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INTRODUCTION:

1.1 General:

Induction machines are the most widely used machines in fixed-speed
applications due to reasons of cost, size, weight, reliability, ruggedness, simplicity,
efficiency and ease of manufacture. For variable speed, high-performance drives,
the dc machine is better than the induction machine, since an induction machine
requires more complex methods of control. he complexity arises because of the
variable frequency power supply! ac signals processing and complex dynamics of
the ac machine.
"lso it requires more expensive, higher-rated inverters. he
disadvantages of the induction machine are being eroded by the increasing #ower
of microprocessors and digital signal processors $%&#'&( with reducing cost and
size, together with improvements in inverter technology. )ence it would be
advantages to use induction machines as a basis for electrical to mechanical
power conversion.
In many applications, the dynamic behavior of induction machine has
an important effect up on the overall performance of the drive system. he
realization of this requires a suitable mathematical model of the induction machine
representation, which can be conveniently altered to simulate the &ymmetrical
induction machine in any reference frame.
"* induction motors, which contain a cage, are very popular in
variable speed drives. In many industries, we need to speed control of "*
induction motor. his drive application allows vector control of the "* induction
motor running in closed-loop with the speed+position sensor coupled to the shaft.

1

1.2Vector control:
he fast torque response obtained using vector control is achieved by
estimating, measuring, calculating the magnitude and position of the motor flux in
the machine. if this flux is ,nown, the stator current phasor can be aligned to
maintain the field at he desired level and to produce torque as desired. "
reference a frame conversion is used to transform the thee- phase stator currents
into two orthogonal components, one to control the flux magnitude and the other
current to control the developed torque. he main difficulty lies in the
measurements or estimation of the flux position. he rotor flux position is required
to calculate the stator current vector position in the stationary reference frame that
is lin,ed to the stator of the machine i.e. it is required to determine the orientation
of the motoring field flux vector. )ence these controls are also called -field oriented
control..
here are two field orientation strategies to detect the rotor flux
position. %irect vector control method uses sensors to directly trac, the flux
position. )all sensors are seldom used because of the high temperature inside the
induction machine. ypical flux in a stationary reference frame and not the rotor
flux, which is used in the decoupling networ,. &o, flux lin,age equations are
necessary to derive the rotor flux from the flux sensor measurements. he required
calculations introduce estimated machine parameters into the disturbance feed
forward path causing detuning errors.
he second category is called indirect vector control. )ere, the flux
position is derived using a calculated or estimated value of the angle between the
flux and the rotor position measurement gives the rotor fluxes position.


2

2.1 INDUCTION MOTOR THEORY:
" polyphase induction motor is single excited ac machine. Its stator
winding is directly connected to a.c source , where its rotor winding receive its
energy from stator by means of induction $ i.e. transformer action ( balanced poly
phase currents in polyphase windings produce a constant /amplitude rotating
m.m.f wave both rotate in the air gap in the same direction at synchrnous speed .
these two m.m.f waves are thus stationary with respect to each other consequently
the development of steady electro magnetic torque is possible at all speeds but not
at synchronous speed. he stator and rotor mmf waves combine to give the
resultant air-gap flux density wave of constant amplitude and rotating at syncronus
speed. &ince an induction motor can't run at syncronus speed, it is called
syncronus machine.
0hen polyphase voltages are applied to the poly phase winding of
induction motor, constant amplitude rotating magnetic field is produced. he speed
of this rotating field is called the syncronus field and it is determined by number of
stator poles and applied stator frequency. he mmf produced by both stator and
rotor level in the same direction at syncronus speed. he combination of these two
m.m.fs. 1iven rise to resultant air /gap m.m.f or flux-density wave rotating at
synchronous speed. &ince the relative speed between rotor m.m.f. and the
resultant flux density wave is zero, a steady torque is developed by their
interaction.


3

2.2 Target Motor Theory:
he "* induction motor is a rotating electric machine designed to
operate from a 2-phase source of alternating voltage. For variable speed drives,
the source is normally an inverter that uses power switches to produce
approximately sinusoidal voltages and currents of controllable magnitude and
frequency.
" cross-section of a two-pole in induction motor is shown in Fg!re " 2.2
lots in the inner periphery of the stator accommodate 2-phase winding a, b, c. he
turns in each winding are distributed so that a current in a stator winding produces
an approximately sinusoid ally-distributed flux density around the periphery of the
air gap. 0hen three currents that is sinusoid ally varying in time, but displaced in
phase by 1345 from each other, flow through the three symmetrically-placed
windings, a radically-directed air gap flux density is produced that is also sinusoid
ally distributed around the gap and rotates at an angular velocity equal to the
angular frequency, s, of the stator currents. he most common type of induction
motor has a squirrel cage rotor in which aluminum conductors or bars are cast into
slots in the outer periphery of the rotor. hese conductors or bars are shorted
together at both ends of the rotor by cast aluminum end rings, which also can be
shaped to act as fans. In larger induction motors, copper or copper-alloy bars are
used to fabricate the rotor.

Fg!re " 2.2.1 2#$ha%e &C In'!cton Motor

4

2.( In'!cton )otor a% a tran%*or)er:
"n induction motor is similar to a transformer in many respects .in this
connection consider an induction motor with both its star. the rotor winding is
assumed open-circuited so that rotor current is zero and no electromagnetic torque
is developed. "pplication of 2-phase balanced voltages at line frequency to the
stator winding causes the production of a rotating magnetic field. his rotating flux
cuts both the stator and stationary rotor conductors at synchronous speed,
consequently emfs of line frequency f
1
are induced in them. he induction motor at
stand still is similar to a transformer at no load in induction machines ,
synchronously rotating air gap flux $or mutual flux ( is due to the combined action
of both stator and rotor m.m.f s.
he difference between induction motors and transformers is that the
no load current in induction motors varies from about 246 to 746 of full load
current, where as in transformers, no load current, where as in 36to 86 of full load
current .in induction motors, the magnetizing current $lagging nearly 94
o
behind the
applied voltage( forms a considerable portion of no load current that is why
induction motor operate at low power factors at no loads induction motor with both
stator and rotor in star.
" "
:1 :3
;
&tator <otor ;
* *
Fig 3.2.1

5


" 3 / pole machine, the rotating field travels a distance covered by 3-
poles in 1-cycle. For a = pole machine, the rotating will travel a distance covered by
3 poles, i.e. half revolution in one cycle. For a 8-pole machine, the rotating field will
travel a distance covered by 3-poles i.e. 1+2
rd
revolution in one cycle and so on. his
thought process reveals that the rotating field speed , for p-pole machine, is 1+$p+3(
revolution in 1-cycle and therefore f+$p+3( revolutions in f-cycles-in other words f+
$p+3( revolutions in one second, because f / cycles are completed in one second .
)ere f >frequency of the 2-phase currents. If ns denotes the rotating field speed in
rps.

n
s
>f+$p+3(>3f+p
?
s
>134f+prpm
2.+ Three ,ha%e %!,,ly:
It will now be shown that when three phase winding displaced in
space by 134
4
are fed by three phase currents, displaced in time by 134
4
, they
produce a resultant magnetic flux, which rotates space as if actual magnetic poles
were being rotated mechanically.
he principle of a three phase, two poles stator having three identical
winding placed 134 space degrees apart as shown in fig. the flux $assume
sinusoidal( due to three phase windings is shown in fig.
he assumed positive directions of the fluxes are shown in fig. let the
maximum value of flux due to any one of the three phases be @
m
. he resultant
flux @
r
at any instant, is given by the vector sum of the individual fluxes @
1,
@
3,
and
@
2
due to three phases. 0e will consider the values of @r

at four instants of 1+8
th
time period apart corresponding two points mar, 4, 1, 3 and 2 in fig3.=.1.

6

2-phase power supplyA
Fg 2. +.1

$1( 0hen B> 4
4
i.e corresponding in fig.
)ere @
1
> 4, @
3
> -C2 @
m,
@
2
>C2 @
m
the vector for @
3
in fig is
3 3
drawn in direction opposite to the direction assumed positive in fig3.=.1.
@
r
> 3
D
C2 @
m
cos$84+3( > C2
D
C2 @
m
> 2 @
m
3 3 3

7
F2 S
F2


S S2
S22
S3

S1





(#,ha%e *l!-e% co),onent%:



Phase1 Phase2 Phase3


m


0 1 2 3 4
Fg 2.+.2

8

(#,ha%e .oltage ,ha%or 'agra):

134
4


Fg2.+.(
$3(0hen B>84
4
i.e corresponding to point 1 in fig

)ere @
1
>C2 @
m
3
@
3
> -C2@
m

3

@
2
> 4

9

@
r
> 3
D
C2 @
mD
cos24
4
> 2 @
m

3 3
It is found that the resultant flux is again 2+3

@
m
but as rotating cloc,
wise through an angle of 84
4.
$2( 0hen B>134
4


i.e corresponding to point 3 in fig3.=.3.
)ere @
1
>C2 @
m
3
@
3
>4

@
2
>-C2 @
m
3
It can be again proved that @
r
> 2 @
m
3
&o the resultant is again of the same values, but has further rotated
cloc, wise through an angle of 84
4 .
$=( 0hen B>1E4
4
i.e corresponding to point 2 in fig

)ere @
1
>4,
@
3
>C2 @
m
3
@
2
>-C2@
m


3
he resultant 2+3 @
m
and as rotated cloc, wise through an additional angle

84
4
through an angle

1E4
4
from the start.
)ence we conclude that

10

$1( the resultant flux is of constant value 2+3 @
m
i.e 1.7 times the maximum
value of the flux due to any phase
$3( the resultant flux rotates around the stator at synchronous speed given by

?
s
> 134f
#
2./ 0hy 'oe% the rotor rotate1
0hen three phase stator windings, are fed by three phase supply then,
as &een from above a magnetic flux of constant magnitude rotating at syncronus
&peed is set up. In the flux passes through the air gap, sweeps past the rotor
surface and so cuts to the rotor conductors which, as yet are stationary. %ue to the
relative speed between the rotating flux and the stationary conductors, and emf is
induced in the later according to faradays laws of electro magnetic induction, the
frequency of the induced emf is as same as the supply frequency. Its magnitude is
proportional to the relative velocity between flux and the conductors and direction
is given by Flemings right hand rule sine the rotor bars or conductors forms a
closed circuit, the rotor current is produced whose direction, as given by lenzs law
is such as to oppose the very cause producing It. In this case, the cause which
produces the rotor current is the relative velocity the rotating flux of the stator and
the stationary rotor conductors. )ence to reduce the relative speed, the rotor starts
running in the same direction as that of the flux and tries to catch up with the
rotating flux.
he setting up of the torque for rotating is explained belowA he stator
field which is assumed to be rotating cloc,wise. Fotion of he rotor with respect to
the stator is anticloc,wise. ;y applying right hand rule. he direction of the of
induced emf in the rotor is found to be out wards. )ence the direction of flux due to

11

rotor current alone is as shown in fig. now, by applying the left hand rule, or by the
effect of combined field it is clear that the rotor conductors experience a force
tending to rotate them in cloc,wise direction. )ence the rotor is set into rotation in
the same direction as that of the stator flux.
%tator
rotor

Fg 2./.1
2.2 3l,:
In practice, the rotor never succeeds in. catching up. with the stator
field .if it really did so, then there would be relative speed between the two, hence
no rotor emf, no current, and so torque to maintain rotation. hat is why the runs at
a speed which always is less than the speed of the stator fielded. he difference in
speeds depends upon the load on the motor.
he difference between the synchronous speed ?
s
and the actually
speed ? of the rotor is ,nown as slip. hrough it may be expressed in so many
revolutions +second, yet it is usual to express it as a percentage of the
synchronous speed. "ctually the term -slip. is descriptive of the way in which the
Grotor slip bac,. From synchronism.
&ometimes, ?s-? is called the slip speed.
Hbviously, rotor $or motor( speed is ?>?s $1-s(.
It may be ,ept in mind that revolving flux is rotating synchronously, relative o
stator but at slip speed relative to the rotor.

12

2.4 ROT&R FRE5UENCY:
It has been show that the rotor running in the direction of rotating
magnetic field. "t stand still, rotor conduction are being cut by rotating flux wave at
synchrnous speed n
s
, there fore frequency f
3
of the rotor emf and current is equal
to the line frequency f
1
. when rotor revolves at a speed of rps in direction of
rotating flux wave , the relative speed between synchrnous by rotating flux wave,
the relative speed between synchronous by- rotating flux and rotor conduction
becomes $n
s
/ n
r
(rps
here fore frequency of rotor emf > poles+3
> p $n
s
/ n
r
( +3
;ut s > n
s
/ n
r
+ n
s
here fore rotor frequency, f
3
> ps n
s
+3 > sf
1
2.6 Fre7!ency o* rotor c!rrentA
0hen the rotor is stationary, the frequency of rotor current is the same
as the supply frequency but when rotor starts revolving, and then the frequency
depends upon the relative speed or on slip speed. Iet at any slip speed, the
frequency of the rotor current is f.. then
?s-?>134f' also ?s>134f
# #
%ividing one by other, we get,
f'>?s-?>&
f ?s


13

"s seen, rotor currents have a frequency of f.>sf and when flowing
through the individual phases of rotor winding, give raise to rotor magnetic fields.
hese individuals rotor magnetic fields produces a combined rotating magnetic
field, whose speed relative to rotor is

>134f'>134sf>s?s
# #

)owever, the rotor itself is running at speed ? with respect to space.
)ence, &peed of rotor field in space >speed of rotor magnetic field relative to rotor
&peed of rotor relative to space
>s?s J ? > s?s J ?s$1-s( > ?s
It means that no matter what the value of the slip, rotor currents and
stator currents each produce a sinusoid ally distributed magnetic field of constant
magnitude and constant space speed of ?s. In other words, both the rotor and
stator field rotate synchronously, which means that the are stationary with respect
to each other. hese two synchronously rotating magnetic fields, in fact
superimpose on each and give rise to the actually existing rotating field, which
corresponding to the magnetizing current of the stator winding.
2.8Relaton 9et:een tor7!e an' %l,;
" family of torque+slip curves is shown in fig. for range of s>4 to s>1
with <3 as the parameter. 0e ,now that It is clear that when &>4 >4, hence the
curve starts from point 4. "t normal speed, close to synchronism $sx3( is and
hence negligible w.r.t <3 )ence, for low values of slip, the torque+slip, the
torque+slip curve is approximately a straight line. "s slip increase, the torque also
increase and becomes maximum when s><3+K3.this torque is ,nown as -pull-out.
or Gbrea,down' torque b or stalling torque. "s the slip further increase with further

14

increase in motor load, then<3 becomes negligible as compared to $sx3(. here
fore the large values slip.
> , L
s
:
3
<
3
<
3
3
J $sK
3
(
3

It is clearer that when s>4, >4, hence the curve starts from point 4.
"t normal speed the term $sK3( is small and hence negligiblew.r.t<
3
.
M s
<
3
)ence, the torque+slip curve is a rectangular hyperbola. &o, we see
that beyond the point of maximum torque, any further increase in motor load
resultant in decrease of torque development by the motor. he result is that motor
slows down and eventually stops. he circuit brea,ers will be tripped open if the
circuit has been so protected. In fact the stable operation of the motor lies between
the values of s>4 and that corresponding to the maximum torque. he operation
range is shown shaded in fig. It is seen that although maximum torque does not
depend on <3, yet the exact location of max is dependent on it. 1reater the <3,
greater is the value of slip "t which the maximum torque occurs. he typical
induction motor speed-torque characteristic is shown in *g2.8.1. "t increase in
motor load, then <3 became negligible as compared to $sK(. here fore for large
value of slip.
M s M 1
$sK
3
(
3
s

15

Fg!re#2.8.1 &C In'!cton Motor 3,ee'#Tor7!e Character%tc
&quirrel-cage "* induction motors are popular for their simple
construction, low cost per horsepower, and low maintenance $they contain no
brushes, as do %* motors(. hey are available in a wide range of power ratings.
0ith field-oriented vector control methods, "* induction motors can fully replace
standard %* motors, even in high-performance applications.
2.1< Voltage E7!aton% n Machne Vara9le%:
"n induction machine consists of two essential partsA stator and rotor
windings. " typical 2 - ac machine has a symmetrical three phase winding in the
stator and it can be well assumed that its rotor has a symmetrical three phase
windings as shown in Fig3.2.1.

16

For the formulation of machine equations, the following assumptions are
made
1. he stator and rotor windings are of balanced three phase windings
3. he air gap flux distribution is radial and sinusoidal
2. he machine is of cylindrical rotor construction and is not saturated
Iet stator windings has ?
s
equivalent turns and resistance r
s
, and rotor
windings has ?
r
equivalent turns and resistance r
r
.
2.11 E**ect o* change% n %!,,ly *re7!ency on tor7!e an' %,ee':
)ardly any important changes in frequency ta,e place on a large
distribution &ystem except during a maNor disturbance. )owever, large frequency
change ta,es place on isolated low power system in which electric energy is
generated by means of diesel engines are gas turbines. :xamples of such system
are! emergency supply in a hospital and electrical system on a ship etc.
he maNor effect of change in supply frequency is on motor speed if
frequency drops by 146, then motor speed also drops by 146. Fachine tools and
other motor driven-equipment meant for 74 )z cause problem when connected to
84 )z supply. :verything runs $84-74(D144+74>346 faster then normal and this
may not be acceptable in all applications. In fact case, we have to use either gears
to reduce motor speed or expensive 74)z source.
" 74)z motor operate well on a 84)z lion provide its terminal voltage is
raised to 84+74>8+79$i.e. 1346( of the name plate rating. In that case, the new
brea,down torque becomes equal to the original brea,down torque and starting
torque is only slightly reduced. )owever, power factor, efficiency and temperature
rise remain satisfactory.
&imilarly, a 84)z motor can operate satisfactorily well on 74)z supply
#rovided its terminal voltage is reduced to 7+8$I.e. E46( of its name plate rating.

17

2.12 Tor7!e =%,ee' c!r.e:
he torque developed by a conventional 2-phase motor depends on its
speed two cannot be represented by a simple equation. It is easier to show the
relationship in form of a curve. In this diagram, represents the nominal full Ioad
torque of the motor. "s seen, the starting torque is 1.7 and the maximum orque
is 3.7
"t full load, the motor runs at a speed of ?. when mechanical load
increases, motor speed till the motor torque again becomes equal to the load
torque. "s long as the two torques are balanced, the motor will run at constant
speed. )owever, if the load torque exceeds 3.7, the motor will suddenly stop.
2.1( C!rrent=%,ee' c!r.e o* an n'!cton )otor:
It is a v-shaped curve having a maximum value at synchronous speed.
his maximum is equals to the magnetizing current which is need to create flux In
the machine. &ince flux is purposely ,ept constant, it means that magnetizing
*urrent is the same at all synchronous speeds. &hows the current+speed curve of
induction motor discussed in art. "s, seen loc,ed rotor current is144" and the
corresponding torque is O7 ?-m. If stator voltage and frequency are varied in the
same proportion current+speed curve has the same shape, but shift along the
speed axis. &uppose that voltage and frequency reduced to one fourth of their
previous values to 114v to 17)z respectively. hen loc,ed rotor current decreases
to O7 a but corresponding torque increases to 174 n-m which is equal to full
brea,down torque. It means that reducing frequency! we can obtain a larger torque
with a reduced current. his is one of the big advantages of frequency control
method. ;y progressively increasing the voltage and current during the start-up
period, a &*IF can be made to develop close to its brea,down torque all way from
zero to rated speed.

18

"nother advantage of frequency control is that it permits regenerative
bra,ing of the motor. In fact, the main reason for the popularity of frequency-
controlled induction motor drives is their ability to develop high torque from zero to
full speed together with the economy of regenerative bra,ing.

*urrent
174
144
O7
4 =74 944 1274 1E44
&peed
Fg2.1(.1 C!rrent " %,ee' c!r.e%.

19

&tator current
orque
174
17

84
144
I
84
O7
I
17

4 =74 944 1274 1E44 3374
&peed
Fg 2.1(.2 3tator c!rrent=to7!e an' %,ee' c!r.e%
2.1+ Mathe)atcal De%cr,ton o* &C In'!cton Motor%:
here are a number of "* induction motor models. he model used for
vector control design can be obtained by using the space vector theory. he 2-
phase motor quantities $such as voltages, currents, magnetic flux, etc.( are
expressed in terms of complex space vectors. &uch a model is valid for any
instantaneous variation of voltage and current and adequately describes the
performance of the machine under both steady-state and transient operation.
*omplex space vectors can be described using only two orthogonal axes. he

20

motor can be considered a 3-phase machine. he utilization of the 3-phase motor
model reduces the number of equations and simplifies the control design.
2.1/ O9>ect.e%:
he obNective of this proNect is to become familiar with most aspects of
a vector controlled induction motor in a simulation environment. "fter completing
the proNect, you should be able toA
Identify the equivalent parameters of an induction machine.
"dapt the machine model to different reference systems $ransformation
between two and three phase systems! transformation between stator
reference frame and synchronous reference frame(.
Implement current and speed regulation loops and calculate #I-controllers.
Implement position estimation $sensor less control( and analyze its
limitations.
Implement a #0F inverter.
Implement the &PF technique.
&imulate the bloc,s.


21

VECTOR CONTRO?:
(.1 Re*erence Fra)e Theory:
<eference frame theory is useful for machine modeling. *hange of
variable is used in the analysis of ac machines to eliminate time varying
inductances. &ome ,nown transformation definitions are given below.
In par,s' transformation the variables li,e voltages, currents and flux
lin,ages associated with stator windings of a machine are transformed to variables
associated with the fictitious windings rotating with the rotor, in other words the
stator variables to a frame of reference fixed in the rotor.
).*. &tanley employed a change of variables in the analysis of
induction machines. )e showed that the time varying inductances in the voltage
equations of an induction machine due to electric circuit in relative motion could be
eliminated by transforming the variables associated with the rotor windings to
variables associated with the fictitious stationary windings. In this case the rotor
variables are transformed to a frame of reference fixed in the stator.
1.Qron introduced a change of variables, which eliminated the time
varying inductance of a symmetrical induction machine by transforming both the
stator variables and rotor variables to a reference frame rotating in synchronism
with the rotating magnetic field. his reference frame is commonly referred as the
synchronously rotating reference frame.
he analysis of an induction machine is thus possible with one general
transformation, which eliminates all time varying inductances by referring the stator
and rotor variables to a frame of reference, which may rotate at any angular
velocity or remain stationary. "ll ,nown real transformations may then be obtained

22

by simple assigning the appropriate speed of rotation to this so-called arbitrary
reference frame. his is explained below.
(.23,ace Vector De*nton:
"ssume that isa, isb, and isc are the instantaneous balanced 2-phase
stator currentsA
i
sa
Ji
sb
Ji
sc
> 4 2.31
he stator current space vector can then be defined as followsA
i
s
> ,$ i
sa
Jai
sb
Ja
3
i
sc
( 2.3.3
0hereA
a and a
2
> he spatial operators, a = e
j2/3
, a
3
> e
j4/3

k > the transformation constant and is chosen k=2/3
Y
Phase B


Is
I
sb
i
sy
I
sa

I
sx
X, phase A
Isc
Phase C
Fg (.2.1 (#,ha%e to 2#,ha%e con.er%on.
(.( 3tator C!rrent 3,ace Vector an' It% $ro>ecton:

23

he space vector defined by E5. 2 can be expressed utilizing the two-
axis theory. he real part of the space vector is equal to the instantaneous value of
the direct-axis stator current component, i
sx
, and whose imaginary part is equal to
the quadrature-axis stator current component, i
sy
. hus, the stator current space
vector in the stationary reference frame attached to the stator can be expressed
asA
I% @
%-
A>
%y
2.2.1

In symmetrical 2-phase machines, the direct and quadrature axis stator
currents i
sx,
i
sy
fictitious quadrature-phase $3-phase( current components, which
are related to the actual 2-phase stator currents as followsR
i
sx
> , $ i
sa
-1 i
sb
-1 i
sc
( 2.2.3
3 3

i
sy
> , 2 $i
sb
- i
sc
( 2.2.2

3


0hereA
k=2/3 is a transformation constant
he space vectors of other motor quantities $voltages, currents, magnetic fluxes,
etc.( can be defined in the same way as the stator current space vector.
(.+ &C In'!cton Motor Mo'el:

24

he "* induction motor model is given by the space vector form of the
voltage equations. he system model defined in the stationary K, S-coordinate
system attached to the stator is expressed by the following equations. Ideally, the
motor model is symmetrical, with a linear magnetic circuit characteristic.
a. he stator voltage differential equationsA

P
sx
> <
s
i
sx
J d T
sx
2.=.1
dt
P
sS
> <
s
i
sS
J d T
sS
2.=.3
dt
b. he rotor voltage differential equationsA

P
rx
> 4> <
r
i
rx
J d T
rx
J U T
ry
2.=.2


dt
P
ry
> 4> <
r
i
ry
J d T
ry
- U T
rx
2.=.=
dt
c. he stator and rotor flux lin,ages expressed in terms of the stator and rotor current space
vectorsA

V
sx
> I
s
i
sx J
I
m
i
rx
2.=.7

V
sy
> I
s
i
sy J
I
m
i
ry
2.=.8

V
rx
> I
r
i
rx J
I
m
i
sx
2.=.O

V
ry
> I
r
i
ry J
I
m
i
sy
3.4.8


25

d. :lectromagnetic torque expressed by utilizing space vector quantitiesA

t
e
= 3P
p
(T
sx
i
sy
- T
sS
i
sx
) .3.4.9
2

0hereA
K, y > &tator orthogonal coordinate system
P
s
> &tator voltages WPX,y,x
I
sx
,
y
= &tator currents W"X
P
rx
,
y
> <otor voltages WPX
i
rx
, y> <otor currents W"X
Vsx, y > &tator magnetic fluxes WPsX,
Vrx, y > <otor magnetic fluxes WPsX,
<s > &tator phase resistance WHhmX
<r > <otor phase resistance WHhmX
Is > &tator phase inductance W)X
Ir > <otor phase inductance W)X
Im > Futual $stator to rotor( inductance W)X
U+U
s
> :lectrical rotor speed + synchronous speed
Pp > ?umber of pole pairs W-X
te > electromagnetic torque W?mX
;esides the stationary reference frame attached to the stator, motor
model voltage space vector equations can be formulated in a general reference
frame, which rotates at a general speed, U
g
. If a general reference frame with
direct and quadrature axes x,y rotating at a general instantaneous speed U
g
>dB
g
+dt is used, as shown in Fg(.+.1. 0here Bg is the angle between the direct axis of
the stationary reference frame $x( YZY attached to the stator and the real axis $x( of the

26

general reference frame, then the following equation defines the stator current
space vector in general reference frame.

i
sg
> i
s
e
/ Ng
> i
sx
JNi
sy
2.=.14

S
S

U
g
i
s
,i
sg x


i
sS
B
g
K
i
sK
Fg!re(.+.1 &,,lcaton o* the General Re*erence Fra)e
he stator voltage and flux-lin,age space vectors can be similarly
obtained in the general reference frame. &imilar considerations hold for the space
vectors of the rotor voltages, currents and flux lin,ages. he real axis $r x( of the
reference frame attached to the rotor is displaced from the direct axis of the stator
reference frame by the rotor angle, r. "s shown, the angle between the real axis
$x( of the general reference is frame and the real axis of the reference frame

27

rotating with the rotor $r x( g -r. In the general reference frame, the space vector
of the rotor currents can be expressed asA
i
rg
> i
r
e
/N$g-r(
> i
rx
JNi
ry
2.=.11
0hereA
i
r
> he space vector of the rotor current in the rotor reference frame
he space vectors of the rotor voltages and rotor flux lin,ages in the
general reference frame can be expressed similarly.
he motor model voltage equations in the general reference frame can
be expressed by using the transformations of the motor quantities from one
reference frame to the general reference frame introduced. he "* induction motor
model is often used in vector control algorithms. he aim of vector control is to
implement control schemes which produce high-dynamic performance and are
similar to those used to control %* machines. o achieve this, the reference
frames may be aligned with the stator flux-lin,age space vector, the rotor flux-
lin,age space vector or the magnetizing space vector. he most popular reference
frame is the reference frame attached to the rotor flux lin,age space vector with
direct axis $d( and quadrature axis $q(. "fter transformation into d-q coordinates the
motor model followsA
P
sd
>

<
s
i
sd
J d T
sd
/ U
s
T
sq
2.=.13
dt
P
sq
>

<
s
i
sq
Jd T
sq
/ U
s
T
sd
2.=.12
dt

P
rd
>

4 = <
r
i
rd
J d T
rd
/ $U
s
/ U( T
rq
2.=.1=
dt


28

P
sq
>

4 = <
r
i
rq
J d T
rq
/ $U
s
/ U(T
rd
2.=.17
dt
T
sd
= I
s
i
sd
J I
m
i
rd
2.=.18


Vsq = I
s
i
sq
J I
m
i
rq
2.=.1O

Vrd = I
r
i
rd
J I
m
i
sd
2.=.1E




Vsq = I
r
i
rq
J I
m
i
sq
2.=.19


t
e
= 3 P
p
$T
d
i
sq
- T
sq
i
sd
( . 2.=.34
3


(./ Dgtal Control o* an &C In'!cton Motor:
In adNustable-speed applications, "* motors are powered by inverters. he
inverter converts %* power to "* power at the required frequency and amplitude.
Fg(./.1 illustrates a typical 2-phase inverter.

29

Fg!re #(./.1. (#$ha%e In.erter
he inverter consists of three half-bridge units where the upper and lower switch
are controlled complimentarily, meaning when the upper one is turned on, the lower
one must be turned off, and vice versa. "s the power device's turn-off time is longer
than its turn-on time, some dead time must be inserted between the time one
transistor of the half-bridge is turned off and its complementary device is turned on.

30

he output voltage is mostly created by a #ulse 0idth Fodulation $#0F( technique,
where an isosceles triangle carrier wave is compared with a fundamental-frequency
sine modulating wave. he natural points of intersection determine the switching
points of the power devices of a half-bridge inverter. his technique is shown in
*g(./.1 he 2 -phase voltage waves are shifted 134
4
to one another and thus a 2-
phase motor can be supplied.
(.2 INTERN&? CONTRO? OF INVERTER:
Hutput voltage from an inverter can also be adNusted by exercising a control
with in the inverter itself. he most efficient method of doing this is by pulse width
modulation control used with in an inverter.
(.4 $U?3E 0IDTH MODU?&TION COTRO?:
In this method, a fixed dc input voltage is given to inverter and a controlled ac
output Poltage is obtained by adNusting the on and off periods of the inverter
components. his is most popular method of controlling the output voltage and this
method is termed as pulse width modulation $#0F( control.
(.6 The a'.antage% ,o%%e%%e' 9y $0M techn7!e are a% !n'erA
he output voltage control with method can be obtained with out any
additional components.
0ith this method, lower order harmonic can be eliminated or minimized
along with its output voltage control. "s higher order harmonics can be
filtered easily, the filtering requirements are minimized.
he main disadvantages of this method are that the &*<s are expensive as they
must possess low turn-on and turn-off times.
#0F inverters are quite popular in industrial applications.

31

(.8 $U?3E 0IDTH MODU?&TED INVERTER3:
#0F inverters are gradually ta,ing over other types of inverters in
industrial applications. #0F techniques are characterized by constant amplitude
pulses. he width of these pulses is, however modulated to obtained inverter
output voltage *ontrol and to reduce its harmonic content.
%ifferent #0F techniques are as underA
$a(&ingle-pulse Fodulation
$b(Fultiple-pulse Fodulation
$c(&inusoidal-pulse Fodulation
In #0F inverters, forced commutation is essential .he three #0F
techniques Iisted above differ from each other in harmonic content in their
respective output voltages. hus, choice of a particular pwm technique depends
upon the permissible harmonic content in the inverter output voltage In industrial
application, #0F inverter is supplied from a diode bridge rectifier and "n I*
filter .?ow the devices are switched on and off several times with each half
*ycle to control the output voltage which has low harmonic content.
(.1< 3ING?E#$U?3E MODU?&TION:
he output voltage from single-phase full-bridge is when modulated the out
put voltage is of the form, it consisted of a pulse of width 3d located symmetrically
about [+3 and another pulse located symmetrically about 2[+3 . he range of
pulse width 3d varies from 4 to [ A i. e., 4\3d\ [. he output voltage controlled by
varying the pulse ]width 3d.

32

(.11 MU?TI$U?E#$U?3E MODU?&TION:
his method of pulse modulation is an extinction of single-pulse modulation.
In multiple /pulse $F#F(, several equidistant pulses per half cycle are wised. For
simplicity, the effect of using two symmetrically spaced pulses per half cycle, pulse
width is ta,en half of that, but their amplitudes are the same.
(.12 3IN3OID&?#$U?3E MODU?&TION:
In this method of modulation, several pulses per half cycle are used as in
the case of multiple /pulse modulation $F#F(. he pulse width is equal for all the
pulses, but is sin F! the pulse width is a sinusoidal function of the angular position
of the pulse in a cycle.
For realizing sin m, high-frequency triangular carrier wave v
c
is compared
with a sinusoidal reference wave v
r
waves determines the switching instants and
commutation of the modulated pulse . v
c
is the pea, value of triangular carrier
wave and v
r
that of the reference, or modulating, signal. he carrier and reference
waves are mixed in a comparator. 0hen sinusoidal wave has magnitude higher
than the triangular wave, the comparator output high, otherwise it is low. he
comparator output is processed in a trigger pulse generator in such a manner that
the output voltage wave of the inverter has a pulse width tn agreement width in
agreement with the comparator output pulse.

33

Fg!re (.12.1. $!l%e 0'th Mo'!laton
he most popular power devices for motor control applications are #ower
Fosfet and I1;s.
" #ower FH&F: is a voltage-controlled transistor. It is designed for high-
frequency operation and has a low-voltage drop, so it has low power losses.
)owever, saturation temperature sensitivity limits the FH&F:'s use in high-power
applications.
"n Insulated-1ate ;ipolar ransistor $I1;( is controlled by a FH&F:
on its base. he I1; requires low drive current, has fast switching time, and is
suitable for high switching frequencies. he disadvantage is the higher voltage
drop of the bipolar transistor, causing higher conduction losses.

34

DE3IGN CONCE$T OF &CIM VECTOR CONTRO?:
+.1 3y%te) o!tlne:
he system is designed to drive a 2-phase ac induction motor $"*IF(. he
application has the following specificationsA
Pector control technique used for "*IF control
&peed control loop of the "*IF
<uns on 2-phase ac induction motor control development platform at a
variable line voltage of =44+=34v
he control technique incorporatesA
speed control loop with an in q axis stator current loop
rotor flux control loop with an inner d axis stator current loop
field wea,ening technique
stator phase current measurement method
ac induction flux model calculation in an x, y /stationary reference
frame
%-q establishment allows transformation from the stationary reference
frame to the rotating reference frame
space vector modulation$&PF(
motor mode
maximum speed of 1744 rpm at input power line =34v ac

35

+.2 &c n'!cton )otor %,ec*caton%:
#>144 )p
P
line
>=34P
Frequency>74 )z
#oles =
?s>1744rpm
Im>4.4188=) Ir>4.41O)
<s> 4.4297Oohm <r>4.43317 ohm
+.( Vector Control o* &C In'!cton Machne%:
Pector control is the most popular control technique of "* induction motors.
In special reference frames, the expression for the electromagnetic torque of the
smooth-air-gap machine is similar to the expression for the torque of the separately
excited %* machine. In the case of induction machines, the control is usually
performed in the reference frame $d-q( attached to the rotor flux space vector.
hat's why the implementation of vector control requires information on the
modulus and the space angle $position( of the rotor flux space vector. he stator
currents of the induction machine are separated into flux- and torque-producing
components by utilizing transformation to the d-q coordinate system, whose direct
axis $d( is aligned with the rotor flux space vector. hat means that the q-axis
component of the rotor flux space vector is always zeroA

V
rq
> 4 and d T
rq
>4 =.2.1
dt

36

he rotor flux space vector calculation and transformation to the d-q coordinate
system require the high computational power of a microcontroller! a digital signal
processor is suitable for this tas,. he following sections describe the space vector
transformations and the rotor flux space vector calculation.

37