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2.1 Enterprise benefits of 4G
2.2 Beyond the current situation
2.3 Strategizing 4G world
2.4 Challenges and issues in the 4G system
2.5 Implementing 4G
2.6 Existing models of 4G


3.1 Positioning Statement
3.2 First mover in Indian market - Airtel
3.3 Capacity Gains


4.1 Location and mobility
4.2 Relaying



6.1 Organization and military usage

7. Limitation of 4G Server and technology

8. Comparing 2G /3G/4G/
8.1 installation
8.2 Rent
8.3 Technology
8.4 Location
8.5 Bandwidth
8.6 The 4G standard4G imposters
8.7 Carrier marketing
8.8 When can we use true 4G?

8.9 3G/4G Security

9.1 Market Uncertainties
9.2 Changes In Buyer Knowledge Required
9.3 Changes Occure In Buyer Behaviour

10.1 Demographic Trends

11.1 Competitors
11.2 Channels
11.3 Suppliers

12.1 Customers Purchase Decision Process
12.2 Customers Purchase Decision Process Continued

13.1 Secondary Market Research
13.2 Primary Research

14.1 Total Product / Service
14.2 Product Continued
14.3 Pricing
14.4 Distribution
14.5 Advertising And Communication
14.6 Advertising / Communications Continued
14.7 Sales Force



11.1 Business Model

1. Methodology
2. Load Survey Results by Area


``PART -2
RELEASE 2006-6, RELEASE 2007-7 AND RELEASE 2008- 8:











7.1.1 Support of Wider Bandwidth
7.1.2 Uplink Transmission Enhancements
7.1.3 Downlink Transmission Enhancements
7.1.4 Relaying
7.1.5 Heterogeneous Network Support
7.1.6 MBMS Enhancements
7.1.7 SON Enhancements
7.1.8 Vocoder Rate Adaptation


7.2.1Four Carrier HSDPA Operation
7.2.2Additional band combinations L for DB-DC-HSDPA


7.4.1 Band Combinations for LTE CA



8.2.1 Coordinated multiple point transmission and reception
8.2.2 Carrier aggregation








Mobile broadband use continues to grow. According to industry analyst firm Infonetics,
cellular mobile broadband subscribers are forecast to grow at a 104 per cent compound
annual growth rate from 2007 to 2011. Businesses and individuals are putting mobile
broadband technologies to work and realizing the productivity and convenience benefits of
always-available broadband access.

While people still primarily use their mobile devices for voice, texting and e-mail, the
emergence of applications such as audio and video download and streaming, virtual
collaboration and Web 2.0 applications will continue to increase demand for faster and more
responsive mobile broadband. Enter fourth-generation (4G) technology.

The second generation (2G) of wireless mobile communication systems was a huge success
story because of its revolutionary technology and the services that it brought to its users.
Besides high-quality speech service, global mobility was a strong and convincing reason for
users to buy 2G terminals. The third generation (3G) has been launched in several parts of the
world, but the success story of 2G is hard to repeat. One reason for this assertion is that the
evolution from 2G towards 3G has brought only few novel additional services, which leave
the business model largely unchanged and may not be enough to encourage the customers to
change their equipment.
Following the paradigm of generational changes, it was originally expected that the fourth
generation (4G) would follow sequentially after 3G and emerge between 2010 and 2015 as an
ultra-high-speed broadband wireless network. There is clearly a need for a methodological
change in the design of 4G.
In this paper we propose a new user-centric methodology that considers users as the
cornerstone in the design of 4G and identifies their functional needs and expectations,
reflecting and illustrating them in everyday life situations. This approach consequently
contributes to the identification of the real technical step-up of 4G with respect to 3G and
thus to a less prophetic and more pragmatic definition of the forthcoming technology.
Radios More received power

Super 3G ?

Broadcast Equicost/Equipower
HSDPA systems line



10 GS


Wide area

Range/Coverage/Mobility - Bandwidth relationship


This chapter highlights the meaning of the term 4G as used within this project by defining
the key technologies which form the 4G group which are the subject of this project. In particular it
includes a description of the main activities involved in defining 4G technologies within the
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) under the IMT-Advanced banner, the work of the
Third-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) towards LTE-Advanced and the work of IEEE in
defining the standards for IEEE 802.16m, best known as WiMAX. It also collates the targets and
claims for spectral efficiency associated with those technologies under various conditions.
There is a great buzz in the world of wireless communications. Everyone is talking
about 4G. What exactly is 4G, and how will it impact us?
4G is just the short acronym for Fourth Generation technology for mobile
communications. 4G is the next generation technology that will be used by cellular phone
companies and internet service providers to deliver superior quality video and data apart from
voice. Interestingly, the 3G (third generation) technology is not yet operational in most
countries. Many like India for example are using the 2.5 G technologies for mobile or cell
4G will be a fully IP-based integrated system of systems and network of networks
achieved after the convergence of wired and wireless networks as well as computer,
consumer electronics, communication technology, and several other convergences that will
be capable of providing 100 Megabits/s and 1 Gigabits/s, respectively, in outdoor and indoor
environments with end-to-end quality of service and high security, offering any kind of
services anytime, anywhere, at affordable cost and one billing.

First generation: Almost all of the systems from this generation were analog systems where
voice was considered to be the main traffic. These systems could often be listened to by third
parties. Some of the standards are NMT, AMPS, Hicap, CDPD, Mobitex and DataTac.
Second generation: All the standards belonging to this generation are commercial centric
and they are digital in form. Around 60% of the current market is dominated by European
standards. The second generation standards are GSM, iDEN, D-AMPS, IS-95, PDC, CSD,
Third generation: To meet the growing demands in the number of subscribers (increase in
network capacity), rates required for high speed data transfer and multimedia applications,
3G standards started evolving. The systems in this standard are basically a linear
enhancement of 2G systems.

They are based on two parallel backbone infrastructures, one consisting of circuit switched
nodes, and one of packet oriented nodes. The ITU defines a specific set of air interface
technologies as third generation, as part of the IMT-2000 initiative.
Currently, transition is happening from 2G to 3G systems. As a part of this transition, lots of
technologies are being standardized. From 2G to 3G: 2.75G - EDGE and EGPRS, 3G -
GAN/UMA. Similarly from 3G to 4G: 3.5G - HSDPA, HSUPA, Super3G - HSOPA/LTE.
Fourth generation: According to the 4G working groups, the infrastructure and the terminals
of 4G will have almost all the standards from 2G to 4G implemented. Even though the legacy
systems are in place to be adopted in 4G for the existing legacy users, going forward the
infrastructure will however only be packet based, all-IP. Also, some proposals suggest having
an open platform where the new innovations and evolutions can fit. The technologies which
are being called as 4G though not officially are as follows: WiMax, WiBro, 3GPP Long Term
Evolution and 3GPP2 U ltra Mobile Broadband.

Table 1. Short History of Mobile Telephone Technologies

Technology 1G 2G 2.5G 3G 4G
Design Began 1970 1980 1985 1990 2000
Implementation 1984 1991 1999 2002 2010
Service Analog voice,
Data to 9.6
completely IP

Kbps messages data data Up to 2
data to
Standards AMPS,
Single standard
1.9 kbps 14.4 kbps 384 kbps 2 Mbps 200 Mbps
Multiplexing FDMA TDMA,
Core Network PSTN PSTN PSTN,

The approaching 4G (fourth generation) mobile communication systems are projected
to solve still-remaining problems of 3G (third generation) systems and to provide a wide
variety of new services, from high-quality voice to high-definition video to high-data-rate
wireless channels.

The term 4G is used broadly to include several types of broadband wireless access
communication systems, not only cellular telephone systems. One of the terms used to
describe 4G is MAGICMobile multimedia, anytime anywhere, Global mobility support,
integrated wireless solution, and customized personal service. As a promise for the future, 4G
systems, that is, cellular broadband wireless access systems have been attracting much
interest in the mobile communication arena. The 4G systems not only will support the next
generation of mobile service, but also will support the fixed wireless networks. This paper
presents an overall vision of the 4G features, framework, and integration of mobile
communication. The features of 4G systems might be summarized with one word integration.
The 4G systems are about seamlessly integrating terminals, networks, and applications to
satisfy increasing user demands. The continuous expansion of mobile communication and
wireless networks shows evidence of exceptional growth in the areas of mobile subscriber,
wireless network access, mobile services, and applications.


1xRTT = 2.5G CDMA data service up to 384 kbps GSM = global system for mobile
AMPS = advanced mobile phone service NMT = Nordic mobile telephone
CDMA = code division multiple access PDC = personal digital cellular
EDGE = enhanced data for global evolution PSTN = public switched telephone
FDMA = frequency division multiple access TACS = total access communications
GPRS = general packet radio system TDMA = time division multiple access
WCDMA = wideband CDMA

This new generation of wireless is intended to complement and replace the 3G
systems, perhaps in 5 to 10 years. Accessing information anywhere, anytime, with a seamless
connection to a wide range of information and services, and receiving a large volume of
information, data, pictures, video, and so on, are the keys of the 4G infrastructures. The
future 4G infrastructures will consist of a set of various networks using IP (Internet protocol)
as a common protocol so that users are in control because they will be able to choose every
application and environment. Based on the developing trends of mobile communication, 4G
will have broader bandwidth, higher data rate, and smoother and quicker handoff and will
focus on ensuring seamless service across a multitude of wireless systems and networks. The
key concept is integrating the 4G capabilities with all of the existing mobile technologies
through advanced technologies.


Key Features of 4G
User Friendliness and User Personalization
User friendliness exemplifies and minimizes the interaction between applications and users
thanks to a well-designed transparency that allows the users and the terminals to naturally
interact (e.g., the integration of new speech interfaces is a great step for achieving this goal).
For instance, in Scenario A, users can get traveling information in the most user-friendly
way: text, audio, or video format. User personalization refers to the way users can configure
the operational mode of their device and reselect the content of the services chosen according
to their preferences. Since every new technology is designed keeping in mind the principal
aim to have a strongly impact on peoples lifestyles, the new concepts introduced by 4G are
based on the assumption that each user wants to be considered as a distinct. Therefore, in
order to embrace a large spectrum of customers, user personalization must be provided with
high granularity, so that the huge amount of information is filtered according to the users
The first step in analyzing cellular wireless security is to identify the security objectives. These are
the goals that the security policy and corresponding technology should achieve. To
ensure that information generated by or relating to a user is adequately protected against misuse
or misappropriation. Ensure that the security features are compatible with world-wide
availability. Also ensure that the security features are adequately standardized to ensure world-
wide interoperability and roaming between different providers. To ensurethat the level of
protection afforded to users and providers of services is considered to be better than that provided
in contemporary fixed and mobile networks. The implementation of security features and
mechanisms can be extended and enhanced as required by new threats and services. In 4g
networks, security measures must be established such that they enable data transmission to be
as safe and secure as possible. The nature of the 4 g network, gives an increased likelihood
of security attacks due to vast facilities. Hence, multiple levels of security, including
authentication, will be necessary to protect the data that gets transmitted across the network.
Wireless systems face a number of security challenges, one of which comes from interference. As
more wireless devices begin to use the same section of electromagnetic spectrum, the possibility
of interference increases. This can result in a loss of signal for users. Moreover, an abuser can
intentionally mount a denial-of-service attack (lowering availability) by jamming the frequencies
used. Sos of 4g of the features of 4g
This is illustrated in scenario B, where users can receive targeted pop-up advertisements. The
combination between user personalization and user friendliness provides users with easy
management of the overall features of their devices and maximum exploitation of all the
possible applications, thus conferring the right value to their expense. Receive targeted pop-
up advertisements. The combination between user personalization and user friendliness
provides users with easy management of the overall features of their devices and maximum
exploitation of all the possible applications, thus conferring the right value to their expense

4G has not yet reached in industry and standard. Illustration of a 4G service architecture
from Agora Co. Always-Best-Connected service on heterogeneous network is hoped to
achieve. In order to provide Always-Best-Connected service in the future, a universal
consensus on features of 4G is achieved. In the understanding, main important characteristics
and features are [Fu04][Hui03] [Zheng05a]:

All-IP Based network architecture
Higher bandwidth (than 3G)
Heterogeneous Network (3G/UMTS, Wireless LAN, DVB-T, etc.)
QoS, Security, .
Full integration of hot spot and cellular
Support for multimedia applications
4G standard is defining in the countries such as Japan, China, Korea, Europe. Main
leading institute of standard defining consists of IMT-Advanced, 3GPP , 3GPP2. For
providing 4G service, new technologies and architectures are still on developing at different
programs such as NTT DoCoMo, Nokia, Motorola, etc.
High usability and global roaming:
The end user terminals should be compatible with any technology, at anytime, anywhere in
the world. The basic idea is that the user should be able to take his mobile to any place, for
example, from a place that uses CDMA to another place that employs GSM. Multimedia
support: The user should be able to receive high data rate multimedia services. This demands
higher bandwidth and higher data rate. Personalization: This means that any type of person
should be able to access the service. The service providers should be able to provide
customized services to different type of users.
4G Issues and Advantages:
Location co-ordination
Resource co-ordination to add new user
Support for quality of Service.
Wireless Securities & Authentication.
Network failure & backup.
Pricing and billing.


4G LTE World Coverage Map - LTE, WiMAX, HSPA+, 3G, GSM Country List View Map
of GSM World Coverage


Map 2

map 3

Sun Clock 1 Sections Map 2 Regional Map3

4G - marketing term (not all 4G networks are created equal). Major 4G standards:
LTE (Long Term Evolution)- fastest of all 4G networks;
HSPA+ (Evolved High-Speed Packet Access)- faster than 3G, however slower than LTE;
WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access)- approximately the same speed as
HSPA+ (In many countries, LTE, WiMAX, HSPA+, 3G UMTS, GSM networks coexist)
LTE, WiMAX, HSPA+, 3G, GSM information by country (January 2013)*:
Country / Territory 900 1800 1900 850 3G
4G (live LTE, WiMAX, HSPA+, test,

If you have further updates or can provide corrections- please send Email with credible Web referral source to verify your informati

Afghanistan 900 1800
Etisalat 3G 1900/2100 Kabul, Herat,
Mazar-e-Sharif; MTN 3G Afghanistan

900 1800
3G 2100 Vodafone
Algeria 900 1800
American Samoa

1900 850
3G 850
Andorra 900
3G 2100 STA
Angola 900 1800 3G 900 Movicel 4G Angola Movicel/China ZTE

1900 850
Antarctica :
Mawson and Casey
Stations (Australia)

Altobridge Gateway Platform

Antarctica :
Marambio Base

AMPS technology &
Entel Chile GSM tower on King George
Antigua and Barbuda
1900 850
Arctic region
Arctic 3G Gateway by Viola Systems,
HSPA 3G (3G modem/router)

Argentina 1900 850 Claro 4G HSPA+
Armenia 900 1800 3G 1900/2100, 3G 900/2100
4G LTE VivaCell-MTS
900 1800
1900 3G 2100
900 1800 3G 2100, 3G 850, 3G 900 Telstra 4G LTE, 4G Vividwireless in Per
Guinea-Bissau 900 1800
900 1800

900 1800
3G 2100
Holy See (Vatican City)
900 1800
3G 2100
Honduras 1900 850
3G 1900
Hong Kong 900
1800 3G 850/900/2100 4G 1800/2600
900 1800

3G 2100

900 1800

3G 2100
900 1800

3G 2100 BSNL / MTNL 4G Airtel TD-LTE in Bangalore, Kolkata
900 1800
3G 2100
900 1800 3G 2100

3G MobiTel
3G 2100
Isle of Man
900 1800

3G 2100
900 1800
3G 850/2100
900 1800 3G 2100
900 1800
1900 850 Sprint WiMax 4G/ Digicel and Global M

3G 1700/2100

UQ Communications 4G WiMax; NTT
Jersey 900 1800
3G 2100

900 1800

3G 1900/2100
3G TeliaSonera

Note - This data is current as of January 2013 and is by no means authoritative. This data should be
used as reference/guideline. or carrier specific coverage consult your wireless/mobile service

Data volumes and data rates
This section comprises three main elements:
Data concerning the actual growth in mobile broadband volumes over the last few years Forecasts of
future mobile broadband growth in the future Considerations relating to longer term demand
forecasting, since most forecasts extend over only around the next five years while the period of
interest for this study extends to at least ten years

Mobile Broadband Growth to Date
The mobile broadband data market is still very much in its infancy. Although 3G networks were
launched starting in 2003 66, the period of rapid growth of data volumes only began in 2007, so only
two to three years of real data are available. Nevertheless, there have been numerous indicators of
rapid growth since. These include:
900 1800 3G 2100
Korea, North
3G 2100
Korea, South
3G 2100
SK Telecom / Bell Laboratories
Kuwait 900 1800 3G 1900/2100
900 1800
3G 2100 4G/LTE Saima Telecom ?
900 1800 3G 2100
900 1800

3G 2100
4G TeliaSonera

3G 2100

Cellcom 4G HSPA+
3G 2100
900 1800

3G 2100
4G TeliaSonera
900 1800
3G 2100
Macau (SAR)
900 1800
3G 2100
900 1800 3G 2100, 3G 1900
900 1800

3G Telecom Malagasy
900 1800

3G Bharti Airtel
900 1800

3G 2100
3G 2100

A detailed study of usage in Finland67 in the period 2005-2007, measured directly on three operator
networks, showed that the total data traffic in 2007 was 13 times larger in volume than the previous
year. 92% of the data traffic was from computers rather than phones and this share of traffic was
from just 2.1% of the devices on the networks.
Ericsson reported in March 201068 that mobile data traffic globally surpassed that of voice for the
first time at around 140,000 terabytes per month in December 2009. The data traffic was from 400
million mobile broadband subscriptions, while the voice traffic was from 4.6 billion mobile
subscriptions. Thus the average data per user at that time was already 11.25 times higher than the
average voice traffic per user.O2 reported in October 200969 that its network had experienced an
18-fold increase in data over the past year and that traffic was continuing to double every three
months.AT&T reported in February 201070 that data traffic on its network had grown more than
5,000 percent over the past three years and that this trend was expected to continue.
Telecom Italia reported72 that its mobile traffic grew 216% from mid-2008 to mid-2009.
Ericsson reported71 measurements of global mobile data traffic at nearly 225,000 terabytes per
month as of the second quarter of 2010, being nearly three times the volume of a year previously
and growing ten times faster than voice.

Cisco Visual Networking Index

This study72 is probably the most widely quoted source of mobile data traffic forecasts. It provides a
global forecast of demand, updated annually, with a five-year horizon. The most recent issue was
published in February 2010 to cover the period 2009-2014.
The headline statistic is that the compound annual growth rate will be 108% over this period36 from
a 0.09 exabyte37 per month base in 2009 (cf 0.14 EB per month measured by Ericsson in December
2009). The forecast is heavily predicated on the growth of video traffic, forecast at 66% of the total

Mobile WiMAX (802.16e) for mobile access

Mobile WiMAX (802.16e) for fixed

CGAR = 82%
Source: Senza Fili Consulting, Fixed or mobile WiMAX?
Forecasts and assessment for the transition from 802.16-
2004 to 802.16e WiMAX

by 2014 and with the highest forecast growth rate of any application. The volume forecasts for
global (+ outer space!) and Western Europe are shown in Figure D-8 , together with a forecast for
the UK assuming this is 10% of the total.

Cisco data demand forecasts
Cisco has also measured average mobile data speeds using direct measurements of large numbers of
real handsets7. If these are compared with the data volumes in the same regions, it is apparent that
there is a strong correlation, as shown in Figure D-9. If this behaviour were to be replicated into the
4G era, it possible that the capacity benefits of 4G could be eroded - or even removed - by the
stimulation of increased demand.

4G WiMAX Vs 3G: Foe or Friend
Technical merit: CDMA vs. OFDMA (least important)
Complete eco-system: availability and cost



Market position: coverage, mobility, bandwidth
Can a network with 70% population coverage access 70% or 10% of market?
Market Strategy: general population & sale channel Vs. enterprise & partnership
Deployment strategy: wide area & full coverage vs. metro area & zoon coverage
(capex and opex)
Financial muscle and strong partnership: Marketing & Sale muscle is vital (most important)
What will happen?
if you cannot beat them, join them or buy them?
WiMAX Development in III
Develop 4G WiMAX BTS Core Technology
MAC layer development and BS system integration
802.16d (Fix)
802.16e (Mobile)
MAC Service-Specific Convergence Sublayer (CS)
MAC Common Part Sublayer (CPS)
802.16 QoS Mechanism
MAC Security Sublayer (SS)
802.16j: Multi-hop Relay
WiMAX 2 (802.16m) Research and Study
Support at least two local and one international vendors to commercialize their products
Problems:1. Shadow of buildings
2. Valley between building
3. Coverage extension at cell edge
Concept of Multi-hop Relay
Lower CAPEX & OPEX approach to expand 4GWiMAX infrastructure


4GWiMAX Development Blueprint
Technology is identified as a focus for the future of india IT industry and will be the
preferable Technology to delivery M-Service, M-Learning and M-Life in M(obile)- Taiwan
Science & Technology Advisory Group (STAG) under The Executive Yuan is called on to
develop WiMAX Blueprint to recommend
Products which Taiwan industry would pursuit
Schedule, thus other nationwide R&D projects can support
Radio spectrum allocation to meet worldwide current development
Allocation of national technology development funding
Leverage public sponsored research & development projects ( institutional and private
companies) for core technologies, i.e, 802.16e chipsets, BTS, System Integration, IOT
testing, and application development





Business Model
Investment and Equity Partners
Motorola: $US 1B, Intel:$150M, Bell Canada: $100M
Operational Strategy: simple
Simple service: Wireless Access and Voice, No Billing, Reduced Customer
Simple OSS/BSS and OA&M platforms: Cost effective Opex and Capex
Future Plan: Team up with Cable companies to offer Video and DTV
Pricing Strategy: 20% lower than its competitors in XDSL residential market
Market Strategy: Portal, Simple, Affordable, High Speed, and Rural Areas

Informa forecasts based on their latest Intelligence Centre reports at August 2010 are shown in The
forecasts in the different scenarios, which relate mainly to the rate of recovery from the global
economic recession, show a range of around 390% (Global) and 350% (UK / Western Europe)
between the aggressive and conservative scenarios, over the six year period 2008 to 2014.


Heterogeneous Network

Heterogeneous terminals

Heterogeneous Network


Six Grand Challenges" in Wireless Systems
six research challenges have to be adequately met. These challenges are based on the work in
I. Scalability and affordability - creating a wireless communication in-frastructure for
affordable, mass-market services

II. Seamlessness and transparency - providing services independently of system

III. Mastering complexity of interaction - providing high quality services on the edge of
technology and artefacts that are easy to use for everyone

IV. Zero-configuration and reliability through massive redundancy and network
robustness - lowering entry thresholds for new actors in the wire-less system market
by low cost, simple-to-deploy, and low-maintenance systems and networking

V. Regulative environment - lowering regulatory entry barriers for new actors to
stimulate the innovation process

VI. Policies and business models - economic feasibility of new technolo-gies and
To make a scenario as outlined above possible we believe that the following six research
challenges have to be adequately met. These challenges are based on the work in :

I. Scalability and affordability - Creating a wireless communication infrastructure
for affordable, mass-market services
As the cost of providing advanced wireless devices continues to decrease, designing cost
effective infrastructure solutions capable of providing affordable wireless broadband access
(almost) everywhere is one of the key success factors for future wireless systems. This
research challenge includes devising novel radio technologies, new system architectural
concepts, and new and cost-efficient ways to provide attractive services to end-users.
II. Seamlessness and Transparency - Providing services independently
of system technology
One of the success factors of IP networks is the end-to-end principle, which separates
services and applications from bit transport. The same service can 8 RADIO DESIGN IN
NANOMETER TECHNOLOGIES be provided on a variety of devices (using higher level
protocols) without any change in the infrastructure. A key challenge is to preserve such
architecture in order to enable easy and dynamic composition of disparate networks amid an
ever-increasing heterogeneity of technologies and infrastructures. An additional difficulty is
to provide access and services across networks operated by different business actors from
various sectors, such as telecommunications, automotive, transportation, medical, industrial
control systems etc.


III. Mastering complexity of interaction - Providing high quality services
on the edge of technology and artefacts that are easy to use for everyone
A great challenge is how to provide an easy to use, natural, stable, and convenient interface to
the user in each situation, in spite of the great complexity of the underlying system. This
involves personalized human interfaces, understanding a complex interplay of behaviors, as
well as adaptivity and context Future wireless devices and infrastructure components have to
be deployed and maintained by owners or users without specific skills and special training.
This means that the devices need to be adaptive and self-configuring, sensing their physical
and logical environment. The key challenge is to exploit massive redundancy and adaptivity
to build secure, robust and highly reliable networks and systems from large number of
consumer grade devices.sensitivity of services and applications.
IV. Zero-configuration and reliability through massive redundancy and network
robustness - Lowering entry thresholds for new actors in the wireless system market by
low cost, simple-to-deploy, and low-maintenance systems and networking components

V. Regulative environment - Lowering regulatory entry barriers for new
actors to stimulate the innovation process
The continuous process of international allocation of frequency bands has normally a delivery
time of more than ten years. Poor utilization of the frequency spectrum as well as high entry
barriers for new products developed by e.g. SMEs may have a detrimental effect on the
innovation system. Research must include exploration of new radio technologies and
regulatory regimes that allow for a more dynamic frequency sharing. A key research
challenge is non-cooperative inter-networking and radio resource management.
VI. Policies and Business models - Economic feasibility of new technologies
and architectures
To ensure commercial viability we must identify the business roles and interfaces as well as
deployment concepts. New business scenarios have to be developed. These must allow
different size and types of players to compete and cooperate, thus enabling new business
models based on established trust relationships. The choice of technologies and system
architectures heavily depends on these business and policy models
Challenges in Radio Design - Flexible or Software Defined Radios
What are the consequence of the scenario with respect the work on radio design which is the
key topic of this book? We can identify two key properties of terminals operating in the
scenario described above:
Multi-mode Capability
Future terminals need to be capable of switching between several air-interfaces literally on
the fly. This can be done either by integrating separate hardware for each access mode in the
terminal or by using programmable hardware, that potentially could reuse the same hardware
and have the various access modes defined in software (Software Defined Radios). The latter
would have the interesting property that the terminals could be reconfigured during operation
(after they left the factory). It is however questionable, if this property is really useful since
the expected life cycle time in terminals is short compared to the deployment rate of new
infrastructure (and thus the appearance of new air-interface standards). Terminals are more
likely to be tailored to user needs and specific application and than disposed of, rather than
recommissioned for some other purpose. Agood example is the laptop PC: the vast majority
of users use pre-installed applications and never install new software on their own.
Reprogramming is limited to maintenance and updates of existing software, which

very rarely goes to the hardware level. A more reasonable approach for SDR use is therefore
to use Firmware Defined Radios" were programming radios is more a matter of efficient
production of terminals rather than a tool for onthe- fly" flexibility. Furthermore true
flexibility (future proofness") requires significant performance margins for which we pay in
power consumption.
Spectrum Agility
The Multimode terminals will need to operate over large frequency ranges in order to
facilitate a more dynamic spectrum management. The focus is here on wide frequency ranges
rather then reconfigurability and programmability. In this respect the radios do not need to be
software defined nor in it self cognitive". The latter term is currently frequently used to
describe a radio a frequency agile radio system in combination with adaptive scheme for
frequency management. Also a cognitive" radio system does not need to be software
In this chapter we have briefly outlined some important trends in wireless systems and how
these are driven by strong economic factors. The proposed heterogeneous network scenario
with many co-existing standards, each tailored to its specific niche, is a direct consequence of
demonstrated that in future systems more functionality and flexibility will be required in the
terminals, since large scale wireless infrastructures inherently cannot adapt quickly to new
demands and services. Finally at the physical level, we identified two key requirements on
future radios - multimode capabilities and spectrum agilities.

4G Security Investigation Results
This section describes the current research results of 4G. Due to the standards of 4G are
on defining, we investigate the current research results from papers. By the survey, some the
features and issues of 4G can be illustrated, and are helpful to our future studies.

Security Issues on 4G
Basically, 4G/B3G hope to provide a communication environment with seamless
connection service consists of integrating heterogeneous network, All-IP, multimedia
applications, and so on. Toward 4G and beyond 3G, there exist many security issues to be
resolved [Hui03][Fu04][Celentano06][ODrama04][Dell'Uomo02] [McEvoy05] [Zheng05]
[Prasad05]. As follows, we list some important security issues on 4G/B3G. Some of these
issues have been investigating and getting some results as an important reference.
QoS and Security [Fu04][ODrama04] [Dell'Uomo02] [Hui03]
-. Seamless integrated Mobility, QoS and Security
-. Delay across different networks for QoS
-. PrivacyAAA for 4G [McEvoy05][Zheng05] [Dell'Uomo02]
-. Heterogeneous NetworkMobile IPv6 with inherent problems of IP [Celentano06]
[Dell'Uomo02] Security and Handover [Celentano06] [Prasad05] [Dell'Uomo02]


The Research Results of 4G Security
As 4G has not yet reached in industry and standard, many researches on security issues
on 4G as described in section 3.1 have been doing progressively. Several research results
have proposed from prior papers. In this section, we introduce several results about these
security issues, specially issues resulted from heterogeneous network.
Authentication protocol of PKBP
When the ME roams to the area belong HA5 outside from HA, An PKBP authentication
communications are performed by upper layer CA. The PKBP scheme achieved :

(a). Authentication on heterogeneous networks
(b), Against the man-in-the-middle attack
(c ).Mutual authentication
(d). Anonymity and Non-repudiation
(e). Security of key agreement
The Trusted Computing-Based Security Architecture linked up PKBP scheme is
applicable for 4G. It is convenient to globe mobility and flexible scalability. It will be a
feasible solution for 4G with heterogeneous network.

Mobilizing Data for Profit
Deep packet inspection is the silver bullet for increasing average revenueper mobile user.According to
a report recently published by Gartner, smartphone sales in 2011 were up 58 per cent from 2010 With
iPad and tablet sales predicted for similar growth,the result is a seemingly insatiable demand for data-
centricapplications lead by video that is putting incredible stress on mobile networks. The more
powerful the device, the more data is downloaded. While accessing data using smartphones easily
outnumbers data access using laptops (via dongles), the laptops consume significantly more data by
volume than smaller mobile devices. There has been an explosion of mobile data traffic and the stress
on the mobile network will continue to grow unless operators step in. The initial growth of mobile
broadband data drove service providers to focus on traffic and congestion management. Policy
Servers are the key means to apply more rational policies when networks became congested, usually
by dividing customers into tiers with different data volume limits, and devising policies for what
happens when limits were breached. This approach has become widely known as fair use management
and applications such as bill shock are being added to ensure users understand what and how much
they were being charged for - but it is simply not enough to just use fair use management and the bill
shock application. The end user and the network both need more concrete measures in place to protect
against an over congestion of the networks and to ensure that end users are not paying extortionate
data rates. While bandwidth management and control of the pipe are absolutely necessary, building a
bigger, faster dumb pipealone wont keep the Network Service Providers (NSPs) in business. The
fact is, Average Revenue Per User (ARPU) for data traffic is not increasing at the same rate as the
demand for service - this cannot remain the same for very much longer. NSPs must find ways to add
services, enhance Quality of Experience (QoE), and provide flexible, dynamic, up-sell options to
monetize the data pipe. Deep Packet Inspection(DPI) technology is the key to make this change

happen. Value Added Service (VAS) applications are being developed that will use DPI technology to
improve the user experience. Operators will be able to move away from the all you can eatdata
plans towards more flexible services and sophisticated pricing plans, which will benefit the operator
and the user.

When it comes to cellular site Installation and development, the cellular
tower company of choice is 4G Server & Technology Limited.
I nstallation Process
the New Registration for mobile tower process on Residential & Agriculture Property according to
Department of Telecom Ministry of Telecommunication (Government of India). 4G Server &
Technology has authorized with all telecom companies such as Uninor, Airtel 4G, Aircel, Virgin, Idea
and newest 4G Technology Services provider. The applicant has to fill an online application and with
fees of Rs. 6900/- in authorized Manager Account. All the Application shall be verified company
Legal Department and then forwarded to Processing Team. Applicant has to furnish there Scan copy
of Property Paper, One ID & Address proof and one passport photograph to Company mail id. The
site Survey is very confidential matter as per rule Section 13, Telecom Ministry and survey shall be
done in 2 working days. If Property is not suitable in satellite survey we will refund back the applicant
fee without any deduction.We represent a combined experience of over 15 years of wireless site
acquisition, cell site leasing and development experience. We have been developing cellular sites
since the inception of wireless industry.Directors of 4G Server & Technology have leased and
developed rooftop wireless sites, cell towers, water tower cell sites and countless concealed cellular
sites in Chandigarh, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Maharasthra, Andra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh,
Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttrakhand, Delhi, Punjab, Bihar and Gujarat. As thought leaders in the
wireless development industry, our Principals have been quoted in the major media, namely The
Times of India, Business Line and Dainik Jagran, The Journal News, The Star Ledger and other local
publications. We've helped create municipal wireless ordinances that other municipalities have
adopted or modeled their ordinances upon. We have represented and represent towns and cities for
wireless development and deployed and developed entire wireless infrastructure networks and build

programs for various cellular carriers. 4G Server & Technology has also intervened on behalf of
countless cell site landlords preventing them from being taken advantage of by unscrupulous and
shameless "lease optimization" and "lease re-negotiation" wireless consulting firms. We have a 100%
success rate in dealing with these companies. 4G Server & Technology Principals have served as
wireless industry expert witnesses in numerous lawsuits involving cell tower site selection, valuation
and assessment. We have conducted hundreds of 4G Server & Technology Limited wireless
feasibility audits often assessing the work of another cellular tower company or as required by our
client.In one particular case our expert testimony resulted in a victorious outcome for a Fortune 100
client who successfully defended a multimillion lawsuit from a former wireless services vendor.
Are you currently negotiating cell tower lease rates with a wireless carrier? What are the average cell
tower lease rates in your state? Its such a broad question since there are hundreds of metropolitan
areas across the India and no two regions are alike and rental rates will vary from county to county
and by wireless carrier. Rooftop antenna leases and ground leases for monopoles or towers are
generally the same. However, where you may only be able to get a single rooftop carrier in many
instances, on a cell tower you may get up to four co-locating mobile phone companies. Cell tower
lease rates are heavily influenced by supply and demand. Cellular carriers generally lose money on
the more rural cell towers that dont get a lot of traffic. Even their cell towers located in densely
populated metropolitan areas lose money for the first several years in mot cases. To illustrate how cell
site lease rates can vary in the same metropolitan area, we will show a sampling of cell site lease rates
by the same major wireless carrier on four separate cellular antenna sites leased in 2012:
780,000 yearly / 65,000 monthly
540,000 yearly / 45,000 monthly
360,000 yearly / 30,000 monthly
180,000 yearly / 15,000 monthly
Each of these four cell tower sites are located within a 45 minute drive of each other. The cellular
tower lease rates can be attributed simply to supply and demand. The most expensive site is in the
toughest location from a zoning perspective and the cell site where the rental price is the lowest is in a
more rural setting on the outskirts of the metropolitan area Yearly Increases Matter.However, it is
important to note that in each of these three real examples, we were able to negotiate 5% yearly
increases for our clients and not 4% yearly increases or 15% every three years. The terms that you
agree to are just as important as the rental rate you negotiate.For example, lets compare the
difference in cellular site lease rates and revenue of a carrier lease agreed to at a rate of 30,000 per
month at 5% yearly increases vs. a rate of 30,000 at 5% yearly increases.
30,000 per month with 5% yearly rental increases = 360,000 in antenna rental income at the end of
the 10-year term.
30,000/ year @ 5% yearly = 540,000 in rental income at end of the 21-year term, a difference of
A wireless carrier will pay a real estate site acquisition installer anywhere from a few hundred to a
few thousand rupees extra in bonus money for getting a lease executed at 1% or 2% yearly increases
and for a lower monthly rental amount. Some wireless carriers also hire lease re-negotiation

contractors to attempt to re-engineer the terms of your lease a few years after you have a tower built
on your property. Even a small reduction in monthly rental or change in terms can add up
significantly for the carriers and take a lot of money out of your pocket.
Demand for 4G Mobile Services

Although 3G networks have been deployed for some eight years, demand for mobile
broadband services is still at a relatively early stage. Demand accelerated significantly only
in 2007, following the introduction of low-priced internet connectivity based on 3G
dongles. Smartphones have stimulated further demand, notably starting with the advent of
the iPhone 3G in June 2008. This resulted in a complete change of the profile of demand in
terms of volume per user, mobility and the principal locations in which services are used.
Given this early market stage, forecasting 4G demand over the timescales of relevance to this
project is highly unlikely to be successful. Instead, we examine the main attributes of mobile
broadband demand which are significant when considering the network capacity required to
serve it. In particular, the attributes examined are:
the devices which generate the demand;
the services and applications which users access via their devices;
the data volumes and data rates which users generate and require access to in order to support
the relevant applications;
the locations and mobility associated with the demand;
the service quality which users require in order to support the services they demand.

These factors are examined via (recent) historical data and via forecasts from various sources. Since such
forecasts typically extend for only five years, in lieu of an overall forecast we highlight the factors
which may influence the demand which 4G networks will have to serve. We focus our attention on

The type of mobile broadband device

employed plays a strong role in determining the form of
demand placed on the mobile network. Devices have proliferated over the last few years,
and the device type in turn impacts strongly on the applications which can be run, the volume
of data generated and the nature of the quality of experience which is required to satisfy the
user. shows how the device type impacts on the nature of the demand which various device
classes place on the network. It is clear that MBB demand is strongly variegated amongst
Cisco forecaststhat 91% of all mobile data traffic will be from smartphones and portable
computers by 2014, due to the higher usage profile of laptops/netbooks and the suitability of
smartphones for high- quality video. Thus smartphone take-up is an important predictor of
mobile data growththat the proportion is expected to stabilise in the next five years and that
UK is some way from being the leading market, with 32% in 2014 compared with, say, 67% in
Smartphones create as much traffic as 10 basic feature phones ( 30 times for iPhones),
while a laptop can generate as much as 1300 times such a feature phone The increase in

interest in tablet devices with larger form factors such as the Apple iPad seems set to continue
this trend

Growth of mobile phone subscribers in India
The aim of this paper is to forecast the growth of mobile phone subscribers in India. Based
on the data of mobile phone subscribers from the year 1996-97 to 2007-08, a short term
forecast is made up to the year 2015-16. Under assumed saturation level, the logistic and
Gompertz distribution function are used for forecasting the growth of mobile phone
subscribers in India. It is observed that, the coefficient of determination is high and mean
square error is low in case of logistic distribution. This distribution forecasts the growth
of mobile phone subscriber to 98 per 100 people in India by the year 2015-16. This study
will be useful for planners, policy makers and researchers in the area of the
telecommunications sector for realistic view of the subject and for planning appropriate
strategy accordingly.
In case of many suppliers reaching the same wholesale market, it would make the farmers
and fishermen to sell their produce at throw-away prices; sometimes even below their cost.
However, in another nearby wholesale market, which would only be a couple of hundred
kilometers away, there could a short supply and the prices could be soaring. With the advent of
mobile phones, and its cheap availability;

Year Total Population* Subscribers Subscriber#

1996-97 949878000 339031 0.04
1997-98 965607000 882316 0.09
1998-99 981324000 1199578 0.12
1999-00 996944000 1884311 0.19
2000-01 1028610000 3577095 0.35
2001-02 1045547000 6431520 0.62
2002-03 1062388000 12687637 1.19
2003-04 1079117000 33311561 3.09
2004-05 1095722000 56888928 5.19
2005-06 1112186000 101809676 9.15
2006-07 1128521000 165093655 14.63

2007-08 1144734000 261081713 22.81
Source: Telecom Regulatory Authority of India
* Estimated by Registrar General of India based on 1991 and 2001 census.
# Mobile phone subscriber per 100 persons


Mobile market in India

In 1995, the first mobile telephone service started operating in metro cities of India, after the telecom
sector was opened up by the Government for private investment, as a part of Liberalization-
Privatization-Globalization policy. A year later, the services spread towards rest of the geographical
areas of India. During the initial five to six years, the average growth of mobile phone subscribers was
very tardy; probably due to the high price of mobile phone equipment and air time charges of the
service providers. After the New Telecom Policy in 1999, the mobile phone industry introduced
several consumer friendly initiatives. Since then the mobile subscriber additions started picking up
and crossed the fixed-line connections in September 2004. Till January 2009, India had 267.54
million mobile phone subscribers (Cellular Operator Association of India, 2007). In India, the mobile
phone service operators use the GSM (global system for mobile communications) and CDMA (code-
division multiple access) technologies. About 75 per cent of the mobile phone users under GSM
technology with 900 MHz band but, recently, the providers operate in the 1800 MHz band, as well
(TRAI Annual Report, 2006-07). At present, the dominant players in India are Airtel, Reliance
Infocomm, Vodafone, Idea cellular, AirCell, Tata Telecom and BSNL (Bharat Sanchar Nigam
Limited) / MTNL (Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited). There are also many smaller players,
operating in only a few states.
The growth of mobile phone subscribers in India has increased tremendously over the last few years
(Table 1). From year 1996-97 to 2007-08, the number of mobile phone subscribers increased from
0.34 million to 26.11

shows the graph of mobile phone subscribers per 100 persons with respect to the year from 1996-97 to
2007-08. It is observed that the actual growth of the curve is initially slow up to 2005-06 and then it
increases rapidly. Therefore, these data seem to fit well in S shaped curve of Gompertz and the
logistic model for forecasting the mobile phone subscribers. Finally, using this trend the forecasting
model will be developed for India.

Bright Aspects for 4G in India
Trinity of Internet, Video and Television
Indias success in wireless telephony has been predominantly restricted to voice due to
various reasons like lower literacy levels (74% overall and 11% English), lower internet user-
base (<10%), lower PC penetration (~4%), unavailability of local language data content,
lower Average Revenue per User per month (ARPU <Rs. 100) for 2G telephony due to lower
affordability. As 4G promises high speed broadband that too without voice, prima facie the
potential market for 4G seems limited to 100 million internet users and another 15-20 million
additional users from groups like gamers, tablet-users etc. As we go deep into the success of
any technology, for most of them the market exploded once the initial barriers like cost,
supply, user-friendly technology etc are crossed. A decade back, no one expected that
there would be any scope for one more technology like CDMA in India assuming that the
market was saturated with a teledensity of 10-15%. But once the barrier of affordability was
smashed, the same technology made inroads capturing more than 30% of subscriber base at
its peak. Lower internet penetration in India arises out of higher cost of ownership of PCs
which requires an initial investment of Rs. 20,000 along with other issues like inconsistent
power supply, space requirement of at least 4 sq. ft etc. The next best options like laptops are
equally expensive and delicate to handle, leaving them for corporate class and postgraduate
students from technical and management streams. Also the lack of local content on internet is
one of the major grounds for under-penetration of internet in India. On the contrary, a low
cost tablet which is customized with suitable applications (apps), probably with a language
option to convert into regional languages, along with reasonably priced 4G connection
is a formula for success for Indian markets. Unlike a PC or a laptop, tablets can be a lot
cheaper starting from below Rs. 2,000 level if we go by pricing offered by Aakash tablet
(though 4G enabled tablets might cost more due to lack of mass production). In that case, cost
and portability will be the biggest advantages for most of the target user groups like students,
salesmen, SMEs, etc. This demand is in addition to the existing internet subscribers which are
potential targets for 4G offered via USB modems and wireless gateways. One never knows,
4G might be the technology that will make the demand for tablets explode in India. In spite of
this, the fact remains that data usage has never picked up in India like voice. Other utilities
offered by a mobile phone like news updates, emails, chats, utility services like banking etc
could not fascinate telecom subscribers in India to the extent that they are willing to pay a
premium to experience them at faster speeds (like 3Gs case). We believe that beyond voice
communication the biggest motivator for Indian masses would be video or rather video-on-
demand. TV Viewer ship in India is just below mobile penetration and is the most popular

medium of entertainment. With the advent of 4G, coupled with a low cost tablet and localized
video content can be a game-changer in the Indian telecom as well as entertainment industry.
To some extent, video-on demand on a 4G enabled tablet partially overcomes the
disadvantages like choice of content, privacy, inconsistent power supply which leads to
interruptions in the TV programs etc. So it can be safely predicted that video will be the next
best product to sell to Indian customers, after voice
and it also generates enough traffic on the network to generate enough volumes for the
operators. Doing a small extrapolation, there can also be a scope for 4G entering the living
rooms of entertainment- hungry Indian households via a set top box. Out of the Rs. 300
billion TV industry in India, a small pie would mean a sustainable market for 4G players, as
against selling pure data. A 4G enabled set-top box would allow Indian user to view video-
on demand on his television besides the regular TV content. Some of the 4G licensees are
going for tie ups with media companies to provide exclusive content to their 4G users. In the
end, video looks to be the shortest, fastest and safest route to bring Indian subscribers closer
to 4G. Next to videos, what can attract Indian subscribers more is gaming. Mobile Gaming
industry in India is expected to reach Rs. 14 billion by 2014 from Rs.2.4 billion in 2010. With
burgeoning young population, Indian youngsters will show a preference for group gaming,
spending more time in gaming cafes or playing games in a group, maybe at homes. A 4G
based mobile hotspot can offer a convenient tool to provide faster speed for gaming cafes as
well as individuals in their homes. Literacy, Mobile and Internet Penetration in India Source:
TRAI, Census, Industry and CARE Research.
4G will bring fruits of Cloud Computing to Indian SMEs :-
On the corporate side, around 26 million SMEs in India offer a huge potential market for 4G
as most of the SMEs lack affordable high-speed Internet service (broadband) in India,
particularly in Tier II and Tier III cities. This is one of the prominent reasons for lack of
widespread adoption of e- commerce by local businesses. From travelling sales force to
accounts sections using internet banking, 4G offers a promise for improvement in business at
each level for an SME. As cloud computing gathers steam, SMEs can use IT infrastructure
including hardware like servers and platforms like Customer Relationship Management
modules on pay-as-you-use basis rather than owning the infrastructure. 4G offers the vital
link at faster speeds and affordable rates that can connect the IT system of SMEs to the
clouds of service provider. Indian cloud computing market is expected to reach $16 billion by
2020, according Nasscom and 4G will be the key for the growth of cloud computing as it has
the capacity to carry the huge amount of data needed to be transferred from the clients end to
the host server.
Stable growth prospects :-
lower operating costs support business model Unlike 2G that has stuck up in linear revenue
growth implying additional revenue coming primarily with proportional increase in
subscribers as ARPUs are stagnated, 4G has fairly non-linear model with prospects of higher

profitability as ARPUs are expected to be a lot better than 2G. Also, the limited competition
in the sector, as there are just 3 players in a circle today, will help in holding tariffs unlike
2G. Millions of SMEs in India should potentially offer a stable and high volume market for
4G operators. On the cost front, operating costs of 4G network are comparatively lesser than
those for 2G and 3G, as 4G is the most advanced technology. As 4G is IP based technology,
BTS are believed to be cheaper than 3G and are more compact and robust as compared to 2G
BTS. There are considerable amount of savings as this BTS can be used outdoor without air
conditioning and consumes less power as compared to 2G and 3G BTS, bringing down the
energy expenses which constitute nearly 30% of network operating costs.
Current situation of Indian Companies in 4G is listed here in Table )
4G License Areas
Progress on Roll out

Reliance Infotel

Pan India - 22 Circles
Proposed roll out in 2012 but delayed couple of times.
Have adopted LTE-TDD. Most probably partner with
Network 18 for content.

Bharti Airtel

Kolkata, Karnataka,
Maharashtra, Punjab
Has launched services in Kolkata and Bangalore
(Karnataka). Has adopted LTE- TDD. Eying on
Qualcomms Mumbai and Delhi licenses.
Partnered with ZTE for Kolkata, Huawei for Karnataka,
Ericsson for Punjab and Nokia Siemens for Maharashtra.

AP, TN, W.
Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Assam,
N.E., J&K
Intends to start services in 2012. No specific plans
disclosed yet.

Mumbai, Delhi, Kerala,
Settled the dispute over licenses in March 2012. No
specific plans disclosed yet.


Madhya Pradesh
Claims to be the first company
to launch 4G in India on
LTE-TDD. Has partnered with Ericsson.


Gujarat, UP
(E), UP (W),
Rajasthan, HP
It already offers fixed broadband to households and
corporate using WiFi technology. 4G roll out is in

20 Circles - All India except
Mumbai and Delhi
Intends to surrender its BWA spectrum in some / all the
20 circles.
Mumbai and Delhi No specific plans disclosed yet.


Difficulties in implementing 4G in India
Device support is lacking:
Unlike 2G and 3G where spectrum bands were fairly uniform across various countries
resulting into mass production of handsets bringing down the handset prices, 4G is offered in
different frequency bands in different countries. Around one third of 4G subscribers today,
predominantly in the US, served by Verizon and AT&T, are on 700 MHz band whereas
Europe uses 2.6 GHz band. China and Japan are using 2.5 GHz and 2.1 GHz respectively. All
the private players in India have received 4G spectrum in 2.3 GHz whereas BSNL and
MTNL have it in 2.5 GHz. This puts limitations on interoperability of 4G devices across
regions with different spectrum bands. This also leads to fragmented produc- tion of the
devices (handsets, USB modems, tablets etc) leading to higher costs, at least at the beginning,
until the OEMs come out with devices compatible with more 4G frequencies.
India 4G and Cellular Market Analysis and Forecasts, 2010-2015

India is clearly sitting on the cusp of the next great telecom revolution: broadband. With a current
penetration level of less than 1%, the nation eyes a potential 10% penetration over the next five
years. The biggest indicator of the fact that the wheels of broadband have been irrevocably set in
motion is the long overdue auction for 3G and BWA spectrum which finally completed in June
2010. The government laughed its way to the bank as it surprised itself with an unexpected US$
23.5 billion in license fees after successfully auctioning 3G and 4G spectrum airwaves.

Spectrum-starved Indian carriers bid aggressively at the 3G auctions to circumvent spectrum
shortfalls and to have a chance to start cashing in on the growing data-driven 3G and 4G business

While no single operator won a pan-India 3G license in the summer 2010 auction, seven
operators won licenses for select 3G circles. Reliance Industries won a pan-India BWA license
through its acquisition of Infotel and six other companies won select BWA circles. BSNL and
MTNL, the two government owned companies, were awarded pan-India 3G and BWA license
early 2009 on the condition that they match the winning bid when the licenses were awarded.
This was certainly not the best thing for the incumbents as the auctions sent spectrum prices
soaring, forcing MTNL to empty its cash reserves to acquire 3G licenses, and causing BSNL to
post losses for the 2010 financial year.

BWA licensing turned out more surprises than just the return of Reliance Industries; it also
brought Qualcomm to the forefront of the technology battle for BWA supremacy, as it acquired
BWA licenses in Mumbai and Delhi. Unlike Intel, Qualcomm took a pro-active stance with an
upfront investment of US$ 1billion to insure its relevance in Indias next telecom growth engine:
broadband access.

Thus far, India has had virtually no broadband wireless market worth mentioning (except for a
3.3GHz licensed band and unlicensed 5.8GHz / 2.4GHz band). Thus the 9.2 million broadband
subscribers (as at June 2010) were largely driven by incumbent ADSL services, with about 0.9
million data-card service customers (2G and EVDO users from Reliance, Tata and MTS). For a
country with 620 million cellular users, a broadband penetration of less than 1% is cause for
concern and hence and a huge opportunity.
Devices, Demographics and Data Drivers:
A dramatic increase in device features, accompanied by a steep drop in prices, suddenly appears to
be creating a large, captive, IP-enabled user base. Well-funded, unknown players like Micromax,
Karbonn, Lemon and Zen captured about 11% handset market share in the last 12 months.
Blackberry-like smartphones, QWERTY keypad and Wi-Fi enabled devices are flooding the
market creating a captive IP-enabled community faster than expected. 3G devices are expected to
be in the $100 price bracket.

A young and vibrant population has driven India to be one of the fastest growing markets
worldwide for social networking applications such as Facebook, Orkut, and Mig33. This
generation will demand mobile broadband access with higher speeds while on the move. Indias
SME (small and medium enterprise) sector is not far behind, with ARPU from US$ 65 upwards,
making it a fast growing business sector especially in non-metro areas.

With the Indian government clearly emphasizing the importance of a national broadband
infrastructure, including several IT-based initiatives to extend rural education and health programs
to reduce the social divide, we expect government agencies to subscribe to broadband services and
consume more bandwidth over the years.

Managing large cellular subscriber businesses is not a new challenge for a dozen Indian operators
who have found the most innovative means of keeping costs low, outsourcing non-core functions
including networks, leasing tower infrastructure, sharing cell-site real estate and managing energy

limitations. At the same time, building capacity in a market that is still adding in excess of 15
million 2G subscribers a month, and increasing coverage to 600,000 villages where national
ARPU averages US$ 3, is perhaps not for the faint hearted. Still, broadband penetration hovers
under 1% and there is a huge perceived opportunity.
While the nation struggles with runaway inflation, over a quarter of the population still living on
less than a dollar a day, and a yawning divide in the cities that threatens to explode, the government
is hoping that a broadband revolution will distribute prosperity more equitably, shrink the digital
divide and empower a rural economy that could leapfrog to the next level.
World Wide Developments, Deployments, Revenue Models and Forecasts 2010-15
80% of the mnos are expected to upgrade to 4G around 2015.
Operators currently requiring large opex in serving legacy networks must start deploying LTE to
reduce costs.
LTE deployment needs significant investments in terms of network backhaul, infrastructure, devices
Payback period of investments can go as high as 6.5; expected to happen in the range of 4-5 years.
Network Sharing will be essential to reduce capex and opex by 2015.
LTE may not be the prime most choice for some Greenfield mnos in western and emerging markets;
wimax will offer a competitive edge to these mnos due to cheaper rates.
70% of wimax deployments will happen in emerging markets like Africa followed by Asia Pacific
and Middle East, due to lower broadband penetration.
Mnos, delaying decisions to deploy LTE Networks will face strong competition from established
leaders after 2013; however, capex for LTE deployment is expected to drop by 7-10% (due to strong
competition and vendor variety available in the market).
Key Forecasts
LTE is expected to reach 200mn subscribers by 2015 Legacy Networks to stay upto 2018
mnos will face 75% less hardware, 25-30% lower cost and 10% energy saving with LTE/ 4G
Bandwidth hungry apps, during the LTE era, will result in a substantial increase of ARPU by 15-
wimax subscribers will slowly and steadily increase from 5.5mn (current) to 65mn by 2015 due to
delay in LTE rollouts
90% of WCDMA vendors will upgrade to HSPA+ or LTE by 2H2014. Whereas, majority of CDMA
operators will opt for LTE
No. Of subscribers using GSM/ GPRS/ EDGE will still be larger in size i.e. 60% (3.2bn of 4.8bn) of
global mobile subscribers

SMS and International Roaming services will not happen soon during the early years of LTE/ 4G
North America will outpace European mnos in LTE deployments; UK seems to delay the most.
ltes complex All-IP based networks will raise security threats for Identity Managem Key
Forecasts ent, Roaming Management and Security of Routing

4G in India is at a very nascent stage and expected to take on the market with a bang. 3G
adoption in India remains subdued at 10-12 million users even after almost 2 years of its
launch due to various issues like poor network quality as operators are cash-strapped to spend
on 3G expansion, low penetration of 3G enabled handsets, unavailability of local content,
absence of a good application. Even if 3G picks up in 2 years from now, most of the users
will be mobile users with a less data requirement like accessing e-mails and web-portals
leaving the space of other portable mobile devices like tablets, laptops, gaming etc requiring
high speed broadband for live HD video streaming, gaming etc unoccupied, paving the way
for 4G which is far more faster than 3G. Worldwide, for 4G, Wi-Max is more widely adopted
technology than Long Term Evolution (LTE) having a user base almost four times that of the
latter but the latter is growing at a much faster pace than the former. North America, Japan
and China are the major drivers of LTE worldwide. North America accounts for more than
40% of LTEs global presence. Out of the eight entities in India who get 4G licenses, only
BSNL and MTNL have opted for Wi-Max platform whereas private companies opted for
LTE. The difference between Wi-Max and LTE is not as different as GSM and CDMA apart
from being promoted by two different associations Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers (IEEE) and 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) respectively. Wi-Max has
capacity to accommodate voice which LTE does not but LTE allows better integration with
2G and 3G as compared to Wi-Max. As per recent statement given by Telecom Minister of
the Country , Operators using LTE platform will also be able to offer Voice Services, But
How and when, it is yet to be cleared. So now the game is is split wide upon in front of our
eyes and 4G has a choice to target customer in the near future in wide variety.
The Target Segment
The following customer base can be targeted by 4G-
1) A group of 30 million post-paid subscribers, who on an average pay more than Rs. 500 a
month as their mobile bill which is approximately 5 times the prepaid users.
2) It can also target 460 million subscribers who have handset supporting internet and have
subscribed to one or the other form of mobile data services. More than hundred million
carrying a 3G enabled handsets offer a sizeable target group for 3G services.

3) 150 million internet users in the country are a very good target.
4) Hundreds of thousands new tablet users being added every year and their quest for higher
speeds will ultimately pave the way for 4G.
5) Millions of potential TV viewers waiting for the cheaper video-on-demand facility in their
drawing rooms, and
6) Hundreds of thousands of Small and Medium Enterprises waiting for the high speed
internet connectivity offer the target group for 4G services.
7) The entire Education, Medical and Legal fraternity will try and adopt the services to take
First movers advantage in their respective geography.

Impediments to growth of 4g in india
The future of 4g in india is very bright because of its features and indian requirements.
Despite that there are numerous factors that can play negative role in the growth of 4g
business in india. These are discussed as follows
A) almost everyone end up upgrading to 2g and 3g services. It was because of a wireless
system which is fearful. These upgrades were incremental which do not require a complete
reworking of the system, and thats why they are cheaper. The required equipment is in mass
production in other places around the globeand is already developed. If we go by
unconfirmed reports from sources, 4g players are also likely to adopt cheaper equipment
route to get into every household, but in case adopting a new equipment/handset becomes
mandatory for accessing 4g services, it would certainly become a bottleneck ingrowth of 4g
services in india.
B) unlike 2g and 3g where spectrum bands are fairly uniform across various countries
resulting into mass production of handsets bringing down the handset prices, 4g is offered in
different frequency bands in different countries. Around 1/3 rd of subscribers of 4g today,
majorly in the us, served by verizon and at&t, are on 700 mhz band whereas europe uses 2.6
ghz band. Japan & china are using 2.5 ghz and 2.1 ghz respectively. In india, every private
company has received 4g spectrum in 2.3 ghz whereas bsnl and mtnl have it in 2.5 ghz. This
puts limitations on interoperability of 4g devices across regions with different spectrum
bands. This also leads to fragmented production of the devices (handsets, usb modems,
tablets etc) leading to higher costs, at least at the beginning, until the oems come out with
devices compatible with more 4g frequencies.
C) 4g, unlike 3g, does not offer voice-based services through mobile networks but as voice-
over-internet-protocol (voip). The main difference between normal telephony and internet
telephony is that in normal telephony, circuit switching technology is used, whereas internet
telephony is based on packet switching technology. In the developed markets like us and
sweden where 4g has been rolled out, it is offered as a data only package, integrated with 3g

packages for voice. A user who is logged on to a 4g network will be seamlessly transferred to
a 3g network the moment he receives a voice call.
D) voice-over- lte (volte) is a new form of voip and is under trial phase in some of the
countries. In india, not all the 4g service providers have the option to provide seamless 4g, 3g
and 2g service offering both data and voice services on the same handset as only bharti,
aircel, bsnl and mtnl among 4g licensees have 2g/3g licenses. This can be a possibility in
future if government accepts trais recommendation to make the spectrum technology neutral
allowing the operator to provide 2g, 3g or 4g services using the same spectrum.
E) as there is a lack of clarity whether voip will be mellowed fully in india, currently 4g
services are
Limited only for data related usage.
F) one of the biggest barrier to the growth of this sector is prevailing system of portability
and file clearing process which is lengthy that if one has adopted, it will lead to the loss of
money and time.
India plans 4G mobile sale
India plans to hold an auction of ultra-high-speed fourth-generation (4G) mobile phone spectrum
soon after completion of 3G access now underway, a report said Wednesday. The sale process for
4G, which will provide highspeed Internet connections, will begin as soon as operators roll out their
3G networks this year, Communications Minister A. Raja was quoted as saying by the Hindustan
Times newspaper. The government expects to bring in at least 350 billion rupees (eight billion
dollars) from the sell-off of 3G airwaves and a follow-on auction of broadband wireless access
spectrum that began last Friday and could take weeks. Operators believe 4G will bring near-
broadband speed technology to mobile phones, allowing users to receive multimedia such as TV
broadcasts and online games at rates up to 10 times faster than those possible on 3G networks.
Germany on Monday began Europe's first auction of 4G frequencies. The auction of 3G spectrum will
propel India into the Internet era, giving millions who have no computer access the ability to surf the
web from their phones. It will also heat up the battle for customers in the world's fastest-growing
mobile market. The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) has already started the pre-
consultation process for the sale of 4G spectrum, Raja said. "Once TRAI submits its
recommendations, the government will work on it," he said. Raja's comments came after the
government completed 22 rounds of auctions to award 3G spectrum for 3G telecom services,
according to the Department of Telecommunications website. A bid for a pan-India 3G licence rose
to 45.8 billion rupees on the fourth day of the auction 31 percent above the reserve price fixed by
the government. Bidding was closed for a public holiday. The winning companies' names will be
announced after the auction's completion and approval by the government.
Regulatory Trends
Mobile Number Portability Adoption
The regulator in India is the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI). In 2009, the
TRAI proposed to implement Mobile Number Portability (MNP) for all operators to allow

subscribers to retain their mobile number when changing service provider. The MNP
implementation deadline slipped multiple times, but was finally launched on November 25th,
2010 in Haryana and on January 20th, 2011 across the entire country. According to the TRAI,
the number of mobile subscribers opting for MNP has more than doubled in less than a
month. TRAI has revealed that, at the end of February 2011, around 3.83 million users had
opted for MNP. As of February 5th, 2011, about 1.71 million subscribers had submitted
requests to change their mobile service provider. These numbers are insignificant in light of
the 806 million mobile subscribers in the country at the end of January 2011. For the prepaid
market segment, MNP is potentially of greater consequence. MNP requests are significantly
higher from pre-paid users, which from the point of view of ARPU is good for some perators.
ARPU among pre-paid users is low and in many cases even lower than the cost of servicing
such users. Given this, by porting out such users, the operator can eventually realize a net
gain in terms of overall revenue. Indias telecommunication sector is a major contributor
towards the national economy. However, the domestic telecom equipment manufacturing
segment has not been able to keep pace, forcing telecom operators to import most of the
equipment required for their networks. In order to address this concern, the TRAI has
proposed that at least 80% of network technology purchased by the financial year 2019-
2020 should be made in India, whether by domestic vendors or overseas companies with
local manufacturing plants. Just 13% of the total market in 2009-2010, which the TRAI
values at 547.65 billion Indian rupee (US$12.3 billion), was for products made in India, with
just 3% being made by indigenouscompanies.
Spectrum Auctions
Indias Department of Telecommunication (DoT) is in charge of spectrum management. The
DoT has initiated the process of auctioning airwaves in the 700 MHz band, and plans to
allocate the spectrum by the end of 2012. The 700 MHz band ranges from 698 MHz to 806
MHz and has been identified by the ITU for telecom services. Doordarshan (a public
television broadcaster) has been given 40 MHz of bandwidth between 745 MHz and 795
MHz for digital terrestrial transmission in four metro cities. India has about 108 MHz of
airwaves in the 700 MHz band. The timing of the 700 MHz auction is crucial as most Indian
operators were burned following the heavily contested 3G and BWA auctions in 2010. The
operators spent US$23 billion to buy 3G and BWA spectrum. Maravedis believes that the
Indian government is moving too fast to allocate 700 MHz spectrum and must consider the
current financial health of the domestic telecom industry. None of India's telecom operators
will be able to spend funds to buy the 700 MHz spectrum if the government decides to
release spectrum through an auction.
WiMAX Trends
Since all the private operators in India decided to adopt TD-LTE for broadband wireless roll
outs, WiMAX advocates are now betting high on BSNLs WiMAX plans in India. At the end
of February 2011, BSNL had 13,000 WiMAX subscribers l. Though BSNL currently has
very few WiMAX subscribers, it is in the process of deploying more base stations to support

millions of users over the next few years but this project will very much depend on the
government appetite for more spending on WiMAX. In the 3.3 GHz band, Maravedis does
not expect much activity in terms of network expansion in the coming quarters in India. The
3.3 GHz players like Aircel and Bharti Airtel are currently focused on 3G and TD-LTE,
whereas TATA is focused on 3G only. Aircel is not abandoning WiMAX in the 3.3 GHz
band and has decided to continue to serve its customers with WiMAX (for last mile fixed
applications) in 54 cities. TATA Communications, on the other hand, had approximately
50,000 WiMAX subscribers (95% residential; 5% business) at the end of Q1 2011 (3.3GHz
fixed wireless). The operator does not have any plans to expand its fixed WiMAX network.
TATA will continue to serve these customers but has decided not to take any new subscribers
on this network. TATA decided to exit the BWA auctions in 2010 because they felt that the
pricing of spectrum was making the BWA business case unviable. TATA was the largest and
most aggressive promoter of WMAX in India until the BWA auctions began in May 2010.
TATA was extremely vocal about its support for WiMAX until April 2009 when, perhaps
frustrated by the prolonged delay of spectrum allocation and the uncertainty of the WiMAX
scenario as its top equipment vendor, Telsima, shutdown operations, TATA began looking
for a solution to quickly offer wireless broadband services to its customers. About two
months later TATA joined Reliance and started EVDO data card services.
3G Trends
All of Indias major private operators (Bharti Airtel, Reliance Communications, TATA
Teleservices, IDEA Cellular and others) have launched 3G services over the past few months.
At the end of March 2011, Reliance Communications launched 3G in 18 cities; Aircel in 10
cities; TATA in 9 cities; Bharti Airtel in 12 cities; and Vodafone in 2 cities. At the end of Q1
2011, BSNL had 3 million 3G subscribers, Bharti Airtel had 2 million, and we estimate
Reliance Communications had 1.5 million 3G subscribers. We forecast that the 3G subscriber
base in India will reach 41 million by the end of 2011. Bharti Airtel is expected to lead the
market in terms of the number of 3G subscribers with an 18.5% market share, while BSNL is
expected to be in the number 2 position with a 17% market share. By the end of 2016, we
forecast that India will have a 3G subscriber base of 332.6 million. This represents almost
43% of the countrys total wireless subscriber base at the end of January 2011. The market
share growth will depend on how fast operators can deploy 3G networks in their respective
licensed circles, and how rapidly they can address the demand in the rural areas. Since no 3G
operator will be able to offer a nationwide service, we expect a lot of activity in terms of
network sharing and roaming between operators in the coming quarters.While 3G and BWA
spectrum was auctioned in the same quarter (Q2 2010), 3G players have moved ahead with
their rollouts while the BWA license holders are lagging behind evaluating various
technologies such as WiMAX and TD-LTE.
TD-LTE Prospects
After careful evaluation, private operators like RIL, Bharti Airtel, Aircel, Tikona, and Augere
decided to deploy broadband wireless using TD-LTE. Bharti Airtel, RIL and Aircel are

currently trialing TD-LTE. All the three operators, as well as Augere, have plans to launch
TD-LTE services by the end of Q4 2011 or Q1 2012. After spending months evaluating
technologies, BWA license holders in India now face another challenge when it comes to
TD-LTE: the lack of availability of affordable devices. There is really no volume yet for
TD-LTE devices, and thus there are no economies of scale to drive costs down in the near
term. Maravedis predicts Indian operators like Bharti Airtel and RIL will have a tough time
launching a commercial BWA service using TD- LTE in India until the end of Q2 2012. The
fundamental question is whether there is a TD-LTE solution that can go into deployment
today to meet the broadband needs of Indian consumers at an affordable price. We expect to
see some traction on the TD-LTE front in India in the second half of 2012. Maravedis
forecasts that the TD-LTE subscriber base in India will reach 2.25 million by the end of 2012.
RIL, a pan India license holder, is expected to lead the market in terms of the number of TD-
LTE subscribers with a 62% market share. By the end of 2016, we forecast that India will
have a TD-LTE subscriber base of 21 million. We forecast RIL to continue to maintain its
leadership position with a 52.4% market share.
Device Ecosystem
In India most of the excitement built around 3G is driven by the motivation to access rich
content withmuch faster speed. Subscribers are turning to 3G enabled smartphones and
internet dongles to enjoy HD video streaming, online gaming etc while also enjoying the
thrill of video calling using their advanced phones. The low penetration of laptops and PCs in
India means that the primary sources of Internet access are likely to be mobile devices like
handsets, smartphones and tablets. The focus on mobile data is likely to become a double-
edged sword quickly outstripping network capacity. These factors, coupled with the limited
spectrum allocated to Indian 3G operators, may lead to a data tsunami that will overwhelm
the nation's networks. By the end of 2011, Marvaedis forecasts 3G enabled handsets will
dominate the total installed base of all 3G devices in India with an 80% market share. USB
dongles will have a 15% market share and smartphones and tablets will have 4% and 1%
market share respectively. Through the use of integrated multimode devices that support TD-
LTE as well as 3G and 2G technologies, TD-LTE will take advantage of the 3G and 2G
ecosystems, thereby creating economies of scale to enable a broad choice of broadband
wireless devices at affordable price points for Indian consumers. TD-LTE enhances 3G
networks and offers an attractive value proposition to end-users as well as the wireless
ecosystem. We expect multimode devices (2G/3G/TD-LTE) to make an entry in the Indian
market in late 2012. By the end of 2016, we forecast multimode devices (2G/3G/TD-LTE) to
lead the device category with a 33% market share, followed by single mode dongles,
smartphones, tablets and handsets with 30%, 15%, 12% and 10% market share respectively.
Maravedis expects RIL to take the lead in getting inexpensive TD-LTE devices. RIL is a
cash-rich company and can take a leadership position and provide India with an opportunity
to be in the forefront
among the countries providing world-class 4G services. RIL has significant experience in
transforming prevalent pricing models when launching a new business. For example, when

RIL launched its voice business in 2001, the cheapest data-enabled CDMA 1x phone was
priced at US$225. Reliance managed to provide the same to its customers at US$95. This
reputation will help RIL to be at the forefront in getting TD-LTE devices in India at a
reasonable price.
Services and Applications
3G services in India are expected to grow in a big way when sufficient 3G content that suits
the Indian population is available. This will only happen after the number of 3G customers
crosses a certain threshold/level, which will make 3G content cheaper and affordable. The
major online services players have a great opportunity to partner with 3G and TD-LTE
players in India to offer digital media services. There are considerable opportunities to
partner with companies such as Facebook and Google who run over the top carrier networks.
Ubiquitous mobility has turned out to be a silver bullet for businesses and is no longer
confined only to entertainment. While smartphones enabled by Android, iOS, BlackBerry and
other leading OS platforms are dishing out millions of apps for end users, enterprises are also
aligning their reporting, sales, inventory and services in real-time by adopting mobile
applications for their mobile taskforces. They are experiencing notable improvements in their
workforce synergy and overall productivity with shorter turnaround cycles.
Mobile Data Traffic
In India, operators providing broadband wireless services in the unlicensed bands (Zylog and
Tikona) are already seeing unusual traffic surges on their networks. Zylog does not face the
network congestion problem 95% of the time. However, the remaining 5% of the time there
is huge traffic spikes especially after midnight when all the bittorrent traffic picks up. 80%
of traffic on Zylogs network is bittorrent traffic. As for Tikona, an average active subscriber
on its network consumes approximately 8-10 GB/month. 14% of Tikonas total subscriber
base generates 90% of the traffic. These users mainly download YouTube videos. Bittorrent
also generates high traffic on the Tikona network. Maravedis research reveals that the current
3G networks in India are far from ready for the potential flood of traffic that could be
generated by HSPA-enabled smartphones and dongles, which will likely be the primary form
of Internet access for most Indians. However, the data market in India is expected to undergo
rapid changes in the coming years (as per Cisco, the traffic will grow 114-fold to 338,911
terabytes by 2015) as 3G gains a foothold in the country.
Traffic Offload
Given the small amount of spectrum (5MHz) that the 3G players have in India, Maravedis
does not expect them to offer the data services in the near term. Data/video/internet browsing
are asymmetric services requiring higher bandwidth in the downlink and much less in the
uplink. 3G paired spectrum (equal in both DL & UL) is therefore not efficiently used for data
services spectrum in the uplink will remain largely vacant. The 2x5 MHz spectrum holders
in India will remain inherently disadvantaged for data services and therefore have more need
to offload the data traffic in the future. At this point in time, Wi-Fi offload is certainly the

obvious choice for Indian operators. Wi-Fi means vast unlicensed spectrum, thus reduced
total cost of ownership for operators. Other options do not seem convincing when considering
the cost-effectiveness, scalability and viability needed in addressing the problem. For
example, Femtocells are are still too pricey (US$100) for data offload and TD-LTE networks
have not been deployed yet in India. With this in mind, operators are looking at developing
Wi-Fi zones of their own or partnering with Wi-Fi operators to offload excess data. In order
to keep itself ready to address the data surge on its 3G network, Aircel has partnered with
Spectranet. Spectranet has deployed Wi-Fi networks at over 1000 hot-spots across Delhi,
Mumbai, Bangalore, Kolkata, Chennai and Hyderabad. Indian operators providing broadband
wireless services in the unlicensed frequency bands (2.4 GHz and 3.8 GHz) are expected to
play an important role in 3G data traffic offload. For example, Tikonas strategy is to play in
the capacity space - through its Wi-Fi layer and the TD-LTE network it plans to deploy in
India. Tikona aims to become a partner for the various 3G players who will reach their
capacity exhaust point in the coming quarters. Zylog is also waiting for the offload
opportunity. It has a Wi-Fi infrastructure which it can offer to the 3G players for offloading
data traffic.
Key Findings:

The Indian market has the potential to reach 95 million broadband subscribers by 2015,
largely driven by 3G WCDMA/EVDO and BWA which will constitute 80% of the pie.
We expect that about 40 million 3G data users (USB dongles, 3G data card / modem) will
be driving the mobile broadband revolution by 2015.

We believe that TD-LTE will initially struggle to gain a foothold and will not ship
commercially in India until 2013. After that, TD-LTE technology penetration will
increase rapidly depending on the richness of the eco-system of vendors, device firms, IP
licensing and pricing policies adoption, and operator device bundling, to an estimated 4.9
million subscribers by 2015.

Considering the latent demand for broadband in the country, we expect that operators will
adopt a WiMAX now, TD-LTE later type of approach to kick start network roll outs.
We estimate that the WiMAX 802.16e user base will grow to about 28.5 million by 2015.
Still, this base could potentially migrate to TD-LTE if the latter offers compelling
economics and feature performance to operators as well as users.

We observe that in the last 12 months, BSNL has been the biggest investor in WiMAX

infrastructure [802.16e] in India while Tata and Reliance have not expanded their WiMAX
base [3.3GHz] since Jan/ Feb 2009. Our estimate is that the total Indian BWA
accumulated subscriber base including unlicensed and fixed wireless is about 0.6 million,
with BSNL alone accounting for about 0.2 million subscribers.

Our estimate is that cumulatively over 500,000 BWA base station sectors will be
deployed by Indian BWA operators by 2015. During this process over the next five years,
infrastructure vendors have an opportunity to sell over US$ 1.5 billion worth of BWA BTS

We estimate the current data card market in India to be about 0.9 million users This
window will continue to expand until 3G data card / modem services kick-in
(expectedsometime Jan Feb 2011), after which the 2G data card market will quickly perish
making way for high speed data services.

In-building coverage and RF optimization, shortage of a trained RF work force, crammed
tower space, and power supply shortfalls will plague the industry within urban complexes
and central business districts.
We caution that the market potential for over 95 million broadband consumers is dependent on
the creation of a rich, vibrant applications industry in the country. The entry of low-cost, high
feature devices and availability of sub-US$100 3G devices eliminates concerns about device
barriers. Passive infrastructure sharing (and possibly active infrastructure sharing sometime by
2011), risk-reward sharing modes of network outsourcing and managed services will result in
partnerships that will enable high-quality broadband service delivery. However, adequate
numbers of business / enterprise and commercial applications targeting vertical and government
sectors must also be developed and deployed quickly in order to entice users to rapidly adopt
premium ARPU 3G services and avoid the revenue shortages experienced with existing 2G
subscribers who generated limited data activity due to poor QoE (quality of experience] and lack
of rich content applications.
Apart from wireless broadband technologies discussed in detail throughout this report, there will
be a range of wire-line broadband technologies such as cable and FTTX / optical technologies
that will contribute to the estimated 96 million broadband subscribers. Some of these
technologies are dependent on government approvals of ambitious fiber optic projects which are
being discussed.

Market Potential for 4g Businesses in Pune

The Report is all about STUDY OF MARKET POTENTIAL FOR 4G BUSINESS IN PUNE and also to know
about the customer perceptions and attitudes towards their current service provider. Satisfaction
level of the customers was also judged. The customer expectations were analyzed thoroughly. Major
factors considered in research are: what are the needs of the companies based on the data services
usage, major player in internet services, and support to customers.
The research was conducted on companies mainly from Industries like IT, Education, Manufacturing
and others which are located in Pune city.
It is clear from the survey done that Reliance & Tata are Leading Internet service Provider; they are
providing products like Data Card, Broadband etc to the corporate end users. Most of the companies
are getting internet speed form 1MBPS-4MBPS. Most of the companies are having good perception
about 4 G and are willing to switch to it from their current service provider. Speed of 4G is around
than 30 to 35 MBPS, is going too boom the Market. Because majority of the companies are facing
Speed problem with their current ISP.

Purpose of the Study
To study the market potential for 4G Business.
To find out the customer satisfaction level with their existing ISP.
To find out the Market share of Companies Using Different Operators Internet services.
The present research deals with study report on market potential for 4G. The reason of study here is
to find the potential of the 4G business in market. What are the needs and expectations of
companys using Internet Services of any company. What is their feedback etc...? The target
customers were Mainly B2B.The title itself explains the area of study. The major focus is on IT &
Manufacturing industry in Pune city.
Scope of the Research
Geographical Research
The research was restricted to Pune city only. The areas covered were:
Kothrud, Kharadi, Hinjewadi, Bavdhan, MIDC Bhosari, Chinchwad, Akurdi. The period taken for the
Research was 2 months and the primary data was collected for the month May-June 2013. The study
was restricted to specifically Internet Service providers and mostly IT & Manufacturing companies
were targeted.

4G Industry Overview
4G is the fourth generation of mobile phone mobile communication technology standards. It is a
successor of the third generation (3G) standards. A 4G system provides ultra-broadband Internet
access, for example to laptops with USB wireless modems, to smart phones, and to other mobile
devices. Conceivable applications include amended mobile web access, IP telephony, gaming
services, high-definition mobile TV, video conferencing, 3D television and cloud computing.
Two 4G candidate systems are commercially deployed: the Mobile WiMAX standard (at first in South
Korea in 2006), and the first-release Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard (in Oslo, Norway and
Stockholm, Sweden since 2009.
In the U.S., Sprint Corporation has deployed Mobile WiMAX networks since 2008, and MetroPCS was
the first operator to offer LTE service in 2010. USB wireless modems have been available since the
start, while WiMAX smart phones have been available since 2010 and LTE smart phones since 2011.

4G Technology in India
Bharti Airtel launched India's first 4G service, using TD-LTE technology, in Kolkata on April 10, 2012.
Fourteen months prior to the official launch in Kolkata, a group consisting of China Mobile, Bharti
Airtel and Softbank Mobile came together, called Global TD-LTE Initiative (GTI) in Barcelona, Spain
and they signed the commitment towards TD-LTE standards for the Asian region. It must be noted
that Airtel's 4G network does not support mainstream 4G phones such as Apple I phone 5, Samsung
Galaxy S III, Nokia Lumia 920 and others.
Airtel 4G services are available in Kolkata, Bangalore, Pune ,Chandigarh, Mohali and Panchkula.
Airtel is currently launching 4G services in Delhi.
RIL is launching 4G services through its subsidiary, Jio Infocomm. RIL 4G services are currently
available only in Jamnagar, where it is testing the new
TD-LTE technology. RIL 4G rollout is planned to start in Delhi and Mumbai, and expand to cover 700
cities, including 100 high-priority markets.


Overall Research Process

Research Methodology
Type: Q ntitative Research
Sample unit: Small and medium Enterprises
Sample size : 86 Companies
Sampling Method: Simple Random Sampling

Sources & Methods of Data Collection
I have used two methods for data collection:-
Primary Data:- Survey, Questionnaire , Interview
Secondary Data:- Books, Internet,google


Data Analysis and Interpretation
Current ISP
ISP Name Airtel Tata Reliance Idea Vodafone Bsnl Other Total
No. of Respondent 12 16 20 9 8 14 7 86

Interpretation- From the above chart it is seen that maximum 25% users use Reliance services while
20% users use Tata services.
Speed of ISP
Speed <1Mbps 1-2 Mbps 2-4 Mbps > 4 Mbps Total
No. of Respondent 26 31 24 5 86



Interpretation From the above chart it is seen that maximum companies are getting 0-1 mbps, 1-2
mbps and 2-3 mbps while only 6% of the companies getting more than 4 mbps Speed.

Monthly Billing

Amount (rs) 500-
No. Of Respondent 38 25 11 4 8 86

Interpretation-From the above chart we can see that majority of the companies are Paying 500-
800rs Monthly for their Internet services...
Data Usage
Monthly Usage 0-2 GB 2-5 GB 5-8 GB 8-15 GB 15-50 GB Total
No. of Respondent 5 29 26 15 11 86


Interpretation Above chart shows that 34 % of Companies use the data between 2 -5 GB, While 30
% Of Companies use the data 5 8 GB. So we can say that Majority of the companies are using
approximate 1 To 8 GB data monthly.
Problem With ISP YES No Total
No. Of Respondent 52 34 86



Interpretation As shows in the above Chart we can Say that Majority of the companies are facing
Problems with their current service Provider...

Types of Problem

Problems Less
Network Issue High price After sale Service is not
No. Of Respondent 35 15 13 13 86

Interpretation Companies who are having issues with their current service provider maximum
companies having issue in Speed which they are getting. Also some companies are facing Network

Prospects of 4g

Prospects Yes No Total

No. of Respondent 68 18 86

Interpretation- from the above chart we can see that 79% companies are ready to use 4 G
Potential for Business
It is clear from the survey done, that. Companies are mostly preferred Reliance and Tata for
their ISP. Because of their network and price
There is a huge scope in the small & medium enterprises segment.
Speed of 2MBPS most companies are getting followed by 1MBPS & 4MBPS.
60 % companies were not satisfied with support and services provided by their Internet
Service Provider (ISP).
Most of the companies are much concern about speed while choosing their ISP. So there is a
great opportunity for 4G Business because 4G Offers 30 to 35 MBPS Speed.
Majority of the Companies want to switch to 4G from their Current ISP.
Most of the companies are paying 500 to 800rs for their internet connection. So 4G Operators
need to Introduce 4G Plans according to that.
4G revolution is started in Pune by Airtel. Drastic changes and improvements from 3G
Technology need to be a priority.
But if done intelligently and thoroughly, 4G holds enormous potential for Pune and can really
create a boom in the IT industry, key to the Indian economy. Hence the evolution from 3G to


4G will be stimulated by services offering enhanced quality, requires increased bandwidth,
needs elevated sophistication of large-scale information provisions and must have improved
customization capabilities to support user demands. To conclude I would like to say that this
was a great learning experience and has give us a peek into how Telecom Industry works.
Right form field work to and planning to strategizing and client meetings the whole journey
was enriching and knowledgeable experience.
When can we use true 4G?
The bottom line is that technically, no company yet offers a true 4G experience for
consumers, but LTE-A and WM-A arent too far away. Having said that, a current LTE data
plan are a step above the older 3G networks and the pre-4G connections, and is Definitely
what you should look out for if youre planning to get a device with a fast, premium mobile
data experience. The technology is only going to improve with time And, because LTE and
LTE-A are fully compatible, you wont lose out when companies finish upgrading their
networks. If youre planning on waiting for a full 4G experience, You will need a compatible
handset to achieve the full speed. A good example of this is the Korean version of the Galaxy
Note 3, which makes use of the built in LTE-A modem in the Snapdragon 800 chip.

Stable growth prospects :-
lower operating costs support business model Unlike 2G that has stuck up in linear revenue
growth implying additional revenue coming primarily with proportional increase in
subscribers as ARPUs are stagnated, 4G has fairly non-linear model with prospects of higher
profitability as ARPUs are expected to be a lot better than 2G. Also, the limited competition
in the sector, as there are just 3 players in a circle today, will help in holding tariffs unlike
2G. Millions of SMEs in India should potentially offer a stable and high volume market for
4G operators. On the cost front, operating costs of 4G network are comparatively lesser than
those for 2G and 3G, as 4G is the most advanced technology. As 4G is IP based technology,
BTS are believed to be cheaper than 3G and are more compact and robust as compared to 2G
BTS. There are considerable amount of savings as this BTS can be used outdoor without air
conditioning and consumes less power as compared to 2G and 3G BTS, bringing down the
energy expenses which constitute nearly 30% of network operating costs.