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Student: ___________________________________________________________________________
1. The process by which a new employee begins to understand and accept the values, norms, and beliefs held by
others in an organization is known as
A. familiarization
B. adaptation
C. socialization
. orientation programs
!. participation

". #roperly done orientation programs can serve several purposes including all the following e$cept
A. reducing employee turnover
B. reducing employee errors
C. improving %ob performance
. reducing employee an$iety
!. increasing the number of grievances

&. A proper and effective orientation program can
A. be done 'uickly and ine$pensively when well planned
B. reduce the need for corrective discipline
C. only be done by the human resource department
. reverse mistakes made in the recruiting and selection processes
!. be highly effective with even minimal organizational commitment and planning

(. The difference between what a person e$pects to find)as, for e$ample, in the workplace)and what one
actually finds is referred to as
A. culture shock
B. cognitive dissonance
C. orientation e$pectancy gap
. the new employee syndrome
!. realistic e$perience syndrome

*. #roper orientation programs can
A. increase employee turnover
B. develop clear %ob e$pectations
C. increase a new employee+s level of cognitive dissonance
. cause increased grievances later on
!. cause a reduction in new employee morale and satisfaction

,. To inform new employees what the organization e$pects of them and what they can e$pect in return is a
direct function of
A. the recruiting process
B. the orientation process
C. the selection process
. the %ob analysis process
!. the interviewing process

-. A poor new)employee orientation program will
A. increase organizational stability
B. reduce employee an$iety
C. reduce labour grievances
. encourage employees to do things his or her own way and not to be bound by organizational norms
!. develop clear)cut organizational e$pectations

.. /rientation programs often cover a number of topics including all of the following e$cept
A. employee benefits
B. %ob duties
C. %ob analysis issues
. organizational issues
!. introduction to other employees

0. A good orientation program will
A. attempt to introduce new employees to all their colleagues on the first day
B. start by immediately challenging a new employee with %ob demands
C. emphasize the socialization of the new employee by discussing organizational norms and values
. save the most relevant information about the company until the end of the employee+s first month
!. avoid confusing employees with information on corporate culture and character

11. Approaches to evaluating the effectiveness of an orientation program include the following e$cept
A. randomly interview new employees who have completed the program
B. administer a written test to all new employees on facts they have learned about the organization
C. measure %ob satisfaction and work motivation after employees have been in their new roles
. conduct cost)benefit studies on orientation activities
!. randomly select new employees and have them complete surveys

11. To be successful an employee orientation program must be designed to include
A. a follow)up procedure
B. cognitive dissonance
C. an analysis of workforce demographics
. a mock disciplinary hearing
!. an informal dinner with co)workers

1". There is a trend towards on line orientation instruments, the benefits of which are all the following e$cept
A. compressed delivery time
B. reduced workload for trainers
C. greater cost)effectiveness
. employees can do internet searches for more information
!. ability to deliver to geographically dispersed workforces

1&. 2ome reasons for Canadian firms to be concerned with training could include all the following e$cept
A. the competitive need for flatter organizations with more self)governing workers
B. the desire of multi)skilled employees to be evaluated and paid according to their competencies
C. the constant and rising influ$ of new immigrants and the challenges of diversity management
. 3apidly changing information technology
!. human rights legislation that re'uires training for all employees

1(. Training refers to a planned effort by an organization
A. to prepare employees for future %ob responsibilities
B. to facilitate the learning of %ob)related behaviours for employees on their current %obs
C. to provide skills for employees in outplacement programs
. to allow employees to change corporate culture
!. to copy the competition

1*. An effective training program
A. benefits both employees and the organization
B. is primarily focused on benefiting new employees
C. meets the primary organizational goal of improving the self)confidence of employees
. can be completed in less than two hours so employees aren+t away from their %ob duties for too long
!. allows employees to complete it on their own time

1,. The first step in any training program is to
A. set a specific space as a permanent training area
B. determine what the training program will be about
C. determine training ob%ectives
. assess the needs of the organization
!. initiate a %ob redesign program

1-. 4n training, to do a needs assessment means to
A. assess the costs of training programs
B. suggest possible future problems that training could handle
C. diagnose environmental challenges that could be met through training
. develop an e$ternal workforce analysis to fill training needs
!. review recruiting and selection procedures

1.. There can be a valid need for training when all of the following situations occur e$cept
A. recently promoted employees may have weaknesses that need to be addressed
B. supervisors recommend training as a means of rewarding good workers
C. new procedures may be introduced to handle a new product line
. high accident rates are occurring
!. low morale needs to be improved

10. Advantages with supervisory recommendations for training can include
A. supervisors see employee performance daily
B. supervisors may wish to 5hide5 surplus workers
C. supervisors may wish to reward good employees
. supervisors may want to banish troublemakers
!. supervisors may not be familiar with employees %obs and performance

"1. An evaluation of training needs will result in training ob%ectives, including
A. employees+ future career plans
B. acceptable performance criteria
C. revised %ob descriptions
. training costs
!. where training will take place

"1. /ne problem with learning is that
A. it cannot be observed
B. its results cannot be measured
C. it tends to make training less permanent
. it cannot take place in a formal training situation
!. it cannot be encouraged

"". A training program+s content is shaped by
A. learning principles
B. needs assessment
C. learning ob%ectives
. needs assessment and learning ob%ectives
!. learning principles and learning ob%ectives

"&. All of the following are learning principles e$cept
A. relevance
B. commitment
C. repetition
. participation
!. transference

"(. The learning curve seems to indicate that
A. learning takes place as a continuous upward straight line
B. learning takes place in bursts and plateaus
C. learning takes place as a continuous curved line that may plateau out towards the top
. learning goes down before it goes up
!. learning is limited, if you learn something new, you are likely to forget something old

"*. Training pilots in flight simulators because the simulators closely resemble the actual cockpits and flight
characteristics of the airplane is an e$ample of the learning principle of
A. relevance
B. repetition
C. transference
. feedback
!. participation

",. /n)the)%ob training techni'ues do not include
A. lecture and simulation
B. %ob rotation
C. %ob instruction training
. coaching
!. apprenticeships

"-. Cross)training employees by moving them through a variety of %obs within the organization is called
A. %ob enrichment
B. %ob enlargement
C. %ob rotation
. %ob mentoring
!. %ob learning

".. 4n most organizations, coaching 6as a training approach7 is almost always done by
A. senior management
B. the human resource department
C. the immediate supervisor or manager
. a professional trainer or coach
!. a virtual)reality coach

"0. All the following are off)the)%ob training techni'ues e$cept
A. vestibule training
B. simulation
C. apprenticeships
. self)study
!. role)playing

&1. Case study, simulation, and programmed learning are all e$amples of
A. on)the)%ob learning techni'ues
B. off)the)%ob learning techni'ues
C. role)playing
. transference
!. participation learning

&1. All of the following apply to computer based training e$cept
A. it allows the student to control the pace of learning
B. positive reinforcement occurs during the training
C. courses can be offered through tutorial packages
. currently only generic course topics are available
!. training packages are of a modular type format

&". 8eb)based training
A. is used in group training to enhance interpersonal skills
B. involves the use of simulators that replicate the features of a work situation
C. seeks to change the attitudes of trainees and develop communication skills
. provides for decision making and the development of problem)solving skills
!. allows for real)time access at any time

&&. !mployee development can be defined as
A. training employees how to do their %ob better
B. increasing an employee+s level of productivity
C. enhancing an employee+s future value through an education process
. using %ob analysis to enhance %ob descriptions
!. developing personal systems for increasing an employee+s cognitive dissonance

&(. 2trategic human resource development involves all of the following e$cept
A. identifying essential %ob skills
B. attempting to change employee behaviour
C. actively managing an employee+s learning
. linking the development needs and activities to an organization+s strategy and mission
!. being long)range future oriented with regards to employee development

&*. The term 5benchmarking5 refers to
A. comparing one+s own 'uality and production standards with those of industry leaders
B. cross)comparing standards internally
C. maintaining high 'uality standards
. employee vandalism
!. cost)benefit training assessment evaluations

&,. The term 5human capital5
A. is identical in meaning to the term human resources
B. is the cash value of each employee to the organization as represented by salary and wages
C. is a reflection of the depth and breadth of an employee+s skills and competencies
. refers to the total cost of all employees in an organization including benefits and bonuses
!. is how the capital city of !arth is referred to by aliens

&-. According to 8e$ley and 9atham, the three basic developmental strategies
A. content, learning and performance criteria
B. participation, repetition and feedback
C. comprehension, behavioural and role)playing
. behavioural modeling, sensitivity training and mentoring
!. cognitive, behavioural and environmental

&.. 9ikely the least effective strategy in employee development, due to its more passive nature, is
A. cognitive
B. behavioural
C. environmental
. on)the)%ob training
!. assessment centres

&0. evelopmental strategies that desire to change employee attitudes and values would generally fall under the
heading of
A. behavioural
B. environmental
C. cognitive
. normative
!. managerial

(1. 5esirable behaviour5 as a development strategy includes reinforcing all of the following e$cept
A. proper leadership style
B. conflict resolution techni'ues
C. appropriate types of communication
. knowledge and e$pertise
!. interactions with customers

(1. The use of such instruments as role)playing, sensitivity training, team building, and mentoring would
indicate an organizational strategy based on the
A. cognitive approach
B. behavioural approach
C. environmental approach
. %ob analysis approach
!. assessment approach

(". :ethods and instruments used in environmental strategies for employee career development include all the
following e$cept
A. the learning organization concept
B. %ob rotation
C. sensitivity training
. matri$ management
!. pro%ect teams

(&. :atri$ management, cross)cultural management, and diversity training are all instruments used in the
;;;;;;;;;; strategy to employee development.
A. behavioural
B. environmental
C. cognitive
. normative
!. participative

((. 8hen an employee is moved to another position in the same class, or to a different class with substantially
the same duties and salary this is called a
A. lateral transfer
B. horizontal transfer
C. vertical transfer
. departmental transfer
!. %ob progression transfer

(*. Among the characteristics of the 5learning organization5 can be included all the following e$cept
A. shared vision
B. systems thinking
C. personal mastery
. team learning
!. authoritative bureaucratic structure

(,. As defined by #eter 2enge the learning organization has the all following characteristics e$cept
A. systems thinking
B. personal mastery
C. the development of the individual above the group
. shared vision
!. changing of the mental models

(-. <nowledge workers can be described as employees who
A. know what they are doing and do it well
B. work with knowledge, as for e$ample in a library or university
C. have the ability to use information to solve organizational problems
. are not involved in working with physical machinery or factory production
!. are also known as thoughtful workers

(.. The Canadian government has determined that the fastest growing category of worker in Canada is the
A. factory worker
B. knowledge worker
C. agricultural worker
. government worker
!. industrial worker

(0. <nowledge management has all of the following characteristics e$cept
A. focuses on making information available to managers for decision making
B. organization+s ability to utilize employee knowledge
C. attempts to survey and assess the organization+s e$pertise
. endeavours to increase knowledge systematically
!. strives to apply knowledge in a profitable manner

*1. A competency framework is
A. a organizational process for defining corrective discipline in situations of incompetence
B. used to identify 'uality problems in production
C. a list of competencies that provide a competitive advantage to the organization
. a test that human resource specialists give employees to determine %ob standards
!. a physical structure designed to house organizational knowledge

*1. #erhaps one of the most serious flaws in many training efforts is the lack of
A. learning principles
B. program evaluation
C. relevant content
. unprepared employees
!. supervisor avoidance

*". The criteria for evaluating training should be established
A. within a month after the employees return to their %obs
B. after employees have been selected but before training begins
C. immediately following the training program itself
. before the training program begins
!. informally at some point within si$ months following the training program

*&. The first step in training evaluation is
A. establishment of criteria
B. pre)testing
C. follow)up studies
. employee selection
!. determination of content

*(. The reaction criterion for training evaluation has as an advantage6s7 that it evaluates
A. the logistical set)up of the program
B. the effectiveness of the program
C. desired behavioural changes
. attitude and behaviour changes effected by the training
!. overall organizational results and benefits

**. Training evaluation criteria can include all of the following e$cept
A. organizational results
B. organizational demographics
C. knowledge
. behaviour
!. reaction

*,. 4n a perfect world, the best criteria of evaluating a training program would be
A. reaction
B. behaviour
C. organizational results
. knowledge
!. attitudes

*-. Although none of the following are scientific methods of evaluating training, select the one that would
likely be the most effective as a practical measurement
A. the post)test design
B. the pre)test design
C. the pre)test post)test design
. elimination of uncertainty 6the =eisenberg test7
!. :arkov analysis

*.. As far as costs go, training should be considered to be
A. too important to be analyzed on a cost)benefit basis
B. the same as any other organizational decision and assessed for cost)effectiveness
C. by its very nature immeasurable in any practical way for cost)effectiveness
. too future oriented to be measured in current costs
!. a non)cost item

*0. An increasing number of human resource departments see employee career planning as
A. a strategy for reducing the number of employees to the organization
B. an e$pense that should be the employees+ responsibility
C. previously useful but becoming a less acceptable e$pense in an era of downsizing and labour surplus
. giving the organization a larger pool of 'ualified applicants to fill %ob openings
!. only being important in smaller organizations

,1. A study of employees revealed that there were a number of areas of concern in regards to career planning,
including all of the following e$cept
A. career e'uity
B. supervisory concern
C. awareness of opportunities
. career satisfaction
!. %ob design

,1. /rganizations have become increasingly aware of the benefits of employee career planning, including all the
below e$cept
A. lower turnover
B. promotable employees
C. satisfied employees
. tapping employee potential
!. higher compensation levels

,". The involvement of human resource departments in employee career planning has grown in recent years
mainly because career planning does all of the following e$cept
A. taps employee potential
B. reduces management hoarding of key employees
C. automatically filters out and removes unacceptable employees
. develops promotable employees
!. assists employment e'uity plans

,&. =uman resource departments encourage career planning through all the following e$cept
A. information
B. career education
C. %ob analysis
. counselling
!. employee self)assessment

,(. 2ome human resource departments offer career counselling, although to be truly successful, counsellors
must
A. be able to inform employees e$actly where their career path lies at any time
B. get employees to assess themselves and their environment
C. be able to persuade employees to go in the direction the organization, not where the employee wants
. have direct e$perience in the %obs and careers that they are counselling about
!. avoid using attitudes and skills tests at this stage

,*. 8hen employers encourage career planning, one benefit often is
A. employees set goals and are more motivated
B. increased creative an$iety
C. poor employees resign
. e$panded learning curve charts
!. employees will decertify unions and set up team based self)management e'uity systems

,,. To have a successful career yet avoid having career goals come into serious conflict with the rest of one+s
life, a career plan
A. should be an end in itself
B. should be an integral part of a person+s life plans
C. should be subordinate at all times to a person+s personal life
. should be designed and directed by a professional
!. should be left solely to day)to)day decisions

,-. /ne current demographic factor that has a serious impact on the personal career planning of many people is
A. the increasing number of dual)career couples
B. continued urbanization of Canada+s population
C. computerization
. the demise of heavy industry 6eg. shipyards, steel plants7
!. the overall effect of global warming

,.. The starting point and ma%or responsibility for career development lies with
A. the organization
B. the human resource department
C. the employee
. the immediate supervisor or manager
!. the situation

,0. An individual can take a number of actions to develop a career, including all the following e$cept
A. e$posure
B. %ob performance
C. resignations
. mentors
!. not learning from mistakes

-1. /ne responsibility of a human resource department is to plan for the une$pected vacancy in key positions.
2uch planning is known as
A. emergency planning
B. replacement planning
C. succession planning
. resignation planning 6though it can include employee departure due to death or retirement7
!. insurance planning

-1. The sole function of human resource management is the recruiting and hiring of employees.
True >alse

-". Although orientation may be important, employers seldom have an initial investment in a new employee.
True >alse

-&. 2uccessful organizational entry and maintenance is the key ob%ective of employee socialization.
True >alse

-(. The process of socialization may be said to involve turning insiders into outsiders.
True >alse

-*. >ormal orientation programs are intended to familiarize new employees with their roles, other employees,
and the organization.
True >alse

-,. /ne une$pected conse'uence of detailed orientation programs is that they often create employee an$iety
and increase grievances.
True >alse

--. !mployee orientation programs can reduce employee turnover, reduce errors, and increase productivity.
True >alse

-.. !mployees are more likely to 'uit in their first few months than at any other time.
True >alse

-0. Cognitive dissonance is the difference between what one e$pects to find at the workplace and what one
actually finds.
True >alse

.1. ?o matter how well planned, the one thing an orientation program cannot do is reduce cognitive dissonance
in a new employee.
True >alse

.1. /rientation programs can instruct new employees in what is considered desirable behaviour, outcomes, and
attitudes.
True >alse

.". The one thing an orientation program cannot do is get new employees up to acceptable %ob performance
levels more 'uickly.
True >alse

.&. 2ince grievances often result from ambiguous %ob e$pectations and unclear responsibilities, an orientation
program can help to reduce later grievances by specifying both.
True >alse

.(. By spelling out rights and duties of employees, and the conse'uences of deviating from the prescribed path,
orientation programs tend to increase the need for corrective discipline measures as employees become
socialized.
True >alse

.*. :ost organizations conduct group orientation programs to be more cost effective.
True >alse

.,. An employee handbook is a common tool for e$plaining benefits, policies, and general information about
the organization to the new employee.
True >alse

.-. The 5buddy system5 is an informal orientation system used by some organizations where a new employee is
paired with a senior worker who shows the new person around.
True >alse

... 3esponsibility for orientation is usually shared between the human resource department and the immediate
supervisor.
True >alse

.0. /rientation programs are an occasion to communicate the culture of an organization.
True >alse

01. #robably the single most useless method of evaluating the effectiveness of an orientation program is getting
the reactions of new employees who went through the process.
True >alse

01. 3eactions from new employees, effects of socialization on %ob attitudes and roles, and a positive cost)benefit
are all methods for measuring the effectiveness of an orientation program.
True >alse

0". Canadian companies must increasingly compete in a global market and a fast)changing environment, which
in turn makes training an important part of organizational strategy.
True >alse

0&. Canadian managers will increasingly have to work with colleagues who often have very different cultural
values.
True >alse

0(. Training prepares people for their present %obs while development prepares them for future %obs.
True >alse

0*. Training and development are identical concepts, e$cept that smaller organizations tend to use the word
training while larger ones usually refer to the same activity as development.
True >alse

0,. Benefits of training for the individual can include skill improvement and self)development.
True >alse

0-. Benefits of training for the organization can include higher productivity, improved morale, and a better
corporate image.
True >alse

0.. 8hile training programs may benefit employees, it is generally agreed that it offers little specific benefit to
the organization.
True >alse

00. /nce human resource managers have determined the ob%ectives and content of a training program they must
do a needs assessment.
True >alse

111. The order of activities in planning a training program is to decide on the content and learning principles to
be used, then do a needs assessment and finally determine ob%ectives.
True >alse

111. 4n training, needs assessment diagnoses present problems and environmental challenges that training might
facilitate.
True >alse

11". An organization that plans to change its strategy should allocate funds for training.
True >alse

11&. 2upervisors can be a good source of recommendations for training as they tend to see daily performance
and re'uirements.
True >alse

11(. 3ecommending a good employee for a training course as a reward is one reason why human resource
departments regard supervisory suggestions for employee training as valid.
True >alse

11*. Training ob%ectives should state three things@ desired behaviour, conditions under which it should occur,
and acceptable performance criteria.
True >alse

11,. Training ob%ectives should clearly state both learning principles and content assessment.
True >alse

11-. Training ob%ectives are necessary to give both the trainer and the trainee goals that can be used to evaluate
program success.
True >alse

11.. Training program content is mainly shaped by the training ob%ectives.
True >alse

110. A training program+s content is shaped by the needs assessment and the learning principles.
True >alse

111. Though the learning process has been widely studied it is still not particularly understood.
True >alse

111. /ne of the biggest recent developments for human resource specialists planning training programs has
been the vastly increased understanding of the learning process.
True >alse

11". Three of the five learning principles that can be included in training are participation, relevance, and
transference.
True >alse

11&. 3epetition and relevance are learning principles, but feedback is not.
True >alse

11(. Active participation usually makes learning 'uicker and more long)lasting.
True >alse

11*. !$plaining the overall purpose of a %ob to trainees before e$plaining specific tasks is an e$ample of
transference as a learning principal.
True >alse

11,. The use of feedback can allow motivated learners to modify their behaviour to achieve the 'uickest
possible learning curve.
True >alse

11-. As the learning curve indicates, learning is not linear but takes place in bursts separated by plateaus.
True >alse

11.. 4n selecting a particular training techni'ue no one techni'ue is always best, for there are always trade)offs
between desired content, cost, and personal capabilities.
True >alse

110. Training techni'ues can be divided into two basic groups@ on)the)%ob and off)the)%ob approaches.
True >alse

1"1. /n)the)%ob training techni'ues include %ob rotation, coaching, and role)playing.
True >alse

1"1. /ff)the)%ob training techni'ues include lecture and video presentations, apprenticeships, and self)study.
True >alse

1"". /ff)the)%ob training techni'ues can include self)study, computer)based training, and role)playing.
True >alse

1"&. Aob rotation is an effective means of cross)training employees.
True >alse

1"(. Coaching as a training techni'ue is seldom if ever done by the immediate manager or supervisor, but rather
by the human resource department.
True >alse

1"*. /ne advantage of role)playing as a training techni'ue is that can create greater empathy and tolerance of
individual differences.
True >alse

1",. !)learning is different from internet or web)based training because while it is completed on a computer it
does not involve the internet.
True >alse

1"-. 2trategic human resource development can be defined as the identification of essential %ob skills and the
management of employee learning for long)range in relation to corporate strategy.
True >alse

1".. Because employee development is more future)oriented it can be considered to be an education process
rather than a training process.
True >alse

1"0. The concept of comparing an organization+s 'uality and production standards to the industry leaders is
called benchmarking.
True >alse

1&1. Benchmarking refers to the process by which an organization can downsize without hurting 'uality.
True >alse

1&1. !mployee development can be defined as the process of enhancing an employee+s future value to the
organization through career planning.
True >alse

1&". /ne rule of employee development is that without short)term payoffs management must be very cautious
about committing the firm+s resources.
True >alse

1&&. The three basic developmental strategies for organizations are cognitive, behavioural, and environmental.
True >alse

1&(. Among the basic strategies an organization can use for employee development are managerial, normative,
and participative.
True >alse

1&*. Cognitive developmental strategies are concerned with altering employees+ ideas and thoughts, mainly
through new knowledge and processes.
True >alse

1&,. Behavioural developmental strategies are concerned with altering employees+ attitudes and values.
True >alse

1&-. Because they use passive techni'ues, cognitive development strategies tend to be the most effect as a
developmental tool.
True >alse

1&.. 3ole)playing and sensitivity training are two instruments used in behavioural strategies for employee
development.
True >alse

1&0. Behavioural developmental strategies are more concerned with changing employee behaviour than
changing attitudes and values.
True >alse

1(1. Team)building, %ob rotation, and the :anagerial Brid approach are all environmental strategies for
employee development.
True >alse

1(1. Aob rotation, matri$ management, and pro%ect teams are all environmental strategies for employee
development.
True >alse

1(". The concept of human capital is meant to be a reflection of a person+s talents, skills, and knowledge.
True >alse

1(&. The human capital of employees is dependent upon, and defined by, their current %ob or employer.
True >alse

1((. A lateral transfer is the same as a promotion e$cept that the pay seldom changes.
True >alse

1(*. The learning organization has been defined as a place 5where people continuously e$pand their capacity to
create, CandD where collective aspiration is set free.5
True >alse

1(,. The fundamental learning unit within the modern 5learning organization5 is the individual rather than the
team.
True >alse

1(-. A knowledge worker can be described as an employee who has the ability to use information to solve
organizational problems.
True >alse

1(.. <nowledge management can be defined as the ability to utilize the information and knowledge stored in
employees+ heads.
True >alse

1(0. The terms knowledge management and information management can used interchangeably to describe the
same concept and functions.
True >alse

1*1. A competency framework is a list of skills and abilities that provide a competitive advantage to an
organization.
True >alse

1*1. A competency)based performance management allows trainers to offer programs that focus on specific
employee strengths and invest training and development effort where it ma$imizes value for the company.
True >alse

1*". The lack of a good trainer may be the most serious flaw in training efforts.
True >alse

1*&. There are three types of criteria on which to evaluate training plAnswer@ reaction, knowledge and
behaviour.
True >alse

1*(. 4t is generally agreed that one of the most serious flaws with training efforts is that too many organizations
spend far too much time and money on post)training evaluation.
True >alse

1**. All the following are training evaluation criteria@ reaction, knowledge, behaviour, and organizational
results.
True >alse

1*,. An investment in training should re'uire a cost ) benefit analysis.
True >alse

1*-. To be ready for career opportunities, successful people develop career plans and then take action to achieve
those plans.
True >alse

1*.. #lanning a career guarantees successful employee development.
True >alse

1*0. /ne advantage of career planning is that it gives the human resource department a larger pool of %ob
applicants.
True >alse

1,1. /rganizationally sponsored career planning can further employee growth, tap employee potential, and
satisfy employee needs.
True >alse

1,1. ?o matter how professional they are, to be successful, career counsellors must first get employees to assess
themselves and their environment.
True >alse

1,". Bood career counsellors are those who can persuade employees that their career plan and their life plan
should, and must, be one and the same.
True >alse

1,&. Contradictory life demands and a sense of e$ternal control are two factors that can cause a sense of
personal failure even with people who have very successful careers.
True >alse

1,(. Currently in Canada figures indicate that in seven out of ten families both partners work.
True >alse

1,*. Career plateauing can be defined as a linear career progression without any levelling or downward
movement.
True >alse

1,,. The starting point for any career planning and development is the organization.
True >alse

1,-. Aob performance, e$posure, and organizational loyalty are all possible career development actions.
True >alse

1,.. As employees begin to understand and accept organizational norms, values, and beliefs they are said to be
undergoing a continuing process called ;;;;;;;;;;.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

1,0. /rientation can be said to be the process of turning ;;;;;;;;;; into ;;;;;;;;;;.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

1-1. 2uccessful ;;;;;;;;;; for new employees can reduce future turnover and new employee errors, develop
clear organizational e$pectations, and improve performance.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

1-1. The difference between what a person e$pects to find in the workplace and what one finds is called
;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

1-". A good orientation program can result in ;;;;;;;;;; instances of future corrective discipline measures.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

1-&. The ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; e$plains key benefits, policies and general information about the
company.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

1-(. Esually, responsibility for orientation is shared between the human resource department and the
;;;;;;;;;;.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

1-*. 3eactions from new employees, effects of socialization on %ob attitudes, and a good cost)benefit ratio are
all approaches to evaluating the effectiveness of an ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

1-,. The increasing re'uirement for organizations to have a workforce that is fle$ible, cross)trained, and that
can react 'uickly to new situations more and more makes ;;;;;;;;;; an important part of long)range strategy.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

1--. A planned effort by an organization to facilitate the learning of employee %ob)related behaviours is usually
referred to as ;;;;;;;;;;.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

1-.. Benerally speaking, ;;;;;;;;;; prepares people for their present %ob while ;;;;;;;;;; prepares them for
future %obs.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

1-0. The usual first step in an effective training program is a ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

1.1. ?eeds assessment diagnoses present problems and environmental challenges that can be met through
;;;;;;;;;;.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

1.1. 4n training, things such as desired behaviour, conditions under which it is supposed to occur, and
acceptable performance criteria are all ;;;;;;;;;;.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

1.". #articipation, repetition, relevance and feedback are all e$amples of ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

1.&. !$plaining the overall purpose of a %ob before e$plaining specific tasks is the use of ;;;;;;;;;; as a
learning principle.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

1.(. Aob rotation, %ob instruction, and coaching are e$amples of ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; training
techni'ues.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

1.*. Festibule training, role)playing, case study, self)study, and simulations are all e$amples of training
techni'ues known as ;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; training.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

1.,. 4n training, the needs assessment and the learning principles to be used are mainly shaped by the
;;;;;;;;; of the training program.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

1.-. ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; offers control over the pace of learning in a modular)type style.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

1... To be successful, employees must develop technical, human, and ;;;;;;;;;; skills.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

1.0. 2trategic human resource ;;;;;;;;; can be defined as the identification of essential %ob skills and the
management of employees+ learning as part of the organizations long)range strategy.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

101. The idea of comparing one+s own 'uality and production standards with those of industry leaders is called
;;;;;;;;;.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

101. The process of enhancing an employee+s future value to the enterprise through careful career planning is
defined as ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

10". Cognitive, behavioural, and environmental are all basic employee ;;;;;;;;; strategies for organizations.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

10&. The employee developmental strategy that attempts to change employee attitudes and values is called the
;;;;;;;;;; approach or strategy.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

10(. The ;;;;;;;;;; employee developmental strategy uses instruments such as role)playing, team building
and mentoring.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

10*. The ;;;;;;;;;; employee development approach uses methods such as %ob rotation, internal consulting,
and matri$ management.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

10,. The ;;;;;;;;;; employee development approach uses articles, lectures and university courses.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

10-. The movement of an employee from one position to another in the same class but in another area, or to a
different class but with similar duties and salary is called a ;;;;;;;;;; transfer.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

10.. 2ystems thinking, personal mastery, and shared vision are all characteristics of the ;;;;;;;;;;
organization.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

100. According to some observers 6eg. #eter 2enge7 the fundamental learning unit in modern organizations is
the ;;;;;;;;;;.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

"11. ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; are the fastest growing type of worker in Canada.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

"11. The ability to utilize people+s knowledge is referred to as ;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

"1". A list of competencies 6ie.skills and abilities7 that provide a competitive advantage to an organization is
often referred to as a ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

"1&. 5#erhaps the most important factor in ensuring that employee development is done strategically is the
participation of ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; in the process.5
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

"1(. The four types of criteria for evaluating training programs are reaction, organizational results, knowledge,
and ;;;;;;;;;;.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

"1*. /f the four criteria for measuring training effectiveness, the ideal method would be ;;;;;;;;;;
;;;;;;;;;;;; if it were not for the difficulty in determining cause)effect relationships.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

"1,. 8hile one method of measuring the effectiveness of training is the post)test design, a somewhat more
effective approach is the ;;;;;;;;;; post)test design that allows a comparison of results.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

"1-. !mployee development is inseparably linked to career ;;;;;;;;;; and career management.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

"1.. :erely planning a career does not guarantee success, as superior performance, education, e$perience, and
even some occasional ;;;;;;;; play an important role.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

"10. Today an increasing number of human resource departments see career planning as a means of helping
meet their ;;;;;;;;;; staffing needs.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

"11. 2ome of the benefits for an organization of employee career planning are that it satisfies employee needs,
taps employee potential, and lowers employee ;;;;;;;;;;.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

"11. 8hen a number of different %obs re'uire similar skills, they form groups known as ;;;;;;;;;;
;;;;;;;;;;;.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

"1". :i$ed with a career plan are an individual+s collection of hopes, dreams, and personal goals which can be
considered to form a person+s ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

"1&. To avoid a sense of personal failure ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; coupled with life planning at the beginning
of a career and at every ma%or crossroads is crucial.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

"1(. 8hen a person+s career shows an absence of progress 6flattens out7 this can be called career ;;;;;;;;;;.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

"1*. To implement one+s career plans one must actively work on career ;;;;;;;;;;.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

"1,. Aob ;;;;;;;;;; and organizational ;;;;;;;;;; are two career development actions.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

"1-. 4t can be very difficult for a person to sustain years of work and preparation to reach career goals without
some ;;;;;;;;;; about their career development efforts.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

"1.. /ne responsibility of human resource departments is to ensure that there are candidates available for key
positions in case of une$pected vacancies occurring. This activity is known as ;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;.
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

"10. 5There should be no need for an orientation or training for workers that are correctly selected.5 o you
agree or disagreeG 8hyG




""1. 8hat is socializationG 8hy is it important to know about itG




""1. =ow can the effectiveness of orientation be evaluatedG




""". 8hich two learning techni'ues would you combine to design a developmental program for managers that
makes use of all five learning principlesG 8hyG




""&. 8hich training techni'ues would you suggest for each of these occupationsG 8hyG
a. a waiter or waitress
b. an assembly line worker
c. an electrician
d. an ine$perienced manager




""(. Comment on the recent developments regarding the 4nternet in career planning and development.




""*. iscuss the importance of strategic =3 development for an organization
epn




"",. 8hat are the advantages of a learning organizationG 8hy would it be worthwhile to 5create5 such an
organizationG




""-. escribe the various roles of a knowledge manager within an organization.




"".. 8hat are the implications for using a competency frameworkG




""0. 5To verify the program+s success, human resource managers increasingly demand that training and
development activities be evaluated systematically.5 iscuss.




"&1. iscuss the career planning and development framework. 8hat are the relationships between career
planning, career goals, and career developmentG




"&1. 8hat are the ma%or ways a human resource department can assist career planningG




"&". Assume a friend of yours, who is a hardworking and dedicated worker, got passed over for a promotion.
8hat advice would you give your friendG




"&&. !$plain the important role employee feedback has in any organization+s attempts at career development.




c- <ey

1. (p. 267) The process by which a new employee begins to understand and accept the values, norms, and beliefs
held by others in an organization is known as
A. familiarization
B. adaptation
C. socialization
. orientation programs
!. participation

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1

". (p. 26') #roperly done orientation programs can serve several purposes including all the following e$cept
A. reducing employee turnover
B. reducing employee errors
C. improving %ob performance
. reducing employee an$iety
E. increasing the number of grievances

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #2

&. (p. 26') A proper and effective orientation program can
A. be done 'uickly and ine$pensively when well planned
B. reduce the need for corrective discipline
C. only be done by the human resource department
. reverse mistakes made in the recruiting and selection processes
!. be highly effective with even minimal organizational commitment and planning

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #(

(. (p. 26') The difference between what a person e$pects to find)as, for e$ample, in the workplace)and what one
actually finds is referred to as
A. culture shock
B. cognitive dissonance
C. orientation e$pectancy gap
. the new employee syndrome
!. realistic e$perience syndrome

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #)

*. (p. 26') #roper orientation programs can
A. increase employee turnover
B. develop clear %ob e$pectations
C. increase a new employee+s level of cognitive dissonance
. cause increased grievances later on
!. cause a reduction in new employee morale and satisfaction

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #*

,. (p. 26') To inform new employees what the organization e$pects of them and what they can e$pect in return is a
direct function of
A. the recruiting process
B. the orientation process
C. the selection process
. the %ob analysis process
!. the interviewing process

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #6

-. (p. 26') A poor new)employee orientation program will
A. increase organizational stability
B. reduce employee an$iety
C. reduce labour grievances
D. encourage employees to do things his or her own way and not to be bound by organizational norms
!. develop clear)cut organizational e$pectations

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #7

.. (p. 27& +ig 7"1) /rientation programs often cover a number of topics including all of the following e$cept
A. employee benefits
B. %ob duties
C. %ob analysis issues
. organizational issues
!. introduction to other employees

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #'

0. (p. 271) A good orientation program will
A. attempt to introduce new employees to all their colleagues on the first day
B. start by immediately challenging a new employee with %ob demands
C. emphasize the socialization of the new employee by discussing organizational norms and values
. save the most relevant information about the company until the end of the employee+s first month
!. avoid confusing employees with information on corporate culture and character

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #.

11. (p. 271) Approaches to evaluating the effectiveness of an orientation program include the following e$cept
A. randomly interview new employees who have completed the program
B. administer a written test to all new employees on facts they have learned about the organization
C. measure %ob satisfaction and work motivation after employees have been in their new roles
. conduct cost)benefit studies on orientation activities
!. randomly select new employees and have them complete surveys

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1&

11. (p. 271) To be successful an employee orientation program must be designed to include
A. a follow)up procedure
B. cognitive dissonance
C. an analysis of workforce demographics
. a mock disciplinary hearing
!. an informal dinner with co)workers

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #11

1". (p. 271) There is a trend towards on line orientation instruments, the benefits of which are all the following
e$cept
A. compressed delivery time
B. reduced workload for trainers
C. greater cost)effectiveness
D. employees can do internet searches for more information
!. ability to deliver to geographically dispersed workforces

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #12

1&. (p. 271"272) 2ome reasons for Canadian firms to be concerned with training could include all the following
e$cept
A. the competitive need for flatter organizations with more self)governing workers
B. the desire of multi)skilled employees to be evaluated and paid according to their competencies
C. the constant and rising influ$ of new immigrants and the challenges of diversity management
. 3apidly changing information technology
E. human rights legislation that re'uires training for all employees

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #2
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1(

1(. (p. 272) Training refers to a planned effort by an organization
A. to prepare employees for future %ob responsibilities
B. to facilitate the learning of %ob)related behaviours for employees on their current %obs
C. to provide skills for employees in outplacement programs
. to allow employees to change corporate culture
!. to copy the competition

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #2
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1)

1*. (p. 272) An effective training program
A. benefits both employees and the organization
B. is primarily focused on benefiting new employees
C. meets the primary organizational goal of improving the self)confidence of employees
. can be completed in less than two hours so employees aren+t away from their %ob duties for too long
!. allows employees to complete it on their own time

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #2
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1*

1,. (p. 272) The first step in any training program is to
A. set a specific space as a permanent training area
B. determine what the training program will be about
C. determine training ob%ectives
D. assess the needs of the organization
!. initiate a %ob redesign program

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #16

1-. (p. 27() 4n training, to do a needs assessment means to
A. assess the costs of training programs
B. suggest possible future problems that training could handle
C. diagnose environmental challenges that could be met through training
. develop an e$ternal workforce analysis to fill training needs
!. review recruiting and selection procedures

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #17

1.. (p. 27() There can be a valid need for training when all of the following situations occur e$cept
A. recently promoted employees may have weaknesses that need to be addressed
B. supervisors recommend training as a means of rewarding good workers
C. new procedures may be introduced to handle a new product line
. high accident rates are occurring
!. low morale needs to be improved

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1'

10. (p. 27() Advantages with supervisory recommendations for training can include
A. supervisors see employee performance daily
B. supervisors may wish to 5hide5 surplus workers
C. supervisors may wish to reward good employees
. supervisors may want to banish troublemakers
!. supervisors may not be familiar with employees %obs and performance

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1.

"1. (p. 27)) An evaluation of training needs will result in training ob%ectives, including
A. employees+ future career plans
B. acceptable performance criteria
C. revised %ob descriptions
. training costs
!. where training will take place

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #2&

"1. (p. 27)) /ne problem with learning is that
A. it cannot be observed
B. its results cannot be measured
C. it tends to make training less permanent
. it cannot take place in a formal training situation
!. it cannot be encouraged

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #21

"". (p. 27)) A training program+s content is shaped by
A. learning principles
B. needs assessment
C. learning ob%ectives
D. needs assessment and learning ob%ectives
!. learning principles and learning ob%ectives

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #22

"&. (p. 27*) All of the following are learning principles e$cept
A. relevance
B. commitment
C. repetition
. participation
!. transference

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #2(

"(. (p. 27)"27*) The learning curve seems to indicate that
A. learning takes place as a continuous upward straight line
B. learning takes place in bursts and plateaus
C. learning takes place as a continuous curved line that may plateau out towards the top
. learning goes down before it goes up
!. learning is limited, if you learn something new, you are likely to forget something old

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #2)

"*. (p. 27*) Training pilots in flight simulators because the simulators closely resemble the actual cockpits and
flight characteristics of the airplane is an e$ample of the learning principle of
A. relevance
B. repetition
C. transference
. feedback
!. participation

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #2*

",. (p. 277) /n)the)%ob training techni'ues do not include
A. lecture and simulation
B. %ob rotation
C. %ob instruction training
. coaching
!. apprenticeships

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #26

"-. (p. 277) Cross)training employees by moving them through a variety of %obs within the organization is called
A. %ob enrichment
B. %ob enlargement
C. %ob rotation
. %ob mentoring
!. %ob learning

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #27

".. (p. 277) 4n most organizations, coaching 6as a training approach7 is almost always done by
A. senior management
B. the human resource department
C. the immediate supervisor or manager
. a professional trainer or coach
!. a virtual)reality coach

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #2'

"0. (p. 277"2'1) All the following are off)the)%ob training techni'ues e$cept
A. vestibule training
B. simulation
C. apprenticeships
. self)study
!. role)playing

Difficulty: /$%d
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #2.

&1. (p. 277"2'1) Case study, simulation, and programmed learning are all e$amples of
A. on)the)%ob learning techni'ues
B. off)the)%ob learning techni'ues
C. role)playing
. transference
!. participation learning

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #(&

&1. (p. 27.) All of the following apply to computer based training e$cept
A. it allows the student to control the pace of learning
B. positive reinforcement occurs during the training
C. courses can be offered through tutorial packages
D. currently only generic course topics are available
!. training packages are of a modular type format

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #(1

&". (p. 27."2'&) 8eb)based training
A. is used in group training to enhance interpersonal skills
B. involves the use of simulators that replicate the features of a work situation
C. seeks to change the attitudes of trainees and develop communication skills
. provides for decision making and the development of problem)solving skills
E. allows for real)time access at any time

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #(2

&&. (p. 2'1) !mployee development can be defined as
A. training employees how to do their %ob better
B. increasing an employee+s level of productivity
C. enhancing an employee+s future value through an education process
. using %ob analysis to enhance %ob descriptions
!. developing personal systems for increasing an employee+s cognitive dissonance

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #)
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #((

&(. (p. 2'1) 2trategic human resource development involves all of the following e$cept
A. identifying essential %ob skills
B. attempting to change employee behaviour
C. actively managing an employee+s learning
. linking the development needs and activities to an organization+s strategy and mission
!. being long)range future oriented with regards to employee development

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #)
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #()

&*. (p. 2'2) The term 5benchmarking5 refers to
A. comparing one+s own 'uality and production standards with those of industry leaders
B. cross)comparing standards internally
C. maintaining high 'uality standards
. employee vandalism
!. cost)benefit training assessment evaluations

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #)
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #(*

&,. (p. 2')) The term 5human capital5
A. is identical in meaning to the term human resources
B. is the cash value of each employee to the organization as represented by salary and wages
C. is a reflection of the depth and breadth of an employee+s skills and competencies
. refers to the total cost of all employees in an organization including benefits and bonuses
!. is how the capital city of !arth is referred to by aliens

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #)
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #(6

&-. (p. 2'() According to 8e$ley and 9atham, the three basic developmental strategies
A. content, learning and performance criteria
B. participation, repetition and feedback
C. comprehension, behavioural and role)playing
. behavioural modeling, sensitivity training and mentoring
E. cognitive, behavioural and environmental

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #(7

&.. (p. 2'() 9ikely the least effective strategy in employee development, due to its more passive nature, is
A. cognitive
B. behavioural
C. environmental
. on)the)%ob training
!. assessment centres

Difficulty: /$%d
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #('

&0. (p. 2'() evelopmental strategies that desire to change employee attitudes and values would generally fall
under the heading of
A. behavioural
B. environmental
C. cognitive
. normative
!. managerial

Difficulty: /$%d
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #(.

(1. (p. 2'() 5esirable behaviour5 as a development strategy includes reinforcing all of the following e$cept
A. proper leadership style
B. conflict resolution techni'ues
C. appropriate types of communication
D. knowledge and e$pertise
!. interactions with customers

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #)&

(1. (p. 2'(02'*) The use of such instruments as role)playing, sensitivity training, team building, and mentoring
would indicate an organizational strategy based on the
A. cognitive approach
B. behavioural approach
C. environmental approach
. %ob analysis approach
!. assessment approach

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #)1

(". (p. 2'6) :ethods and instruments used in environmental strategies for employee career development include
all the following e$cept
A. the learning organization concept
B. %ob rotation
C. sensitivity training
. matri$ management
!. pro%ect teams

Difficulty: /$%d
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #)2

(&. (p. 2'6) :atri$ management, cross)cultural management, and diversity training are all instruments used in the
;;;;;;;;;; strategy to employee development.
A. behavioural
B. environmental
C. cognitive
. normative
!. participative

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #)(

((. (p. 2'6) 8hen an employee is moved to another position in the same class, or to a different class with
substantially the same duties and salary this is called a
A. lateral transfer
B. horizontal transfer
C. vertical transfer
. departmental transfer
!. %ob progression transfer

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #))

(*. (p. 2'7) Among the characteristics of the 5learning organization5 can be included all the following e$cept
A. shared vision
B. systems thinking
C. personal mastery
. team learning
E. authoritative bureaucratic structure

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #)*

(,. (p. 2'7) As defined by #eter 2enge the learning organization has the all following characteristics e$cept
A. systems thinking
B. personal mastery
C. the development of the individual above the group
. shared vision
!. changing of the mental models

Difficulty: /$%d
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #)6

(-. (p. 2'7) <nowledge workers can be described as employees who
A. know what they are doing and do it well
B. work with knowledge, as for e$ample in a library or university
C. have the ability to use information to solve organizational problems
. are not involved in working with physical machinery or factory production
!. are also known as thoughtful workers

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #7
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #)7

(.. (p. 2'7) The Canadian government has determined that the fastest growing category of worker in Canada is
the
A. factory worker
B. knowledge worker
C. agricultural worker
. government worker
!. industrial worker

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #7
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #)'

(0. (p. 2'7"2'') <nowledge management has all of the following characteristics e$cept
A. focuses on making information available to managers for decision making
B. organization+s ability to utilize employee knowledge
C. attempts to survey and assess the organization+s e$pertise
. endeavours to increase knowledge systematically
!. strives to apply knowledge in a profitable manner

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #7
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #).

*1. (p. 2'') A competency framework is
A. a organizational process for defining corrective discipline in situations of incompetence
B. used to identify 'uality problems in production
C. a list of competencies that provide a competitive advantage to the organization
. a test that human resource specialists give employees to determine %ob standards
!. a physical structure designed to house organizational knowledge

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #7
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #*&

*1. (p. 2.&) #erhaps one of the most serious flaws in many training efforts is the lack of
A. learning principles
B. program evaluation
C. relevant content
. unprepared employees
!. supervisor avoidance

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #'
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #*1

*". (p. 2.&) The criteria for evaluating training should be established
A. within a month after the employees return to their %obs
B. after employees have been selected but before training begins
C. immediately following the training program itself
D. before the training program begins
!. informally at some point within si$ months following the training program

Difficulty: /$%d
Objective: #'
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #*2

*&. (p. 2.1 +ig 7"') The first step in training evaluation is
A. establishment of criteria
B. pre)testing
C. follow)up studies
. employee selection
!. determination of content

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #'
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #*(

*(. (p. 2.&) The reaction criterion for training evaluation has as an advantage6s7 that it evaluates
A. the logistical set)up of the program
B. the effectiveness of the program
C. desired behavioural changes
. attitude and behaviour changes effected by the training
!. overall organizational results and benefits

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #'
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #*)

**. (p. 2.&) Training evaluation criteria can include all of the following e$cept
A. organizational results
B. organizational demographics
C. knowledge
. behaviour
!. reaction

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #'
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #**

*,. (p. 2.&) 4n a perfect world, the best criteria of evaluating a training program would be
A. reaction
B. behaviour
C. organizational results
. knowledge
!. attitudes

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #'
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #*6

*-. (p. 2.1) Although none of the following are scientific methods of evaluating training, select the one that would
likely be the most effective as a practical measurement
A. the post)test design
B. the pre)test design
C. the pre)test post)test design
. elimination of uncertainty 6the =eisenberg test7
!. :arkov analysis

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #'
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #*7

*.. (p. 2.1) As far as costs go, training should be considered to be
A. too important to be analyzed on a cost)benefit basis
B. the same as any other organizational decision and assessed for cost)effectiveness
C. by its very nature immeasurable in any practical way for cost)effectiveness
. too future oriented to be measured in current costs
!. a non)cost item

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #'
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #*'

*0. (p. 2.() An increasing number of human resource departments see employee career planning as
A. a strategy for reducing the number of employees to the organization
B. an e$pense that should be the employees+ responsibility
C. previously useful but becoming a less acceptable e$pense in an era of downsizing and labour surplus
D. giving the organization a larger pool of 'ualified applicants to fill %ob openings
!. only being important in smaller organizations

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #*.

,1. (p. 2.() A study of employees revealed that there were a number of areas of concern in regards to career
planning, including all of the following e$cept
A. career e'uity
B. supervisory concern
C. awareness of opportunities
. career satisfaction
E. %ob design

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #6&

,1. (p. 2.("2.)) /rganizations have become increasingly aware of the benefits of employee career planning,
including all the below e$cept
A. lower turnover
B. promotable employees
C. satisfied employees
. tapping employee potential
E. higher compensation levels

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #61

,". (p. 2.("2.)) The involvement of human resource departments in employee career planning has grown in recent
years mainly because career planning does all of the following e$cept
A. taps employee potential
B. reduces management hoarding of key employees
C. automatically filters out and removes unacceptable employees
. develops promotable employees
!. assists employment e'uity plans

Difficulty: /$%d
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #62

,&. (p. 2.)"2.*) =uman resource departments encourage career planning through all the following e$cept
A. information
B. career education
C. %ob analysis
. counselling
!. employee self)assessment

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #6(

,(. (p. 2.)) 2ome human resource departments offer career counselling, although to be truly successful,
counsellors must
A. be able to inform employees e$actly where their career path lies at any time
B. get employees to assess themselves and their environment
C. be able to persuade employees to go in the direction the organization, not where the employee wants
. have direct e$perience in the %obs and careers that they are counselling about
!. avoid using attitudes and skills tests at this stage

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #6)

,*. (p. 2.() 8hen employers encourage career planning, one benefit often is
A. employees set goals and are more motivated
B. increased creative an$iety
C. poor employees resign
. e$panded learning curve charts
!. employees will decertify unions and set up team based self)management e'uity systems

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #6*

,,. (p. 2.*) To have a successful career yet avoid having career goals come into serious conflict with the rest of
one+s life, a career plan
A. should be an end in itself
B. should be an integral part of a person+s life plans
C. should be subordinate at all times to a person+s personal life
. should be designed and directed by a professional
!. should be left solely to day)to)day decisions

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #66

,-. (p. 2.6) /ne current demographic factor that has a serious impact on the personal career planning of many
people is
A. the increasing number of dual)career couples
B. continued urbanization of Canada+s population
C. computerization
. the demise of heavy industry 6eg. shipyards, steel plants7
!. the overall effect of global warming

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #67

,.. (p. 2.6) The starting point and ma%or responsibility for career development lies with
A. the organization
B. the human resource department
C. the employee
. the immediate supervisor or manager
!. the situation

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #6'

,0. (p. 2.6"2.7) An individual can take a number of actions to develop a career, including all the following e$cept
A. e$posure
B. %ob performance
C. resignations
. mentors
E. not learning from mistakes

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #6.

-1. (p. 2.') /ne responsibility of a human resource department is to plan for the une$pected vacancy in key
positions. 2uch planning is known as
A. emergency planning
B. replacement planning
C. succession planning
. resignation planning 6though it can include employee departure due to death or retirement7
!. insurance planning

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #7&

-1. (p. 267) The sole function of human resource management is the recruiting and hiring of employees.
FALSE

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #71

-". (p. 267) Although orientation may be important, employers seldom have an initial investment in a new
employee.
FALSE

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #72

-&. (p. 267) 2uccessful organizational entry and maintenance is the key ob%ective of employee socialization.
TRUE

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #7(

-(. (p. 267) The process of socialization may be said to involve turning insiders into outsiders.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #7)

-*. (p. 26') >ormal orientation programs are intended to familiarize new employees with their roles, other
employees, and the organization.
TRUE

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #7*

-,. (p. 26') /ne une$pected conse'uence of detailed orientation programs is that they often create employee
an$iety and increase grievances.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #76

--. (p. 26') !mployee orientation programs can reduce employee turnover, reduce errors, and increase
productivity.
TRUE

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #77

-.. (p. 26') !mployees are more likely to 'uit in their first few months than at any other time.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #7'

-0. (p. 26') Cognitive dissonance is the difference between what one e$pects to find at the workplace and what
one actually finds.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #7.

.1. (p. 26') ?o matter how well planned, the one thing an orientation program cannot do is reduce cognitive
dissonance in a new employee.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #'&

.1. (p. 26') /rientation programs can instruct new employees in what is considered desirable behaviour,
outcomes, and attitudes.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #'1

.". (p. 26.) The one thing an orientation program cannot do is get new employees up to acceptable %ob
performance levels more 'uickly.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #'2

.&. (p. 26.) 2ince grievances often result from ambiguous %ob e$pectations and unclear responsibilities, an
orientation program can help to reduce later grievances by specifying both.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #'(

.(. (p. 26.) By spelling out rights and duties of employees, and the conse'uences of deviating from the prescribed
path, orientation programs tend to increase the need for corrective discipline measures as employees become
socialized.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #')

.*. (p. 26.) :ost organizations conduct group orientation programs to be more cost effective.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #'*

.,. (p. 26.) An employee handbook is a common tool for e$plaining benefits, policies, and general information
about the organization to the new employee.
TRUE

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #'6

.-. (p. 26.) The 5buddy system5 is an informal orientation system used by some organizations where a new
employee is paired with a senior worker who shows the new person around.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #'7

... (p. 26.) 3esponsibility for orientation is usually shared between the human resource department and the
immediate supervisor.
TRUE

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #''

.0. (p. 271) /rientation programs are an occasion to communicate the culture of an organization.
TRUE

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #'.

01. (p. 271) #robably the single most useless method of evaluating the effectiveness of an orientation program is
getting the reactions of new employees who went through the process.
FALSE

Difficulty: /$%d
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #.&

01. (p. 271) 3eactions from new employees, effects of socialization on %ob attitudes and roles, and a positive cost)
benefit are all methods for measuring the effectiveness of an orientation program.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #.1

0". (p. 271"272) Canadian companies must increasingly compete in a global market and a fast)changing
environment, which in turn makes training an important part of organizational strategy.
TRUE

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #2
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #.2

0&. (p. 272) Canadian managers will increasingly have to work with colleagues who often have very different
cultural values.
TRUE

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #2
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #.(

0(. (p. 272) Training prepares people for their present %obs while development prepares them for future %obs.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #2
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #.)

0*. (p. 272) Training and development are identical concepts, e$cept that smaller organizations tend to use the
word training while larger ones usually refer to the same activity as development.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #2
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #.*

0,. (p. 272) Benefits of training for the individual can include skill improvement and self)development.
TRUE

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #2
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #.6

0-. (p. 272) Benefits of training for the organization can include higher productivity, improved morale, and a better
corporate image.
TRUE

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #2
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #.7

0.. (p. 272) 8hile training programs may benefit employees, it is generally agreed that it offers little specific
benefit to the organization.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #2
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #.'

00. (p. 27() /nce human resource managers have determined the ob%ectives and content of a training program they
must do a needs assessment.
FALSE

Difficulty: /$%d
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #..

111. (p. 27() The order of activities in planning a training program is to decide on the content and learning
principles to be used, then do a needs assessment and finally determine ob%ectives.
FALSE

Difficulty: /$%d
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1&&

111. (p. 27() 4n training, needs assessment diagnoses present problems and environmental challenges that training
might facilitate.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1&1

11". (p. 27() An organization that plans to change its strategy should allocate funds for training.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1&2

11&. (p. 27() 2upervisors can be a good source of recommendations for training as they tend to see daily
performance and re'uirements.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1&(

11(. (p. 27() 3ecommending a good employee for a training course as a reward is one reason why human resource
departments regard supervisory suggestions for employee training as valid.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1&)

11*. (p. 27)) Training ob%ectives should state three things@ desired behaviour, conditions under which it should
occur, and acceptable performance criteria.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1&*

11,. (p. 27)) Training ob%ectives should clearly state both learning principles and content assessment.
FALSE

Difficulty: /$%d
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1&6

11-. (p. 27)) Training ob%ectives are necessary to give both the trainer and the trainee goals that can be used to
evaluate program success.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1&7

11.. (p. 27)) Training program content is mainly shaped by the training ob%ectives.
FALSE

Difficulty: /$%d
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1&'

110. (p. 27)) A training program+s content is shaped by the needs assessment and the learning principles.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1&.

111. (p. 27)) Though the learning process has been widely studied it is still not particularly understood.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #11&

111. (p. 27)) /ne of the biggest recent developments for human resource specialists planning training programs
has been the vastly increased understanding of the learning process.
FALSE

Difficulty: /$%d
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #111

11". (p. 27*) Three of the five learning principles that can be included in training are participation, relevance, and
transference.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #112

11&. (p. 27*) 3epetition and relevance are learning principles, but feedback is not.
FALSE

Difficulty: /$%d
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #11(

11(. (p. 27*) Active participation usually makes learning 'uicker and more long)lasting.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #11)

11*. (p. 27*) !$plaining the overall purpose of a %ob to trainees before e$plaining specific tasks is an e$ample of
transference as a learning principal.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #11*

11,. (p. 27*) The use of feedback can allow motivated learners to modify their behaviour to achieve the 'uickest
possible learning curve.
TRUE

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #116

11-. (p. 27)"27* +ig 7")) As the learning curve indicates, learning is not linear but takes place in bursts separated by
plateaus.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #117

11.. (p. 276) 4n selecting a particular training techni'ue no one techni'ue is always best, for there are always
trade)offs between desired content, cost, and personal capabilities.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #11'

110. (p. 27*"276) Training techni'ues can be divided into two basic groups@ on)the)%ob and off)the)%ob approaches.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #11.

1"1. (p. 277) /n)the)%ob training techni'ues include %ob rotation, coaching, and role)playing.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #12&

1"1. (p. 277"2'1) /ff)the)%ob training techni'ues include lecture and video presentations, apprenticeships, and self)
study.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #121

1"". (p. 277"2'1) /ff)the)%ob training techni'ues can include self)study, computer)based training, and role)playing.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #122

1"&. (p. 277) Aob rotation is an effective means of cross)training employees.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #12(

1"(. (p. 277) Coaching as a training techni'ue is seldom if ever done by the immediate manager or supervisor, but
rather by the human resource department.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #12)

1"*. (p. 277) /ne advantage of role)playing as a training techni'ue is that can create greater empathy and
tolerance of individual differences.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #12*

1",. (p. 27.) !)learning is different from internet or web)based training because while it is completed on a
computer it does not involve the internet.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #126

1"-. (p. 2'1) 2trategic human resource development can be defined as the identification of essential %ob skills and
the management of employee learning for long)range in relation to corporate strategy.
TRUE

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #)
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #127

1".. (p. 2'1) Because employee development is more future)oriented it can be considered to be an education
process rather than a training process.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #)
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #12'

1"0. (p. 2'2) The concept of comparing an organization+s 'uality and production standards to the industry leaders
is called benchmarking.
TRUE

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #)
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #12.

1&1. (p. 2'2) Benchmarking refers to the process by which an organization can downsize without hurting 'uality.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #)
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1(&

1&1. (p. 2'() !mployee development can be defined as the process of enhancing an employee+s future value to the
organization through career planning.
TRUE

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1(1

1&". (p. 2'() /ne rule of employee development is that without short)term payoffs management must be very
cautious about committing the firm+s resources.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1(2

1&&. (p. 2'() The three basic developmental strategies for organizations are cognitive, behavioural, and
environmental.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1((

1&(. (p. 2'() Among the basic strategies an organization can use for employee development are managerial,
normative, and participative.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1()

1&*. (p. 2'() Cognitive developmental strategies are concerned with altering employees+ ideas and thoughts,
mainly through new knowledge and processes.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1(*

1&,. (p. 2'() Behavioural developmental strategies are concerned with altering employees+ attitudes and values.
FALSE

Difficulty: /$%d
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1(6

1&-. (p. 2'() Because they use passive techni'ues, cognitive development strategies tend to be the most effect as a
developmental tool.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1(7

1&.. (p. 2'(02'*) 3ole)playing and sensitivity training are two instruments used in behavioural strategies for
employee development.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1('

1&0. (p. 2'*) Behavioural developmental strategies are more concerned with changing employee behaviour than
changing attitudes and values.
TRUE

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1(.

1(1. (p. 2'(02'*) Team)building, %ob rotation, and the :anagerial Brid approach are all environmental strategies for
employee development.
FALSE

Difficulty: /$%d
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1)&

1(1. (p. 2'6) Aob rotation, matri$ management, and pro%ect teams are all environmental strategies for employee
development.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1)1

1(". (p. 2')) The concept of human capital is meant to be a reflection of a person+s talents, skills, and knowledge.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1)2

1(&. (p. 2')) The human capital of employees is dependent upon, and defined by, their current %ob or employer.
FALSE

Difficulty: /$%d
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1)(

1((. (p. 2'6) A lateral transfer is the same as a promotion e$cept that the pay seldom changes.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1))

1(*. (p. 2'6) The learning organization has been defined as a place 5where people continuously e$pand their
capacity to create, CandD where collective aspiration is set free.5
TRUE

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1)*

1(,. (p. 2'6) The fundamental learning unit within the modern 5learning organization5 is the individual rather than
the team.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1)6

1(-. (p. 2'7) A knowledge worker can be described as an employee who has the ability to use information to solve
organizational problems.
TRUE

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #7
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1)7

1(.. (p. 2'') <nowledge management can be defined as the ability to utilize the information and knowledge stored
in employees+ heads.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #7
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1)'

1(0. (p. 2'') The terms knowledge management and information management can used interchangeably to
describe the same concept and functions.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #7
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1).

1*1. (p. 2'') A competency framework is a list of skills and abilities that provide a competitive advantage to an
organization.
TRUE

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #7
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1*&

1*1. (p. 2'') A competency)based performance management allows trainers to offer programs that focus on
specific employee strengths and invest training and development effort where it ma$imizes value for the
company.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #7
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1*1

1*". (p. 2.&) The lack of a good trainer may be the most serious flaw in training efforts.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #'
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1*2

1*&. (p. 2.&) There are three types of criteria on which to evaluate training plAnswer@ reaction, knowledge and
behaviour.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #'
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1*(

1*(. (p. 2.&) 4t is generally agreed that one of the most serious flaws with training efforts is that too many
organizations spend far too much time and money on post)training evaluation.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #'
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1*)

1**. (p. 2.&) All the following are training evaluation criteria@ reaction, knowledge, behaviour, and organizational
results.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #'
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1**

1*,. (p. 2.1) An investment in training should re'uire a cost ) benefit analysis.
TRUE

1
Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #'
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1*6

1*-. (p. 2.() To be ready for career opportunities, successful people develop career plans and then take action to
achieve those plans.
TRUE

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1*7

1*.. (p. 2.() #lanning a career guarantees successful employee development.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1*'

1*0. (p. 2.() /ne advantage of career planning is that it gives the human resource department a larger pool of %ob
applicants.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1*.

1,1. (p. 2.("2.)) /rganizationally sponsored career planning can further employee growth, tap employee potential,
and satisfy employee needs.
TRUE

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #16&

1,1. (p. 2.)"2.*) ?o matter how professional they are, to be successful, career counsellors must first get employees
to assess themselves and their environment.
TRUE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #161

1,". (p. 2.)"2.*) Bood career counsellors are those who can persuade employees that their career plan and their life
plan should, and must, be one and the same.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #162

1,&. (p. 2.*) Contradictory life demands and a sense of e$ternal control are two factors that can cause a sense of
personal failure even with people who have very successful careers.
TRUE

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #16(

1,(. (p. 2.6) Currently in Canada figures indicate that in seven out of ten families both partners work.
TRUE

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #16)

1,*. (p. 2.6) Career plateauing can be defined as a linear career progression without any levelling or downward
movement.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #16*

1,,. (p. 2.6) The starting point for any career planning and development is the organization.
FALSE

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #166

1,-. (p. 2.6"2.7) Aob performance, e$posure, and organizational loyalty are all possible career development
actions.
TRUE

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #167

1,.. (p. 267) As employees begin to understand and accept organizational norms, values, and beliefs they are said
to be undergoing a continuing process called ;;;;;;;;;;.
socialization

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #16'

1,0. (p. 267) /rientation can be said to be the process of turning ;;;;;;;;;; into ;;;;;;;;;;.
outsiders/insiders

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #16.

1-1. (p. 26') 2uccessful ;;;;;;;;;; for new employees can reduce future turnover and new employee errors,
develop clear organizational e$pectations, and improve performance.
orientation or orientation programs

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #17&

1-1. (p. 26') The difference between what a person e$pects to find in the workplace and what one finds is called
;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;.
cognitie dissonance

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #171

1-". (p. 26') A good orientation program can result in ;;;;;;;;;; instances of future corrective discipline
measures.
!e"er

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #172

1-&. (p. 26.) The ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; e$plains key benefits, policies and general information about the
company.
emplo#ee $and%oo&

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #17(

1-(. (p. 26.) Esually, responsibility for orientation is shared between the human resource department and the
;;;;;;;;;;.
'immediate( superisor

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #17)

1-*. (p. 271) 3eactions from new employees, effects of socialization on %ob attitudes, and a good cost)benefit ratio
are all approaches to evaluating the effectiveness of an ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;.
orientation program

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #17*

1-,. (p. 271"272) The increasing re'uirement for organizations to have a workforce that is fle$ible, cross)trained,
and that can react 'uickly to new situations more and more makes ;;;;;;;;;; an important part of long)range
strategy.
training

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #2
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #176

1--. (p. 272) A planned effort by an organization to facilitate the learning of employee %ob)related behaviours is
usually referred to as ;;;;;;;;;;.
training

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #2
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #177

1-.. (p. 272) Benerally speaking, ;;;;;;;;;; prepares people for their present %ob while ;;;;;;;;;; prepares
them for future %obs.
training/deelopment

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #2
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #17'

1-0. (p. 27() The usual first step in an effective training program is a ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;.
needs assessment

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #17.

1.1. (p. 27() ?eeds assessment diagnoses present problems and environmental challenges that can be met through
;;;;;;;;;;.
training

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1'&

1.1. (p. 27)) 4n training, things such as desired behaviour, conditions under which it is supposed to occur, and
acceptable performance criteria are all ;;;;;;;;;;.
'training( o%)ecties

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1'1

1.". (p. 27)) #articipation, repetition, relevance and feedback are all e$amples of ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;.
learning principles

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1'2

1.&. (p. 27*) !$plaining the overall purpose of a %ob before e$plaining specific tasks is the use of ;;;;;;;;;; as a
learning principle.
releance

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1'(

1.(. (p. 277) Aob rotation, %ob instruction, and coaching are e$amples of ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; ;;;;;;; training
techni'ues.
on*t$e*)o%

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1')

1.*. (p. 277"2'1) Festibule training, role)playing, case study, self)study, and simulations are all e$amples of training
techni'ues known as ;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; training.
o!!*t$e*)o%

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1'*

1.,. (p. 27)) 4n training, the needs assessment and the learning principles to be used are mainly shaped by the
;;;;;;;;; of the training program.
content

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1'6

1.-. (p. 27.) ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;; offers control over the pace of learning in a modular)type style.
computer*%ased training

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1'7

1... (p. 2'1) To be successful, employees must develop technical, human, and ;;;;;;;;;; skills.
conceptual

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1''

1.0. (p. 2'1) 2trategic human resource ;;;;;;;;; can be defined as the identification of essential %ob skills and
the management of employees+ learning as part of the organizations long)range strategy.
deelopment

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #)
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1'.

101. (p. 2'2) The idea of comparing one+s own 'uality and production standards with those of industry leaders is
called ;;;;;;;;;.
%enc$mar&ing

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #)
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1.&

101. (p. 2'() The process of enhancing an employee+s future value to the enterprise through careful career planning
is defined as ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;
'emplo#ee( career deelopment

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #)
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1.1

10". (p. 2'() Cognitive, behavioural, and environmental are all basic employee ;;;;;;;;; strategies for
organizations.
deelopmental

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1.2

10&. (p. 2'() The employee developmental strategy that attempts to change employee attitudes and values is called
the ;;;;;;;;;; approach or strategy.
enironmental

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1.(

10(. (p. 2'(02'*) The ;;;;;;;;;; employee developmental strategy uses instruments such as role)playing, team
building and mentoring.
%e$aioural

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1.)

10*. (p. 2'6) The ;;;;;;;;;; employee development approach uses methods such as %ob rotation, internal
consulting, and matri$ management.
enironmental

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1.*

10,. (p. 2'( +ig 7"6) The ;;;;;;;;;; employee development approach uses articles, lectures and university
courses.
cognitie

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1.6

10-. (p. 2'6) The movement of an employee from one position to another in the same class but in another area, or
to a different class but with similar duties and salary is called a ;;;;;;;;;; transfer.
lateral

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1.7

10.. (p. 2'6) 2ystems thinking, personal mastery, and shared vision are all characteristics of the ;;;;;;;;;;
organization.
learning

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1.'

100. (p. 2'7) According to some observers 6eg. #eter 2enge7 the fundamental learning unit in modern
organizations is the ;;;;;;;;;;.
team

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #1..

"11. (p. 2'7) ;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;; are the fastest growing type of worker in Canada.
&no"legdge "or&ers

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #7
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #2&&

"11. (p. 2'7"2'') The ability to utilize people+s knowledge is referred to as ;;;;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;.
&no"ledge management

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #7
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #2&1

"1". (p. 2'') A list of competencies 6ie.skills and abilities7 that provide a competitive advantage to an organization
is often referred to as a ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;;;.
competenc# !rame"or&

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #7
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #2&2

"1&. (p. 2'.) 5#erhaps the most important factor in ensuring that employee development is done strategically is the
participation of ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;; in the process.5
top management

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #7
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #2&(

"1(. (p. 2.&) The four types of criteria for evaluating training programs are reaction, organizational results,
knowledge, and ;;;;;;;;;;.
%e$aiour

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #'
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #2&)

"1*. (p. 2.&) /f the four criteria for measuring training effectiveness, the ideal method would be ;;;;;;;;;;
;;;;;;;;;;;; if it were not for the difficulty in determining cause)effect relationships.
organizational results

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #'
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #2&*

"1,. (p. 2.1) 8hile one method of measuring the effectiveness of training is the post)test design, a somewhat more
effective approach is the ;;;;;;;;;; post)test design that allows a comparison of results.
pre*test

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #'
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #2&6

"1-. (p. 2.() !mployee development is inseparably linked to career ;;;;;;;;;; and career management.
planning

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #2&7

"1.. (p. 2.() :erely planning a career does not guarantee success, as superior performance, education, e$perience,
and even some occasional ;;;;;;;; play an important role.
luc&

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #2&'

"10. (p. 2.() Today an increasing number of human resource departments see career planning as a means of
helping meet their ;;;;;;;;;; staffing needs.
internal

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #2&.

"11. (p. 2.() 2ome of the benefits for an organization of employee career planning are that it satisfies employee
needs, taps employee potential, and lowers employee ;;;;;;;;;;.
turnoer

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #21&

"11. (p. 2.)) 8hen a number of different %obs re'uire similar skills, they form groups known as ;;;;;;;;;;
;;;;;;;;;;;.
)o% !amilies

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #211

"1". (p. 2.)) :i$ed with a career plan are an individual+s collection of hopes, dreams, and personal goals which
can be considered to form a person+s ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;.
li!e plan

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #212

"1&. (p. 2.)) To avoid a sense of personal failure ;;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;; coupled with life planning at the
beginning of a career and at every ma%or crossroads is crucial.
sel!*assessment

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #21(

"1(. (p. 2.6) 8hen a person+s career shows an absence of progress 6flattens out7 this can be called career
;;;;;;;;;;.
plateauing

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #21)

"1*. (p. 2.6) To implement one+s career plans one must actively work on career ;;;;;;;;;;.
deelopment

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #21*

"1,. (p. 2.6) Aob ;;;;;;;;;; and organizational ;;;;;;;;;; are two career development actions.
per!ormance/lo#alt#

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #216

"1-. (p. 2.') 4t can be very difficult for a person to sustain years of work and preparation to reach career goals
without some ;;;;;;;;;; about their career development efforts.
!eed%ac&

Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #217

"1.. (p. 2.') /ne responsibility of human resource departments is to ensure that there are candidates available for
key positions in case of une$pected vacancies occurring. This activity is known as ;;;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;;.
succession planning

Difficulty: ,$-y
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #21'

"10. (p. 267"27*) 5There should be no need for an orientation or training for workers that are correctly selected.5 o
you agree or disagreeG 8hyG
Answers will vary

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #21.

""1. (p. 267) 8hat is socializationG 8hy is it important to know about itG
Answers will vary

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #22&

""1. (p. 271) =ow can the effectiveness of orientation be evaluatedG
Answers will vary

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #1
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #221

""". (p. 27)"276) 8hich two learning techni'ues would you combine to design a developmental program for
managers that makes use of all five learning principlesG 8hyG
Answers will vary

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #6
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #222

""&. (p. 27*"276) 8hich training techni'ues would you suggest for each of these occupationsG 8hyG
a. a waiter or waitress
b. an assembly line worker
c. an electrician
d. an ine$perienced manager
Answers will vary

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #(
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #22(

""(. (p. 2.') Comment on the recent developments regarding the 4nternet in career planning and development.
Answers will vary

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #22)

""*. (p. 2'("2'6) iscuss the importance of strategic =3 development for an organization
Answers will vary

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #)
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #22*

"",. (p. 2'7) 8hat are the advantages of a learning organizationG 8hy would it be worthwhile to 5create5 such an
organizationG
Answers will vary

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #226

""-. (p. 2'7"2'') escribe the various roles of a knowledge manager within an organization.
Answers will vary

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #7
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #227

"".. (p. 2'') 8hat are the implications for using a competency frameworkG
Answers will vary

iDifficulty: Medium
Objective: #*
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #22'

""0. (p. 2.2"2.() 5To verify the program+s success, human resource managers increasingly demand that training and
development activities be evaluated systematically.5 iscuss.
Answers will vary

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #'
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #22.

"&1. (p. 2.("2.*) iscuss the career planning and development framework. 8hat are the relationships between
career planning, career goals, and career developmentG
Answers will vary

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #2(&

"&1. (p. 2.("2.') 8hat are the ma%or ways a human resource department can assist career planningG
Answers will vary

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #2(1

"&". (p. 2'("2'6) Assume a friend of yours, who is a hardworking and dedicated worker, got passed over for a
promotion. 8hat advice would you give your friendG
Answers will vary

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #2(2

"&&. (p. 2'() !$plain the important role employee feedback has in any organization+s attempts at career
development.
Answers will vary

Difficulty: Medium
Objective: #.
Sc!ind " #$pte% &7 #2((

c- 2ummary
#$teg1%y # 1f 2ue-ti1n-
ifficulty@ !asy .1
ifficulty@ =ard 1-
ifficulty@ :edium 1&*
/b%ective@ H1 ((
/b%ective@ H" 1&
/b%ective@ H& *,
/b%ective@ H( 1"
/b%ective@ H* &,
/b%ective@ H, 1
/b%ective@ H- 1(
/b%ective@ H. 1-
/b%ective@ H0 (1
2chwind ) Chapter 1- "&&