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Const|tut|ona| Law kev|ewer

Ley La Sa||e
Sourced from Mark Kristopher Tolentinos
!"# %#&#'() *'+&,+-)#. /0 1/&.2+232+/&() 4(5

Const|tut|on
Const|tut|on - body of rules and maxlms wlLh whlch Lhe powers of soverelgnLy are hablLually exerclsed, fundamenLal law
or basls of governmenL, supreme law of Lhe land
k|nds:
1. Wr|tten or r|g|d - reduced Lo wrlLlng (e.g. 1987 hlllpplne ConsLlLuLlon)
Advantages:
a. Serves as Lhe besL gulde and reference of Lhe people
b. rovldes sLablllLy Lo a naLlon
c. Makes people feel more secure and confldenL LhaL Lhey are well proLecLed agalnsL abuse of auLhorlLy
d. Serves as a llnk and brldge Lo pass over Lhe beLLer Llmes
e. Serves as rallylng polnL and lnsplraLlon of Lhe people Lo proLecL Lhelr counLry
f. Lays down ln clear Lerms Lhe prlnclples of Lhelr pollLlcal creed and asplraLlons, Lhe pollcles LhaL govern
Lhe sLaLe and lLs people
g. Polds Lhe people LogeLher
D|sadvantages:
a. ls dlfflculL Lo change
b. CfLen resulLs Lo clashes of oplnlon
Lssent|a| parts:
a. Const|tut|on of ||berty - conLalns Lhe fundamenLal clvll and pollLlcal rlghLs of Lhe clLlzens
b. Const|tut|on of government - ouLllnes Lhe organlzaLlon of Lhe governmenL and enumeraLlon of lLs
powers
c. Const|tut|on of sovere|gnty - conLalns provlslons on how Lo amend or revlse Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
kequ|s|tes of a good wr|tten const|tut|on:
a. 8road - lL musL ouLllne an organlzaLlon of governmenL for Lhe whole sLaLe, lL ls lnLended noL merely Lo
meeL exlsLlng condlLlons buL also Lo govern Lhe fuLure
b. 8r|ef - lL ls noL lnLended Lo go lnLo deLall
c. Def|n|te - lL musL noL conLaln any vagueness whlch may cause lncalculable harm
2. Unwr|tten or f|ex|b|e - collecLlve producL of a gradual pollLlcal developmenL (e.g. ConsLlLuLlon of Lhe unlLed
klngdom)
Advantage: flexlble and elasLlc
D|sadvantage: sub[ecL Lo perpeLual change aL Lhe wlll of only a few number of people
1he purpose of a ConsLlLuLlon ls Lo prescrlbe Lhe permanenL framework of a sysLem of governmenL, Lo asslgn Lo
Lhe dlfferenL deparLmenLs Lhelr respecLlve powers and duLles, and esLabllsh cerLaln flxed prlnclples on whlch
governmenL ls founded.
Amendment - plecemeal change of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
kev|s|on - LoLal revamp or rewrlLlng of Lhe whole ConsLlLuLlon
rocedure:
1. roposa|
Methods:

a. Const|tut|ona| Assemb|y - made upon a voLe of Lhree-fourLhs (3/4) of all of Lhe members of Lhe
Congress
b. Const|tut|ona| Convent|on - made by a call of Lwo-Lhlrds (2/3) of all Lhe members of Lhe Congress, or, by
a ma[orlLy voLe of all lLs members, submlL Lo Lhe elecLoraLe Lhe quesLlon of calllng such a convenLlon
c. Peoples Initiative - made upon a peLlLlon of aL leasL 12 of Lhe LoLal number of reglsLered voLers, of
whlch every leglslaLlve dlsLrlcL musL be represenLed by aL leasL 3 of Lhe reglsLered voLers Lhereln
Congress shall provlde for Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of Lhe exerclse of Lhls rlghL.
2. kat|f|cat|on - made by a ma[orlLy of Lhe voLes casL ln a pleblsclLe whlch shall be held noL earller Lhan 60 days
nor laLer Lhan 90 days afLer: Lhe approval of such amendmenL or revlslon (for ConsLlLuLlonal ConvenLlon or
ConsLlLuLlonal Assembly) or Lhe cerLlflcaLlon by Lhe Commlsslon on LlecLlons of Lhe sufflclency of Lhe
petition (for Peoples Initiative)
r|nc|p|es of Const|tut|ona| Construct|on:
1. Verba |eg|s - words used ln Lhe ConsLlLuLlon musL be glven Lhelr ordlnary meanlng excepL where Lechnlcal
Lerms are employed
2. kat|o |eg|s est an|ma - words of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon should be lnLerpreLed ln accordance wlLh Lhe lnLenL of lLs
framers
3. Ut mag|s va|eat quam pereat - ConsLlLuLlon ls Lo be lnLerpreLed as a whole
Void for vagueness doctrine - holds LhaL a law ls faclally lnvalld lf men of common lnLelllgence musL necessarlly guess
aL lLs meanlng and dlffer as Lo lLs appllcaLlon

Iud|c|a| rev|ew
Iud|c|a| rev|ew - docLrlne under whlch acLlons of governmenL agencles are sub[ecL Lo revlew by Lhe [udlclal branch of Lhe
governmenL, essenLlal for Lhe malnLenance and enforcemenL of Lhe separaLlon of powers and Lhe balanclng of powers
among Lhe Lhree greaL deparLmenLs of governmenL
kequ|s|tes:
1. 1here must be an actua| case or controversy - case musL lnvolve a confllcL of legal rlghLs, case musL nC1 be
mooL or academlc (purpose has become sLale)
Lxcept|ons:
a. 1here ls a grave vlolaLlon of Lhe ConsLlLuLlon,
b. aramounL publlc lnLeresL ls lnvolved,
c. lssue requlres formulaLlon of conLrolllng prlnclples Lo gulde Lhe bench ([udges), Lhe bar (lawyers), and
Lhe publlc, Anu
d. Case ls capable of repeLlLlon yeL evadlng
kequ|rement of r|peness - someLhlng has Lhen been accompllshed or performed by elLher branch
before a courL may come lnLo Lhe plcLure
Iac|a| cha||enge doctr|ne - launched Lo assall Lhe valldlLy of sLaLuLes concernlng all rlghLs ln Lhe llrsL
AmendmenL of Lhe u.S. ConsLlLuLlon
2. erson cha||eng|ng the act must have the stand|ng to quest|on the va||d|ty of the sub[ect act - person musL
have locus sLandl (personal and subsLanLlal lnLeresL such LhaL Lhe parLy has susLalned or wlll susLaln dlrecL
ln[ury)
A clLlzen or Laxpayer may galn locus sLandl lf Lhere has been lllegal expendlLure of money ralsed.
1ranscendenta| |mportance - overreachlng slgnlflcance Lo socleLy, can be used as locus sLandl
3. uest|on of const|tut|ona||ty must be ra|sed at the ear||est opportun|ty
4. Issue of const|tut|ona||ty must be the very ||s mota of the case - CourL wlll noL pass upon a quesLlon of
unconsLlLuLlonallLy lf Lhe case can be dlsposed of on some oLher ground

ConsLlLuLlonallLy ls always presumed.
Iud|c|a| power - vesLed ln one Supreme CourL and ln such lower courLs esLabllshed by law
Def|n|t|ons:
1. C|ass|ca| - duLy Lo seLLle acLual conLroversles lnvolvlng rlghLs whlch are legally demandable and enforceable
2. Modern - duLy Lo deLermlne wheLher or noL Lhere has been a grave abuse of dlscusslon amounLlng Lo lack or
excess of [urlsdlcLlon
All cases lnvolvlng Lhe consLlLuLlonallLy of a law, LreaLy, or an lnLernaLlonal or execuLlve agreemenL shall be
heard by Lhe Supreme CourL en banc (all !usLlces musL be presenL) and shall be declded wlLh Lhe concurrence of
a ma[orlLy (l.e. 3 members) of Lhe quorum (members who acLually Look parL ln Lhe dellberaLlons, l.e. 8
members).
Lffects of dec|arat|on of unconst|tut|ona||ty:
1. Crthodox v|ew - once proved unconsLlLuLlonal, Lhe law confers no rlghL, lmposes no duLles, affords no
proLecLlon, creaLes no offlce, as lf lL had noL been passed
2. Modern v|ew - once proved unconsLlLuLlonal, Lhe law ls slmply refused Lo be recognlzed

Inherent owers of the State
Character|st|cs:
1. 1hey are lnherenL
2. 1hey are lndlspensable
3. 1hey are meLhods by whlch Lhe SLaLe lnLerferes wlLh prlvaLe rlghLs
4. 1hey presuppose an equlvalenL compensaLlon
S. 1hey are exerclsed prlmarlly by Lhe leglslaLure
L|m|tat|ons:
1. Sub[ecL Lo due process and equal proLecLlon
2. ln favour of prlvaLe rlghLs

o||ce ower
o||ce power - power Lo regulaLe llberLy and properLy for Lhe promoLlon of general welfare, Lhe mosL essenLlal, lnslsLenL
and Lhe leasL llmlLable of powers
L|m|tat|ons:
1. Lxerclse of pollce power musL be reasonable and noL repugnanL Lo Lhe ConsLlLuLlon
2. MusL be of publlc use
ollce power affecLs llberLy and properLy.
CompensaLlon ls Lhe alLrulsLlc feellng (l.e. no compensaLlon aL all).
naLlonal LeglslaLure may delegaLe pollce power Lo Lhe resldenL and admlnlsLraLlve boards as well as Lhe
lawmaklng bodles of munlclpal corporaLlons or local governmenL unlLs.

Lm|nent Doma|n
Lm|nent doma|n - power Lo forclbly acqulre prlvaLe properLy upon paymenL of [usL compensaLlon (sum equlvalenL Lo
Lhe markeL value of Lhe properLy aL Lhe Llme of Lhe acLual Laklng) for some lnLended publlc use
Stages:
1. ueLermlnaLlon of Lhe auLhorlLy Lo exerclse Lhe power of emlnenL domaln
2. Determination by the Court of the just compensation
L|m|tat|ons:
1. MusL be of publlc use

ubllc use now lncludes lndlrecL publlc beneflL.
2. !usL compensaLlon musL be made
3. uue process musL be observed
Concepts:
1. 1rad|t|ona| - use of force and paymenL of [usL compensaLlon
2. kevo|ut|onary - pracLlce of pollce power, paymenL of amounL ls less Lhan falr markeL value
LmlnenL domaln affecLs properLy CnL?.
ower of emlnenL domaln may be exerclsed by Lhe Congress and, by delegaLlon, Lhe resldenL, admlnlsLraLlve
bodles, local governmenL unlLs, and even prlvaLe enLerprlses performlng publlc servlces.
As radlo and Lelevlslon broadcasL sLaLlons do noL own Lhe alrwaves, exerclse of emlnenL domaln ls nC1 nLLuLu.
newspaper and oLher prlnL medla, however, are noL compelled Lo donaLe free space Lo governmenL unlLs such
as CCMLLLC, eLc. 1herefore, [usL compensaLlon MuS1 be made.
1ak|ng - acLual deprlvaLlon, dlspossesslon, or llmlLaLlon of properLy, or enLrance of prlvaLe properLy by Lhe exproprlaLor
for a more permanenL duraLlon
When can an LGU exerc|se em|nent doma|n?
1. upon ordlnance enacLed by Lhe local leglslaLlve councll auLhorlzlng Lhe local chlef execuLlve
2. MusL be for publlc use
3. !usL compensaLlon musL be made
4. valld and deflnlLe offer has been prevlously made, buL sald offer was re[ecLed

ower to 1ax
1axat|on - power Lo demand proporLlonaLe share or conLrlbuLlon from members of socleLy, unllmlLed ln lLs range
1ax - llfeblood of Lhe governmenL
WlLhouL Laxes, Lhe governmenL can nelLher exlsL nor endure.
LeglslaLure may exerclse power Lo Lax. 1hey shall deLermlne Lhe klnd, purpose, raLe, sub[ecLs, and place of
LaxaLlon.
1he resldenL, Lo a llmlLed exLenL, may also exerclse power Lo Lax when granLed delegaLed Larlff powers.
L|m|tat|ons:
1. Sub[ecL Lo due process
2. Sub[ecL Lo equal proLecLlon
Congress shall evolve a progresslve sysLem of LaxaLlon (e.g. lncome brackeLs).
3. MusL be for publlc purpose
4. ln cases of Laxes for speclal purposes, funds collecLed musL be use only for LhaL purpose, Lhe balance, lf any,
shall be Lransferred Lo Lhe general funds of Lhe governmenL
no law granLlng any Lax exempLlon shall be passed wlLhouL Lhe concurrence (l.e. 30 of all Lhe congressmen + 1
congressman Anu 30 of all Lhe senaLors + 1 senaLor) of a ma[orlLy of all Lhe members of Lhe Congress.
1ax exempt|ons:
1. CharlLable lnsLlLuLlons, churches and parsonages or convenLs appurLenanL LhereLo, mosques, non-proflL
cemeLerles, and all lands, bulldlngs, and lmprovemenLs acLually, dlrecLly, and excluslvely used for rellglous,
charlLable, or educaLlonal purposes
2. 8evenues and asseLs of non-sLock, non-proflL educaLlonal lnsLlLuLlons used acLually dlrecLly, and excluslvely
for educaLlonal purposes
roflL educaLlonal lnsLlLuLlons may llkewlse be enLlLled Lo such exempLlons, sub[ecL Lo Lhe llmlLaLlons
provlded by law.

3. CranLs, endowmenLs, donaLlons, or conLrlbuLlons used acLually, dlrecLly, and excluslvely for educaLlonal
purposes
Sa|us popu|| est suprema |ex - welfare of Lhe people ls Lhe supreme law

Due rocess C|ause
Due process - falrness ln Lhe mode of procedure Lo be followed
uantum of ev|dence needed:
1. In cr|m|na| cases - proof beyond reasonable doubL
2. In c|v|| cases - preponderance of evldence (who has more evldence)
3. In adm|n|strat|ve proceed|ngs - lower sLandard of subsLanLlal evldence (posslblllLy of llablllLy)
near|ng requ|rements:
1. In cr|m|na| cases - [udgmenL ls rendered upon lawful hearlng, lssues are LesLed Lhrough dlrecL and cross-
examlnaLlon Lo arrlve aL proof beyond reasonable doubL
2. In c|v|| cases - evldenLlary hearlngs musL be held Lo esLabllsh Lhe requlred preponderance of evldence
3. In adm|n|strat|ve proceed|ngs - declslon musL be rendered on Lhe evldence presenLed aL Lhe hearlng
kequ|rements for adm|n|strat|ve proceed|ngs:
1. 8espondenL musL have Lhe rlghL Lo a hearlng and musL submlL supporLlng evldence
2. 1rlbunal musL conslder Lhe evldence presenLed
3. ueclslon musL have some basls
4. 1here musL be subsLanLlal evldence
S. ueclslon musL be rendered on Lhe evldence presenLed aL Lhe hearlng, or aL leasL conLalned ln Lhe record
and dlsclosed Lo Lhe parLles affecLed
6. 1rlbunal musL have acLed on lLs own conslderaLlon
7. ueclslon musL be rendered ln such manner LhaL respondenLs would know Lhe reasons for lL
no acLual hearlng ls requlred ln Lhe Labor Code. Pearlngs before Lhe employers are free from Lhe rlgldlLy of
cerLaln procedural requlremenLs.
Aspects of due process:
1. Substant|ve due process - llmlLaLlon of pollce power
kequ|s|tes:
a. Lawfu| sub[ect - lnLeresL of Lhe publlc
b. Lawfu| method - means employed are reasonably necessary
2. rocedura| due process - a law which hears before it condemns
kequ|s|tes:
a. 1here musL be a courL cloLhed wlLh [udlclal power Lo hear and deLermlne Lhe maLLer
b. !urlsdlcLlon musL be lawfully acqulred (elLher durlng arralgnmenL for crlmlnal cases or servlce of
summon for clvll cases) over Lhe person of Lhe defendanL or over properLy
c. uefendanL musL be glven an opporLunlLy Lo be heard
d. !udgmenL musL be rendered upon lawful hearlng
Lvery llLlganL ls enLlLled Lo Lhe cold neuLrallLy of an lmparLlal [udge, who musL noL only be lmparLlal buL musL
also appear Lo be lmparLlal.
1he rlghL Lo appeal ls nelLher a naLural rlghL nor parL of due process. lL ls merely a sLaLuLory prlvllege.
re||m|nary |nvest|gat|on - conducLed Lo deLermlne wheLher Lhere ls sufflclenL ground Lo engender a well-founded
bellef LhaL a crlme has been commlLLed and Lhe respondenL Lhereln ls probably gullLy Lhereof and should be held for
Lrlal, also conducLed for securlng Lhe lnnocenL agalnsL hasLy, mallclous, and oppresslve prosecuLlon, and Lo proLecL hlm
from an open and publlc accusaLlon of a crlme, from Lhe Lrouble, expense, and anxleLy of a publlc Lrlal


Lqua| rotect|on C|ause
Lqua| protect|on - requlres LhaL all persons or Lhlngs SlMlLA8L? Sl1uA1Lu should be LreaLed allke. Powever, lL does noL
prohlblL ,)(..+0+,(2+/& as long as lL passes Lhe '#(./&(6)#&#.. 2#.2.
kequ|s|tes of reasonab|eness (keasonab|eness test):
1. ClasslflcaLlon resLs on subsLanLlal dlsLlncLlons
2. Cermane (relevanL) Lo Lhe purpose of Lhe law
3. noL llmlLed Lo exlsLlng condlLlons only
4. Applles equally Lo all members of Lhe same class

k|ght aga|nst Unreasonab|e Searches and Se|zures
1he provlslon CnL? prohlblLs searches and selzures LhaL are un8LASCnA8LL.
1he requ|s|tes for |ssu|ng a search warrant:
1. resence of a -'/6(6)# ,(3.#
2. 1he [udge musL personally deLermlne Lhe probable cause
3. ln wrlLlng and under oaLh or afflrmaLlon, Lhe [udge musL examlne Lhe complalnanL and Lhe wlLnesses he or
she may produce
4. 1he appllcanL and Lhe wlLnesses LesLlfy on Lhe facLs personally known Lo Lhem
S. 1he warranL should conLaln speclflc descrlpLlons of Lhe place and Lhlngs Lo be searched and selzed.
1he followlng are Lhe LkCL1ICNS Lo Lhe lssuance of a search warranL:
1. Search lncldenL Lo lawful arresL
2. Search of a movlng moLor vehlcle
3. Search ln vlolaLlon of cusLom laws
4. Selzure of evldence ln plaln vlew
S. When Lhe 8lCP1 agalnsL unreasonable searches and selzures ls walved
6. SLop and frlsk
7. Lmergency ClrcumsLances
|a|n V|ew Doctr|ne provldes LhaL ob[ecLs falllng ln Lhe plaln vlew of an offlcer, who ls slLuaLed ln Lhe rlghL poslLlon (or
Lhe place where he/she has Lhe rlghL Lo poslLlon), are sub[ecL Lo selzure. Cb[ecLs, Lherefore, acqulred by vlrLue of Lhe
laln vlew docLrlne are admlsslble as evldences.
Stop-and-Ir|sk Search generally refers Lo lnsLances where pollce offlcers, uLlllzlng Lhelr sound observaLlon and
deducLlon, sLops and searches a .3.-+,+/3. person. lL serves Lhe followlng lnLeresLs:
1. LffecLlve crlme prevenLlon and deLecLlon
2. SafeLy and self-preservaLlon of Lhe pollce offlcer hlmself/herself
Iru|t of a o|sonous 1ree refers Lo evldences acqulred ln vlolaLlon of Lhe consLlLuLlonal provlslon on Lhe 7+8"2 (8(+&.2
9&'#(./&(6)# :#(',"#. (&; :#+<3'#.. ln Lhls case, Lhe law seLs Lhese evldences as lnAuMlSSl8LL.

r|vacy of Commun|cat|on and Correspondence
Notes:
Lxcept|ons to the k|ght of r|vacy
1. Lawful order of Lhe courL
2. 1he demands of -36)+, .(0#2= /' /';#'

Note: 1he rlghL Lo prlvacy enLalls a 7#(./&(6)# /' >6?#,2+@# #A-#,2(2+/&. As provlded ln a concurrlng oplnlon of
!usLlce Parlan ln B(2< @.C 9&+2#; :2(2#., as clLed by 1olenLlno (2014), Lhe followlng are lLs requlremenLs:

1. A person exhlblLs an acLual expecLaLlon of prlvacy
2. 1he socleLy recognlzes such expecLaLlon as '#(./&(6)#

k|ght to Informat|on
Notes:
lL ls a blndlng prlnclple LhaL a u8LlC ClllCL ls a u8LlC 18uS1.
1he ConsLlLuLlon, under SecLlon 17 of ArLlcle xl and as relLeraLed ln 8epubllc AcL no. 6713 (oLherwlse known as
Lhe 1/;# /0 1/&;3,2 (&; D2"+,() :2(&;(';. 0/' *36)+, >00+,+(). (&; DE-)/=##.) mandaLes LhaL publlc offlcers and
employees should flle 3&;#' /(2" dlsclosures of Lhelr asseLs, llablllLles, neL worLh, buslness lnLeresLs and
flnanclal connecLlons and as well Lhose of Lhelr spouses and 3&E(''+#; chlldren who are (1) 6#)/5 elghLeen
years of age and (2) llvlng ln Lhelr households.
1o make c|ear, the fo||ow|ng must be f||ed:
1. SLaLemenL of AsseLs, LlablllLles and neL WorLh
2. ulsclosure of 8uslness lnLeresLs and llnanclal ConnecLlons and.
1he f|||ng of the sa|d documents must be done:
1. WlLhln LhlrLy days afLer assumpLlon of offlce
2. Cn or before Aprll 30 of every year
3. WlLhln LhlrLy days afLer separaLlon from offlce
Where to f||e the documents:
Where to f||e the
documents?
Who f||es the Documents?
ub||c Cff|c|a|s and Lmp|oyees Armed Iorces
Nat|ona| Cff|ce of
the Cmbudsman
ConsLlLuLlonal and naLlonal LlecLlve
Cfflclals

Secretary of the
Senate
SenaLors
Secretary of the
nouse of
kepresentat|ves
Congressmen
C|erk of Court of
the Supreme Court
Supreme CourL !usLlces
Court
Adm|n|strator
!udges
Cff|ce of the
res|dent
naLlonal LxecuLlve Cfflclals Cfflcers of Lhe armed forces from Lhe rank
of colonel or naval capLaln
Deputy
Cmbudsman
(keg|ona|)
8eglonal and local offlclals and employees 1hose below Lhe ranks of colonel or naval
capLaln
C|v|| Serv|ce
Com|ss|on
All oLher publlc offlclals and employees
deflned under 8epubllc AcL no. 3019

ubllc offlclals and employees are obllgaLed Lo dlsclose Lhelr relaLlves ln Lhe governmenL
L|m|tat|ons to the k|ght to Informat|on
1. naLlonal securlLy maLLers and lnLelllgence lnformaLlon
2. 1rade secreLs and banklng LransacLlons
3. Crlmlnal maLLers
4. ConfldenLlal or classlfled lnformaLlon known Lo publlc offlcers and employees by reason of Lhelr offlce
S. ulplomaLlc correspondence
6. Closed door CablneL meeLlngs

7. LxecuLlve Sesslons of elLher Pouses of Congress
8. lnLernal dellberaLlons of Lhe Supreme CourL
1he Access|b|||ty of Documents:
1. 1he sLaLemenLs flled are avallable for lnspecLlon (2 '#(./&(6)# "/3'.
2. 1he documenLs are avallable for copylng afLer 10 WC8klnC days from Lhe Llme of flllng
3. 1he persons requesLlng for coples of Lhe sLaLemenLs are requlred Lo pay 8LASCnA8LL fees for cosLs of (1)
reproducLlon, (2) malllng, and (3) cerLlflcaLlon.
4. 1he sLaLemenLs flled shall be made avallable Lo Lhe publlc for 1Ln ?LA8S. 1he sLaLemenLs wlll Lhen be
desLroyed afLer Lhe 10-year perlod, excepL when ongolng lnvesLlgaLlons necesslLaLe Lhereof.
roh|b|ted acts |n obta|n|ng statements
1. urpose conLrary Lo morals or publlc pollcy
2. Commerclal purpose oLher Lhan for dlssemlnaLlon Lo Lhe publlc (e.g. news and communlcaLlons medla).

k|ght to Iorm Assoc|at|on
Notes:
1hls consLlLuLlonal guaranLee ls generally ln favour of Lhe employees ln Lhe publlc or prlvaLe secLor
Lvery person possesses Lhe rlghL 1C !Cln and nC1 1C !Cln assoclaLlons.

L|berty of Abode and k|ght to 1rave|
1here exlsLs a consLlLuLlonal rlghL for persons Lo Lravel abroad. 1herefore, lL cannoL be lmpalred wlLhouL Lhe due
process of law.
Const|tut|ona|]Statutory]Inherent L|m|tat|on:
! 1he consLlLuLlonal rlghL can only be resLrlcLed when naLlonal securlLy, publlc safeLy, or publlc healLh
requlres.
Genera| Lxcept|ons:
! Pending a criminal case, the impairment ordered by the court against a persons right to travel abroad is
exempL from Lhe consLlLuLlonal guaranLee.
! When Lhere ls an lssuance by Congress of a subpoena or arresL order agalnsL a person.
Note: A person on ball can be prevenLed by courL Lo Lravel abroad. 1he condlLlon lmposed ln Lhls case perLalns
Lo Lhe need for Lhe avallablllLy of Lhe sald person whenever Lhe courL wlshes Lo summon hlm/her.

Ireedom of ke||g|on
Iree Lxerc|se C|ause
AspecLs:
1. AbsoluLe 8lghL Lo 8elleve
1he sLaLe recognlzes Lhe rlghL of every person to be||eve. 1herefore, every person ls granLed Lhe rlghL
Lo adhere wlLh whaLever rellglous dogmas Lhere may be, or belleve ln whaLever delLles recognlzed by
Lhe socleLy.
2. 8egulaLlon on Lhe acLs arlslng ouL of bellefsLhe sLaLe ls glven a leeway Lo regulaLe Lhe consLlLuLlonal
rlghL CnL? wlLh respecL Lo Lhe acLs arlslng from Lhe bellefs.
Non-Lstab||shment C|ause lL prlmarlly prohlblLs Lhe sponsorshlp by Lhe governmenL Lo any rellglons, or supporLlng
rellglons ln Lhe sLance agalnsL oLher rellglons.

Ireedom of Lxpress|on

Art|c|e III Sect|on 4 of the Const|tut|on:
no law shall be passed abrldglng Lhe freedom of speech, of expresslon, or of Lhe press, or Lhe rlghL of
Lhe people peaceably Lo assemble and peLlLlon Lhe governmenL for redress of grlevances.
Notes:
IkLLDCM CI LkkLSSICN:
lreedom of Lxpresslon ls noL absoluLe. lL may sLlll be regulaLed provlded LhaL rlghLs are noL belng ln[ured and
Lhe equal en[oymenL Lhereof.
lreedom of Lxpresslon ls recognlzed and concelved by Lhe precepLs of a democraLlc governmenL.
LIMI1S CN IkLL SLLCn
!"#$# &' $(" )"#$*+,'$# $& -.""/( 0*""1&23
1. uangerous 1endency uocLrlne
- Once there exists a rational connection between the controlled speech and the danger it might
cause, Lhen llmlLaLlons are permlLLed.
2. 8alanclng of lnLeresLs LesLs
- When Lhere ls a need by Lhe courLs Lo sLrlke a balance beLween conLradlcLlng soclal values and
lndlvldual lnLeresLs.
3. Clear and resenL uanger 8ule
- Applies and permits limitations when there is substantial danger which the speech might lead to.

Iour (4) Aspects of ress Ireedom:
1. lreedom from r|or kestra|nt
2. lreedom from Subsequent un|shment
3. lreedom of Access to Informat|on
4. lreedom of C|rcu|at|on

r|or kestra|nt refers Lo governmenL resLrlcLlons prlor Lo Lhe publlcaLlon or dlssemlnaLlon. Cenerally, Lhls freedom
refers Lo freedom from censorshlp, llcensures or permlsslons (before publlcaLlon).
Note: 1here ls a presumpLlon of lnvalldlLy on acLs resLralnlng speech.

1he Non-Impa|rment C|ause
Art|c|e III Sect|on 10: no law lmpalrlng Lhe obllgaLlon of conLracLs shall be passed:
Notes:
Applies if laws derogate pr|or acts or conLracLs by enlarglng, abrldglng or ln any manner changlng Lhe lnLenLlon
of the parties.
There is impairment when a subsequent law changes the terms of a contract between the parties.
roh|b|t|on aga|nst Lx ost Iacto Law and 8||| of Atta|nder
Art|c|e III Sect|on 22: NC #A -/.2 0(,2/ law or blll of aLLalnder sha|| be enacted.

Lx ost Iacto Law refers Lo laws whlch punlsh persons for crlmes commlLLed aL Lhe Llme when lL ls noL yeL
punlshable.
8||| of Atta|nder - perLalns Lo acLs of Lhe leglslaLlon whlch punlsh persons or groups of persons ln Lhe absence of
[udlclal Lrlal.
roh|b|t|on aga|nst Impr|sonment of Debt
Art|c|e III Sect|on 20: NC LkSCN shall be lmprlsoned for debL or non-paymenL of a poll Lax
Notes:

1hls provlslon baslcally mandaLes LhaL persons, on Lhe ground of lndebLedness, musL noL be lmprlsoned.
1he same provlslon also commands LhaL persons should noL be lmprlsoned as well for Lhe non-paymenL of poll
Lax.
! o|| 1ax is defined as a specific fixed sum levied upon every person belonging to a certain class
without regard to his property or occupation. (cited by Mark Kristopher 1olenLlno ln lsaganl Cruz,
ConsLlLuLlonal Law, 2007 ed.)

roh|b|t|on aga|nst Invo|untary Serv|tude and Detent|on by keason of o||t|ca| 8e||ef or
Asp|rat|on
Invo|untary Serv|tude perLalns Lo Lhe lnsLance where one person ls forced Lo labor ln favour of anoLher, wheLher or
noL Lhere ls paymenL.
Lxcept|ons to the roh|b|t|on:
1. unlshmenL of a crlme
2. Servlce ln defense of Lhe SLaLe
3. naval LnllsLmenL
4. */..# ,/E+2(23. where persons are pressed ln Lo servlce of apprehendlng crlmlnals
3. 8eLurn Lo work order ln lndusLrles affecLed wlLh publlc lnLeresL
FC *(2'+( -/2#.2(. refers Lo [urldlcal lnsLlLuLlon where parenLs assume conLrol over Lhelr chlldren for
purposes of saLlsfylng Lhelr needs and proLecLlng Lhe same.

1he Wr|t of nabeas Corpus
Notes:
The Writ of Habeas Corpus is basically a remedy to those seeking liberty from unwarranted denial of freedom
of movement.
Lxcept|ons:
! ln cases of rebelllon or lnvaslon
! ln cases where publlc safeLy so requlres
1he k|ght to Speedy 1r|a|
Notes:
Cenerally, all person are glven Lhe rlghL Lo have Lhelr cases Lo be resolved speedlly and lmmedlaLely by [udlclal,
quasl-[udlclal and admlnlsLraLlve bodles
Iour Iactors for the Court to determ|ne whether or not the defendant has been depr|ved of h|s r|ght:
! 1he lengLh of Lhe delay
! 1he reason for Lhe delay
! The defendants claim of his right to speedy trial
! 1he pre[udlce Lo Lhe defendanL


Iree Access to Court
Art|c|e III Sect|on 11: lree access Lo Lhe courLs and quasl-[udlclal bodles and adequaLe legal asslsLance shall noL be
denled Lo any person y reason of poverLy
Notes:
Allowlng auper Su|ts and esLabllshlng Lhe Public Attorneys Office (AC)

AC ls baslcally creaLed for purposes of provldlng legal servlces to indigent litigants, the oppressed.
marginalized and underprivileged people.
1he k|ghts of the Accused
Art|c|e III Sect|on 14: (1) no person shall be held Lo answer for a crlmlnal offense wlLhouL due process of law. (2) ln all
crlmlnal prosecuLlons, Lhe accused shall be presumed unLll Lhe conLrary ls proved. xxx.
Notes:
1here ls a presumpt|on of |nnocence on Lhe parL of Lhe defendanL. Pence, lL ls ln Lhe burden of Lhe oppressor Lo
prove Lhe gullL beyond reasonable doubL.
lL ls lndlspensable LhaL Lhe accused ln crlmlnal proceedlngs shall have the r|ght to be heard. 1he accused should
be glven Lhe freedom Lo presenL hls/her slde.
1he accused ls guaranLeed the r|ght to have counse|
1he person of Lhe defendanL ls guaranLeed Lhe r|ght to have a speedy |mpart|a| pub||c tr|a|.
1he accused shall also have the r|ght to face and confront the w|tnesses LesLlfylng agalnsL hlm/her.
Art|c|e III Sect|on 17: No person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself.
Lvery person has Lhe r|ght to ba|| excepL Lhose charged by offenses punlshable by recluslon perpeLua.

Source:
1olenLlno, M. k. (2014). !"# %#&#'() *'+&,+-)#. /0 1/&.2+232+/&() 4(5 +& 2"# 7#-36)+, /0 2"# *"+)+--+&#.. Cuezon ClLy:
CenLral 8ook Supply, lnc.