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An inverter is an electronic circuit for converting direct current (DC) to

alternating current (AC). Inverters are used in a wide range of applications fro! s!all
switc"ed power supplies for a co!puter to large electric utilit# applications to
transport $ul% power. T"is report contains details of t"e design and construction of a
!odern &'''( dc to ac inverter. T"e s#ste! consists of t"e !ain inverter stage t"e
c"arging unit and t"e overload protector. T"ese units are furt"er su$divided into different
stages. T"e !ain inverter perfor!s t"e $asic operation of converting t"e input DC signal
fro! t"e $atter# into an AC signal. It t"en a!plifiers t"e AC signal $# t"e use of
transistor )*S+,T drivers and t"en step-up t"e signal to t"e re.uire power (&'''() $#
t"e use of step-up transfor!er. T"e c"arging unit contains an auto!atic switc" t"at
transfers t"e $atter# fro! suppl# to c"arge w"en it senses suppl# fro! !ains. /astl# t"e
overload protector is a t"er!al detector t"at deter!ines t"e "eat generated $# t"e step-up
transfor!er. T"is "eat is directl# proportional to t"e current drown fro! t"e transfor!er
and t"us to t"e load. . C"apter one contains an introduction to inverters c"apter two
contains a review of related literature c"apter t"ree contains t"e circuit design anal#sis
c"apter four contains t"e contraction details and five contains t"e su!!er#.
C0A1T,R *2,
4.4 1R,A)BI,
Due to toad#5s total dependence on electricit# and $ecause of fre.uent
1ower outage $ac% up power is $eco!ing a necessit#. ,!ergenc# $ac% up
power s#ste! can provide electrical power to critical loads or t"e w"ole
"ouse during power outages.
,!ergenc# power s#ste!s are t#pes of s#ste!s w"ic" !a# include lig"ting
generator and ot"er apparatus to provide $ac% up resources in a crisis or
w"en regular s#ste!s fail.
T"e# find uses in a wide variet# of setting fro! residential "o!es to
"ospitals scientific la$oratories and co!puteri6ed s#ste!s. ,!ergenc#
power s#ste! can rel# on generators or uninterrupti$le power supplies.
All t#pe of electronic devices re.uires power suppl# fro! electric power for
t"eir operation. T"is source can $e eit"er generator or a $atter#. In our
societ# toda# t"e need for power suppl# can not $e over e!p"asi6e $ecause
t"e provision of good and services could $e co!pletel# cut off wit"out
power suppl#. +or one to full# en7o# t"e $etter!ent of living in t"is new
dispensation t"ere s"ould $e an ade.uate sta$le source of power suppl#.
*ver t"e #ears electricit# "as $een generated t"roug" energ# conversion
fro! one place to anot"er. So!e of t"ese energ# sources are
. Solar
. T"er!al
. ,lectric generators.
T"e# "ave proved to $e .uite relia$le and efficient $ut over t"e #ears due to
inade.uate sources of energ# to run t"e engines or a fault in t"e s#ste! its
self poor !aintenance t"e# fail t"e users at one ti!e or t"e ot"er. As suc"
t"e need for stand$# power suppl# is essential w"ic" $roug"t into e8istence
an alternative !eans called. I29,RT,R. An inverter is si!pl# an electronic
source of power suppl# t"at wor% on t"e principle or save and spend t"us it
"as a storage unit and a processor wit" t"e Dc $atter# serving as
t"e::$ac%up::for storage w"ile t"e electronic circuit could $asicall# $e seen
as t"e inverter. An inverter is an electronic circuit for converting direct
current (DC) to alternating current (AC). Inverters are used in a wide range
of application fro! s!all-switc"ed power suppl# for a co!puter to large
electric utilit# applications to transport $ul% power. It allows t"e 4; or
;<volt ($atter#) Dc power availa$le in an auto!o$ile or fro! solar panels to
suppl# (AC) power to operate e.uip!ent t"at is nor!all# supplied fro! a
power source.
4.; STAT,),2T *+ T0, 1R*B/,)
Inverters generall# are !ade to give an AC output. 0owever !ost inverters
in t"e !ar%et toda# use oscillators t"at produce s.uare pulse or roug" sine
wave. T"is result in noise in t"e output w"ic" calls for an inverter wit" an
output t"at is an appro8i!ate sine wave t"ere$# reducing t"e noise.
4.& AI)S A2D *B=,CTI9,
T"e ai! of t"is pro7ect is to design and construct a &>( inverter wit" little
or no noise. T"is is to $e reali6ed $# ac"ieving t"e following specification
-Design and construction of a CD<'<@ $ased oscillator circuit.
-I!ple!entation of a fine slow c"arging unit to rec"arge t"e $atter#
-I!ple!entation of an auto!atic switc" unit fro! c"arge to suppl#
4.< ),T0*D*/*AB
To ac"ieve t"e ai! of t"is wor% researc" was underta%ing on t"e net and
ot"er source to ascertain t"e $asic operating principle of inverters in general.
T"e $loc% was t"en developed w"ic" reflects t"e $asic units of t"e desire
s#ste!. T"e units are? !ain inverter is an oscillator w"ic" converts dc to ac
a signal a!plifier w"ose function is to a!plif# t"e oscillator output t"e
driver stage w"ic" furt"er a!plifies t"e signal to drive t"e pri!ar# winding
of t"e step-up transfor!er. T"e transfor!er step t"e output AC power to t"e
re.uire &'''watt output. T"e c"arging and switc"ing units are also included.

Technological advancement brought us into new era
where by the whole world is now a global village,
electronic component and appliance are not left behind.
So as the need for generating electricity through
inverter increase, there are various designs, which
have been carried out in the past to achieve this aim.
But one thing that needs to be stressed here is that the
previous designs have some shortcoming that led to
design of this proect whose aim is to eliminate these
shortcomings. The past !previous" designs will be
review and their shortcoming will be clearly e#plained
in this chapter.
$% to &% inverter using ''' (% timer is one of the
previous designs. (n this proect it product a s)uare
wave, but its shortcoming here is, it does not have
battery charging system incorporated in the design.
The s)uare wave produced by this system set the
system to be unsuitable for inductive loads. &s seen in
the figure below transistors are used for the switching
*hile the ''' (% timer produces the oscillation pulse

+ig. 2.1, %urrent diagram of an inverter with ''' timer
(n the output of the visible multivibrator, it-s added to
be stable at './01 signal is uttered by transistor T2 and
which are arranged as emitter followers to provide
current gain at most unity voltage gain. $ and $
protect the circuit against induced high voltage stri4es.
The butters output drives high gain power darlington
devices T2
and T2
with this transistor, they are
concerned with heat sin4. *ith this also the system is
found to be functioning as desired e#cept, the
shortcoming there are some little variation in the
output signal due to temperature rise, which could
change the operation point of the transistors. &lso the
darlington transistor used for switching %6a not
withstand high output current. The design of the
diagram is as show in +ig. 2.2.
+ig. 2.2, %ircuit diagram of an inverter7using
(n the proect is it the %$ 3.38 with provide the
oscillation stage. (t produces an oscillating voltage that
has rectangular waveforms. The desired output
fre)uency of inverter in './0,but the oscillator is
generating a fre)uency of 9.28 to 5:/0 therefore %$
3.3;, which is a fre)uency division stages is employed
to obtain './0 at the output. (t shortcoming have is,
the comple#ity of the circuit and the wave produce by
the circuit ma4es it unstable, below the circuit diagram.

+ig ;.& circuit diagra! of an inverter using CD<'<@ IC and CD<'<C
(<=>2T>2 ?S(<@ S@ 9'23
*ith an improve diagram, which involve the used of S@
9'23 and %ABS %$ 3.3; which are also special
integrated circuit. (% S@ 9'23, which is design for the
purpose of fre)uency generation while buffer (% %$
3.3;, stabiliCes the fre)uency. The design is
incorporated with battery charger7section and also over
load protection section. Aore also the oscillation
produce by this system is a )uasi wave.
*ith this, the system is said to be stable, but when the
load is introduced that is inductive load, the voltage
reduces which nature changes the )uasi wave to a
s)uare wave ma4ing the system to be unstable and
unreliable. &lso with the in corporation of the battery
charger section it ma4es the system to be comple#.
Below is the diagram.

+ig. 2.3, %ircuit diagram of an inverter using S@ 9'23.
&part from the DD%, the ABS+>T is also involved in this
proect. The metal o#ide semiconductor field effect
transistor !ABS+>T" is a switching device. The ABS+>T
circuit consumes negligible power, its gate terminal is
insulated from the chidunel by a layer of silicon dio#ide.
The layer of silicon dio#ide increase the input
impedance of the +%T to an e#tremely high value is
maintained from all valves and polarities of gate.
Source voltage, since the impedance does not depend
up on a reverse biased p7n unction. ABS+>TS have
facts switching and can switch very high currents in a
few billionth of a second, and also the drain current of a
ABS+>T decreases with increase in temperature and
the ris4 of terminal instability is reduced.
ABS+>TS can function as voltage controlled variable
resistor1 the gate voltage controls channel resistance.
The pic based inverter produced pure sine wave
however it has the limitation of circuit. %omple#ity and
overall cost. (t also poses one general problem
associated was been programmed in the pic, which
controls the overload protection section !battery under
voltage protection" battery charger section !over
voltage protection" and also controls the drive section
of the inverter1 as shown in fig 2.' below. Din 2BB of
the D(% 15+:3& the under voltage protection, when the
battery is at ion, it signal the pilot short, it B/. Din 2BB
also controls the over voltages protection at 13v it
signal the D6% and at 2BT the signal is pass to a relay
through !via" a resistor and transistor, which short off
the system. 2. &. 2 and 2&9 leds to the ABS+>Ts. The
pic along does all the wor4, which ma4es it easier, more
reliable and reduces the comple#ity. The pic provides a
)uasi wave at a fre)uency at './9. The introduction of
inductive leads the wave does not change at all, the
still maintain the same wave.
Bther design with poor storage system charging and
supplying timing.
T/> (<=>2T>2 *(T/ &?TBA&T(% S*(T%/(<@ B+
This is an inverter with two battery and automatic
switching between them. The bloc4 diagram of the
system is presented below.

+ig ;.D Inverter wit" auto!atic $atter# switc"ing

The system consists of three basic stages. The main
inverter stage, the switching unit and the timer. These
units are further subdivided into different stages. The
main inverter performs the basic operation of
converting the input $% signal from the battery into an
&% signal. (t then amplifiers the &% signal by the use of
transistor F ABS+>T drivers and then step7up the signal
to the re)uire power !1...*" by the use of step7up
transformer. The timer unit generates electrical pulse to
produce an up counting se)uence which is displayed by
a 8 G segment H>$ display. This timer se)uence
determines the supply and charging time of the
batteries. The switching unit performs automatic
switching between the batteries at ensures that each
battery supply the inverter for batteries. The switching
unit performs automatic switching between the
batteries it ensures that each battery supply the
inverter for appro#imately ;. minutes and switch over
for ;. min charge to replace it lost energy. The
switching operation is been controlled by the signal
from the timer unit via the logic unit. This, every ;.
minutes switching over operation from charging to
supply and vise vase in performed.
This proect produce a pure sine wave output signal
unli4e all the others e#plained above. The inverter use the
D(% 15+:3& as its basic component. D(% which is peripheral.
(nterface controller, it is different from integrated circuit !(%"
which are used in the previous design. D(% 15I:3& which
belongs to micro controller devices. D(% 15:3& is an 1: pin
13 bit embedded micro featuring electronically erasable
programmable read only memory !>>D2BA". This program
can be erased using ultraviolet light.

+ig 2.5
Simple inverter circuit with an electromechanical switch and
with a transistor switch.
2.5 B&S(% (<=>2T>2 $>S(@<S, (n one simple inverter
circuit, $% powers connected to a transformer through
the centre tap of the primary winding. & switch is
rapidly switched bac4 and forth to allow current to flow
bac4 to the $% source following two alternate paths
through one end of the primary winding and then the
other. The alternation of the direction of current in the
primary winding of the transformer produces alternate
current !&%" in the secondary circuit.
2.8 The electromechanical version of the switching device
includes two stationary contacts and a spring supported
moving contact. The spring holds the movable contact
against one of the stationary contacts and an
electromagnet pulls the movable contact to the
opposite stationary contact. The current in the
electromagnet is interrupted by the action of the switch
so that the switch continually switching rapidly bac4
and forth.
This type of electromechanical inverter switch called a
vibrator or a buCCer was once used in vacuum tube
automobile radios !refine". & similar mechanism has
been used in door bells, buCCers and tattoo guns. &s
they have become available, transistors and various
other types of semiconductor switches have been
incorporated into inverter circuit designs.
2.8 (<=>2T>2 B?TD?T *&=>+B2A
The switch in the simplest inverter described above
produces a s)uare voltage waveforms as opposed to
the sinusoidal waveform that is the usual waveform of
an &% power supply that is the usual waveform of an &%
power supply. ?sing +ourier analysis, periodic
waveforms are represented as the sum of an infinite
series of sine waves. The sine wave that has the same
fre)uency as the original waveform is called the
fundamental component.
The other sine waves called harmonies, that are
included in the series have fre)uencies that are integral
multiples of the fundamental fre)uency.
The )uality of the inverter output waveform can be
e#pressed by using the +ourier analysis data to
calculate the total harmonic distortion !T/$". The total
harmonic distortion is the s)uare root of the sum of the
s)uares of the harmonic voltages divided by the
fundamental voltage.
T/$ J =
I v
I =
I I =
KKK.. !1"
The )uality of the output waveform that is needed from
asn inverter depends on the characteristic of the
connected load !2ef" some loads media nearly perfect
sine wave voltage supply in order to wor4 properly.
Bther loads may wor4 )uite well with a s)uare wave
(ntroduce what you want to discuss

+ig. 2.:, /7bridge inverter circuit with transformer
switches and anti parallel diodes.
There are many different power circuit topologies and
control strategies used in inverter designs. $ifferent
design approaches are used to address various issues
that may be more or less important depending on the
way that the inverter is intended to be used.
The issue of waveform )uality can be addressed on
many ways. %apacitors and inductors can be used to
filter the waveform. (f the design include the
transformer, filtering can be applied to the primary or
secondary side of the transformer or to both sides. How
pass filters are applied to allow the fundamental
component of the waveform to pass to the output while
limiting the passage of the harmonic components. (f the
inverter is designed to provide power at a fi#ed
fre)uency, a resonant filter can be used. +or an
adustable fre)uency inverter, the filter must be turned
to a fre)uency that is above the ma#imum fundamental
Since most loads contain inductance, feedbac4 rectifier
a parallel diodes are often connected across each
semiconductor switch to provide a path to the pea4
inductive load current when the semiconductor is
turned off. The antiparallel diodes are somewhat similar
to the free wheeling diodes used in &%F$% converter
+ourier analysis reveals that a waveform, li4e a s)uare
wave that is antisymetrical about the 1:. degree point
contain only odd harmonics, the 9
, '
, 8
*aveforms that have steps of certain widths and
heights eliminate or cancel additional harmonics. +or
e#ample, by inserting a Cero voltage step between the
positive and negative sections of the s)uare wave, all
of the harmonics that are divisible by three can be
That leaves only the '
, 8
, 11
, 19
etc. the re)uired
width of the steps is one third of the period for each of
the positive and negative voltage steps and one switch
of the period for each of the Cero voltage steps.
%hanging the s)uare wave as described above is an
e#ample of pulse width modulation !D*A". Aodulating
or regulating the width of a s)uare wave pulse is often
used as a method of regulating or adusting inverters
output voltage. *hen voltage control is not re)uired, a
fi#ed pulse width can be selected to reduce or eliminate
selected harmonics. /armonic elimination techni)ues
are generally applied to the lowest harmonics filtering
is more effective at high fre)uencies than at how
fre)uencies. Aultiple pulse width or carrier based
!D*A" control scheme-s produce waveforms that are
composed of many narrow pulses. The fre)uency
represented by the number of narrow pulses per
second is called the switching fre)uency or carrier
fre)uency. These control scheme-s are often used in
variable fre)uency motor control inverters because
they allow a wide range of output voltage and
fre)uency adustment while also improving the )uality
of the waveform.
Aultilevel inverters provide another approach to
harmonic cancellation. Aultilevel inverters provide an
output waveform that e#hibits multiple steps at several
voltage levels. +or e#ample it is possible to produce a
more sinusoidal wave by having split rail direct current
inputs at two voltages, or positive and negative inputs
with a central ground. By connecting the inverter
output terminals in se)uence between the positive rail
and ground, the positive rail and negative rail, the
ground rail and the negative, then both to the ground
rail, a stepped waveform is generated at the inverter
output. This is an e#ample of three level inverter1 the
two voltages are ground.

+ig. 2.;, 9 D/&S> (=<>2T>2 *(T/ *E> %B<<>%T>$
Three phase inverter are used for variable fre)uency
drive applications and for high power applications such
as /=$% power transmission. & basic three phase
inverter as show in +ig 2.3 consists of three single
phase inverter switches each connected to one of the
three load terminals. +or the most basic control
scheme, the operation of the three witches is
coordinated so that one switch operates at each 5.
degree point f the fundamental output waveform. This
creates a line to line output wave form that has siCe
steps. The si# step waveform has a Cero voltage step
between the positive and negative sections of the
s)uare wave such that the harmonics that are multiples
of three are eliminated as described above. *hen
carrier based D*A techni)ues are applied to si# step
waveforms, the basic overall shape, or envelope, of the
waveform is retained so that the third harmonic and its
multiples are cancelled.
*utput power E &'''(
+re.uenc# E D'06
Input voltage E 4;9
*utput voltage E ;;'9
&.&.; 1*(,R S311/B F C0ARA,R
T"e switc"ing unit ti!er t"er!al sensorFindicator and t"e c"arging unit re.uire a well-
filtered and regulated DC power to drive t"eir individual co!ponents.
T"e power suppl# is !ade up of step down transfor!er w"ic" steps t"e input ;;'9ac
down to 4D9ac. T"e $ridge rectifier converts t"e AC signal to DC of t"e sa!e voltage
level. T"e rectifier consists of diodes D4-D<. T"e circuit arrange!ent is suc" t"at at an#
point in ti!e two diodes are conducting w"ile t"e ot"er two are at cut-off.
T"e filter capacit# re!oves t"e AC ripples fro! t"e DC voltage.
T"e IC regulator regulates t"e DC signal to give a stead# well-regulated dc output

+ig. &.; power suppl# circuit
Transformer Rating
Re.uired output voltage (9
) E4D9
Input voltage (9
) E;;'v
1ri!ar# turns (2
) E&''
Secondar# turns (2
) E8

E;' turns.
Transfor!er output current E ;9
*utput power E 4D9 8 ;A
E &'(

+ig.&.& Rectifier circuit
As e8plained earlier T"e Bridge rectifier is a circuit w"ic" converts an ac voltage to dc
voltage using $ot" "alf c#cles of t"e input ac voltage. T"e Bridge rectifier circuit is
s"own in t"e figure. T"e circuit "as four diodes connected to for! a $ridge. T"e ac input
voltage is applied to t"e diagonall# opposite ends of t"e $ridge. T"e load resistance is
connected $etween t"e ot"er two ends of t"e $ridge.
+or t"e positive "alf c#cle of t"e input ac voltage diodes D4 and D& conduct w"ereas
diodes D; and D< re!ain in t"e *++ state. T"e conducting diodes will $e in series wit"
t"e load resistance R
and "ence t"e load current flows t"roug" R

+or t"e negative "alf c#cle of t"e input ac voltage diodes D; and D< conduct w"ereas
D4 and D& re!ain *++. T"e conducting diodes D; and D< will $e in series
wit" t"e load resistance R
and "ence t"e current flows t"roug" R
in t"e sa!e direction
as in t"e previous "alf c#cle. T"us a $i-directional wave is converted into a unidirectional
Peak Inverse Voltage
1ea% inverse voltage represents t"e !a8i!u! voltage t"at t"e non- conducting diode
!ust wit"stand. At t"e instance t"e secondar# voltage reac"es its positive pea% value 9!
t"e diodes D4 and D& are conducting w"ere as D; and D< are reverse $iased and are
non-conducting. T"e conducting diodes D4 and D& "ave al!ost 6ero resistance. T"us t"e
entire voltage V
appears across t"e load resistor R
. T"e reverse voltage across t"e non-
conducting diodes D; (D<) is also V
. T"us for a Bridge rectifier t"e pea% inverse voltage
is given $#
Since transfor!er output voltage E 4D9
E 4D9
Diode current rating E ; 8 transfor!er current
E ; 8 ;A
E <A
Rectifier diode to !atc" t"is rating E I2<''@ (*$tained fro! diode
transistor specification $oo%).
T"e output fro! t"e rectifier is given as G
(it"out capacitor. (it" capacitor.
9AC E 4.48 (9DC E ;) 9AC E '.H (9DC I;)
E 4.4 J (4;J;) E '.H (4<)
4.4 J 4< E 44.;v
E 4D.<v
T"is s"ows t"e need of t"e capacitor. 0ence output current
E 4.HJ*.DA
1ower output after fliter stage E '.C 8 44.;
E 4'.'w
E 4'w
Calculating for t"e capacitor
C E (Il 8 t )F9rip) 84'

("en Il E '.C
T E 4F;8K'
E '.''H&&& (for K'0
9rip E 9r!s 8 Ripple 9p-p
E '.&;DvI ;.H;Hv
E '.C;
C (uf) ('.C 8 '.''H&&F'.C;) 8 4'K
E'.''H4<HC4 8 4'K
E 4''' uf (standard value)
Capacitor voltage rating s"ould $e at least
4.D 8 9DA
E 4.DJ44.;
E 4K.H9
E4K9 (standard value)
C E 4'''uf 4K9.
Ripple Factor
T"e ripple factor for t"e +ull (ave Rectifier is given $#

T"e average voltage or t"e dc voltage availa$le across t"e load resistance is

R)S value of t"e voltage at t"e load resistance is

,fficienc# is t"e ratio of t"e dc output power to ac input power

T"e !a8i!u! efficienc# of a +ull (ave Rectifier is H4.;M.
T"is unit converts t"e electrical signal fro! t"e "eat sensor (t"er!istor) into an electrical
signal. T"e $asic co!ponent of t"e circuit is /) @<4 operational a!plifier configured in
t"e co!parator !ode.

Figure 3.2 Operational Amplifier
("ere 9I is non-inverting input pin &
9- is inverting input pin ;
9out is output pin K
9st is positive power suppl# pin @
9s- is negative power suppl# pin <
T"e general operational a!plifier "as two inputs and one output t"e
output voltage is a !ultiple of t"e difference $etween t"e two inputs (one
can $e !ade floating).

+igure &.&. unit of co!parator circuit.
R4 sets t"e reference (non-inverting) voltage
9out E t (9in G 9ref)
("ere (t is t"e open-loop gain of t"e operational a!plifier.
In t"is co!parator !ode 9out is 0IIA0 if t"e inco!ing voltage is e.ual to
or a$ove 9ref. *t"erwise t"e output is /*(.
Since R4 is varia$le in ot"er to set different reference voltage levels its
value is not critical. T"us pic%ing a D'> o"!s resistor R4 could $e seen as
consisting of two fi8ed resistors and at DoM variation RaE;D> and
9 E suppl# voltage 8 R
9E Cv 8 ;D'''F ;D'''I;D'''
v E Cv 8 (;D'''FD'''' o"!s)
9 E Cv 8 '.D o"!s
9 E <.Dv

9in is deter!ine $# t"e resistance of t"e t"er!istor. It varies wit" t"e
!agnitude of "eat fro! t"e transfor!er. T"e resistance can var# fro!
appro8i!atel# ;''>o"!s to a$out 4' *"!s. In $etween different voltages
are produce as a result of t"e variation in resistance. T"e output fro! t"e op-
a!p is t"en fed to t"e transistor w"ic" drives t"e $u66er.
Deter!ination of nu!$er of turns is calculated using &'''(
In order to ac"ieve a good nu!$er of turns flu8 densit# of 4.D&4tesla was assu!e and t"e
following calculation was !ade
("ere A E Area in s.uare !eter ()
) 1 E power in watts (() E &'''( and D.DH
is a constant
E C.H4DH 8 4'
, E <.<< + O
2 and
("ere , E e!f of transfor!er in volt (9) + E fre.uenc# in 0ert6 (0
) E D'06
E flu8 in (e$er (w) B
E flu8 densit# in tesla E 4.D&4tesla A E Area in
s.uare !eter ()
) E C.H4DH 8 4'
and 2 E nu!$er of turns
E 4.D&4 8 C.H4DH 8 4'
E 4.D';H 8 4'
w E 4.D';H!w
Deter!ination of nu!$er of turns on pri!ar# side e!f per turn ,
E <.<< 8 + 8 O
E <.<< 8 D' 8 4.D';H 8 4'
E '.&&&K 9Fturn
1ri!ar# turn 2
E 9
E 4;F'.&&&K E &D.CKHCturns P &Kturns
Secondar# turns 2
) E (9
E (2
4 8
E ( &K 8 ;;') F 4; E KK'turns
Determination of ire !iameter
A E IFD and d E N((A 8 <)FQ)
("ere A E cross-sectional area in s.uare !illi!eters (!!
) D E current densit#
E constant E &.'HAF!!
I E current in A!peres (A) d E dia!eter in !illi!eters
(!!) and Q E &.4<;
1ri!ar# current I
E &'''F4; E ;D'A
FD E ;D'F&.'H E H4.4KHH!!
E N((H4.4KHH 8 <) F &.4<;) E 4'.4KD& !!
Secondar# current I

E &'''F;;' E 4&.K&K<A
FD E 4&.K&K<F&.'H E <.<;@<!!
; E
N((<.<;@< 8 <) F &.4<;) E ;.&@<4!!
CIRC3IT DIAARA) *+ A )*RD,2 &'''( DC-AC I29,RT,R
&.< C*)1*2,2T R,9I,(
T"is unit reviews so!e of t"e co!ponents used in t"is circuit design.
A !onolit"ic integrate! circ"it (also %nown as IC microcirc"it
microc#i$ si%icon c#i$ or c#i$) is a !iniaturi6ed electronic circuit
(consisting !ainl# of se!iconductor devices as well as passive
co!ponents) t"at "as $een !anufactured in t"e surface of a t"in su$strate
of se!iconductor !aterial.
A "#$rid integrated circuit is a !iniaturi6ed electronic circuit constructed
of individual se!iconductor devices as well as passive co!ponents $onded
to a su$strate or circuit $oard.
Integrated circuits were !ade possi$le $# e8peri!ental discoveries w"ic"
s"owed t"at se!iconductor devices could perfor! t"e functions of
vacuu! tu$es and $# !id-;'t"-centur# tec"nolog# advance!ents in
se!iconductor device fa$rication. T"e integration of large nu!$ers of
tin# transistors into a s!all c"ip was an enor!ous i!prove!ent over t"e
!anual asse!$l# of circuits using discrete electronic co!ponents. T"e
integrated circuitRs !ass production capa$ilit# relia$ilit# and $uilding-
$loc% approac" to circuit design ensured t"e rapid adoption of standardi6ed
ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors.
T"ere are two !ain advantages of ICs over discrete circuitsS cost and
perfor!ance. Cost is low $ecause t"e c"ips wit" all t"eir co!ponents are
printed as a unit $# p"otolit"ograp"# and not constructed a transistor at a
ti!e. 1erfor!ance is "ig" since t"e co!ponents switc" .uic%l# and consu!e
little power $ecause t"e co!ponents are s!all and close toget"er. As of
;''K c"ip areas range fro! a few s.uare !! to around &D' !!
up to 4 !illion transistors per !!
Advances in integrated circuits
A!ong t"e !ost advanced integrated circuits are t"e !icroprocessors or
TcoresT w"ic" control ever#t"ing fro! co!puters to cellular p"ones to
digital !icrowave ovens. Digital !e!or# c"ips and ASICs are
e8a!ples of ot"er fa!ilies of integrated circuits t"at are i!portant to t"e
!odern infor!ation societ#. ("ile cost of designing and developing a
co!ple8 integrated circuit is .uite "ig" w"en spread across t#picall#
!illions of production units t"e individual IC cost is !ini!i6ed. T"e
perfor!ance of ICs is "ig" $ecause t"e s!all si6e allows s"ort traces w"ic"
in turn allows low power logic (suc" as C)*S) to $e used at fast
switc"ing speeds.
ICs "ave consistentl# !igrated to s!aller feature si6es over t"e #ears
allowing !ore circuitr# to $e pac%ed on eac" c"ip. T"is increased capacit#
per unit area can $e used to decrease cost andFor increase functionalit#Usee
)ooreRs law w"ic" in its !odern interpretation states t"at t"e nu!$er of
transistors in an integrated circuit dou$les ever# two #ears. In general as t"e
feature si6e s"rin%s al!ost ever#t"ing i!provesUt"e cost per unit and t"e
switc"ing power consu!ption go down and t"e speed goes up. 0owever
ICs wit" nano!eter-scale devices are not wit"out t"eir pro$le!s
principal a!ong w"ic" is lea%age current (see su$t"res"old lea%age and
)*S+,T for a discussion of t"is) alt"oug" t"ese pro$le!s are not
insur!ounta$le and will li%el# $e solved or at least a!eliorated $# t"e
introduction of "ig"-% dielectrics. Since t"ese speed and power
consu!ption gains are apparent to t"e end user t"ere is fierce co!petition
a!ong t"e !anufacturers to use finer geo!etries. T"is process and t"e
e8pected progress over t"e ne8t few #ears is well descri$ed $# t"e
International Tec"nolog# Road!ap for Se!iconductors (ITRS).
Integrated circuits can $e classified into analog digital and !i8ed
signal ($ot" analog and digital on t"e sa!e c"ip).
Digital integrated circuits can contain an#t"ing fro! a few t"ousand to
!illions of logic gates flip-flops !ultiple8ers and ot"er circuits in
a few s.uare !illi!eters. T"e s!all si6e of t"ese circuits allows "ig" speed
low power dissipation and reduced !anufacturing cost co!pared wit"
$oard-level integration. T"ese digital ICs t#picall# !icroprocessors
DS1s and !icro controllers wor% using $inar# !at"e!atics to process
ToneT and T6eroT signals.
Analog ICs suc" as sensors power !anage!ent circuits and operational
a!plifiers wor% $# processing continuous signals. T"e# perfor! functions
li%e a!plification active filtering de!odulation !i8ing etc.
Analog ICs ease t"e $urden on circuit designers $# "aving e8pertl# designed
analog circuits availa$le instead of designing a difficult analog circuit fro!
ICs can also co!$ine analog and digital circuits on a single c"ip to create
functions suc" as AFD converters and DFA converters. Suc" circuits
offer s!aller si6e and lower cost $ut !ust carefull# account for signal
interference (see signal integrit#).
T"e earliest integrated circuits were pac%aged in cera!ic flat pac%s w"ic"
continued to $e used $# t"e !ilitar# for t"eir relia$ilit# and s!all si6e for
!an# #ears. Co!!ercial circuit pac%aging .uic%l# !oved to t"e dual in-
line pac%age (DI1) first in cera!ic and later in plastic. In t"e 4CH's pin
counts of 9/SI circuits e8ceeded t"e practical li!it for DI1 pac%aging
leading to pin grid arra# (1AA) and leadless c"ip carrier (/CC)
pac%ages. Surface !ount pac%aging appeared in t"e earl# 4CH's and
$eca!e popular in t"e late 4CH's using finer lead pitc" wit" leads for!ed as
eit"er gull-wing or =-lead as e8e!plified $# S!all-*utline Integrated
Circuit. A carrier w"ic" occupies an area a$out &' G D'M less t"an an
e.uivalent DI1 wit" a t#pical t"ic%ness t"at is @'M less. T"is pac%age
"as Tgull wingT leads protruding fro! t"e two long sides and a lead spacing
of '.'D' inc"es.
S!all-*utline Integrated Circuit (S*IC) and 1/CC pac%ages. In t"e
late 4CC's 1V+1 and TS*1 pac%ages $eca!e t"e !ost co!!on for
"ig" pin count devices t"oug" 1AA pac%ages are still often used for "ig"-
end !icroprocessors. Intel and A)D are currentl# transitioning fro!
1AA pac%ages on "ig"-end !icroprocessors to land grid arra# (/AA)
Ball grid arra# (BAA) pac%ages "ave e8isted since t"e 4C@'s. +lip-c"ip
Ball Arid Arra# pac%ages w"ic" allow for !uc" "ig"er pin count t"an
ot"er pac%age t#pes were developed in t"e 4CC's. In an +CBAA pac%age
t"e die is !ounted upside-down (flipped) and connects to t"e pac%age $alls
via a pac%age su$strate t"at is si!ilar to a printed-circuit $oard rat"er t"an
$# wires. +CBAA pac%ages allow an arra# of input-output signals (called
Area-IF*) to $e distri$uted over t"e entire die rat"er t"an $eing confined to
t"e die perip"er#.
Traces out of t"e die t"roug" t"e pac%age and into t"e printed circuit
$oard "ave ver# different electrical properties co!pared to on-c"ip signals.
T"e# re.uire special design tec"ni.ues and need !uc" !ore electric power
t"an signals confined to t"e c"ip itself.
("en !ultiple dies are put in one pac%age it is called Si1 for S#ste! In
1ac%age. ("en !ultiple dies are co!$ined on a s!all su$strate often
cera!ic itRs called a )C) or )ulti-C"ip )odule. T"e $oundar#
$etween a $ig )C) and a s!all printed circuit $oard is so!eti!es fu66#.
&.<.; DI*D,
In electronics a !io!e is a co!ponent t"at restricts t"e direction of
flow of c"arge carriers. ,ssentiall# it allows an electric current to flow
in one direction $ut $loc%s it in t"e opposite direction. T"us t"e diode can
$e t"oug"t of as an electronic version of a c"ec% valve. Circuits t"at
re.uire current flow in onl# one direction t#picall# include one or !ore
diodes in t"e circuit design.
,arl# diodes included TcatRs w"is%erT cr#stals and vacuu! tu$e devices
(called t"er!ionic valves in Britis" ,nglis" Dialect). Toda# t"e !ost
co!!on diodes are !ade fro! se!iconductor !aterials suc" as silicon
or ger!aniu!.
Semicon!"ctor !io!es

Diode sc"e!atic s#!$ol. Conventional current can flow fro! t"e anode to
t"e cat"ode $ut not t"e ot"er wa# around.
)ost !odern diodes are $ased on se!iconductor p-n 7unctions. In a p-
n diode conventional current can flow fro! t"e p-t#pe side (t"e anode)
to t"e n-t#pe side (t"e cat"ode) $ut cannot flow in t"e opposite direction.
Anot"er t#pe of se!iconductor diode t"e Sc"ott%# diode is for!ed fro!
t"e contact $etween a !etal and a se!iconductor rat"er t"an $# a p-n
A se!iconductor diodeRs current-voltage or I-9 c"aracteristic curve is
ascri$ed to t"e $e"avior of t"e so-called depletion la#er or depletion
6one w"ic" e8ists at t"e p-n 7unction $etween t"e differing
se!iconductors. ("en a p-n 7unction is first created conduction $and
(!o$ile) electrons fro! t"e 2-doped region diffuse into t"e 1-doped region
w"ere t"ere is a large population of "oles (places for electrons in w"ic" no
electron is present) wit" w"ic" t"e electrons Treco!$ineT. ("en a !o$ile
electron reco!$ines wit" a "ole t"e "ole vanis"es and t"e electron is no
longer !o$ile. T"us two c"arge carriers "ave vanis"ed. T"e region around
t"e p-n 7unction $eco!es depleted of c"arge carriers and t"us $e"aves as
an insulator.
0owever t"e depletion widt" cannot grow wit"out li!it. +or eac"
electron-"ole pair t"at reco!$ines a positivel#-c"arged dopant ion is left
$e"ind in t"e 2-doped region and a negativel# c"arged dopant ion is left
$e"ind in t"e 1-doped region. As reco!$ination proceeds and !ore ions are
created an increasing electric field develops t"roug" t"e depletion 6one
w"ic" acts to slow and t"en finall# stop reco!$ination. At t"is point t"ere is
a R$uilt-inR potential across t"e depletion 6one.
If an e8ternal voltage is placed across t"e diode wit" t"e sa!e polarit# as t"e
$uilt-in potential t"e depletion 6one continues to act as an insulator
preventing a significant electric current. T"is is t"e reverse $ias
p"eno!enon. 0owever if t"e polarit# of t"e e8ternal voltage opposes t"e
$uilt-in potential reco!$ination can once again proceed resulting in
su$stantial electric current t"roug" t"e p-n 7unction. +or silicon diodes t"e
$uilt-in potential is appro8i!atel# '.K 9. T"us if an e8ternal current is
passed t"roug" t"e diode a$out '.K 9 will $e developed across t"e diode
suc" t"at t"e 1-doped region is positive wit" respect to t"e 2-doped region
and t"e diode is said to $e Rturned onR as it "as a forward $ias.

I-9 c"aracteristics of a 1-2 7unction diode (not to scale).
A diodeRs I-9 c"aracteristic can $e appro8i!ated $# two regions of
operation. Below a certain difference in potential $etween t"e two leads t"e
depletion la#er "as significant widt" and t"e diode can $e t"oug"t of as an
open (non-conductive) circuit. As t"e potential difference is increased at
so!e stage t"e diode will $eco!e conductive and allow c"arges to flow at
w"ic" point it can $e t"oug"t of as a connection wit" 6ero (or at least ver#
low) resistance. )ore precisel# t"e transfer function is logarit"!ic
$ut so s"arp t"at it loo%s li%e a corner on a 6oo!ed-out grap" (see also
signal processing).
In a nor!al silicon diode at rated currents t"e voltage drop across a
conducting diode is appro8i!atel# '.K to '.@ volts. T"e value is different
for ot"er diode t#pes - Sc"ott%# diodes can $e as low as '.; 9 and lig"t-
e!itting diodes (/,Ds) can $e 4.< 9 or !ore (Blue /,Ds can $e up to <.'
Referring to t"e I-9 c"aracteristics i!age in t"e reverse $ias region for a
nor!al 1-2 rectifier diode t"e current t"roug" t"e device is ver# low (in t"e
A range) for all reverse voltages up to a point called t"e pea%-inverse-
voltage (1I9). Be#ond t"is point a process called reverse $rea%down
occurs w"ic" causes t"e device to $e da!aged along wit" a large increase in
current. +or special purpose diodes li%e t"e avalanc"e or 6ener diodes
t"e concept of 1I9 is not applica$le since t"e# "ave a deli$erate $rea%down
$e#ond a %nown reverse current suc" t"at t"e reverse voltage is Tcla!pedT
to a %nown value (called t"e 6ener voltage or $rea%down voltage). T"ese
devices "owever "ave a !a8i!u! li!it to t"e current and power in t"e
6ener or avalanc"e region.
T'$es of semicon!"ctor !io!e
Diode /ig"t-e!itting
diode1"otodiode9aricapSCRSo!e diode s#!$ols
&.<.& R,SIST*R
A resistor is a two-ter!inal electrical or electronic co!ponent t"at
resists an electric current $# producing a voltage drop $etween its
ter!inals in accordance wit" *"!Rs lawS T"e electrical resistance is
e.ual to t"e voltage drop across t"e resistor divided $# t"e current t"roug"
t"e resistor. Resistors are used as part of electrical networ%s and
electronic circuits.
O#m(s %a
T"e relations"ip $etween voltage current and resistance t"roug" a !etal
wire and so!e ot"er !aterials is given $# a si!ple e.uation called *"!Rs

w"ere 9 (or 3 in so!e languages) is t"e voltage (or potential difference)
across t"e wire in volts I is t"e current t"roug" t"e wire in a!peres
and R in o"!s is a constant called t"e resistanceUin fact t"is is onl# a
si!plification of t"e original *"!Rs law (see t"e article on t"at law for
furt"er details). )aterials t"at o$e# t"is law over a certain voltage or current
range are said to $e o#mic over t"at range. An ideal resistor o$e#s t"e law
across all fre.uencies and a!plitudes of voltage or current.
Superconducting !aterials at ver# low te!peratures "ave 6ero resistance.
Insulators (suc" as air dia!ond or ot"er non-conducting !aterials)
!a# "ave e8tre!el# "ig" ($ut not infinite) resistance $ut $rea% down and
ad!it a larger flow of current under sufficientl# "ig" voltage. 1ower
T"e power dissipated $# a resistor is t"e voltage across t"e resistor
!ultiplied $# t"e current t"roug" t"e resistorS

All t"ree e.uations are e.uivalent. T"e first is derived fro! =ouleRs law
and ot"er two are derived fro! t"at $# *"!Rs /aw.
T"e total a!ount of "eat energ# released is t"e integral of t"e power over

If t"e average power dissipated e8ceeds t"e power rating of t"e resistor t"en
t"e resistor will first depart fro! its no!inal resistance and will t"en $e
destro#ed $# over"eating.
Series an! $ara%%e% circ"its
Resistors in a parallel configuration eac" "ave t"e sa!e potential
difference (voltage). To find t"eir total e.uivalent resistance (R

T"e parallel propert# can $e represented in e.uations $# two vertical lines
TWWT (as in geo!etr#) to si!plif# e.uations. +or two resistors

T"e current t"roug" resistors in series sta#s t"e sa!e $ut t"e voltage
across eac" resistor can $e different. T"e su! of t"e potential differences
(voltage) is e.ual to t"e total voltage. To find t"eir total resistanceS

A resistor networ% t"at is a co!$ination of parallel and series can so!eti!es
$e $ro%en up into s!aller parts t"at are eit"er one or t"e ot"er. +or instance

&.<.< TRA2SIST*R
A transistor is a se!iconductor device co!!onl# used as an a!plifier or
an electricall# controlled switc". T"e transistor is t"e funda!ental $uilding
$loc% of t"e circuitr# t"at governs t"e operation of co!puters cellular
p"ones and all ot"er !odern electronics.
Because of its fast response and accurac# t"e transistor !a# $e used in a
wide variet# of digital and analog functions including a!plification
switc"ing voltage regulation signal !odulation and oscillators.
Transistors !a# $e pac%aged individuall# or as part of an integrated
circuit c"ip w"ic" !a# "old !illions of transistors in a ver# s!all area.
)odern transistors are divided into two !ain categoriesS $ipolar 7unction
transistors (B=Ts) and field effect transistors (+,Ts). Application of
current in B=Ts and voltage in +,Ts $etween t"e input and co!!on
ter!inals increases t"e conductivit# $etween t"e co!!on and output
ter!inals t"ere$# controlling current flow $etween t"e!. T"e transistor
c"aracteristics depend on t"eir t#pe. See Transistor !odels.
T"e ter! TtransistorT originall# referred to t"e point contact t#pe $ut
t"ese onl# saw ver# li!ited co!!ercial application $eing replaced $# t"e
!uc" !ore practical $ipolar 7unction t#pes in t"e earl# 4CD's. Ironicall#
$ot" t"e ter! TtransistorT itself and t"e sc"e!atic s#!$ol !ost widel#
used for it toda# are t"e ones t"at specificall# referred to t"ese long-o$solete
+or a s"ort ti!e in t"e earl# 4CK's so!e !anufacturers and
pu$lis"ers of electronics !aga6ines started to replace t"ese wit" s#!$ols
t"at !ore accuratel# depicted t"e different construction of t"e $ipolar
transistor $ut t"is idea was soon a$andoned.
In analog circuits transistors are used in a!plifiers (direct current
a!plifiers audio a!plifiers radio fre.uenc# a!plifiers) and linear
regulated power supplies. Transistors are also used in digital circuits
w"ere t"e# function as electronic switc"es $ut rarel# as discrete devices
al!ost alwa#s $eing incorporated in !onolit"ic Integrated Circuits.
Digital circuits include logic gates rando! access !e!or# (RA))
!icroprocessors and digital signal processors (DS1s).
Advantages of transistors over vacuu! tu$es
Before t"e develop!ent of transistors vacuu! tu$es (or in t"e 3>
t"er!ionic valves or 7ust valves) were t"e !ain active co!ponents in
electronic e.uip!ent. T"e %e# advantages t"at "ave allowed transistors to
replace t"eir vacuu! tu$e predecessors in !ost applications areS
S!aller si6e and lig"ter (despite continuing !iniaturi6ation of vacuu!
0ig"l# auto!ated !anufacture
/ower cost (in volu!e production)
/ower possi$le operating voltages ($ut vacuu! tu$es can operate at
"ig"er voltages)
2o war!-up period (!ost vacuu! tu$es need 4' to K' seconds to
function correctl#)
/ower power dissipation (no "eater power ver# low saturation
0ig"er relia$ilit# and greater p"#sical ruggedness (alt"oug" vacuu!
tu$es are electricall# !ore rugged and are !uc" !ore resistant to
nuclear electro!agnetic pulses and electrostatic disc"arge)
)uc" longer life (vacuu! tu$e cat"odes are eventuall# e8"austed and
t"e vacuu! can $eco!e conta!inated)
Co!ple!entar# devices availa$le (allowing circuits wit"
co!ple!entar#-s#!!etr#S vacuu! tu$es wit" a polarit# e.uivalent to
121 B=Ts or 1 t#pe +,Ts are not availa$le)
A$ilit# to control large currents (power transistors are availa$le to
control "undreds of a!peres vacuu! tu$es to control even one
a!pere are large and costl#)
)uc" less !icrop"onic (vi$ration can !odulate vacuu! tu$e
c"aracteristics t"oug" t"is !a# contri$ute to t"e sound of guitar
121 1-c"annel 212 2-c"annelB=T=+,TB=T and
=+,T s#!$ols
Transistors are categori6ed $#S
Se!iconductor !aterialS ger!aniu! silicon galliu! arsenide silicon
StructureS B=T =+,T IA+,T ()*S+,T) IABT Tot"er
1olarit#S 212 121 (B=Ts)? 2-c"annel 1-c"annel (+,Ts)
)a8i!u! power ratingS low !ediu! "ig"
)a8i!u! operating fre.uenc#S low !ediu! "ig" radio
fre.uenc# (R+) !icrowave (T"e !a8i!u! effective fre.uenc# of
a transistor is denoted $# t"e ter! f
an a$$reviation for Tfre.uenc#
of transitionT. T"e fre.uenc# of transition is t"e fre.uenc# at w"ic"
t"e transistor #ields unit# gain).
ApplicationS switc" general purpose audio "ig" voltage super-$eta
!atc"ed pair
1"#sical pac%agingS t"roug" "ole !etal t"roug" "ole plastic
surface !ount $all grid arra# power !odules
T"us a particular transistor !a# $e descri$ed asS silicon surface !ount
B=T 212 low power "ig" fre.uenc# switc".
In t"e earl# da#s of transistor circuit design t"e $ipolar 7unction
transistor or B=T was t"e !ost co!!onl# used transistor. ,ven after
)*S+,Ts $eca!e availa$le t"e B=T re!ained t"e transistor of c"oice for
digital and analog circuits $ecause of t"eir ease of !anufacture and speed.
0owever desira$le properties of )*S+,Ts suc" as t"eir utilit# in low-
power devices "ave !ade t"e! t"e u$i.uitous c"oice for use in digital
circuits and a ver# co!!on c"oice for use in analog circuits.
C0A1T,R +*3R
<.' C*2STR3CTI*2
T"is c"apter contains t"e construction wor% details. It also contains t"e list
of tools used in t"e construction wor% and t"e testing and result anal#sis.
T"e circuit $oard consists of t"e vero $oard and all ot"er co!ponents
!ounted on it. In its construction t"e vero $oard was cleaned wit" an iron
$rus" to re!ove dirt fro! its surface w"ic" !ig"t affect soldering .ualit#.
Su$se.uentl# following t"e circuit diagra! t"e co!ponents were !ounted
on t"e $oard one after t"e ot"er and soldered. T"e IC was not directl#
soldered to t"e $oard $ut was !ounted on an IC soc%et. T"is is to prevent
"eat da!age and for ease of replace!ent. 3nits li%e t"e power switc"
displa# etc were connected to t"e $oard via fle8i$le wires.
In t"e soldering process care was ta%en to ensure t"at t"e soldered 7oints
"ave good !ec"anical and electrical contact. Also great care was ta%en to
ensure t"at t"e co!ponents were not da!age fro! e8cess "eat fro! t"e
soldering iron. T"e following procedures were followed in t"e soldering
- A <'( pencil t#pe soldering iron was used.
- A good .ualit# rosin-core solder was used.
- +or t"e iron to properl# conduct "eat t"e soldering tip was well tinned
(coated wit" a tin la#er of solder). To %eep t"e tip clean it was wiped
fro! ti!e to ti!e on a da!p spurge or clot".
- All co!ponent lead and copper fort pads were cleaned and free of
o8idation at t"e ti!e of soldering $# lig"tl# $rus"ing t"e! wit" steel
- ("ile soldering and unsoldering a safet# glass was used to avoid e#e
in7ur# due to fl#ing particle of "ot solder.
- T"e top of t"e soldering iron was fir!l# was placed against t"e wire lead
and copper pad to "eat t"e connection to $e soldered.
Before soldering se!iconductor co!ponents suc" as transistors diode etc.
t"e lead near se!i conductor was "eld wit" needle nose pliers or twee6ers to
prevent t"e "eat fro! t"e soldering iron fro! getting to into t"e co!ponent.
- Soldering flu8 is applied to t"e connection as it is $een "eated. Care was
ta%en not to appl# solder directl# onto t"e top of t"e iron.
- ,noug" solder was applied to for! a tin s!oot" coating in all !etal part
in t"e connection.
- T"e "eat was allowed on t"e connection for an I2STA2T after
application of t"e solder "as $een stopped. T"is is to aid t"e flow of
solder and insure against Z1oor5 or Zcooled5 solder connections.
- Care was ta%en not tot !ove t"e soldered connection until t"e solder "as
cooled (solidified) t"us reducing t"e possi$ilities of i!proper soldering.
- ,8cess lead lengt" were cut as close as possi$le to t"e soldering
T"e enclosure was practicall# !ade fro! a s"eet of t"in !etal. 3sing a
!eter rule and pencil t"e re.uire s"ape and si6e for t"e enclosure was
!ar%ed. T"e parts were t"en 7oined toget"er wit" special plastic glue to
for! t"e s"ape s"own $elow.
Paste picture here
+ig. <.; ,nclosure
3sing a "and drill wit" tin# drilling $it screw "oles and ot"er relevant
ventilation "oles were perfor!ed.
+actors t"at were considered $efore c"oosing a specific s"ape and si6e
include a large enoug" space inside t"e enclosure to prevent over
co!pression of t"e circuit $oard.
0avng constructed t"e circuit $oard and t"e enclosure and $eing satisfied
wit" t"e functionalit# of t"e constructed circuit t"e pro7ect was asse!$led.
Asse!$ling was si!pl# fi8ing t"e circuit $oard fir!l# in t"e enclosure and
screwing t"at t"ere was no conducting o$7ect li%e lead $all nail etc inside
t"e enclosure and also t"at enclosure was not to s!all for t"e circuit $oard
since t"is !ig"t cause co!pression w"ic" !ig"t result to $rea%age or t"e
9ero $oard trac%.
1roper connections were !ade $etween t"e units. T"is was a $eat
co!plicated and de!and great care and attention since t"e use of a lot of
connecting wires were involved.
Testing of t"e pro7ect proved satisfactoril#. T"e power cord was connected
to t"e !ains and t"e power switc" toggled on. 3sing a !ulti!eter t"e
voltage levels at various points were ta%ing to ensure t"at t"e correct a!ount
of power was reac"ing all t"e unit. ,8pected voltages were
9cc of all Ics[[[[[[[C9
A2D of all Ics[[[[[[..'9 etc.
T"e power suppl# output wavefor! o$served wit" an oscilloscope is s"own

2e8t resistance test was carried out. T"is was to ensure t"e t"ere was no
open or close circuit wit"in t"e $oard strips or t"e connecting wires.
T"e test s"ows t"at t"e s#ste! functionalit# corresponds to design intention.
<.<.4 /IST *+ T**/S 3S,D I2 C*2STR3CTI*2
4- Soldering iron
;- 1air of pliers
&- Side cutter
<- 2ails
D- Twee6ers

C0A1T,R +I9,
D.' C*2C/3SI*2 A2D R,C*)),2DATI*2
T"is c"apter consists of t"e conclusion and reco!!endation and reference.
D.4 C*2C/3SI*2
write this
D.; R,C*)),2DATI*2
write this
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