission
of Ekatvam is to help people realize their True Selves, to become one with the Supreme
Self in this lifetime, to achieve moksha. Often, people make the mistake of renouncing
everything in the pursuit of Moksha, but that can frequently turn out to be the wrong path,
and is not suited for everyone. Ekatvam is in place to help people identify their true
purpose and their unique purusharthas. Ekatvam shows the way to each individual by
helping people see the underlying unity, Ekatvam (oneness), of them with the Universe.
The path for each individual to reach the ultimate destination is different, and it is only the
individual self that can identify and see the path with the help of the Divine guidance.
A person is born on this earth to perform certain duties. The soul houses itself into the
physical vehicle that is the body which most suits for performing these duties. The physical
work that a person needs to do, the duties of the person on this earth plane are termed as
30 | P a g e
the Dharma of the person. Dharma is a difficult term to translate into English, but can
roughly be translated as the rightful duty of a person. This is the true calling of a person,
what they are born to do. Sometimes a person's dharma is decided by their birth, but not
necessarily so. A person's dharma can be a combination of things, and as a person
progresses through life, different stages of life may call for different dharmas and
purposes. Tuning into the inner guide of the heart allows a person to identify their dharma,
their true calling.
The Indian expression of right activities is dharma. In Mahabharata it is mentioned as an
ethical Concept, defined as that which is right and good. In Mimamsa, dharma is a means
to the attainment of certain ends- i<ain+iii r (1/1/2 of Mimansa Sutra). This means
that, ends like artha and kama should be acquired through righteousness, honesty and
straightforwardness. One can possess artha through stealing and can become rich and
through it can get all pleasures of life. But is this not the dharma of a person. In
Mahabharata, dharma is stated as that which upholds the society- ri ri4a si+
Dharma is duty. It is the higher good to achieve the highest i.e., moksa. In all stages of a
mans life either as a student or as a householder, as a forest dweller or an ascetic, dharma
has to be accepted as paramount. Any officer, who has got lots of money and pleasures in
his life, but these are to be acquired by doing his duty with sincerity and honesty, and not
with bribery, corruption or other malpractices; only then it will add meaning to his life,
otherwise artha and kama without dharma would be meaningless.
Dharma is the most important urge and should be developed to regulate both artha and
kama. If dharma is the common regulator, moksa or liberation, is the common aim, though
difficult to attain. Under the wise regulation of dharma, desire has to be satisfied and
wealth has to be produced and well used. But all the three urges have to be so adjusted and
regulated as to lead a man to self-fulfillment in his search for the highest good. Dharma
also refers to Varnashrama Dharma i.e., choice of duty on the basis of ones aptitudes and
stage in life.

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In one of the old Sanskrit lexicons, artha is said to mean- meaning, money, a thing, and
possessions. Artha also means the attainment of riches and worldly prosperity, advantage,
profit and wealth. Artha is the pursuit of material wealth, which brings material comforts
to a person. Artha, is a powerful urge in human nature. Acquisition of means for the
material well-being, therefore, is a legitimate social and moral purpose. Today everyone is
running after money. People need money to meet their basic necessities, for higher
education, for luxuries of life, for name, fame, etc. However, if the urge to seek money or
possessions is not restricted then it will lead to self-indulgence or greed and will bar the
way to highest good i.e., moksa. It is given in one of the Pali text, that one who enjoys his
wealth and does meritorious deeds with it, experiences pleasure and happiness. It has
therefore to be coupled with charity, also to Kautilya.
People sometimes believe that the path of spiritual growth and pursuit of material wealth
are mutually exclusive, or even that a spiritual seeker needs to be in poverty. But that is not
true. The important thing to remember is not to be attached to the possession or attainment
of wealth. It can be either transcended or sought with detachment, and with awareness.
And in the state of detachment, one recognizes when one has attained their financial
objectives, and hence the desire to pursue automatically dies away, paving the way for
Wealth and wealth alone is important in as much as charity and desire depend on wealth
for their realization. Artha helps in the attainment of Kama.
Kama is ordinarily termed as pleasure. The definition of pleasure in Kamasutra is the
Kama is the enjoyment of the appropriate objects by the five senses of hearing, feeling,
seeing, tasting and smelling, assisted by the mind together with the soul.
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Kama is fulfilling one's desires. Desires are in various forms -- to be wealthy, powerful,
sexual needs, recognition, service, etc. The Kama purushartha advocates that one's desires
in this lifetime need to be fulfilled, albeit in a state of awareness and without harming
anyone in the process. For a person to evolve spiritually and to reach the ultimate
destination, the barrier of desires needs to be crossed. This can be done either by fulfilling
the desires, or by sublimating or transcending them. Suppressing of desires is certainly not
recommended because it is like a fully coiled spring that is held down by force, it can erupt
unpredictably causing undesirable consequences. As one becomes aware of their desires
and one goes about fulfilling them in awareness and without judgment, one soon reaches
the stage of being able to sublimate them. The Divine, the Universe, lends a big hand in the
The urge to enjoy pleasures and satisfy desires, is the most powerful and as an incentive to
individual progress, most effective. It is said, All that man does is inspired by Kama. Not
only Bhagavad Gita but Manu also regarded Kama as desire. One can say, it is a desire for
pleasure. It can be sensuous pleasure, mental pleasure getting through satisfaction of the
work, urge for sexual pleasure, etc. Everyone is seeking that, which gives them pleasure
and luxuries of life.
Moksha means liberation, realization of the Self, and is the ultimate destination of this
human birth. It is the stage of inner realization that the individual self is the same as the
Supreme Self. It is the experience of the cosmos within one's self. It is the experience of
the flow and fusion of the Shiva and Shakti energies in one's self. It is the experience of
union, oneness, Ekatvam, with the Universe.
As all the rivers must eventually lead to the sea, there are many spiritual paths leading to
the same destination. Some paths are shorter than others; some are more arduous than
others. The path can be difficult to navigate, and the path may not always be visible. A
guide, in the form of a Guru is needed to traverse this path, someone who holds the person
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and shows them the Way to their inner Guru. It is Ekatvams mission, and it is the Dharma
of Amma and Swamiji to help people find their way to Moksha.
Etymologically moksa means to get rid of or release. Also it is commonly understood as
Liberation. In Bhagavad-Gita, moksa is mentioned as the supreme tranquility and the
highest bliss. It is delight in the self, contentment with the self, self-satisfaction and self-
fulfillment. It is the highest end of life, attainable only by the individual himself, with the
help and guidance of dharma. Moksa as the last end signifies that its attainment is
impossible without first fulfilling the obligations of the other three. It is a state of non-
action. It is not that on death moksa is attained. Being the ultimate value of mans social
existence, the purushartha of moksa is an end in itself. Beyond that, man has nothing to
attain. It is the stage where mans cravings cease and along with that ceases the need for
attainment and fulfillment. It is realization and living of the truth namely Aham Brahma
Asmi and Tat Tvam Asi. In other words it is waking up of human consciousness at the
highest level of reality i.e., paramarthik satta. The liberated person neither acts nor causes
others to act. He may work for the good of humanity without moral obligation. But he has
no duties to perform. It is total destruction of egoism. We can call moksa as a sublime goal.
It can be known through mystical experience. Many saints like Tukaram, Kabir have talked
about it and ultimately we all have to aim at it and only then we will be able to come out of
the cycle of birth and death.
The order of Artha, Kama, Dharma and Moksa corresponds to the human nature, the order
of importance of todays 21st century man. Dharma is always held higher than Artha and
Kama. Infact, dharma is that which helps man to fulfill the obligations of artha and kama
directed to the ultimate end of moksa. In the attainment of moksa only dharma can help,
provided it has been cultivated through artha and kama. If artha is higher as social aim,
social life will be dominated by violence and universal corruption, as we see in modern
times. If kama is pre-dominant aim of life, it will lead to a social system based on pleasure.
Moral decay and disintegration will follow. In either of the case moral vacuum will follow
and people would have little chance to pursue the path of the highest good. The conception
of society where people are pursuing artha and kama within the confines of dharma and
thus preparing themselves for the final beatitude is at the basis of the doctrine of the
34 | P a g e
purushartha. Man can live a fulfilled life provided he follows the four purusharthas

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Sohan Raj Tater

Samuel P. Huntington in his book The Clash of Civilization and the Remaking of the World
Order, (Touchstone Edition: 1997; p. 380-382) considered as one of the most important books
to have emerged since the cold war writes:
Far more significant than economics and demography are problems of moral decline, cultural
suicide, and political disunity in the West. Oft-pointed-to manifestations of moral decline
increase in antisocial behaviour, such as crime, drug-abuse, and violence, generally;
family decay, including increased rates of divorce, illegitimacy, teenage- pregnancy, and
single-parent families.
How far to go with the moral decline and, its consequent punishments? Chinese government had
to intensify punishment-killing of culprits in a society where religious values were either rejected
or destroyed by a so-called godless communism for a few decades. Sweden is known by many as
a contraceptive society.To the Westerners Vivekananda exposed the sad results of a purely
intellectual culture. The majority of students today simply do not have a higher purpose of life,
beyond personal profit, money-making, power-grabbing, and sensate enjoyments. This
economic reductionism ends in a Hedonistic Paradox, by which peace eludes even after
repeated sensate pleasures. Then begins a feeling of deeper frustration and purposelessness when
the left-brain educated person begins to suffer from Noogene Neurosis, a sense of guilt for all the
inhuman pleasures and cutthroat cheating he/she had to pursue to achieve their goal. Third wave
civilisation as Toffler calls it, must also begin proving a framework of order and purpose in
life. Perpetual purposelessness leads a young man to heroin addiction, which temporarily gives
a way of life to a young person.

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The UNESCO report admits that the sense of depression and frustration among the youth is due
to a distorted vision of man and the Unvierse. The dominant Western view is man is a born
sinner, and life is meant for sensate pleasures. The Vedantic view is that man is a born God
and all the activities of life should help him to manifest his / her innate perfection and divinity,
attainment of Zatori and Buddhahood, as Zen masters would say. UNESCO recommends
Education To BE. Education to be for what? Vedanta answers : education to be the infinite
man, the complete man, the Christ-Buddha Man.
Inculcation of values is a struggle to bring out the God from out of the animal man. Sometimes it
is a life-long struggle. Values cannot be taught in a day. It requires the entire education period
right from elementary education to that of research to infuse values in learners. A century ago
Swami Vivekananda cautioned Indians in 1897: We must have a hold on the secular and
spiritual education of the nation. Till then there is no salvation of the race.

Value Education:

Value education is going to emerge as a new science for inspiring human values in our highly
scientific and technologically advanced society. The challenge in front of todays techno-
globalism is the creation of value based human beings. Einsteins brain should be combined with
Buddhas heart to stop the devastation of Nagasaki and Hiroshima. Napoleons dynamism
should be combined with Vivekanandas prophetic passion for helping human beings to manifest
their divinity and Ramakrishnas universal love, respect and acceptance of all religions, should
be combined with the spirit of intense religious revival which is emerging all over the world

Value Education: The Vedantic Vision
According to Vedanta philosophy which is the highest culmination of Vedic knowledge, the
human personality consists of five layers or sheaths. These five sheaths are: 1. The Physical
Body (Annamaya Kosha), 2. Vital Body (Pranmaya) Kosha), 3. Mental Body (Manomaya
Kosha), 4. Intellectual Body (Vijnanamaya Kosha) and 5. Blissful Body (Anandamaya Kosha).
In the West, man is a body; he has a soul. In India man is basically the non-physical Self, which
takes a body according to desires of the evolving soul. A purely technical education can cover
37 | P a g e
the first four layers. It can physically, mentally and intellectually energise the students, but can
never touch the final non-physical spiritual Self, which is the source of infinite bliss, knowledge,
strength, and all kinds of human excellence hidden within each and every student.

Value Based Lives Inspire Values:

The Bhagavad Gita (3:21) speaks of the tremendous influence exerted by great value-based
lives: Whatever the greatest men of society do, common masses imitate. Whatever the great
ones prove by their actions, others follow unconditionally.
Yat Yat Acharati shresthani, tat tat eva itaro janah,
Sa yat pramanam kurute Lokah tat Anuvartate.

The Socratic dialogues of Plato revolved around the question, Can value be taught? He
realized that virtue is universal and is always the same everywhere; that the good values can be
taught but teachers must be good; such teachers call out our inherent virtues rather than
instruct us. While words teach values, great persons inspire us to put them into practice.

Historic Examples of Value-Based Lives:

World history provides us with some of the most inspiring examples of value based lives who
reached historic excellence.

King Ashoka flooded the Kalinga fields with human blood for the fulfilment of his ambition to
conquer that kingdom. Out of intense remorse and penitence at the sight of the dying thousands,
he found solace in a Buddhist monk who taught him non-violence, love, and service as the way
to true fulfilment and peace. Ashoka started a new life of conquest through Dharma (Dharma
Vijaya), and emerged as great king.

Guru Govind Singh saw his own father Guru Tegbahadur being beheaded in Delhi Chand ani
chowk. Yet he did not stop to fight the mighty Mughals. Even when distrusted and resisted by
Hindu princes, Govind Singh continued fighting for Indias eternal religion. His sons and his
38 | P a g e
wife were killed most brutally by the Mughals. Undaunted Govind Singh fought again, and
finally got treacherously stabbed by the enemy. He died leaving behind the great force of
Sikhism where the final leader as Govind Singh taught, is not any individual but the Guru
Granth Sahib. His immortal slogan Sardar-Sirdai he who sacrifies is the leader and his historic
sacrifice gave birth to sentinels of Indias religion-the Sikhs, the heroes from the land of Punjab.

American Tycoon Rockefeller met Vivekananda in U.S. A. who told the rich man to find
fulfilment by offering his wealth for impoverished have-nots. Rockfeller took the message of

Rockefeller wrote at the end of his-life: There is more to life than the accumulation of money...
The best way to prepare for the end is to live for others. That is what I am trying to do.

Holistic Action And Self Control: the Indian Ideal For Kings:

What is righteous action? All righteous action is based on the holistic truth - I and my brother are
one-action which is meant for the good of many, for the welfare of many, Chanakyas aphorisms
inspired Indian kings to seek success in administration by this time-tested method of righteous
action leading to the manifestation of divinity within :
Sukhasya Mulam Dharmah (The root of happiness lies in righteous action)
Dharmasya Mulam Artham (The root of Dharma is the legitimately earned wealth)
Arthasya Mulam Rajyam (The root of such wealth lies in having a kingdom)
Rajasya Mulam (Sasakasya) Indriya Vijayam (The root of Kingdom lies in the self-
controlled life of the ruler.)
Indriya Vijayasya Mulat Vinayam (The root of self control lies in genuine humility.)
Vinayasya Mulam Vriddhopaseva (Humility comes from serving enlightened persons)
Vriddhopasevaya Vijnanam (From the service of enlightened persons comes wisdom)
Vijnanena Atmanam Sampadayet (by wisdom is gained the knowledge of the Atman-
Sampaditatma Jitatma Bhavati (A man of Self-Realisation conquers everything in the
39 | P a g e

Sardar Sirdar : He Who Sacrifices is the Leader :

Vivekananda asserts that a mere awakening of an intellectual, dynamic to intelligent man is
never enough. Success comes only when the holistic personality, inspired for serving others also
emerges along with the intellectual man. Guru Govind Singhs slogan has been immortal in
India: Sardar Sirdar.

Young executives or leaders today develop ego-centered devotion to the organization and seek
status symbols like promotions, honours, titles and positions of power. Vivekananda plunged
himself down to absolutely menial activities like cleaning big utensils of cooking, and even
cleaning old-time latrines of the first Ramakrishna Math when workers failed to turn out. If you
want to lead, first serve others, he taught. To the Maharaja of Mysore; Vivekananda wrote the
inspiring words (letter dated 23rd June, 1884).
My noble prince, this life is short, the vanities of life are transient, but they alone live who live
for others, the rest are more dead than alive.

Unselfish Action Brings Success:
Gandhari, the symbol of righteous knowledge, advised her son Duryodhana before the war to
accept the path of righteousness or Dharma, but Duryodharia refused to listen to his mother. In
the Mahabharata, Gandhari cautioned her extremely brilliant son Duryodhana and Said (Udyoga
Parva: 128:21 : 2:30)
Na hi Rajyam mahaprajna Swena Kamyena Sakyate Apitum
Rakshitam Va Api Bhoktum Va Bharatarshaba
Vashyendriyam Jitatman Dhritadandam Vikarisu
Parikshakarinam Dhiram Atyasham Shree Nasevyate
O my extremely brilliant and mighty son, no one can get a Kingdom if he fights only for his
personal benefit; even if he gets it, he can neither keep nor enjoy it. Unless the leader is self-
controlled, the assistant ministers will never listen to him, nor can he give punishment to evil
doers if he takes rash decisions with.an unsteady mind. The Goddess of Wealth never comes to
such a person.
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Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda, Vol. I, p. 124.
Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda: Vol. 9, p.221.
Alvin Toffler , The Third Wave, p. 95.
National Policy on Education, 1986, p. 195.
Challenge of Education (1985) Govt of India, New Delhi, pp. 15-25, 69.
Learning To Be (1972) UNESCO, pp. 154, 155, 157.
Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda: Vol. 3 :pp. 277, 301, 114
M.L. Burke, Swami Vivekananda in the West: Vol.I: Advaita Ashrama, Calcutta, pp.
William and Herman (1989) Einstein and the Poet Branden Press: Brooklyn U.S.A., p.66.
Reminiscences of Swami Vivekananda; Advaita Ashrama, pp. 2-7.
George Wills (1992) Lincoln at Gettysberg, N.Y.p. 57.
Sikhism (1969) Punjab Patiala, p. 108.

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ui 4i y iaifri+i fzi+ii +t as4ifnai
<zii fuuin, rz fur

ii-i =ni ~-i lli---i ~i =i-+l-+ li=- + ln( lzi + ln( ~i+ii
+i +-< ti t i-i- ii-i lzi-ii zl- n ii tn lli-- n-i +i lzi-ii +i i-
lnn-i t nl+- <zi + lziin ~i+i ~i lli-i. l+i=ziin -ii = i-i =--
inl--i. ni+-ilz+ ni--z + n :=+i l-ai -ii (+ i- ~il-lzi+ i +
n :=+ :l-ti= + liin- ii- n ni-ili+ii +i ll-il- (+ +i = ln
ti n: t ii- +i =lii- niln+ ~li+i <i- +-i t . l=n in +i ---z-i ii
l-lt- t =lii- +i iii~i n in- +i ~ii<i + =ii=ii +i iln+i ~i -iiln+i
+i lii- -ii <zi + ~-< -ii it ~i-i- +i ii ~ii<i <i n: t nl+- ~n
ii-i =ni + =ti - +i l--- l+i i -i :=n n-i +i lzi-ii ~i ni-ili+i
=--ii l-ii n tn +i-i ~i +-i n t- ~-- <i- +i lnn-i t n-i = ~lii
-- nii = t i ni- + =-i l+i= n =ti+ ti <=i -+ ni-ili+i = ~lii
-- i-iini lzii-i~i = t i l+ (+ ni- + ln( ~iz+ ti ~i t -= =ni
+i l=+i t ~n t . n =ni--i ~i ---z-i +i i- i =+ =+ tn i-i- ii-i
=ni +i in ti+- t nl+- i--l+-i t t l+ i-i- lzi-ii zl- ,ii i- l+ n
n- ~i -+ =ni n -iil- -ti l+ i =+
=-+l- ~i =-i ni- + =inil+ i- + <i ~nn~nn tn t ni- +i
l+i~i +i t =inil+ -ii l== ni- +i zil+-i +i -n ~i l+i= ti-i t .
l-= -=+i i- =-< --i t . ti =-+l- +tni-i t <=i -+ =-i -- = -+ii
~i =ii-i +i -ii t l-+i in ni- ~- =inil+ i- n +-i t
~i ==i
n ~-+ <zi t ~i + <zi +i ~-i (+ llzi-i t . t llzi-i -= <zi + nini
,ii l-ln-i t :- lzii-i~i n (+ n- -ii ii ~l- nti t lli-- n-i =
=inil+. ~ili+. -l-+ ~i ~iiln+ n-i + ~iii ti tn l+=i <zi +i =inil+
-ii +i n-i +- +- t lzi-ii ti t nin t . l=+ ,ii n-i +i l+- + i-
42 | P a g e
n =-ii ti-i t ~i i (+ l+- + =inii l+i= +i =+iin+ ~iii <i- +-i
t l= <zi + -inl+ =lzil-i- -ii l-ii =--- tin t i i< i< ---l- + i
~n= ti-i i(ni := +ii lzi-ii + - ~i -=+ -zi +i ~- ii nti
ti i-i t := ziiiz +i -z ~i + =<i n lzi-ii + -zi -ii -- n-i +i
~- +-i t i l+ ni-ili+i +i lzi-ii n (+ nti iln+i ~-i =+ :== tn
+i tn <=i i- +. lzi-ii ~i ni-ili+i + i n i- n

fzi+ii +i i i au+ acz4
lzi-ii == nti =i -+l-+ l+i t :=n l+- +i i+ l-+ zil+-i +
=ii=ii =inil+ i- + ln( ~iz+ zil+-i ~i nii +i l+i= ii ti-i t :=ln(
=ii = =nii n lzi-ii +i ~l-i-i i l<i i-i t l-=n ( +zi- +nizi- +
~-=i ''lzi-ii +n i- i ~i +i =ii- -ti t . - ti -inl+i + ln( l+=i -+n
i l-ii +i -=i t t =ti ~ii n i- + l- ~ln n n t . t n- +i =<nii
+ ~i= -ii =- + iz nni- +i lzi-ii t t <=i -n t l,-i -n''
fzi+ii + <i 4a acz4i +i ru s+i fii n4i r
+. lzi-ii + l+-n- -z
.. lzi-ii + =inil+ -z

+z l,i- lzi-ii + l+-n- -zi +i. -i +z =inil+ -zi +i nti ni--
t nl+- i-- n <i-i +i + -zi +i ~-i~-i nt t ti tn lzi-ii +
l+-n- -zi n l---lnli- +i ziilnn + =+- t
l+- +i ilz+ l+i=
l+- +i ziiil+ l+i=
l+- +i iiin+ l+i=
l+- + -lz +i l+i=
--in+ zil+- +i l+i=
l+- +i ii=-i l+i=
lzi-ii + l+-n- -z ti =+- t nl+- lzi-ii + =inil+ -z ii --- ti
nti t . l-- +i l+-n-. +il+ l-i =ni + l+- +i l+i= -ti ti =+-i ~i
=ni ti t ~iii t l=+ ~iii l+- ~- n ni-i<i n-i +i l+i= + i-i
43 | P a g e
t ~i :- n-i + l- =<-ziin ti i-i t lzi-ii + =inil+ -zi n tn l---lnli-
-zi +i ziilnn + =+- t
l+- + =inil+ +-i ~i =inil+ l-nili +i lzi-ii
-inl+-i +i lzi-ii
=ni ~i i +i ~-zi zil+-ziini -i- +i lzi-ii
lzi-ii + l+-n- -zi + =ii=ii =inil+ -z := ln( ii nti +i l+
lzi-ii t -+i t l=+ ,ii l+- ~- =ni + l- --i<ii --i t ~i -=+i
=n-i~i + l- =<-ziin ii t ni- n-i l+ ni- ~-iai- = ti lzil-i- ti i-i t -i
t nn- t ~n lzi-ii + =ii=ii =inil+ =<-i - <i ti -i t l+- lzil-i- -ti
+ti i =+-i ~i +i tnii ~iz+-i (=i lzi-ii zl- +i t i l+-i n =ni +
l- =<-i <i + -il+ t =ni + l- ~-i l-nili +i l-it ai+ +i = +

fzi+ii i ta 4
l+- --ti --~i +i i- +i +ilzizi +-i t l-+i t n-i- =nn-i t ~i
lzi-ii +i :=n nti -ii- t -il-zii-z +i <l n t l+i( n-i- t i l+- +i
~ini +i i-i +i ~i n i l+- + =ii tn~i +i i- n i- t ( <izil-+i
l---lnli- ~ia +i + n-i +i i- l+i t
~ili+ n-
ziiil+ n-
n-i- + n-
=inil+ =--ii + n-
-lz =--ii n-
=-<-i+ni =--ii n-
ilz+ n-
iiln+ n-

tn ~- l+-n- -ii =inil+ i- n lli-- -t + n-i +i --i +- t
~n ni = <ii i( -i tnii ~iz+-i =inil+ n-i +i t l== (+ ~-z =ni +i
l-nii ti i ~- n-i +i l+i= -i l+- + l+i= + =ii=ii ~- ~i ti i-i
t n-i +i l+i= -+n ~i +in n :=+i lzi-ii <+ i ia+n n ziilnn ++ -ti
44 | P a g e
l+i i =+-i +il+ t (+ itil+ ai- t i +n =+iin+ <l+i i = ti i--
l+i i =+-i t
~i i <i- n ~i-i t l+ lzi-ii +i ni-ii n nni-i lni ~i-i i ti t
:=+i n +ii lzi-ii n i-il- +i zi. ~i+i n lilii + l- l-nii n +ni.
~i+lilii + =--ii n -ii-i. ~i+i +i =ni n ln -+i l-ai. :=+
~l-l+- lilii +i ~i+i + l- ni-=-ni- n +ni =+ii -il-i ii +i+i t<
-+ l-ni t l-+i l-<i- +-i ~l- i t l== lzi-ii +i ni-ii n lz ti =+
lzi-ii + i n l-i +- + -i-- tn ni-ili+ii +i i- +- t

l+=i ii l+- +i l-<ni. ~ii<i. ii ~i =-ni- +i ~li+i ti ni-ili+i
t ni-i ~li+ii +i t-i- <- ~i < +i ~l-- n ni- + ln(. ~li+ii + ln(
ii ni: +i -i+- <- + ln( t =in +c l<=- +i ''~-ii ni-ili+i l<=''
il- ''l-=n tn- i:= '' n-ii i-i t ~-+ i-i- <--ii ( i< + iiln+
( <izil-+ <--ii n (=i ~-+ ~iiii( t l-t ni-ili+i + n t-i-i i
=+-i t (= inii n nt-n< n- ,ii l-ln- 'n<i- +i =lii-' (Message-e-Madeena).
~zii+ + '~i<ziz' ~il< +i l-ii i =+-i t ~iil-+ ni-ili+i +i-- -ii
ni-ili+ii +i ~li+izi ~-ii+- -ii( =n=inl+ :l-ti= = =nz t '<i -
~il+n ~i+ <i n+ +i- (+:.:) +i i n ni-ili+ii +i =in <--i ni-i
i-i t t <--i n-i + l+=i- l<it (Peasants War) -il- =i + =n-i -ai:
n:. l+=i-i +i nin +i (+ lt-=i t 'llzi ln ~i+ i:=' - -i: l+ nn n
l=nl=ni -i+ = =+ii <n-+ii +ii:i +i ~i +i l<i +/- n = +- i n
~i + n +i= n +i =<i + <ii- <i ni +il-i t:. l=+ +n- +nzi =+-
i +i ---z-i +i ii iii ( +i=i=i n- +i ni- -ii -inl+i + ~li+ii +i
ii iii +i ~linti t ~i :- <i-i +il-i - ti +z l-lz-- +i--i ~li+ii +i -ii-i +i
l+=i ii <zi n ~- ni-ili+ii +i n + ~+= li< -i t-i t =nn i-i
nlz+n ti i-i t l+ +i i-- n ni-ili+ii +i =ii+-i t ? t l+--i <ii i t
l+ -nin i<lzi+. ii ~i ~-ii -- =+ii ~i n=+ii ni-ili+i =na-i
+ i< ii ni-ili+ii +i l<z -nin -t +i l=nl-i = ii i t :-ti =ii
l=nl-i = l-i- i-i. ni- +i l-<ni. ii. ~i ni-=-ni- +i ~li+i t

45 | P a g e
i <l-i n ni--i + lini+ ti t ~i-ii +i i+-. -=+ lini+ =ii +i -:
i <- n 'ni-ili+i' +i ~tn iln+i t ni-ili+ii = ~lii -- niln+ ~li+ii
( ---z-i = t . l=n =ii iii (+ =ni- t
+c l<=- +- +i t (l-til=+ l<- ii =+- i nti=ii - ''ni-ili+i
=iiin iiiiiz'' il- ''l-=n l+nzi- ~i+ tn- i:='' ii l+i :=
ii iiiz +i ~- <zii + =ii ii- - ii ~-i -i+l- <i :=+ i n l-< t i
:= +i = t

=ii nin nlni ~i ~li+ii + ninn n ---z ~i i t
+ l+- +i i-. ~ii<i ~i =-ii +i ~li+i t
=ii +i nnini ~i <i=-i = ~ii<i +i ~li+i t
i--i. -i-i ~i +-i = ~ii<i +i ~li+i t
n-ni- cn = +i n: ln+-ii. lti=- n i- i l-i=- = ~ii<i +i ~li+i
-+ ~<in- <iii +i -ti <-i. - -+ l-<ii t- +i ~li+i
l-ii +i ~lil+- ~i i-+ii til=n +- +i ~li+i
=+i -i-. --- =+ii nl-llii n lt-=i n- +i ~li+i
=inil+. ~ili+. =i -+l-+ ~li+ii +i il-- = -ii +i ~li+i
ii. +i. n+i- ~i -i- =i nni- =lii~i =inil+ =-ii =lt- -
~i li +i i- +i ~li+i
lzi-ii +i ~li+i. l=n iiln+ lzi-ii +i ~l-i-i ti. =i-+l-+ +i +ni n
ziilnn ti- ~i ilz+ =-<i + =-ii +i ~li+i
+ l+- =n<i + l- i<ti t i l+ ni+-ilz+ =ni + ln( nti
ii-i =lii- := ~li+i +i +n nii ti -ti <-i t l-+ := -i- ini +
ln( =lii- n =i +i ii iii- t ii- n . l=-- +. n ni-ili+i +i--
~nn n ~ii +. ~+- +. n =+i - 'ii ni- ~li+i ~iin' +i na- l+i
:= ~iin + +i -iz n -inl+ ~i i-il-+ + =ii ~ili+. =inil+ ~i =i -+l-+
~li+i ii ~i- t :-n = in n<i. (-.~i:.i. (=. -i-. ii-. inlit.
nltni ~li+i. lti=- ~i nai n ti- ini ni-. ~-=i. ~-=l-- il- ~i -il-
+ ~li+ii +i ii ni t
46 | P a g e
fzi+ii i iaifri+i
n- lzil-i- ti -ti tini -i -= ~li+ii +i t-i- += tini` lzi-ii ~i
ni-ili+i (+ <= + + t ~i +i tnii ~iz+-i t t l+ tnii lzi-ii iini
-- n<<i + l- tn in+ + i l+ ~i + =n +i nt-i ~iz+-i t ni-i i-
= t tn +i -in ++ =inil+ -i ~i ~-zi =inil+ -ii +i -ii-i n
lzi-ii t- nti iln+i ~<i + =+-i t ni+--z +i nlni -i i- n =ii +i
=ni--i. ---z-i ~i ~i=i ii:-i +i -iil- +-i ti lzi-ii +i n -z ti-i -ilt(.
+i l+ tn- i:= i- +i (+ li + ~-=i <ln- ~i -<zii nin nni-i i<ii.
lt-+i ( =i-<il+ lt=i + +i +i =in-i + t t ii-i =+i ,ii ~-i n
+i-- ( -il-i =-ii + n- ~iii -i <i- +-i t l+-- -il-i -ii-i ~li+ili
,ii ~nn n -ti ni: i ti t
(= n lzi-ii ti (+niz (=i =ii- t i n-i +i --+
~li+ii = ll-- +i =+-i t ii-i =-+l- + =i <in i-i- -i~i ~i +il-i
+i nltninl- ++ tni =in- i- t . -- :=+i =--i: +z ~i ti t ~i + =ni
n +ni +il-i + +ii il- -ii. iiln+ ~-i-i. +nl=zi-- ~il< +i -i=i
+- t ti in + l- ~ai--i. ~-i-i ~i ii tni =ni n nti -i t : t :=i
+ii <zi + (+ lt-= +i il- in + -in lt-+- l+i i ti t --+ ii
+i nii i ti t . tli +i :- + =ii lini l+i i ti t ~i t -
-+ ti-i t ni -+ l+ n- +i -=+ ~li+ii +i ai- - ti i ~i -=+ ~li+ii
+i ai- (+ --i lzi-ii iini ti < =+-i t . <=i +i: -ti -+ tn (+ --i
lzi-ii iini +i -ti ~-i-. i := lci<i =i - +i in ++. (+ =+iin+ =i - <i
+. - -+ := <zi n =inil+ i:i -i t ni

iaifri+i fzi+ii +t as4ifnai
n- - -+ (+ --i i- -ti ni =+-i. -+ -=+ iil-+ ~li+i -=
i = -= i-- -ti ti i- ~ z- t t l+ -=+ ~li+ii +i ai- -= l+= +i
= ti` :=+ --i n ti +ti i =+-i t l+ t ai- +n lzi-ii ti +i =+-i t
lzi-ii ti i-- n n- +i t -i=i -z t l=+ ,ii -=+i lz +i l+i= ti-i t ~i
lz +i l+i= ti ni -i -=+i ~- ~-z +i ai- =t-i = ti ini ti
lzi-ii n- +i -=+ ~li+ii +i ii +i(ni ~-ii 'tn- i:= i-' - i .c++
n ii- n ni-ili+ii +i l-il- +i l-izii-+ -ii ii tn- i:= i- +i lz+
li .c+. n ii lz + ~- <zii =lt- ii- n ni-ili+ii +i i l-il- <ziii. t
47 | P a g e
l-izii-+ ti ti t tn- i:= i- - li n ln= lti=- n ti- ini ni-. ln=
,ii -i- ~i =+i ,ii +ni =n<ii +i -ii +- +i -il-i nin +- n ~=+n
t- ~il< +i ii- + ln( -+iin+ -ii ni t
ii- n :=+ -<iti ~in -i
lzn =ini n <i- +i lnni. = l<-ni +i <iln-i ni+i +i. n+-n n
lt-<nl-nn <n. ~i l<- ti- in +ii - =i <zi +i ltni+ i l<i
l< ii-i =ni n ni-ili+i +i lzi-ii ~l-i + <i i i nini +i := i
n i- ai- +ii i. -i ii-i =ni = ii-i. lnni<. ni+i. il-ii ~i
~- ni-ili+ii +i --ni- - ti. -i l= ini +i +--i +i n: t. =i ini
-iil- l+i i =+-i t
~i ni-ili+i ~- l+i= + -n t := -iz +i ~i ii =ni =i =
i+ <ii i-i t . -- ~ t nt =ni =i ti -ti t ni t l-+ (+ +l +
n -i+ =in- ~ii t lzil-i- i~i + ~nii. <= +: ~i i+=--= + ln( ii
:= -iz n +: ~= i-- t ni-ili+i +i i-+ii -i l=+ ~i+i ~-i t+ l<ni-i t
l-+ ~-zi ini ii l<ni =+-i t lzn <i <zi+i n ni-ili+i -iz n +i+i nl-
t : t ti (+ ~i nin ~- ~li+ii + l- in+ t ( t. ti ini + -iz n ii
:= -: lii + n ii +i+i ~tln- lnni t
tn- i:= n lni. l-nini ~i =ll++ ii+ +i: ii --ni<i ni-ili+i -iz
n ~-i +l -i =+-i t ni-ili+i n +i= +- + ln( l+=i ii li n --i-+
ti-i ~iz+ t +: =+ii ii ( i ni-ili+i ~iin. ~-ii -ii n =+ii
=na- t ni-ili+i niiz. l-nini -ii lni l-n-lnli- =-ii~i = l+ i =+-
ii-i ni-ili+i =-ii-. -: l<-ni
:l<i niii n+- lzlin. -: l<-ni
ilni lnlni :-nilni lzlin. -: l<-ni
(-. (=. i. i. nltni lzlin. n-:
ii ii-i lli lzlin. nn
n-: lzlin. n-:
-in lzlin. -in
-i= lt-< lzlin. iii=i
n= lzlin. n=
48 | P a g e
<i ~lt-i i: lzlin. :<i

-i+- ~- + i< t +ti i =+-i t l+ lzi-ii iini n l-- +i
~iz+-i t ~i -=n =inil+ in+-i i <- +i ii ~iz+-i t ~i +i
lzi-ii iini + -z =iiin ti- -ilt( il+ ni--ii<i <l+ii +i l+l=- +- n
=ti n < ni-ili+i lzi-ii ii :=i +i +i ~n t ~i ~i ii-i =ni n l+i= ~i
=ni l+i= n til-+i+ lci ~i =inil+ =n-i~i + ln( t ~l- ~iz+ t
lzi-ii l+- + i l+i= +i (+ =ii- t ~i l+=i ii =ni + ln( ~l- nti

+. zini. i+ nin (+-) <zi-zii-z lzi+i. nin lnlzin ti-=. na. . +++++/.
.. zin-< l= t (.c++) +in-= ~i+ (-ni: (li+=. +ii <=. in-i. . .:..
.. zini. i+ nin (+-) <zi-zii-z lzi+i. nin lnlzin ti-=. na. . .+..+:.
-. ti. . -/.
:. ni-ili+i. http://hi.wikipedia.org/s/2f7
-. +i t ni-ili+i ii iiiz + ~--z<`
/. India Events of 2007 Human Rights Watch.
. ii- (+ <zi +i ~-. = +- i ~nl+i + +in= --+in
. ni-ili+i -iz n t t- ni+ (http://www.samaylive.com/gallery/

49 | P a g e

uiif+ -4i4 ri-i nirit +t if+i <fna n + fzii u<i

ntini niii tn ii-i i l-ti- -=iiiii. <ln- il-i. -l-i- nini ~i
ii-i l-zi + ln( ~iil-+ ii- n (+ -( n + ~ii +i iiiii +i
(= =ni
+i -ii-i +-i -it- i l=n =+i ---l- ti. = =ii ti -ii =ii + =ii =ni--i +i
ti ti ---i=i zi-i<i n nnin i ii-i =ni ~lzi-ii. nii. lz- +i <zii n
i- -i- + ti ii :=n -ii. zi<. ~z- ~i ~il<i=i nini +i l-il- ~i ii <-i
ii :=ln( ntini niii - =inil+ -i + ln( =inil+ =iiii n nltni~i . zi<i -ii
~z-i + -ii- +i ~i lzii i- l<i
lt-<nl-nn (+-i. z~iz- +i l-ii ~i l-zi +i ni<i +i -ii- -i- (= n=n
i l=n niii i +i t- l- ii --ti- -ii+li- ~-zi +i 'tl-' n =-ilii-
~- ''=-i + ii-'' + i n --ti - (+ i lnii n (+ (= ii- + ln(
+in + ni l=n ni = ni nin t nt== +n l+ t <zi --+i t ~i -=+ l-nii
n --+i ~ii ii ii+ii t (= ii- l=n - -i ~i -i-i il- + nin -ti tin
-=n =ii =-<ii + nin i =in- + =ii t n (= ii- n z~iz- + ~lizii +i
nitzi -ti tini l-zi +i ii + =ni- ~lii+i i-- tin ti t n =-i +i ii-

ntini niii i-il-+ -iz n --- ti nti- i l-- =inil+ -iz n i.
lzii+ <ln- n + -ii- + ln( -- ,ii +i n: =i~i +i t- =n -+ i< l+i
i-i t ni z~iz- +i (+ ~ii ~i i ni-- i =- +.+ : . <ln- n +i
+i-+= n --ti- +ti l+ n ~-i <ii -n -ti -it-i. ~n ni <ii -n ti-i t -i n
50 | P a g e
(+ ~z- + n -n n-i -it ni -il+ --+ <i -ii +i +i iini<i - =+ :=+
=ii ti - -ii --+i := ~-ii = l-+in- +i - + =+
:= lz+i + (+ ~-
~+ n lni- t ''n ~z-i + nti lt-i +i ii- +i --z-i + <n ii -ti
zini...n --+ ~li+ii +i =i <i =i lz +i zii=- lnn- ii -ti + ni
niii i
+ ~-=i ''z~iz- +i in +i +i: =ni- i-- -ti. t -i zi-i- +i - t zi-i- =<i
iiln+ nii +i tini <- t -- iiln+ n-i -+ ~i =--i: +i ~tn-i -ti +

(+ ~- -ii- t +t- t ''n l-i n := z~iz- +i lt-< zii-zi +i +i:
ii =ni- i-- -ti t --i +i +i z~iz- l--=<t zii-zi n lnn-i t ~i t =ii
ini n ii i-i t t =+i: ~iiil- t . t =<i -i t ni -- l= +i +i
z~iz- ~i nii n -ln- t t l-=-<t l--<i + i t :=- <i-i ~z- ~i
n~z-i +i ii l+i t
--+i lzi= ii l+ ~z-i n ~in=-ni- + ii ----
+- ~i -i lt-<~i + <l+i i +i <n- +i :== ~-zi ~i +i: -i -ti ti =+-i
ii --ti- lt-<~i +i inzi l<i l+ tl- in+i +i ~- li n -ii- < ~i
~-i =--i- +i iil- --+i in-i ii + niii i - tl-i +i -<zi l<i l+ ni=
- ii(. zii - i(. ~i - in. ~-i i ~i<-i +i < +- ~i <=i +i zii t :
na- -i+i - +

niii i =ni--i + l=zi-- n <c lzi= i- i. =i l+ ini- +i - ni-i n
-<zi l<i t ~- (+ ~- ni n lni- t . ''nn ini- +i ,ii -i( n(
=ni--i + l=zi-- n i lzi= t ni-i tn -i-i t l+ =ii -i il-i + nini +i
=ni--i + l-ni + ~-=i (+ <= = ti +-i -ilt( t tn -i-i t l+ <ln-
+i ii t ~i< l<i i-i -ilt( i (+ ii +i ~-i a l<-i + ln( l<i i-i

niii i - <ln-i + nl<i n zi t- i l<i := =--i n (+ ni+

51 | P a g e
l-ii - +i +t-i t ''nl<i n zi + ~i-<in- = niii i i-- n lt-< =ni n
<ln-i + ln( (+ --- -ii- l<( i- + ln( n t i := ~i-<in- ,ii t -it- i
l+ nini + <l+i i n ~-- ~i( ~z-i + -ii- + ln( t := ~i-<in- +i ~iz+
=nn- i. -it t ~i-<in- +i+i -ti ii

niii i ~-zi -t i-- i l+ nl< +i =-ii +i (+ lzii nt t +i l+ t
nt== +- i l+ ''+i: ii -i lt-<~i ~i <ln-i + nl--+ +i :--i iil- -ti +
=+-i l--i l+ =iiii nl<i + ,i <ln-i + l-+n --ti zi-i iin l<( i( =i
l+ ~- lt-<~i + ln( iin i- t ... ~ili+i - =iiii + i- n nl<i +i iln+i
t- nti ti-i t''
=ii ti --ti- +ti l+ ''nn i lzi= t l+ :- <i-i -ii +i
=ii=ii -n-i -ilt( tni -i t l+ --t =iiii nl<i . =iiii -+ni ~i =iiii
+~i +i in +- n i --z-i ti-i -ilt( ~i <= --+ ln( ~i<zi -+n ~i ~i<zi
nl<i +i l-nii ti-i -ilt( l-n i =lii+ lzi-ii i-- + =+ -it :- nl<i
~i -+ni +i zi =ii + ln( ini ti. -- :=n ~z-i +i ni-i ti-i -ilt(

niii i - (+ ~nn -t = <ln- il-i + -ii- ~i l+i= -ii z~iz- +
--nn- +i l<zii n nti i n<i- l<i --ti- ii ~i-<in- +i (+ -~i-<in- -i
l<i l== - --i- + i<ii +i ini+ <ln- nin ii ~- nini + =ii +-i = +-ii
lnni+ iin n- nn := +i =ii nini n (+-i +i ii-i +i =-i +- + +ii
niii i +i ii-i :l-ti= n i --- -ii- i-- t i i- + ln( =i = +i nt t
ti niii i + ln( <ln- +-ii +i nt i-i t := =--i n tl- lzi+i +
(+ ~+ n lni- t ''tl- =i nn l<n = -ii t + t ni i- t t nn
<l-+ ii- = ii ~li+ n-i- t n ii- + l-i +z l<- -+ i =+-i t --
tl- =i + l-i n il- -ti t =+-i
l< n- + + tii niii i +i tn =
52 | P a g e
<i - +- -i zii< tnii -ni- =inil+ =n-i~i n = +z +i ~l-- ti - t-i i
+n = +n --+i :--i iit ~i+i - ti-i

1. Mahatma Gandhi was the first Indian to Proclaim in modern India, the dawn of a new
age for the common man, the downtrodden, the depressed classes and Indian women.
Pritiba Jain, Gandhian Ideas: Social Movements and Creativity, Chapter IX, p. 129.
2. l- -<. ~nnzi lziiai. i < --zi-i =nin. -zi-n + - :li -: l<-ni.
+/. .+.-
3. niii. :li ~i+ ni: i-=. -i- lnlzin ti-=. ~tn<ii<. +-/ .+c
4. "I do not want to be reborn. But if I have to be reborn, I pray that I should be born again
as Ati-shudra so that I may share their sorrows, sufferings and affronts leveled at than.
M.K. Gandhi, Young India, May 4, 1921.
5. I would not sell the vital interests of the untouchables ever for the sake of winning
freedom of India...I will not bargain away their right for the kingdom of the whole
world. M.K. Gandhi, Young India, November 26,1935.
6. "Untouchability is not a sanction of Religion, it is a device of satan. The devil has always
quoted scriptures. But scriptures cannot transcend reason and truth. M.K. Gandhi ,
Removal of Untouchability, p. 17.
7. In my opinion, it (Untouchability) has no sanction what so-ever in the Hindu Shastras
taken as a whole Untouchability of a healthy kind is undoubtedly to be found in the
Shastras and it is universal in all religious. It is a rule of sanitation. That will exist to the
end of time, but Untouchability as we are observing today is a hideious thing ...It has
degraded both the untouchables and touchable. M.K. Gandhi, Harijan, February 11,
8. i inn, <ln- =ii ~i =inil+ -i. ~l+i lnzi=. . .cc. i`. /
9. M.K. Gandhi, Young India, January 22, 1925.
10. Pritiba Jain, Gandhian Ideas: Social Movements and Creativity, Chapter IX, p. 126
53 | P a g e
11. Nothing will strike the imagination of the Hindu masses mind including the harijans, as
the throwing open of the public, temples to them preciously on the same terms as the
caste HindusAfter all, the temples play a most important part in the life of masses.
Tendulkar , Mahatma, Vol III, p.182.
12. M.K. Gandhi, Young India, 29 November 1933.
13. "Harijan service will be always after my heart and is the breath of life for me, more
precious than the daily bread, I can live for some days at least without the daily bread but
I cannot live without Harijan service" M.K. Gandhi, Harijan, August 26, 1933.

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New Publication

CPPIS Manual for Contributors and Reviewers
Editor: Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal
September, 2014
No. CPPIS/2014/02
Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS), Pehowa
Links to download:

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Announcement of Research Paper Prize for the session 2014-2015
Dear Scholar/Professor/Researcher
Its a matter of pleasure that the Centre announces two best paper prizes with the name Prof. (Dr.)
Sohan Raj Laxmi Devi Tater Jodhpur (Rajasthan) Research Paper Prize for our online journals
Lokayata: Journal of Positive Philosophy and Milestone Education Review for the session 2014-2015.
Those scholars who will contribute their research papers in one of the forthcoming issues, are eligible
for these prizes:
1. Lokayata :Journal of Positive Philosophy, Vol. IV, No.2, September, 2014
2. Milestone Education Review, Year 05, No.02, October, 2014
3. Lokayata :Journal of Positive Philosophy, Vol. V, No.1, March, 2015
4. Milestone Education Review, Year 06, No.01, April, 2015
The selection criteria will be the innovative theme, content and writing style of the paper. Kindly follow
the special theme, if mentioned there. You can visit the following websites for our call for papers:
Lokayata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN :2249-8389)
Milestone Education Review (ISSN:2278-2168)
Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal, Near Guga Maidi, House No. 255/6, Balmiki Basti, Pehowa (Kurukshetra)-136128
(Haryana) Mob. No.09896848775, 08288883993 Email: cppiskkr@gmail.com.

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CPPIS Essay Competition-2014
World Philosophy Day was proclaimed by UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organization) to be celebrated in every third Thursday of November. It was first celebrated
on 21 November 2002. It is celebrated to honor the philosophical reflections and works of
philosophy by people around the world. Philosophy is the stepping stone for innovations and
creative ideas. It has been the foundation of progress through many centuries, across cultures. On
this day people get together to exchange problems, ideas and solutions to make this world a better
place to live. In these strife-ridden times, philosophy is the only hope towards world peace. It brings
democracy, justice, human rights and equality into the forefront. Reflection of world issues and
solutions to problems of the humanity are the focal point of philosophical analysis.
This year World Philosophy Day is being celebrated on November 20, 2014. The Centre for
Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS) in association with the Department
of Philosophy, P.G. Govt. College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh is going to celebrates the
World Philosophy Day through an essay-cum-presentation competition for students. The details are
given below:
Theme: Youth and Indian Education System
Subthemes: Students can choose any topic reflecting on the theme.
Eligibility: Undergraduate student from any stream.

Last Date of Submission: 30
October, 2014.

Procedure: Participants have to submit an essay about 1000 words, neatly written or typed in
Hindi or English languages and should reached us till 30
October, 2014 or email to
cppiskkr@gmail.com or philgcg11chd@gmail.com along with registration form. In the second stage
selected essays will be presented on the scheduled date.

Benefits of Participation:
Selected candidate will be provided a merit certificate with a prize and essay will be published in an
online publication of the Centre.

For further details contact:
Dr Desh Raj Sirswal
Department of Philosophy,
P.G.Govt. College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh (India)
Email:cppiskkr@gmail.com, philgcg11chd@gmail.com
Contact Number-09896848775, 08288883993
For more details of seminars, conferences, jobs and workshops etc. kindly visit to Philosophy
News in India:
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Mr. Hossein Roohani , Ph.D. Student, Department of Political Science, University of Isfahan.

Dr. Alireza Aghahosseini , Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, University of

Dr. Javad Emamjomezade, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, University of

Prof. Devendra Nath Tiwari, Professor, Department of Philosophy and Religion, Banaras Hindu
University, Varanasi (U.P.).

Dr. Pankaj K. Mishra, Associate Professor, St. Stephens College, Delhi.

Dr. Dinesh Chahal, Assistant Professor (Education), Central University of Haryana,

Prof.(Dr.) Sohan Raj Tater,Former Vice Chancellor,, Singhania University,Rajasthan.

Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal, Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy, P.G.Govt. College for
Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh.

Mr. Ishwar Singh, Research Scholar, Department of Punjabi, Kurukshetra University,

Dr. Prakash Chandra Badwaya, Assistant Professor, Department of History, P. G. Govt. College
for Girls , Sector-11, Chandigarh.

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Instructions to the Contributors
Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy (ISSN 2249-8389) welcomes contributions in all areas of
research proposed by the Centre. All articles are sent to experts who evaluate each paper on
several dimensions such as originality of the work, scientific argument, and English style, format of
the paper, references, citations and finally they comment on suitability of the article for the
particular Journal. In case of review articles the importance of the subject and the extent the review
is comprehensive are assessed. Prospective authors are expected that before submitting any article
for publication they should see that it fulfills these criteria. The improvement of article may be
achieved in two ways (i) more attention to language (ii) more attention to the sections of the article.

Format of Submission: The paper should be typewritten preferably in Times New Roman with 12
font size (English) and Kruti Dev (10) with 14 font size (Hindi) in MS-Word 2003 to 2010 and
between 2500 to 3000 words. They should be typed on one side of the paper, double spaced with
ample margins. The authors should submit the hard copy along with a CD and a copyright form to
be sent to the editorial address.
Time Line: The last dates of submission of the manuscript are as follows:
For April to September Issue: 31
August every year.
For October to March Issue: 31
January every year.
Reference Style:
Notes and references should appear at the end of the research paper/chapter. Citations in the text
and references must correspond to each other; do not over reference by giving the obvious/old
classic studies or the irrelevant. CPPIS follows The Chicago Manual of Style, 16
Edition. The
Chicago Manual of Style presents two basic documentation systems: (1) notes and bibliography and
(2) author-date. Choosing between the two often depends on subject matter and the nature of
sources cited, as each system is favored by different groups of scholars. The notes and bibliography
style is preferred by many in the humanities. The author-date system has long been used by those
in the physical, natural, and social sciences. CPPIS follows the first system i.e. Notes and
You can visit the following link to download our CPPIS Manual for Contributors and Reviewers
for further instuctions:

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CPPIS, Pehowa (Kurukshetra)
Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies(CPPIS) Pehowa is a joint
academic venture of Milestone Education Society (Regd.) Pehowa and Society for
Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (SPPIS), Haryana (online) to do
fundamental research in the field of Humanities and Social Sciences.
SPPIS Newsletter
The Centre also circulates a Newsletter which includes new information related to
events, new articles and programme details. One can register himself on the below
given address and will get regular updates from us.
Link for registration:

All contributions to the Journal, other editorial enquiries and books for review are to
be sent to:
Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal,
Chief-Editor, Lokyata: Journal of Positive Philosophy,
Centre for Positive Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Studies (CPPIS),
Milestone Education Society (Regd), Valmiki Dharamshala, Pehowa,
Distt. Kurukshetra (HARYANA)-136128 (India)
Mobile No.09896848775, 08288883993
E-mail: cppiskkr@gmail.com, mses.02@gmail.com
Website: http://lokayatajournal.webs.com

My objective is to achieve an intellectual detachment from all philosophical systems, and not to
solve specific philosophical problems, but to become sensitively aware of what it is when we
philosophise.- Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal