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. .


2009

28.704
19
(

,
08-04-07030

. .
19

. -. .:
, 2009. 936 c.
ISBN 978-5-9551-0342-6

6000 , , , ,
, , , , ,
, - , ,
. , .
: , , , ,
, , , , -.
28.704

,
.

ISBN 978-5-9551-0342-6

. . , 2009
, 2009

. ,
(),
. , ,
, . , -
, .: - (pulsed field gradient gel electrophoresis).
,
(), , .: (ambivalent gene) . . , , , ; .
()
.
. , , .: [. agar]. ,
, .: [. tetra , kykios ,
. -in(e) , ]. ,
,
..
. [. anti genes , ; . histos ].

, ,
.: [. sapo (saponis) ]. , ()
, , .: [. hydr(ogenium) , oxi(genium) lysis ,
, ].
, ,
.
, , , . , , , . .

( ).


; , ,
,
. ..
.
: .
(), .( ), . (
).
.

, , .
,
: .., .., ..
.
.., . .., .., .., .. ..,
2005. , .

.
.
.
.
.
. .

.
. .
.
.

.
.
.
.
..
..
.

.

.
.



.
.

.


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()






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()


()
()
()


()


()

()
()






.

.
()


.
()
.
()
. .

.

.
()



.
()
.



.

.

.-.

. -

.

.



. .

. .

.
()
.

.
,



.
()



() (): 1) (. , )
; 2)
; 3) (., ).
- (A-protein) ,
(Staphylococcus aureus),
Fc-
(. ); -
(c. )
(.).
- (A form DNA, -DNA)
[. forma ]


, 75%- , ,
11, 0,34 , 26
. -.
.

-.
(ab initio) [.]
. . ab initio.
(ab ovo) [.] . ,
( :
).
(abbreviation) [. abbreviatio , ] ()
-


, . . 1930. ., .. .
(aberration) [. aberratio ] 1)
, , (. );
2)
() ;

, (.); 3) ,
, , ( . . ,
); 4) . , .
,
(abzymes, antibody enzymes, catalytic antibodies) [. a(nti)b(ody)
. zyme ,
]
(. ), .
. ( , , , ), .
(., ., ). . -


, ; .-,
(-.) (-.). .
, -
, . .
. . . . 1986.
(abietic acid)
[. abies ] (C19H29COOH),
, , ; . , , ( , ); ( ) , ; ..
.
(abiogenesis) [. . , bios (biotikos)
gnesis ]
; .
. .
...
(abiotic environment) [. .
bios (biotikos) ] () (.
); .. . .. , , , -

12

, , ,
. . .
(abiotrophic
mutation) [. . , bios trophe ; . mutatio ] ,
(.).
(abiotrophy) [.
. , bios
trophe ] (.. ) , . . . 1902. .
, (abiocoen) [.
. , bios
koins ] c () (. ),
, , ..
..
(aboriginal, indigenous)
[. aborigines, ab origine ] ,
.
., . , ,
. .: . .
.
(abortive infection) [. abortivus , ; . inficere
, ] ,


; ..
-

13

(. ). .. . ..

.
(abortive pollen)
[. abortivus , ] () ,
; (. , ) - (,
.). . .
(abortive
transduction) [. abortivus , ; .
transductio ]
(. (1)), ,
, ,
. .. . . 1953.
(abortive
transcription) [. abortivus , ; .
transcriptio ]


(. ),
(). ..
. . 1981.
, (abortive
transfection, transient transfection)
[. abortivus , -

; . trans ,
, inficere , ] () ,

, .
.. , in vitro. . (2).
(abortive
splicing) [. abortivus , ; . splice
, ]
(c. ), (. )
(. ) .
.. . .. -, , .

(absolute plating efficiency) [. absolutus , ; . productivus , ] , . . .
(absorbent) [. absorbents ]
, ,
. .

, , ,

; , , ,
: , , , .. .

(.,
, , ).
(absorber) [. absorbents
]
,
(. ). .
. .
:
, , , (), .
(absorbing ability, absorptive power,
absorptivity) [. absorptio ] , (.).
(absorption) [. absorptio ] 1)
(.);
; 2) , ,
.
(avianized vaccine) [. avian ,
. avis ; vaccinus ] (. ), , , .
(avidin) [. avid(us) -in(e) , ]
(. , ),

(. );
. . . .,
(. ), , -

14

, ., ,
.
., .
(avidity) [. avidus ] ,

(.) (.). . /
(, ), . .
(. , )
. . .
(avirulent) [.
. . virulentus
] , .. . ., . ; . Ti- (. Ti-);
.
, (. ) . .
.
(autarchic genes)
[. autarkhos ;
. genos , ]

(.), ,
. . .

15

(autogamy) [. auts
gamos ] 1) ( , , .
, .;
, .); 2) ( , , ), ;
,
. . ;
.

(autoduplication)
[. auts . duplicatio
] . , , .
(autocatalysis) [.
auts katalysis ,
]

. .
( );
. , - ,
( ),
,
, . . , - . ., .

- .
(autoclave) [. autos
. lavis ]
; , -

, ,
(., )
..
(autolysis) [. autos
lysis ] ,
,
(. ). .
(., , .), ,
. .
.
(autolysat) [. autos
lysis ]
(. ). ., .
. 50C
12 ;
. .
,
,
(.,
). .
,
; . , .
, (autologous) [. auts logos
, , ]
,

, .,
, ,
.

(automated DNA synthesizer) [.
automatos ; .
synthesis ]
.
.. ,
, , .
.. 1981.
(autonomous) [. autonomos , ]
- , -
-; .,
(. , ).

(auto
,
nomously replicating sequence, ARS)
[. autonomos , ; . replicatio ] (100200
..), ; ...
(
400), ... (. (1)).
(autonomous
state) [. autonomos , ]
-
(.).
, , (autopolyploid, eupolyploid) [. autos , polyploos
eidos ] -

16

,

. ., ,
. .
; .,
,

(., ). . .
,
(autoradiography, radioautography)
[. autos , . radiare , grapho ,
]
(. ). .
, : , . .
. 1904.

(autosexing)
[.
autos . sexus ] , ( ) , .
, ..

(autotetraploid)
[. autos , tetra ,
ploos eidos ] (. , , ), .
, (autotrophic bacteria)
[. autos trophe ,
; . bacterion ]
,
(. . ,
, , ) -

17

,
(. () )
(. ).
.. ( ) 2
(. ). . ,
.
, (autotrophs)
[. autos trophe , ] ,
(. .
, , , )

, ( , , )
(. );

,
. . (.).
(autocytolysis) [.
autos , kytos ,
lysis , ] , . . .
(autochtons) [. autochthon , ]
(, . .), , .
. .
.
(autochthonic) [.
autochthon
,
] . .
.
(agameon) [. .
gamete , gametes

] , (.).
, - (agar, agar-agar) [. agar-agar ]
Gelidium Gracilaria, (70%)
(30%). .
()
44.
, , . . (. ).
(agarose) [. agar
. -ose , ]
(., ),
(. , -), -D 3,6---L. . 95,
44.
. . ..
(agarose gel) [.
agar . -ose ,
; . gelare ] ,
(.),

.
.. (.
), , ,
,
-; ..

Zn/, ,
R250 . .
(low
melting agarose gel) . .
, (agglutination reaction) [. agglutinatio
; re- ,
actio ] (. ) (c. ),


(.). ..

, (.) . . . ..: , , , -. ..
. . 1890. . 1901. ,

() ( 1930.).
(agglutination) [.
agglutinatio ]
(. )
,
,
(c. ). (., ),
, , . () . . , .

18

(agglutinins)
[.
agglutinatio -in(e)
,

] ( G M, ) , , , (, .)
(. ). .
,
:
,
.. . (.,
. ,

AB0), ( 18 ) .
. , .
(agglutinogen) [.
agglutinatio genes
, ] (c. ),
(. ).
(agenesia) ., .
(antimitotic agent) .
.
, (aglycon, genin) [.
. glykys ] (.).
(agglomeration) [.
agglomerare , ] () ()
(., .). ,
, . () .

19

(agnation) [. agnatus ]
.
(agonist) [. agonistions
, ;
] ( ),

(, , , ..). . .
(aggrgation
chimera) [. aggregare ; . Chimaira
, , ]
(. ), . ..
. 1961. . .
(aggregation) [. aggregare ] , , (. ). . ,
. .

(. ).
(aggressins) [. agressio
-in(e) , ] ,

.
. ,
. -

,
,
. A.
. 1905.
,

(agrobacterial transformation, agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer)
[. agros bacterion ; . transformatio ]
() Agrobacterium tumefaciens A. rhizogenes Ti-
Ri- (. Ti; Ri-). ,

- (. -) Ti-.
E. coli, , Ti-
(vir-). Ti-
.
,
vir Ti(Ri)-
, (., ). T-, ,
. ..

(. ).
(agrobiocenosis) [.
agros , bios koinos
]

; . .
() () .
. ; .
(agroinfection) [.
agros . infecti ] ,

. - Ti Agrobacterium tumefaciens,

,
. (. , )
,
,
. . ,
.

(agrophytocenosis)
[. agros , phyton koinos ] ,
. .
, ,
. .: , (
); ,
(
, );
, -

20

(, ,
); , ,
( , , ). . (.).
(agrochemical) [.
agros chemeiamo ]
(., , .),
.-. .
(ad lib) [.] , ( ).
(ad hoc) [.] ,
()
.
(adaptation) [. adaptatio ]
, (), ; (
..), ,
( )
. . ;
; .
(viral adaptation) . .
(pseudoexogenous adaptation) . .
(enzymatic
adaptation) .
.
e (adapter, adaptor) [.
adapto , ] 1)

21

(c. );
.
-
, . ; 2),
, , ; .,
,
(.
).
(adoptive
immunization) [. adapto ; . immunitas -] , . C. ; .
(adaptive norm)
[. adaptatio ; .
norma , ] , , .
.. .. 1948.
(adaptive selection) [. adaptatio ; . selectio , ]
.-. , (. ), . . ,
.
(.
() ) .. -


- . . .

(adaptive
value) [. adaptatio ] ()
() . ..
.
(adaptability) [. adaptatio ]
()
. .
.
(adaptive
immunity) [. adaptatio ; . immunis , -] (. ),
( ..)
( ..). .. . .
-,
(.). .:
, .
(adaptive peak) [.
adaptatio ; .
pic ] 1)
( )
; 2) ..
,
,

. .. . . .

(adaptive enzyme) . .
(adaptogens) [. adaptatio . genes
, ] , (.)
.
. , ,
, , , , , , .
(adventive
embryony) [. adventus , , ; . ; . embryon ] ( )
;
( 20) (). .. (.), .
(adventive buds)
[. adventus , ,
; . ] ,
, .
(adventive
plants) [. adventus ,
, ; . ]
,
,
.
(adventitious) [.
adventicius , ]
1), ;
(.,
); 2)
(.).

(adventitia)
[.
adventicius , ]

. . ,

22

(vasa vasorum); .
,
. . . . .: .
(adhesins) [. adhaesio
-in(e) , ] ,
(.). ()
(.) (.), (, YadA, Inv,
Ail, pH6 ) ( ). , .: , , , , . .,
- ,
,
,
(. ).
. ;
.
(adhesion) [. adhaesio
] ()
(., );
. .
,
.
.: )

(. )
) -

23

(. ). .
(. ). . .
(cell adhesion)
. .
(microorganisms adhesion) [. adhaesio
; . mikros
. organismus ,
]
(. ). .. . , ,
(. ). ..,
,
..
.. -
, , . I- .

.

: ,
. .. , . , ..,
, .

(addiction) [. addiction -, , . addictio ]


() , ,
, .
. , , , .,
().
(additive
recombination) [. additivus , .
; . re- , , combinatio ]
()


(.,
, .,
).
(additive
gene action) [. additivus , .
; . genos , , ] 1) , ;
; 2) ,
.
(additive genes)
[. additivus , .
; . genos , ] ,

,
. . .

(additive effect)
[. additivus , .
; .
effectus ] 1)
(. );
2) (.),

.
(adduct) [. adductus , ] ,
. ., ,
, , .
, - (adenylate cyclase) [. aden
kyklos ]
(. ), (. , )
(427)

(. , ). . ,
. .

, .
.: .
, (adenine, A) [. aden
. -in(e) , ]
, 6-.
.
(
), , , (,
) . . -

24

(. )
. .

. 1891. ( 1910.).

,
(adeno-associated viruses, V)
[. aden . associatio ; . virus ]
(. ) ( Dependovirus), (
), in vitro
. , , , .
5 . ..; 12 , 20 60 .
.. .
. ..
(. ).
(adenoviruses) [.
aden . virus ]
-
, . . . . ,
, , ,
.
, , .
(adenosine) [. aden .-in(e) , -

25

] , (.) - D- (.). . ( 1
3)
(), ()
() (., ).
, (adenosine
triphosphate, ATP) [. aden , . -in(e) , , . tri ,
phos phoros ]
, (. ), , ; ,
.
, . ()
(). .
(. ) (. ). .
,
.
, (
): + = 2 .
. 1929. . ,
. 1948. .: .
,

(adenosine triphosphatases, ATPases)


[. aden , .-in(e) -

, ,
. tri , phos phoros
] (. ,
),
(. , )
. . ()
,
() . . , , , . ,

( )
. ,
, ,
,
.
.,
, +-.
,
, 2+-. , Na+, +-. . . (., )
.
(., -

), .
(adipic acid)
[. adeps (adipis) -in(e)
,

]
,
[HOOC(CH2)4COOH];
. .. -..
. . , , , .
, ( , ).
(adipose) [. adiposus
]
.
(adipokinetic hormones) [. adeps (adipis) . kinetikos ; . hormao , ] ; (., Schistocerca gregaria .. AKH-I
AKH-II
10 8 ), , , , ,
..
(adrenaline) [. ad ,
, renalis -in(e) , ]
(. ), , ,

26

. . . .
. ,
. .
( 1- 2-), (
1-),
(
2-). ;
. .
.
1895.;
, .
A. . 1900. .:
.
(adrenergic) [.
ad , , renalis
ergon ] (.), ; , .

,
(adrenocorticotropic hormone, ACTH) [. ad , renalis , . cortex (corticis)
. tropos , ] ,
(. ) (39
),

. .
( ),
(. ),

, . . (. )

27

: , , .
1932. . . .: .
(adsorbent) [. ad ,
sorbeo ]
,
(). . , (,
1 ). . ( ,
, , , )
1 2/ 500 2/. . (, , -
, ) 10002/.
(adsorber) [. ad ,
sorbeo ] , (.).
(adsorbed
vaccine) [. ad , sorbeo
; . vaccinus ]
(.), , (
.. , ).
(adsorption fermentation, extractive
fermentation) [. ad , sorbeo ; . fermentum ] ,

( , ); ,

,
.
(adsorption) [. ad ,
sorbeo ] 1) ();
( .); 2)
; 3) ( .) (. ).
. .
(viral adsorption) . .
(Freund adjuvant) [. adjuvans (adjuvantis) , ;
.] (.), ,
. .. , . .
(

).
. 1956.
(adjuvant
therapy) [. adjuvans (adjuvantis)
, ; .
therapeia , , ]
,
/ .
(adjuvants) [. adjuvans
(adjuvantis) , ] ,

(. ) (c. ); , . . (, ,
.), ( , , (. ), , , ,
, , , .),
( , , , , , ,
.), (, .).
., , ,
,
. . . . (. ). , . (
Salmonella typhimurium ), .
. 1916. .
. 1925.
(antitoxin unit) . , .

(azeotropic mixtures, azeotropes)


[. ,
zeo tropos , ] , .

, , .. . ..
(., 95,57%

28

). .. 1810. ..
(azidothymidine) [.
az(oos) , eidos
, . thymus
-in(e) ,
] (3'--2',3'-),

. . , ()
. ,
,
. 1964. .
. .: .
(azides) [. az(oos) eidos ]
, HN3. .
Me(N3)n, n
. .
()
() ,
(). .

. , .
(azines) [. . , zoos . -in(e)
,

] (., , , .). .
; . , . ,

29

, . ( ),
. . .
(nitrogenous
bases, bases) [. azoos ] ,
,
.
: .. ..
, (
).
5. ..
.
.., ()
.
(nitrogen fertilizers) [. azoos ]
,
. ..:
( NH3,
), ( ), ( ), -
(
), (, ), --
(
). .. .

(Azotobacter)
[.
azo(os) bacter(ion) ]
(., ) ( ) (Azotobacter);
(.),
, (-

), .
. (.) .
1901. .,
. chroococcum
A. agile.
(azotobacterin) [.
azo(os) , bacterion
. -in(e) , ] , (., ) Azotobacter chroococcum, 20 1
.
( ,
, , ,
.). . ,
Azotobacter

. .: .
(nitrogen bounding,
nitriding) [. azo(os) . fixus , ]
(),
;
, . . , , . ( .), , , ., ( .).
-

(Rhizobium) .
14000
(
Leguminosae), ,
., , , .

, . , ; ,
, .
. , N2 N3
(. , )
, . .
1 70. ,
.
.
225
. , , . . (. () )
., , . . .
(acaricides) [. akari
. caedore ] ,
. .
,
, , .
. . , -
. XX . -

30

.
.
.
(),
., (, , ,
.)
(, ). . ().
(aquaculture) [.
aqua cultus ,
]
, , (, ,
, ).
. ., .
.
, , () . ,
, .
(aquametry) [. aqua
. metreo ]
. . : , ,
, , .. (. ).
(aquaporins) [. aqua
, . poros ,
. -in(e) ,
] , ,
. 11 -

31

, ,
. .
, -
.
,
,
. .
(C)
(N) . . 1988. . (
2003.). . 1993.
(akinetes) [. akinetos
]
(.)
, .
( ) ;

(.).

(acclimatization,
acclimation) [. ad , .
klma ]
(, , )

, (. ). . ( , ..) ( ).
. .
. .
(.).
(aconitase, Aco) [.
akoniton ,
] (.

), , , -
;
. .

(., ),
; . . .
. . 1937.
(acridine
dyes) [. acer (acris) ,
-in(e) , ] ,

9-,
(
). .. ,
(., ); , . .. , , ..
(acrylamide) [. acri
, , . am-(monia)
, . . sal ammoniacus ,
. eidos ] 2-
(CH2CHCONH), , -N (. ). . ; , . . , , . . -

,
, ,
, ..;
.
. 1945.
(acropetal
transport) [. akron
. peto ; . transportare , ] ()
.
(axenic) [. . xenos ]
1)
(., .,
; ); 2), .
(axenic culture of microorganism) [.
xenos ; . cultus
, ; .
mikros . organismus , ]
. .
(ACTH) . , .
(activator) [. activus
] 1), ; 2), (., ) ; , - , , , ; 3) , -

32

; 4), (., . ).
(plasminogen activator) [. activus ; . plasma , , . -in(e) , ,
. genes , ]
(. ,
), (. )
(.); . .. .. .
..: , , ..
( ).
(active release) [.
activus ] (. ) , -,
,

,
.
., , ..,
.
(active ooze) [.
activus ]
,
(. ).
.. ,
, (, , .). ..

33


.
, , ..

.
(active site) [.
activus ; . site
, ]
, , ., ..
,
.. ..; .. . . .
(active transport) [. activus ; .
transporto , ,
]

, () . ..
( ,
).
(active pharmaceutical
ingredient) [. activus ; . pharmakeutike ; . ingrediens (ingredientis) ]
, .
(enzyme
active center) [. activus ; . centrum ; .
fermentum ] , . ,


. ...
() ,
. ...
.
...

(actinomycetes)
[. aktis (aktinos) myces
] , ,
, , .
. ( ) . .
() . A. : Actinomycetales
(, ), Actinoplanales ( ),
bacteriales ()
Coccales (). . (. ),
.
( Streptomyces),
. (., Mycobacterium tuberculosis). . ( ): .
D
(actinomycinD)
[. aktis (aktinos) myces
] (. ), Streptomyces parvallum,

;
. .
. 1940.
(actinomycins) [.
aktis (aktinos) myces ]

(.
), ;
Streptomyces.
. ;
, ,
, .
. . 1940.
Streptomyces
antibioticus. . D.
(actinophages) [. aktis
(aktinos) phagos ] , (. );
(. ).
., .
. ,
.

(actomyosin)
[.
aktis (aktinos) mys (myos)
]
,
. . .- 1942.
(acceptor) [. acceptor
] 1), , ,
-; ., , ; 2), ; .,

. .

34

, ; .
(acceptor capacity) [. acceptor ]
,

, ;
.. , .
,
(acceptor site, right
splicing site, 3'-splicing site) [.
acceptor ; . site , ; . splice
, ] 3'-
,
-
; ..
. . ,
.
(acustic
gene transfer) [. akustikos ; . genos , ]
(). ...
, .

, .
, (alanine, Ala) [.
al(dehyde) -in(e)
,

]
[CH3CH(NH2)COOH], (. ; ). . (
40%) (.,
-

35

, .,
). L- D- . .

. . (
). . Corynebacterium, Brevibacterium, Micobacterium
Pseudomonas, .
.
. . .
1875.

(alarmones)
[.
alarme ] ,

- ,
, . A. . .,
1975.
(algorithm) [ Algorithmi -]
, ,
,

.
(aleksein) [. aleksein
] ,
(.).
(alizarin) [. alizarine,
. alizari ] 1,2; (Rubia tinctorium),

.
.
().

-


(, ) . . 1869. .
..
(aliquot) [. aliquot ]
.
(alimentary) [.
alimentarius ]
, .
(aliphatic compounds) [. aleiphar
(aleiphatos) , ]
, ,
( ); .. , .
.. , .
:
, ;
(, , );
;
, -
. , , , , , , . .. .
(alicyclic compounds) [. aleiphar
(aleiphatos) , kyklos
] , ()
(
);
, ., , , .
(-, -,
- ) -

, ( ).

. .. ,
, , .
(alkaloids) [. alcali
, . al-qali . eidos ]

,
. 10 000 .,
13 . ( ) . .
. (. ),
(., (Claviceps) ). . : (, ), (), (), (),
()
. VII . . . . 1819. . . 1947.
, (alkalophilic
bacteria) [. alcali ,
. al-qali
philo ; . bacterion ] ,
( 9 ).
, , , .
.. Bacillus.

36

(alkanes) [. al-kohl
; ,
]
, . (4). .
;
,
. .

. . , , , ; . , ; . (, ), ,
,
,
.

. .
, , , .
(alkenes) [. al-kohl
; ,
] ,
(> C = C <),
(., ,
).
, (alkyl)
[. al-kohl
; , ] (3, 25 ..),

37


.
. .
(alkylation) [. alkohl ;
, ]
(., );
. (. ). . ,
- , , .
(alkylating
agent) [. al-kohl ; . agens (agentis)
] ,
(. , )

(., ). .. (.,
, , .), , (, .).
(alkylphospholipids) [. al-kohl ; . phos ,
phoros lipos ]
- , , . , (, .). .
,
,
, , . . -

, . .
(allantoin) [. allantoeides . -in(e)
,

]
, , , .,
. .
( ). .
.
, (alleles, allelomorphs) [. allelon ,
]
,

.
( ),

.,
.
.
(. )
(. ). (.
), 3
20 . .
. 1909 . ( 1902.) .
.
(multiple
alleles) . .
, (allelism,
allelomorphism) [. allelon
, ] (), -


(., ).
(allelogenous) [.
allelon , genos , ]
-
. . . 1938.
(allelomorph) [.
allelon morphe ]
., .

(allelopathy)
[.
allelon pathos ] , . () , . ,
(.) ,
. , , ,
. . , ,
. .
. .
. .
1937.
(allelospoly) [.
allelon . spolio ]
()
-

38

, 2,
,
. .
, ,
(. ). . 1983.
(haplosufficient allele) . .
(haploinsufficient allele, simple insufficient
allele) . .
(wild type
allele) . .
(dominant
allele) . .
(null allele) . , .
(major allele)
. .
(positional
allele) . .
(recessive allele) . .
(allelic
complementation) [. allelon
, ; . complementum
] , .
(allele substitution) [. allelon , ]

o;


. a
.. ( ) . 1957.

39

(allele exclusion) [. allelon , ]


, ,
(.).
(allelic genes) [.
allelon , ; .
genos , ] ,

() .
..
.
;
.. .
-
(allele-specific amplification,
ASA) [. allelon , ; . specificus ; .
amplificatio , ] , (. , ) (. ),
; .
- (allele-specific oligonucleotide)
[. allelon , ;
. specificus ; .
oligos , , . nucleus
. eidos ]
(., ),

.
(allergens) [. allos
, genes , ] 1) , (. C)

(. ). . , -
, , (, ).
. (,
,
). . (, , ), (, , ), (, .) (, .). 2) ,
.,
.
(allergy) [. allos , ergos ]
(. ), (. ) ; , , . , , (.)
, (.),
, , . . .
1906.
(alloantigenes) [.
allos , . anti
genes , ] (.), (. )

. (.),
.,
.
, (allogamy, cross pollination,
staurigamia) [. allos
gamos ] ,
, . . ,
.
(allohaploid) [. allos , haplos ,
, idos ]
, (., )
.
(allogenesis) [. allos
gnesis ]
., .
(allogenic inhibition) [. allos genes , ; . inhibitio ,
]


.
(allogenic cells)
[. allos genes , ] ,
(.), ,
(. , , ).
(. (1)) (. (1))
(. ),

(. ).

40

(allogenic) [. allos
genes , ] ,
, . ., .

.
..
,

(allograft, allotransplantant) [.
allos . graft ,
; . transplantare ] ,
. . , .
(allodiploid) [. allos , diploos eidos ] ,

.
. .
1948.
, (allozymes) [. allos zyme , ]
(),
,
. . , , .
(alloiogenesis) [.
allos , gnesis , ]
,

.
(alloxan)[.
all(antoeides) . oxa(lic
acid) , . Oxalis (acetosella)
] ,
,

;

41

, ,

. . . .
1838. .: .
(allometric) [.
allos metron ]
,
. .
.
(allomones) [. allos
hormao , ]
, , . . , ,
,
, () , ,
,
, .; .
. ., , , (.).
. .
, (allomorphosis, allogenesis) [. allos ,
morphe , gnesis , ] , ,
. . ( , .,
) ,
. . , -

;
.

[.
(allopatric
hybridization)
allos patris ; .
hybrida ]
(. (2))

.
(allopatric populations) [. allos patris ; . populatio
] ,


( ). , , , . . .

(allopatric speciation) [. allelon
patris ] , .
(alloplasm) [. allos
plasma ,
]
, . , , - , , , .
, (allopolyploid, polyhaploid) [. allos
, polys , , , ploos eidos ] ,
() . , . . . .

(allosyndesis)
[.
allos syndesis -

, ] (. , )
(. (1)).
(allosteric activation) [. allos stereos ; .
activus ]
,
(.
) .
(allosteric regulation) [. allos stereos ; .
regulare , ]
() (. ). ..
.
(allosteric transition) [. allos
stereos ; . transitus ]
(.
).
(allosteric modulators) [. allos stereos ; .
modulatio , ,
] , (), , .
.. , . ., .. ,

42

- (. , ).
(allosteric ribozymes) [. allos
stereos ; .
ribo(se) ,
. arabinose
. zyme , ] , (. ),
.
..
, (. ). ..
.
(allosteric inhibitor) [. allos stereos ; .
inhibeo (inhibitum) , ] ,
,
,
. ..
.
.
(allosteric
enzyme) [. allos
stereos ; . fermentum ] , (
),
( )
(.-

43

). .
.
(allosteric
effect) [. allos stereos
; . effectus ]

( ).
.. , .
,

.


. .. . ,
. . 1963.
(allosteric effector) [. allos
stereos , ; . effector
] ,
( ) . .. (., ,
..), ( ) . .
.
(allostery) [. allos
, stereos , ] ( ),

,
( , ) (

, ).
(allotype) [. allos , typ(os) , ]
(. ),

; .
.
(allotype suppression) [. allos ,
typ(os) , ; . suppressio , ]
(. ) ,

(. ),
.

(allotransplantant) . , .
(allotropy) [. allos
, tropos , ]

. ,
., (, ), ,
,
.
(allophene) [. allos
, phino ,
] , ,
. . . 1955. . .
(allophenic
animals) [. allos ,
phino , ] (. ), in vitro -




-
. .. (- ) . 1967.
(allochtones) [. allos
, chthon ] ,
,
- . ..
Alu- (Alu sequences) 300 .., .
- AluI.
(albinism) [. albus ] 1) () ; 2) , ,
.
.: .
(albumins) [. albumen
(albuminis) ] 70 ,
, ( .), (), (),

. .
(. ), (. ), (. ),
( , -

44

). , . .
(algin) [. alga
, -in(e) ,
] (. , ),
, . . Laminaria Macrocystis.
. .
(alginate) [. alga , ] (. ,
),
(. ). (.
).
(alginic acid)[.
alga , ]
(.),
-D- -L , 14- .
; . .. ,
,
.
,
, , .. ..

. .. , . .
(Laminaria)
(Macrocystis),
-

45

(,
). .
Azotobacter vinelandii Pseudomonas
aeruginosa. .. . 1883.
(algicide) [. alga , caedere ]
(.),
,
..
(algology) [. alga logos , ]
( ), .
(aldehyde) [. al(cohol)
dehyd(rogenatum) , ] ,
(=C=O), c (R) (RCHO).
, ., , . . .
1835.
(aldoses) [. al(cohol)
de(hydrogenatum) , , . -ose ,
] , .
(3, 4,
5, 6 ) ,
, (.,
), (., )
.. . .
(aldolases) [. al(cohol)
de(hydrogenatum) , , . luein , , ] (. ), ;

(., , ). . -

,
.
.,
.

(aldosterone)
[.
al(cohol) de(hydrogenatum) , , stereos ] ,
, ( ). .
- , , Na+ K+.
(alteration) [. alteratio ] , , . , (,
, , .) . .
.
(alternative promoter) [. alternative,
. alter ; . promovere ] (.),
, ;

. ., 5
,

.
(alternative splicing) [. alternative, .
alter ; . splice
, ]
-

-,
,
,
, . ..

.

(.. 23
). ., ..

, ,
, , ,
.
(alternative
host) [. alternative, . alter
] , . ., -
Leptospira pomona
, .. .
- (alpha helix) [. alpha .
spira , ] , ;
. .-. C=O
N-H .
10 3,6 ;
(.. ) 0,54 . .. ...
- (amber mutation, am)
[. amber . mutatio ] (-

46

), amber- (), . . ( . ),
. .
-.
- (amber suppressor) [. amber .
suppressio ] , ,
-
(.-). ., -
; .-.

, , . . , -.
(ambivalent) [.
ambi , valens
(valentis) ] ,
. ., . ,
-, . . ,
( , .)
. .

(. ) , ( ) .
. . 1955., . rII-
4 .
1960.
(ambivalent
gene) [. ambi , valens (valentis) ; .
genos , ] ,
,

47

.
.. .
1955.
(ambisexual) [.
ambi , .
sexualis ] ,
. .

, . .: .
(amensalism) [.
. . mensa ]


. . .

(amidases)
[.
am(monia) , . . sal
ammoniacus , . eidos ]
(., ),
(.) . . , ,
(. ). ,
; .
(amides) [. am(monia) , . . sal ammoniacus
, . eidos ] 1) , , (-OH) (-NH2); 2) , .
(amixia) [. .
mixis , , , ]

.

(amylases) [. amylon
] (. ,
), ( ) 1- 4-
. -. ( ),
-. (
) -.,
-. (
).
. (, , , ), .
. , (.) (. ),
(. ) (. ). . ,
. . .
(amylose) [. amyl(on)
. -ose ,
] ,
,
1- 4- (.
50 160 ).

(amyloglucosidase) [. amylon
glykys ] ,
(.), (1,4)-;
.
(amylolytic preparation) [. amylon
lytikos , ; . praeparatus ] , -

: (. ), , . ..
,
( ).
(amylopectin) [. amylon , pektos
.-in(e) ,
] ( ) (. , ), ,
1- 4-, 1-
6- . .
1000 . ,
- .
(aminoadipic acid) [. adeps (adipis)
] (. ),
,
;
;
.

(aminoacylation) [. amino NH2,


ammonia , . . sal
ammoniacus ,
. acidum ]
,
() ( )
-
. -

48

. . --
(.--).
-- (aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases) [. amino
NH2, ammonia ,
. . sal ammoniacus
, . acidum
; . synthesis , ] ,

(. ). :

5'- , 2'(3')- ,

.

,
(aminoglycoside
antibiotics, aminoglycosides) [.
amino NH2, ammonia
, . . sal ammoniacus
, , . glykys
eidos ; . anti
bios (biotikos) ]
( 100) () ,
; . Bacillus.
. . (, , , ) .. (, , , , ), .
.. . .
(. -

49

, ), .

30S- (
50S )
.
..
. .. ()
. 1944.

(aminoglycosides) . , .
(amino group) [.
amino NH2, ammonia
, . . sal ammoniacus

,
;
.
Gruppe , -NH2, (NH3). A.
,
, .
-NH3+.
(aromatic amino acid) . .

(heterocyclic amino acid) . .

(amino acid sequence) [.


amino NH2, ammonia
, . . sal ammoniacus
, ]
; ..
(. ).
(amino acid) [.
amino NH2, ammonia
, . . sal ammoniacus
, ] () , (-NH2) (-COOH) ( NH2-CR-COOH, R .). -

-.,
( )

L-.
(R) .
, . 20.;
(.
.), : ; C ; D
; E ; F ; G ; H ;
I ; K ; L ; M ; N ; P ; Q ; R ; S
; T ; V ; W
; X -; Y . . ( ) . ( ). ,
, . . ( 100),
.

(, .), ,
.
(L-) ., (. );

(, , , ).
. . ., , , ,
( ) . -

. ,
,
(g , );
, , ,
, .. . ;
.
(nonessential amino acids) .
.
(essential amino acids) .
.
-, N (amino terminus, N-terminus) [. amino
NH2, ammonia ,
. . sal ammoniacus
, . oxys ] , .
. N- . .
, -.
(amino oxidases) [.
amino NH2, ammonia
, . . sal ammoniacus , .
oxys ] (. ),
(. ) , . 2 .: (. ).
.
( , ), .

50

( ),
.. , , .
;
.
( ); .
(. ). . ,
.
(aminolipids) [.
amino NH2, ammonia
, . . sal ammoniacus , .
lipos ] (.),
(., Acidiphilium).
. ( )
. .

, .
(aminobutyric acid) [. amino
NH2, ammonia , .
. sal ammoniacus ,
] , : -..
-..
[CH3CH2CH(NH2)COOH],
[CH3CH(NH2)CH2COOH] -..
[NH2CH2CH2CH2COOH]. -..
-.. , -
-..
-.. (. , ),
(. )
.

(aminopeptidases) [. amino NH2,


ammonia , . sal

51

ammoniacus ,
. peptos , ] ,
, ; , (.-, N).
(aminopterin) [.
amino NH2, ammonia
, . . sal ammoniacus

,
,
.
pter(on) . -in(e) , ]
,

(. , 9);
,
, . .: 4-
. . .
(amino sugars) [.
amino NH2, ammonia
, . . sal ammoniacus
, .
sakchar , . sarkara
] ,
, ( () ()),
()
(NH2).
. .
, .
,
.
. ,
,
, ,
, , , , . . . ( -

, ) (
).
,

(amino alcohols) [. amino


NH2, ammonia ,
. . sal ammoniacus
, ; . al-kohl
] ,
(-NH2) () ;
. (.,
, , .).
., ,
, ,
,
(.,
2). . ,
;
. (.), . , .,
. .: .
,
(aminotransferases, transaminases) [. amino NH2,
ammonia , . . sal
ammoniacus ,
. transfero ] (. ),
. (. )
. .
, . , -

;
. .
. ,


(
,
..), ,
- ., .,
(- -,
).
.
. . . . . . 1937.
.: , .
(amines) [. amino
NH2, ammonia , .
. sal ammoniacus ,
] (. ), , (, ,
). .
,
, ( . . ),
, , , ,
(., ), , . . ,
,
.
. , .
. , (., -, ,

52

4-). . ; .
(amitosis) [. .
. mitos ] ,
,
; ,
(.). .
,
,
() ,
, ,
, ;
,
, .
. . . . .
. (1841.);
. 1882.
(ammonia) [. ammonia
, . . sal ammoniacus
, ,
]
(NH3);
.
. .
HNO3, , NH4NO3, (NH4)2CO3,
(NH4)2SO4, , ,
.
-
(ammonium sulphate precipitation)
[. ammonia , . .
sal ammoniacus , . sulphur ] , , ,

.
, , ; -

53

(ammonification)
[. ammonia , . .
sal ammoniacus , . facio ]
(, , .)
, (, ,
, .). , . , , . .

(, , , ) . . .

(ammonotelic)
[. ammonia , . .
sal ammoniacus , . telos ]
(NH4+).
(amniocentesis) [.
amnion
kentesis ]
()
, , / -
.
, ,
. .
16 -
, . -
,
., -

.
.: .

(amniocytes)
[.
amnion kytos
] ,
(. ).
, (amorph)
[. . morphe
] ,
,
. .
. 1932. .
, .
(amorphic mutation) [. .
morphe ; . mutatio ] , , .

(ampicillin)
[.
am(ino) NH2, ammonia
, . . sal ammoniacus
, p(en)icillin
, .
Penicillium ] (. ) (),
. (
bla, -).
1961.
- (, , , ,
), , ,
.
(amplicon) [. amplificatio , ] 1) (.); 2) ,
()

(. , ).
-, (amplicon vector) [.
amplificatio , ; . vector , ] (.
),
, .

(amplimer)
[.
ampli(ficatio) ,
. mer(os) ,
] ,
(. )
(. ,
). . 18
25.;
.

,
(amplifier, thermal cycler) [.
amplificatio , ] ,
(.
, );

.

(amplification refractory mutation


system) [. amplificatio , ; . systema
, , ; . identificare ; . mutatio ] , .
,
(. , )
, 3'-
; . .

54

,
3'- .
(amplification) [.
amplificatio , ] 1) in vitro
(. ,
; - , ); 2)
; 3) ; (.) .
(rapid amplification of cDNA
ends) .
.

(directed
amplification of minisatellite DNA,
DAMD) . .

(amphibiotic)
[. amphi , ,
bios (biotikos) ] , ,
.
(amphibolism) [.
amphibolos , ] , (. ), (. ).

(amphigenetic reproduction) [.
amphi , ,
genetikos , ]
.

55

(amphidiploid, allotetraploid) [.
amphi , , ,
diploos eidos ]
,

(
). - ( . triti(cum)
(se)cale ). . ( ) 20- .
.
. . , .

(amphilepsis)
[.
amphi , ,
lepsis , ] ()
. . . .
1902. . .
(amphimixis) [. amphi , ,
mixis ]
,
. .
. 1892.
(amphipathic molecule) [. amphi , , pathos
, ] ,
,
(., , ).
..
(
,
;
).
(amphiplasty) [. amphi , ,
plastikos ] ;

,
, ( ). . . 1928.

(amphiprotic solvent) [. amphi


, , protos , ] ,
, , .
, .
(amphiregulin) [.
amphi , ,
. regulare ,
] ,
. . ,
,
,
.
, (amphitrophic organisms)
[. amphi , ,
trophe , ]
,
,
. ,
.
- .
(amphogeny) [. ampho geneia , ]
(
).
. . 1945.
(amphoheterogony)
[. ampho , heteros ,
, gone (goneia) , , -

]
, , .
(ampholyte) [. ampho
lyt(os) , ] (. ).
(amphoteric
compound) [. amphoteros
, ] , ,

, - ( ..,
,
,

). .. , , ..
.. (., , . ).
,
(amphoteric ion-exchange resin, polyampholytes) [.
amphoteros , ; .
ion ] ,
,

.

, .
,
.
... c
, , . ...
.
. ...
, -

56

,

,
, . ... , , .
(amphotropic virus) [. ampho tropos , ; . virus ]
(. ), -, , . ..
.. ;
., .. Mo-MuLV (
) . . .
(anabiosis) [. anabiosis
] ,

, ;
.
(anabolism) [. anabole ] , ,
.

( )
( ). . :
, -

57

. ., , . .
() (. ). .: .
(anabolics) [. anabole
] ,

. . ,
, .
( ). , Na, 1, , , S,
. , .
,
., , , .
.

(, , , , ,
, , , , ). .
(). . , ,
,
. . , ..
( ,
..). .
,
;
1015%.
(anodyne)
[. n algesis ] . . .

(analgesia) [. na
algesis ]
1)
, ,
; 2)..
(analgesic) [. na
algesis ]
, .
. (, )
(, ). . , .
. .
(analgia) [. ana
algos ]
.
.: .
(analeptics) [. analeptikos , ] ,
,

,
(., ,
). .

, , , ,
. .

, .
2 . .., , . .
(, , ) . -

. . (, ), (, , ,
).
(analysis) [. analysis , ] ,
.
.: , , .

(genetic
analysis) . .
(restriction
analysis) . .
(amino
acid analyzer) [. analysis , ; . amino
NH2, ammonia ,
. . sal ammoniacus
, ]
, ,
( , .). ..

.
, , (test crossing, test cross) [.
analysis , ]
-, .
.. ,
,
. .. (
)
-

58

. , ..
, .
(tester strain)
[. analysis , ; . linea ] , ,
, .
. -.
(analogue) [. analogos ] 1), () (., . );
,
. . (., ), (), .; 2)
, ,
, .,
.
D. .
,
, ,
,
., . .
(base analogue)
[. analogia , ] ,

(. );
., , , , . ..
.
(transition-state analog) [. analogia
, ]
, -

59

.
. (1).
(analogous
structures) [. analogos ; . structura , ] , () , . ..
(analogy) [. analogia
, ] 1) -
, , ;
2)
()
,

.
. . .
. 1843.
(anaplasia) [. ana plasis ] ;

. .
,
. .:
( . . ), , -
,
.
(anatoxin) [. ana , toxikn .-in(e) , ]
, (.), . ., .
, -

(0,30,5%-
) (3840o). . (., ). . , .
(anaphase) [. an , , phasis ]
(.) (., ),
,
.
(anaphylaxis) [.
ana , , phylaxis , ] , ; . . , ; (anaphylactic shock)
, , , , ,
. . . .
1902.

(anaphylactogen)
[. ana , , ,
phylaxis , genes
, ] ,
(. ). . , , , .
(anaphragmic mutation) [. ana , , phragma -

, , ; . mutatio ] ,
.
(anaphoresis) [. ana
, , phoresis , ]

() .
,
(anaerobes, anaerobic organisms)
[. an . , er
b(ios) ] , ;
. . . . ;
2
() . .
(. ),
(., ),
. (. ),

(., ). , , . . ., 1861. . . , .
(obligate anaerobes) . .
(facultative anaerobes) . .
(anaerobic respiration) [. an . ,
er b(ios) ] , (.,
). ..

60

, , . .,

, () (. ).
(anaerostat) [. an
. , er
stat(ikos) ] , (., ). .
.
,
; . .
, , . .
:
,
.
(angiogenesis) [. angion gnesis , ] , (., , ,
.).
. , . . . . 1935.
(angiogenin) [. angion , genes ,
.-in(e) ,

61

] (
14 ),
. . , ( )
(.), . , .
,
. 1985. . .
(angstrom) [ . ] , 1010
. .
,
; .
(1 = 10 ). .
..
(androgenesis) [. aner
(andros) gnesis , ] .
(androgenetic
embryo) [. aner (andros) genos , ;
. embryon ] ,

.
(androgens) [. aner (andros) genes , ]
,
, , 19
; . (. ),
(. ), .
. . .

, -

, ,
;
, , , ,
:
,
, ,
.
.
(. , ). . . . ,
. ,
,
,
.
, ., .
., . . .
. . (., ,
) . . .
(androsperm) [.
aner (andros) sperma
] ,
.
(androsteron) [. aner
(andros) stereos ] ,
;
. .
1931. . . . .
(anemochory) [.
anemos choreo -

, ] .
(aneuploid) [. an . , eu , ,
ploos idos ]
, , ,

,
; . .
.
, ,
. , ( 2n + 1), (2n
+ 2), (2n + 1 + 1),
(2n - 1)
(2n - 2). .,
(2+1)
(2+2), (2 - 1) (2 - 2).
. , . . .
. ; .
(aneuploidy) [. an
. , eu , ,
ploos idos ] ,
, ().
. .
(2n - 1) , (2n + 1) . .
,
, ;
-

62

, . . . ., 21-
. . ; .

(aneusomatic)
[. an . , eu
, soma (somatos)
] , ( ). . .

(ansamycins)
[.
ansa , . myces
-in(e) ,
] (. ),
( ),
1520
. .
, , , , ,
Nocardia mediterranea,
Streptomyces spectabilis, Streptomyces
tolypophorus, Micromonospora halophytica, Streptomyces hygroscopicus,
(, .), Maytenus Colubrina. .


- -. . , , ,

. . (.),
.

(anisogenomatic)
[. anisos , genos ,

63

. -m(a) , ,
] , .
(anisogeny) [. anisos
geneia , ] ,
.
(anisoploid) [. anisos , ploos
idos ] ,

. . ,
, ..,
.
(anisotropy) [. anisos tropos ] (, ,
, )
- . .,

; ;
.
(anisocytosis) [. anisos kytos ,
] , ; ., ()
() .
A (aniline dyes)
[. aniline, . an-nil ] , -


;
,
,
.
(anion) [. an(a) ,
, ion ] (.,
(HCO3-) (Cl-)).
(anionites) [. an(a)
, , ion ] ,
(. ; )
. ., , ( ,
-, -
-).
(anion gap)
[. an(a) , ,
ion ] (
) , : (Na+ + K+) (HCO3+ C1-); , .,
. ..
1016 /.
(ankyrins) [. ankyr
.-in(e) , ] ,
(. ). ., . . . .
: N- ,

- . ( ) 33 -

, . . .
- . . .
. 1979.

.

(anxiolytic)
[.
anxie(tas) ,
. lytik(os) , ] ..
(annexins) [. annex ,
. -in(e) , ] 2+ -
. 160
, : ,
.
. S100, ,
( , ). .
:
, A2, - , , . .V
- (. ), - . . . . 1987.
(anoxia) [. an . oxi(genium) ] 1)
, , , -

64

; . ; 2) , , . .
;
. .
(anomaly) [. anomalia
] / , ,
; .
.
- (anonymous DNA marker) [. anonymos ; . marquer
] -, ; ..-. (. ).
(antagomir) [. antago(nisma) , . mi(cro)
R(NA) ] c
, - (. -), . ,
,
., .
. .
. 2005.
(antagonism) [. antagonisma , ] 1) (.,
), ; . (. ); 2)
. ., . ,

(. -

65

). . . . .
(microbial
antagonism) . .

(antagonist)
[.
antagonistes ] 1), ; 2)
, ,

, ,
; 3)
,
(., ). . ; ; .
(antagonistic index) [. antagonistes ; . index , ]
,

, .
(calcium antagonists) [. antagonistes ; . calx (calcis) ]
,
;
(calcium entry blockers).
.. . ..
. .
1969. ,

(antiagglutinin)
[. anti , . agglutinatio
. -in(e) ,
] , (. ). . (.), .
(antiantibodies) [.
anti ] (.), ; , .

, , .
, . .: .
(antibacterial)
[. anti bacterion ]
.
., .
(, , , , , , .), (.) .

(antibiogramma)
[. anti , bio(s)
gramma ] ,
.
(antibiosis) [. anti bios ]
-
. . (. ). .


. 1877.
(antibiotics) [. anti
bios (biotikos) ] , , ,

, ., (.), (.),
(.). . ,
, , . (., .). .
,
, .. , . (. ) . . ., , .
.-. (.,
, .)
, ,
,
. . , , . . ; ,
(, , ). -

66

. , , ; (. ),


. . ()
. 1925.,
. .
1942.

(aminoglycoside antibiotics) .
, .
- (betalactam antibiotics) . .
(peptide antibiotics) . .
(polyene
antibiotics) . .

(semisynthetic antibiotics) . .
(antivitamins) [.
anti , . vita .
amino NH2, ammonia
, . . sal ammoniacus
, ] ,
, , ; ., , .
(antigen) [. anti genes , ] ,
,
-

67

(. ; ). .
,
, ,
. .
1899. ..

(cross-reacting antigen) . .
(eclipsed
antigen) . .
(antigenemia) [.
anti , genes
haima ] (. ) .
.
(antigenic
determinant) [. anti genes ; .
determinantis ,
]
(.) (.),
(.). ..
( 68), ,
.
,
,
(515) .. ,
.., ,
, ,
.. . ; .
(antigenic depot)
[. anti genes ; . depono -

] ,
,
.
(histocompatibility antigens) . .
(antidepressants)
[. anti . depressio ] , (.,
- ). .
.
, () (antidote,
an antidote for) [. antidot(on)
] , -
.
, (anti-idiotypic antibodies, anti-idiotypes) [. anti
, idios , ,
, ,
typos, , ] (.),
, .
, ..
,
. ..


.
.. , ,

.
..,
, (.).

(anticoagulants)
[. anti . coagulans
] , . ., , .
. III , ,


. .
: 4- (., , ) (,
). ,
. ,
.
. , ., .
, ,
4 .
(anticodon) [. anti
. code , ]

(),
(. ) ,

(.).
() (antisense chain, antisense strand)
. (), ().

(antimetabolites)
[. anti metabole ] ,

68

,
(.), , (, , ). ., ( )
,
,
, . .
,
,
( , );
, . .
(antimicrobial peptides) [. anti ,
mikros bios ; .
peptos , ]
( <10 )
(. ) ,
( ) .
800 .. .. -
(., , ,
); , (., ); ,
, ,
. (, ). .. ,
.

69

..
:

. ..
(~107106,
109 )
, :
-, ,
,
(.), .
(antimitotic
agent) [. anti mitos
; . agens (agentis) ] , (.,
, ,
, ).
.. .
. .
,

(antimorph) [. anti
morphe , , ] , , ( ) ; .
.
(antimorph)
., .
(antimutagens) [.
anti , . mutatio . genes ,
] ,
/ (.),
(.). .,
, -

. . ,
., , . . (. )
(. ), ,
. ( )
. . 1949.
(antioxidants) [.
anti oxys ] , (. ). . (, , Q,
, , , ,
) (, .). .
. . ,

. . . (,
.), ;
(,
.) .
(antioncogene) [.
anti , onkos , ,
genos , ,
] . , .

(antiparallel orientation) [. anti


parallelismos -,
; . orientis , -

] (5'3' 3'5')
(-, -,
-),
.
(antiperspirants)
[. antiperspiration , . anti .
perspirare ] ,
. . . , ,
, , ,
- . ,

.
.
, , , ,
.
(antipodes) [. anti
pus (podos) ]
1) , ; 2)
, () ;
.

(.); 3) , , (
).
(antiporter) [. anti
. porter ]
,
; ., ,
.

70

(antiseptic) [. anti
septicos ] , ,
, . (,
, , , .) ( ,
, , , , , , , ) . . () ,
,
.
. . 1867.
(anti-stain treatment) [. anti septicos ]
. : )
, (. )
) ,

.
(antisense RNA)
[. anti . sense , , ]
,
, . .

71

, .
.
(. , )

, .;
. ( ). .
,
(. ). .
.
. 1984. C. .
(antisense
therapy) [. anti .
sense , , ;
. therapeia , , ] (
)

(. ), . .. , ,
, .
() (antisense chain (strand)) c. (),
().

(antisense oligonucleotide) [.
anti . sense ,
, ; . oligos , , .
nucleus . eidos ]
( ) -

,
,
.
(. ) -
(. )
.. ..
-. ,
.., ,
,
. . (),
(); .
(antistress preparations) [. anti . stress ; .
praeparatus ]
, . ..
(., , , .)
,
(, , ,
.)
.
(antiserum) [.
anti ] () (), (. ) (. ). ., , ,
, . .
.

(antibodies) [. anti
] ,
(. ), (. ) . .
,
.
(. ),
(. ). . B.

,

,
. .

(. ).
: , ,
. . , , .
. 1972. . ., .
1987. .
(antiidiotypic antibodies) , .
(humanized antibodies) . .
(catalytic
antibodies) ., .

(monoclonal antibodies) . .
(primary antibodies) . .

72

(polyclonal antibodies) . .
(himeric antibodies) . .

(cross-reacting antibody) . .
(antithetic
generations) [. antithetic ; . generatio , ]

(., ).
(antitoxins) [. anti
, toxikn .-in(e) , ]
1),
(. ); 2),
. .
G. .
, , , , . . . . 1890.
, (antitoxin unit, AU) [. anti
toxikn ]
(. ), ,

, , (, , )
. ., 1
1000

350 . .: .
(antienzymatic drug) [. anti

73

. fermentum ] ,
. .. ,
.
.
, . , , , .
,
. .. , ., , ()
(). ..
, , (- ).
(anti-enzymes) [.
anti . fermentum ] ,
; , . ,

.
(antifeedants) [.
anti . feeding ] , .
. . .,
(. ), , , , ,
., ,
.
(antifreeze proteins) [. anti .
freeze ] ,

,


. .. , , .
(anticipation) [.
anticipatio ] 1)
; 2)
; 3) - , ; .,
,
..
(antinuclear
antibodies) [. anti ]
(.) , ,
;
.
(anthocyanins) [.
anthos , kyanos ,
- . -in(e) ,
] () , ,
: ( Vaccinium), (Rubus fruticosus), (
Prunus),
. . ,
, , .
(anthraquinone, AQ)
[. antrax . quina
] (C14H8O2),
(, , .),
,
. . ,
.

,
,
. . .
(anthropogenic factors) [. anthropos genes , ; . factor ,
]

. ..:
; , ; , . .. , .
(anthroposphere) [.
anthropos sphaira
] 1) ,
( ..) ;
2) ,


; 3) . .: .
(anthropochory) [.
anthropos choreo ] 1) ( ), , ( , , ,
.). ,
-

74

, (.,

); 2) .
(anthropurgic focus) [. anthropurgia ]
(. ),
.

(enfleurage)
[.
enfleurer ] (,
), .
, .,
. , , .
- (AP endonucleases)
[. endo . nucleus
]
(.),

(. ,
-; , -);

(. , ). A.:
3'- A-,
5'- .
(apical
dominance) [. apex ,
; . dominans , ] ,
, .
, -
(apyrimidinic site, Ap site) [.

75

. , pyr , .
imide ; . site
, ] ,
(, ) , . A..
,
. . , A-.
(apyrogenic) [.
. , pyr
genes , ] ,
. ; . . . .
, (aplasy, agenesia)
[. . plasis
, ]
. .
(., . ).
(apogamy) [. apo ,
, gamos ]
(. ) , ,
( ).
(apoinducer) [.
apo , , . inductor ] ,
, () . . .
, (apolipoproteins) [. apo
, , , lipos , protos -

.-in(e) , ]
,
(. ). ., ,
, . . ,

, (. )
. .
,
.
. . .: .
(apomict) [. apo , ,
mikton ] ,

(.).
(apomixis) [. apo ,
, mikton ] ; . .
, ( ), , ( )
. .
,
,
,
(, ),


,
,
. .

- ( .). . ( .)
( .). .
. 1906.
(apomorphic) [.
apo , , morphe ,
, ] , . , , . ,
() ,
.
(apoptosis) [. apo ,
, ptosis , , , ]
,
,
. . , ,
; . , ,
. . ,

.
. .

(Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, Bcl-w, E1B), (Bax,
Bak, Nbk/Bik1, Bad, Bcl-xS) . -

76

. (.).
. E. coli (., ). . (mazE mazF),
, ,
. .
(.)
(. ). .
1972. . . .
2002. . , . ..
(aporepressor) [.
apo , , . repressor
, ]
,
. .:
.
(apostatic
selection) [. apo , ,
statikos ]
- (. ) . .,

, .
(apoenzyme) [. apo
, , . fermentum ] ,
. .- (.).
(Golgi apparatus)
. .
(aptazymes) [. aptus
zyme ,
] -

77

, (. ), , (. ), .
.
., .,
, 105
.
ATP . .
1996.
(aptamers) [. aptus
. meros ]
30100 ,

. .
SELEX (. in vitro,
in vitro). . , (
) ; (. ), , ,
, . . -. . , , ;
. . .
. 1990. -. . .
(apurinization) [.
. . purus -

] (., 50%- ) , - (. ,
-).
. 510. .
(apurinic DNA)
[. . .
purus ] ,

( ); , , - (. , A-). .

.
, A- (apurinic
site, Ap site) [. . . purus ; .
site , ]
,

(, ) , . A..
,
. . , -.
(arabinose) [. (hummi)arabic, gummi arabicus
. -ose ,
] (). L-. , , , , . D-. . .
. . .
. ,

,
. . ,
,
.

(arachidonic acid) [ . Arachis (hypogaea)


] F,
[CH3(CH2)4(CH=CHCH2)4(CH2)2COOH].
.. ; ,
. ..
,
,
. .. , , , .

. , .

(arbovirus)
[.
ar(thropod) , arthron pus , .
bo(rne) . virus
] ( )
- ,
;
. . , .,
, .
.
(., ). .
,

.
(arboricides) [. arbor caedere ]

78

,
.
. .
,

(arginine,
Arg)
[. arginoeis ,
. -in(e) , ] --
,
[NH2CH(COOH)(CH2)3NHC(NH) NH2],

,

. .
: , ,
.. . , , ,
, . .
. 1895.
(area) [. area , ] , (, , .) .
. ,
,
.
(aridization of
soil) [. aridus ] ,
; ,
.
(ADME) : (absorption), (distribution),
(metabolism),
(evolve);
(. ).
(aromatase, estrogen synthetase, androgen-aromatase) [.

79

aroma ] -450,
(. )
(. )
. .
;
.

(aromatic amino acid) [. aroma


; . amino
NH2, ammonia ,
. . sal ammoniacus , ] , ()
(, , ). ; ..,
, .
..

.

(aroma-forming bacteria) [.
aroma ; .
bacterion ] , .
, , ,
,
. ., ..

.
(arrhenogeny) [.
arrhen , geneia
, ] .
(arrhenoid) [. arrhen
, eidos ] , -


(
) .
(ARS) . .
(artefact) [. arte factus ]
, .
(archebacteria) [.
archaios . bacterion
]
,
-
().
(asymmetric
hybrid) [. .
symmetria , ; .
hybrida ] ,

,

. ,
.
(asymmetric fusion) [. .
symmetria ,
] ()
.
(asymmetric polymerase chain reaction) [. . symmetria , ; . polymeres
, ; .
re- , actio ]
(.

, ),
,
.
. .... ,

. . .: .
, (asynapsis, asyndesis) [. .
synapsis , ]
(. , );
. , . . . 1931.,
. 1935.
(asynchronous replication) [. . synchronos ; . replicatio ]
S- ; .,
..
-
.. q11.2 15,
-.
.. ,
.
,
(ascorbic acid, vitamin C) [. a
. . scorbutus
] L-
, ;
(
.. ). ,

80

. .. .
..
, . ,
.
, , ..
.. .-
. 1937 . .. ( ) .
20- . .
(ascospores) [. askos
spora , ] , -
() . . 4
16 ;
250. , ,
. .
, (asparagin, Asn)
[. asparags
() .-in(e) , ] , [H2NCH(COOH)
CH2CONH2], . .
,
;
, , , .
. .
.
. .
(Asparagus officinalis)
. . 1806.

81


.
, (aspartic acid, Asp) [. asparagos () .-in(e)
,

]
[HOOCCH2CH(NH2)COOH],

(. ; ).
, , ,
(. ) .

. .. . 1868. .

(aspartame)
[.
sparagos
()] L--L-,
. .
1965. ..
(assimilators) [.
assimilatio , ] ,
.

(. ), .

. .
(, , , ),
(,
), .

(assimilation) [.
assimilatio , ] , ,

. .
, . .: .

(assortative mating) [. assorti


]
,
;

..
; .. ,
(..
).
(repeat-associated small interfering
RNA, rasiRNA) [. associatio ; inter ferens
] (2429.)
(. ),

- ,
,
.
(. , ;
).
. .
2001.
(ascite) [. askos
]
, , . .
(.-

) (. ).

-
.
(atavism, throwing back) [.
atavus ]
, . . , ( .),
., ,

, ,

, .
(atonic antibodies) ..
(atopy) [. atopia , ] () .
. 1922. ..
(atrophy) [. atropheo
, ]
, ; , , . .
,
, .
(attributable
risk, AR) [. attributum ,
]
(., )
( ) . ..
,
,
.

82

ATT- (ATT-site) . C , ATT-.

(attenuator)
[.
attenuatio , ] , ,
; .,
trpO trpE
E. coli .,
trp-.
. (3).

(attenuation)
[.
attenuatio , ] 1)
; 2) ; 3) ,
; .
(.). . . 1974.
(attenuated vaccine) [. attenuatio , ; . vaccinus ] ; , ,
(. ) .
. .
(attenuated strain) [. attenuatio , ; . Stamm
, ]
, (. (2));

(. ).
(attractants) [. attrahere , ]

83

(), ( ) . 3 . :
( .),
( .) .

. ( ).
. (, , , , ,
, ,
..); ,
, , - . .
, ,
.
. (., , N-
, ).

(attraction)
[.
attrahere , ] -. .,
-
(, , ,
); - . .
.
(adenosine triphosphoric acid)
. ,
.
(ATPases) . , .
(auxins) [. auxein ] ( ), -

. .

. . , . . (. ),
. . (.)

.
.
(, , , ) , . . . 1928.
(auxotrophic
mutation, nutrient requiring mutation) [. auxo , trophe , ;
. mutatio ] , ,
. .. - (.)
(. ). ..
1941.
. . . ,

(
1958. .).

(auxotrophs)
[.
auxo ,
trophe , ] (, ), (. ) -
, (, . .),
;
. -


(., , , .).
, (outbreeding, cross-breeding) [. out
breeding ] -
45 . .
, (.). . (.).
(outcrossing) [. out
cross ] 1) , ; 2) , , .
(authentic protein) [. authentikos ;
] ,
, , .
(autoallergen) [.
auts , allos ,
genes , ] (. ),
;
.
.:
., , .
() .
.
, ,
( )
. (,

84

.). .: , .

(autoantigen)
[.
auts , anti genes
, ] (, .) ,


(.). . (, ..),
.
., . . .: .
(autoantibody) [.
auts anti ] (. ), (. );
. , ., ,
.
(autogenic vaccine) [. auts genos ,
; . vaccinus ] (. ), ,
, .
(autogenous
control) [. auts genos
, ; . controle
] ,
( ..), ( ..) ; .,
AraC (
E. coli) AraC.
(autoimmune disease) [. auts

85

. immunis ] , (. ) .
(autoinhibitor) [.
auts . inhibeo (inhibitum)
, ] ,

. ., . .

(autoinhibitors of adaptation) [.
auts . inhibeo (inhibitum)
, ; . adaptatio ] ,
.
(autocatalysis) ..
(autologous
cells) [. auts logos
, , ] , , , ,

-.
.. (. ),
,
.
(autologous) ., .
(automutagen) [.
auts , . mutatio
. genes , ] ,
.
(automutation) [.
auts . mutatio ] ,

.
.: (. ).
(autopolyploid)
. , ,
.
(autosegregation)
[. auts ] , (,
..), .
(autoregulation) [.
auts . regulare , ] , .
(autoreplication)
., , .
(autoreceptor) [.
auts . receptor ] (.(1)),

. . ;

,
. . . .
(autosexing lines)
[. auts . sexus ;
. linea -
] ,
(.).
, (autosome,
euchromosome) [. auts
soma ] , ;
. , X- Y-. . .

1904 .,
.- 1916.
()
(autosomal dosage compensation)
[. auts soma ; .
compensatio , ; . dosis -]
(,
. .); ... ( ) ;
...
. . 1982.
-
(autosomal dominant inheritance) [. auts soma
; . dominare ,
] , ; ,
, ,
.
(autosomal
inheritance) [. auts
soma ]
( )
- (. ).
- (autosomal recessive inheritance)
[. auts soma ; .
recessus , ]
, ;
,
, ,
(. ).

(autosomal)
[.
auts soma ] (.).

86

(self-splicing) [.
auts . splice , , ]
(. (1)) - (-), - (),
. . - ().
., . -. . . . 1981.
26S
Tetrahymena thermophila.

(autostimulator)
[. auts . stimulus
. , , ] 1), ; 2), .
(autograft) [.
auts . transplantare ] (, ),
, . .., . , .
(autotrophs) . , .
(autophagy) [. auts
phagos ] , , (), . . . .
.
(autophene) [. auts
phino , -

87

] , ; (.).
(aflatoxins) [ . A(spergillus) fla(vus) , , . toxikon
. -in(e) ,
]
(C17H10O6),
Aspergillus ( 16 ). . ; , .
.
, .
(apholate) [?] , [2,2,4,4,6,6-(1-)-2,2,4,4,6,6-1,3,5,2,4,6-],
;
, , .
(affinity
chromatography) [. affinis , , ; .
chroma grapho , ]
(. ),
(, .)
, .
, ,

, . ..
. 1967.

(affinity tag) [.
affinis ]
,
, ,
. ., ..
6 ,



.
.. ,

.
(affinity labelling) [. affinis ]

( )
. .,
.. ,
-. ,
.
, (affinity) [.
affinis ]
()
(,
,
..) ( ).
.
(. ) , , , -
. . , , ,



. . ; .
(affinity of
antibody) [. affinis ;
. anti ]
(. )
()
; . ..



: , . IgM IgA , IgG. (. ). .. , -
.
(cellular affinity) . .

(achromatin)
[.
achromatos ] ,
(., ).
. .
(achromatic) [.
achromatos ]
,
.
(acellular) [.
. . cellula
] ,
. . ,

.

88

(acetylase) [. acetum
] ,
(. ). ., .
, (. , ).
(acetylation) [.
acetum ] -

,
.
., . N- ; . p53 COOH-
.
,
(acetyl-coenzyme A, acetyl-CoA) [.
acetum ; . co , .
- , zyme , ] ,
; (. ,
), , , ..
(acetylcholine, Ach) [.
acetum , . chole
. -in(e) ,
]
(. ), ,
; , . . .
1914.
. . .

89

. 1936.
(acidification) [.
acidus facio ]
(.,
,
, ).

. ( ).
, ,
(acidophilic bacteria, acidophiles)
[. acidus philo ; . bacterion ] , ( 4 ).
.. : , 3,3;
,
3,4; (. ,
),
12 (. , ). , pH, , . . 2 : 1),
( .),
Thiobacillus; 2),
( .),
Bacillus acidocaldarius, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, Thermoplasma acidophilum.
.. ,
, -

, . .
(acidophilic bacteria,
acidophiles) . , .
(acidophilic, acidophilous) [. acidus philo
] 1) ; 2)
.
, (acycloguanosine, acyclovir) [. . , kyklos , .
huanu .-in(e) ,
]
[9-(2-)], , . . . .
, , .-,
. . ,
, ,

(.- ; ).
. . . . 1974., . . .
1978. ( 1988.
. .). . .
(acyclovir) . , .

(acylation)
[.
acidum ]
[RCO]. , -

, C-,
N-, O-, S-. . , (. ;
). .
, . . , .
(aeration) [. aeration,
. aer ] 1) ( ) () ,
- ; ; 2) . .
. (.
).
(aerobactin) [ . Aerobacter (aerogenes)
-in(e) , ] (.),

,
. Aerobacter aerogenes . . 1969.
(aerobic process)
[. er b(ios) ;
. processus ]
, (. , ),

. ., .. ,
.
..

90

(. ), .
, (aerobes, aerobic organisms) [. er
b(ios) ] ,
- . . , , .
() . () () ., (
,
).
, ., , , .
2, . ,
(, .). . , .
(aerogenic) [. er
genes , ] 1) .
., . Vibrio fluvialis,
Clostridium welchii ; 2)
. ., .
,
, .
(aerosol) [. r
. Sol ]
1) . ,
; ,
, .
.: (
),
( -

91

),
(
) . . : . (
); .
-
(., ); . (,
, ,
, , ,
.); 2) , .
(aeroponics) [. aer
ponos ] ,

. ,
., , . , .
. ; ,
.
. XIX .

(aerotaxis) [. aer taxis ]


. . ( ) (., ),
( )
(. ,
).
, .
(aerotank, aeration tank,
aeration basin) [. aer
. tank ]
,
(.
). . .
(aerofilter) [. aer
. filtre, . filtrum
]
;
( 4 ), .


- (B form of DNA)

(, - Z-), 2 20
. -.
in vivo
.
.-. 1
10,5,
0,34 .
(BAS, biologically active substance) .
.
(bagasse) [. bagazo , . baca ] ( -);
.
(BAFD) . ( ), ,
.
(basal) [. basis
, ] , ,
, .
(base replicon)
[. basis , ; .
replicatio ] , , ..
, , .
(basophilia) [. basis
, philia ,
] ,


(, .). . , , ;
- .
(bacmid) [. bac(ulovirus)
. (plas)mid
, ]
Autographa califirnica (AcNPV)

(-F , attTn7 Tn7),
E.coli, . .
. . 1993.
(bacterial artificial chromosome, BAC) [. bacterion ; . chroma ,
soma ]
F- E.coli,
cos (.-) loxP
1 (.LoxP-),
(100300
. ..) . F (F) ,
(12 ).
loxP
Cre 1,
cos-

93

.
,
.
... .
. 1992.
, (bacterial mass, bacterial biomass) [. bacterion ; .
massa , ] . ..: )
) . ( ) ( 100
). ..
, .
. .,
.. , ,
.. ,
, .
(bacterial population) [. bacterion ; . populus , ] c
,

,
.
(bacterial transformation) [. bacterion ; . transformatio
]

.

(bacterial leaching) [. bacterion ]


(., U, Cu,
Au . .) . ., Thiobacillus , , , , , ;
Chromobacterium violaceum
. ; , ,
. .. . . ; - .
(bacterial
decomposition) [. bacterion ]
(). .. , ,
, , , , .
..
(. )


, , .
(bacterial
fertilizr) [. bacterion ] , .-. ,
,
, , . ..
Rhizobium, -

, , (, ),
Azotobacter (), Bacillus,
( , ..) ().
(bacterial
spores) [. bacterion ;
spora , ]
,
.
. ..
.
(bacterial exoenzymes) [. bacterion
; . exo ,
. fermentum ] ,
;

(., , , ).
(bacterial
preparation) [. bacterion ; . praeparatus ] ,
() .
(bacteraemia) [.
bakterion haima
] ;
(, , ,
, , , , ). -

94

, ,
, . . () . .
, ,
,

.
(bacteria) [. bacterion
] , .
0,55. : (Archaebacteria ) ,
(Eubacteria ).
.: ( ), (
),
( ) ( ), . . .
.
, (. ) (. ) . . Monera

, , . . -

95

: ,
(., , ), , , ,
. ., , . .
. XVII.
. , .
.
.
(autotrophic
bacteria) ,
.
(alcalophilic bacteria) .
, .
(aromaforming bacteria) ..
(acidophilic
bacteria) . , , .

(reducingbacteria) . .
(heterotrophic bacteria) .
.
(putrefactive
bacteria) . .
(pyogenic bacteria) . ()
.
(gramnegative bacteria, G-) . , - .

(gram-positive
bacteria,
G+) . ,+.

(denitrite bacteria) . .
(green bacteria)
. .
(capsuliferous
bacteria) . .
(acidophilic bacteria) .
, , .
(acidfast bacteria) . .
(intestinal bacteria) . .
(colicinogenic bacteria) .
.

(crystalliferous bacteria) . .
(luminescent bacteria) . , .
(methane-producing bacteria) . .
(lactic acid
bacteria) . .
(nonpathogenic bacteria) .
.
(nitrite bacteria) . .
(filamentous bacteria) . .
(osmophilic
bacteria) . .
(pathogenic
bacteria) . () .

(pyogenic bacteria) . ()
.
(moldlike
bacteria) . .
, ()
(antibody-coated bacteria) . ()
.
(purple bacteria) . .
(saprogenic
bacteria) . .
(sulfur bacteria)
. .
(thionic bacteria) . , .
(acetic bacteria) . .

- (elective pathogenic bacteria)


. .
(photosynthetic bacteria) . () .

(phototrophic bacteria) . (-) .

(chemosyntheti bacteria) . .
(endosymbiotic bacteria) . .
(bacterin) [. bakterion
]
,
(.).
(bacteriolysis) [.
bakterion lysis ] , -

96


. . ,
(.).
(bacteriolysins) [.
bakterion lysis ] (.), (.).
(bacteriological weapons) [. bakterion logos , ] (
),
, , ,
,
(, .)
,
, . .. 1925.
1972.

(bacteriorhodop-sin) [. bakterion ,
rhdon psis ]
Halobacterium
halobium,
. .
. . . :
,

;
.
. , -

97

,
(. , ),
, .
.
.
, , ,
, (. () ), , . . .
(bacteriostasis) [.
bakterion stasis , ] , ,
. . ,
,
( , ),
(. , ). . ,
,
( 2, 2 .).
, (bacteriostatic agents)
[. bakterion statikos
; . agentis ] ,
, ; ., c ,
. . .

(lytic
bacteriophage) .
.
13 (bacteriophage
M13) [. bakterion
phagos ] -

(. , ), ,
(. () )

(., )
in vitro .
(bacteriophage packaging) [. bakterion
phagos ]
, , ,
.
(bacteriophages)
. , ; c
.
(bactericides) [.
bakterion . caedere
] ,
; ., ,

.
. .
(bacteriocins) [.
bakterio(n) . caedere
] , , ,
.
. () ().
;
., .,
E. coli, (. ), ., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, (.). .
(. ). . , -

. . A. 1925.
. .

(bacteriocinogeny) [. bakterion , .
caedere . geneia
, ]
(.). .

;
.
.
(bactopeptones) [., . bacterion ,
peptos ,
on ]
,
. .
; .
(bactotryptone) [., . bacterion ,
trypsis ,
on ] , ( ) ;
. . ;
.
(bactofection) [.
bakterion (in)ficere , ]
,
, , .

98

(baculoviruses) [.
baculum , , .
virus ]
(. . ),


80220 . .. .

.

, 10,

; .
. ,
.
Autographa
californica (AcNPV).
,
, , , ;

. .
, , , ,
.
(balance method)
[. bi-lance ,

99

; . methodos ] ,
,
. ..
(., ),
.
(ballistic transfection, microprojectile
bombarment) [. ballista , . ballo ; trans , (in)ficere
, ] ()

(biolistic gene gun),
, ( )

. .
. 1987.
(curative water analysis) [. balneum
, . logos ;
. analysis , ]
.
(genetic bank)
. .
(gene bank) . .
(barotolerant, baroduric) [. baros .
tolerantia ] , ,

. ., . .
(barophile) [. baros . phileo ] -

,
, ., .
(bacilli) [. bacillum ] ,
(
, , ). . (. ,
)
.
, ., , .

(bacitracins)
[.
Baci(llus)
. ] (.
) , Bacillus licheniformis. .
. . . .
1945. .
(protein-vitamin additive)
.- .
(protein-vitamin concentrate)
.- .
(BrdU) .,
.
(intronless gene)
[. intron
; . genos , ] ,
(.), . ..: , ,
,
.
(sterile
animals) . , .

(enucleate cell,
anucleate cell) ,
, ;
.. . ..

, , ., .
, (becquerel, Bq) [
. ]
().
1 = 1 ; (), 1 = 3,71010 .
.,

(.) 1896.
(backcross) . , .
(white biotechnology) [. bios , techne
, logos ] ,
,
(, , , ,
.),
, .
.. 2003 .

.
(intrinsic proteins) . .
(homologous
proteins) . .
,
(helix-destabilizing proteins) [.
de- , , , ,
stabilis ; . spira , ]
,

100


.
,

(stress-induced proteins) . ,
.
,
(single-cell proteins) ,
.

,
,
. ,
, , , , , , ,
, ,
.
1966.

(, ,
).
(peripheral
proteins) . .
(assembly proteins)
,
, (.).
, (DNA damage-binding
proteins) - ,

, - , , , .
c
(zinc finger proteins) , ,
4 , 2 2 ,

101

() ,


; (.,
GATA-, Sp-1, TFIII-A).
(readthrough proteins) [.
terminare ] (
) , (.
) ; ...

.
, (heatshock proteins, Hsp) [. choc
, ] ,
;
. ... ( ,
, .),
; ...
70 ( hsp70).
... (. ). , ...

, .
-, Toll , ,
. ..., 9 -

,

. 1962.
(protein engineering) [. ingenier , . ingenium ,
]
-
,
(. ) -
(. ). ()

. , .., in vitro,
(., ,
).
- ,
(protein-vitamin additive) [. vita
. amino NH2,
ammonia , . . sal
ammoniacus , ]

, .
- (proteinvitamin paste) [. vita
. amino NH2, ammonia , . . sal
ammoniacus , ; . pasta ]
,
; .
- ,

(protein-vitamin
concentrate) [. vita .
amino NH2, ammonia

, . . sal ammoniacus
, ; . con
(cum) , centrum ,
] ,
;
, , , . . .
, , ( ,
. .), ,
.
.-. .
.
(protein family)
,
(. )
. . .
(protein superfamily) [. super , ]
,
. .. .
1974. . .
(protein receptors) [. receptor ] , , ,
(., , , , , ..), -

102

(., ). ,
, ..

,
. ..
.
, , . , . . ..

( ).
, ..
.
., ( , ), , .
Na+ ,
.
..
-
, , , . ..,
, , .,
- , , ; .., , 2- , (. ), . .. -

103

- (. -). .., () (.,


).

.
..,

. ..
,

. ., .. (22),
. . 1906. ,
,
.
(Western-blotting) .-, .
, (protein) [.
proteine, . protos
. -in(e) ,
]
, , ,
(--NH2-); ,
.
. . ; .,

12,7 , - 6600 .
. 20 . .


(
)
,
. (),
(-),
(),
() .. (.).
.
().
.: ( ),
(
-
- ), (
) (
).
. .
. : (
) (, ,
.). . , .. ., , . .

: , , , , , , .
., . . .
1836., 1838. . . -

. . 1902. .
; -; - . .: (.).
(protein A) , Staphylococcus aureus,
Fc-
(.; ).
(authentic protein) . .
(hybrid protein,
fusion protein, chimeric protein)
. , ,
.

(homomeric
protein) . .
(extrinsic protein) . .
(recombinant
protein) . .
- (catabolite activator protein,
CAP) [. activus ;
. katabole , ; . operare , ]
, ,
(. , ),
, , ., lac- E. coli.
.: - .
- (carrier protein)
, .
.-.
( , .).
() (benz(a)pyren) [.
benzoa .
pyren , ]

104

, (.). . ( ); 1933.
(benzoic acid)
[. benzoa ]
(C6H5COOH)
; , , , ,
. , . ,
.
(bentos) [. benthos ] () ()
,
. .
. , (., , , ,
).
- (Berk-Sharp
method) [ . .;
. methodos ]
S1, .
,
S1
/-
, .
. .
1977.
(cell-free
extract) [. extractum ] , -

105

,

. ..
, ,
. (. () ) in vitro

.
(asexual generation) , ()
. .. ; .. .
, (nonsense codon) [.
code , ] .-,
, .
- (beta-galactosidase) [. beta .
, ; . gala (galaktos) ] ,
; , ., .
- (betaglucan) [.
beta . ,
; . glyk(ys)
. an(e) ,
] (. , ), ,
-1,3 ( 30%)
-1,4 (70%). .-. -

. .-. , . , ; .-.
-
,
( ), , . ,
, (
1980.).
, .
(betain) [. beta
-in(e) , ] , ,
, () ;

(., ).
, , , , , . .

(Beta vulgaris) . XIX.
-
(beta-lactamases)
[. beta . ,
; . lac (lactis) ]
, -
(, .) . .-. -

, ,
-
. .-. .-. (extended
spectrum beta-lactamases ESBL), .
.-. 1983 .
. .
- (betalactam antibiotics) [. beta . ,
; . lac
(lactis) ; . anti
bios (biotikos) ] (. ),
(, , , ); ,
(., ) (. ,
) .
-.. (. )

( ,
).

D- (. ) .
..,
D--D,

,
.

106

(gene library)
. .
()
(environmental library) [.
biblion theke ]
(. ), ,
.
,
.
(cDNA library)
[. biblion theke ]
, in vitro
()
().
, . .
, .
(peptide library) . .
(arrayed
library) . .
,
(doped library) [. biblion
theke ]
- ,
,
( 1%
30%).
(bivalent) [. bi , , valens ] ,

(., ).
(bivariant flow karyotyping)
[. bi , , vari-

107

ans ; . karyon
, typos ] ,
( 33258 ) . ...
, , .,
.
(bilateral) [. bi
, , lateralis
] , ,
(., ,
).
(biliverdin) [. bilis , . verd
. -in(e) ,
] , ;
(.). . ,
,
. .
(.).
(bilirubin) [. bili(s)
, rube(r) -in(e)
,

]
(. ) ,
- . .
4- , . .
.

: +
- (.: , )
. . 1847., .
. 1864.

(binary fission) [.
binarius ] ,
.

. .. , ..
(), . , ,
.
.
.. , ,
,
, .
(binary compound)
[. binarius ] , .
(binary
vector system) [. binarius ; vector , ; .
systema , ]
, : , , Ti--,
-
(vir-),
(. , -).
... . . 1983.
(bioaccumulation)
[. bio(s) .
accumulatio , ] 1)
. -

. ., ( )
. ; 2)

. . .
(bioantimutagens)
[. bio(s) , anti- , , , . mutatio genes , ] (. ), (.)
, . . . , ., . .

. . 1981.
, (bioaugmentation) [. bio(s)
. augmentare ] ,
(. ). ., .
.
(biosafety) [.
bio(s) ] ( , .),
, (. () ) (.),

108

.
(biological restoration, bioremediation) . , .

(bioleaching)
[. bio(s) ] - ( ) ; . ,
.. (, .) (.,
). . (1958.) . C.
.
(biogas) [. bio(s)
. gaz, . chaos ]
, ;
. . CO2 c , , . .

(., ),
,
. .
, ,
, , , . , .
45 3 1 2
.
(biogalvanic battery) [. bio(s)
.; . batterie ] , , ;

109

.
(biogenic amines)
[. bio(s) genes , ; . amino
NH2, ammonia ,
. sal ammoniacus ,
]
, , , , . .

(COOH).
, , , , . ..
(, , ). ..
(-) ( ..
), (., ), .
(biogenic
stimulators) [. bio(s)
genes , ; . stimulus . , , ] ,
-
( ) .
, , , ., . ..
. .
. . ,
.., ( )
, -

- (,
..),
, () () ,
.. - . .. ...

(bio-genic elements, biogens) [.


bio(s) genes , ; . elementum
, ]
1) ,
(., ,
, .); 2),
,

(, .). .. , , ,
, ..
(biogenic, biogenous) [.
bio(s) genes , ]
, ,
. .
; , ;
.

(biogenic
preparation) [. bio(s)
genes , ;
. praeparatus ]
,

, , (.,
, .), ,
. .. -

, , ,
. (., , , .).
..
.
(biogens) .
, .

(biogeochemistry)
[. bio(s) , ge
chemia ]
, ,
. . ..
(. ).
. ,
-, ,
..
. .
(biogeocenosis) [.
bio(s) , ge koinos
]
() (
, ,
., . ) ,

. .

(. ). . (. ),

:
.
. (). . . 1940.

110

(biogeotechnology)
[. bio(s) , ge ,
techne ,
logos ] .

: , , . . . . ( )
,
(.).
( );

(. ).
(. , )
( ).


. .
-
,
.
(bioburden) . ,
.
(biodegradation) [.
bio(s) . degradatio

111

, , ]
,
, . (. )
, , . .

,

. , , ( ) .. .
Pseudomonas .
,
.

.
().
Pseudomonas P. aeruginosa P.
stuzeri. (, , ..),

.
(biodesulfurization) [. bio(s) , . de-
, ,

, sulphur ]
. . ; .
, (biogeneric,
generic) [. bio(s) .
general ; , . generalis ]
, , (. ) ,
. . ;
.
810
300500 . , .
1,5 3 . 23 .
. , -
.

1986 .: .
, , .
: ,
,


,
.
(bioavailability)
. , .
(bioses) ..

, (bioisostere) [. bio(s) ,
isos , ,
stereos -] c,


.
- . .

, ,
,

.
(bioisostere) ., .
(bioprospecting) [.
bio(s) ] , (, , ).
(bioindicators) [.
bio(s) . indico , ] , , , ,
. .
()

.
., , ;
; ( ) . . .. (.
, ).

112

(bioengineering) [.
bio(s) . ingenier , . ingenium ,
] ( , )
. . : (. () ), (. ), (. ),
(. ; ).

(bioinformatics)
[. bio(s) . informatio
, , ]
,

( ); , . . , , , ,
- .

(bioatalysis)
[.
bio(s) katalysis ] , . . , , ,
, . . , (,
, ..).

113

.
, , . ,
, .
(biocatalytic plastics) [. bio(s)
katalysis ;
. plastike , ]

, .
..
.
(biocatalytic systems) [. bio(s)
katalysis ; .
systema , ; ] ,
,
. .. .. ,
(. ; ). .., : 2, , .
(biocommunication) [. bio(s) .
communico , ]
(-

, , ,
.) ( ). .
, , ,
.. ; .,
(.)
, .
(bioconversion) [.
bio(s) . conversio , ]
(. ). .,
. ( )

, .
(biocontrol) . , .
(biocorrosion) [.
bio(s) . corrosio ] (, , , ). ,
, ( , ,
, H2S .). , - ,
-

H2S.
H2SO4, ~ 0,5.
Cladosporium resinae,
,
. . .
, . .
- (.
70% ),
, , .
. ( ,
.). .

, ,
.


(,
, , ).
(biolysis) [. bio(s)
lysis , ,
] , . . .
(biolines) [. bio(s)
. line , ]
,
, ( )

114

(.). . . , (, , , ) (, ,
, ).
. .. 1961. .: , .

(biotic soil activity) [. bio(s)
logos , ; .
activus ] ,

1 ,
( ).
, (biological accessibility,
bioavailability) [. bio(s)
logos , ] , ; , . ..
. .. ;

.. ..
.
,
( )
.

,
.. ( ). ., , ,

115

.., , , ;
, .
, ,
.
(biological
membrane) [. bio(s)
logos , ; . membrane , ] -
( 10 ),
( ,
), , (, .). ..
( ) 35 20
; .. ,

. .. . .. (.,
, .2)
: , , ,

; ,
, (.,
); , ;
, -

(., )
; ; (, , , , , ) . .. 1926. . ..
, (bioremediation) [. bio(s)
logos , ; .
remedy , ]

, (,
, .), /
.
., .. Pseudomonas,
, , , , ,
, , .
(.).
, (biological oxygen demand, BOD) [. bio(s)
logos , ] , ( ) . ...

( 0,01/ )
... (chemical oxygen demand) , , , .

,
(bioassay) [. bio(s)
logos , ; . probatio ] 1) ,
; 2) (, ,
, , ,
..) , (., ) .
(bioproductivity) [. bio(s) ;
. productivus ,
] (. )

( , ). - ( ) - (
) ,
( ).
(biological
significance, biological value, BV)
[. bio(s) logos , ] , ,
. .. -
..
,
100.
(biological food value) [. bio(s)
logos , ]
(., , , ). ...
, -

116

, ,
. . .
,
(biologically active substance,
bioactive substance, BAS) [.
bio(s) logos , ] , ,
. ...
, , , , .
... 1989.

( ), ,
(biologically active food supplement,
biologically active food additives,
BAFD) [. bio(s) logos , ; . activus
-] (,
, ..),
. ...
, ,
, ,
,
/

, .. , , , ,
, ,

-
, .
(biological
resurces) [. bio(s)
logos , ; . res-

117

sources , , ] (. ), ,
,
() . .. , ,
, , ..
(biological clock)
[. bio(s) logos , ] ,
,
(.). , .
, (biological control, biocontrol)
[. bio(s) logos , ; . controle ] (), , -
;
(., ) ; 2)
; 3)
,
(., ..
).

(biological cycle of matter) [.
bio(s) logos , ] : -

.
;
.
,
(biochip) [. bio(s) logos , ; . mikros
. chip ]
-, ( .) ,
- ,
. .. -
, , , ,
, , , . .. ( ) .. .
1989.
(biological monitoring) [. bio(s)
logos , ; .
monitor , ]
( ).
, (biological preparation, biobiologicals)
[.
preparation,
bio(s) logos , ; . praeparatus ] -

(,
.), .
.. -,
, . ..
,
( , ,
. .) . ..
, .
,
(biological rad equivalent) [.
bio(s) logos , ; . aequus valens
(valentis) , ,
; . rad(iation) ]
,
,
,
1 ; 1 = 0,01/.
,
t1/2 (biological half-life, t1/2) [.
bio(s) logos , ] ,
. ... ( , .,
)

. ... , -
.
, (biological diversity,

118

biodiversity,
biovariety)
[.
bio(s) logos , ]
, ,
,
;
, . ..
1992. ..
. 1892.

.
(biological
self-purification)
[.
bio(s) logos , ] . ..
(. , , ), ( )
. .. (. , )
(.).
, (biological
containment) [. bio(s)
logos , ]
, ( ) ( ),
.

119

..
.

(bioluminescence) [. bio(s) , .
lumen -escentia ,
]
,
,
;
(.). 30 .
, , , , . . (.) . .
(biom) [. bio(s) .
om(a) , , ] - ,
. , .
(biomarker) [. bio(s)
. marquer ] ,
.
in vitro, in vivo. .: . , . . . . , . . , .., -

.
(biomass) [. bio(s)
. massa , ]
, ,
, (/, /2 .). . , .
, . . 170
. .,
909 .
3025 . .
. , , . . .
, .
(bacterial biomass) . ,
.
(dry biomass)
. .
(crude biomass)
. .
(biomaterials) [.
bio(s) materialis ]
(, ,
.),
, .
(biometrics, biometry)
[. bio(s) metreo ] 1) ,
( ,
..) ; 2)
,
, ( -

) ( . biometry). .:
( ).
(biomimetics) [.
bio(s) mimetes ] ,

. .,


.
(bionanotechnology) [. bio(s) , nano(s)
, techne , logos ] ,

(. ) (. ).
. -
,
,
, .
(bionics) [. bio(s)
. (electro)nics ]
,
.
, (bioburden) [.
bio(s) ]
.
(biont) [. bion (bintos)
] ,
(. ). . : , ..
(bioenrichment) [.
bio(s) ] 1) -

120

; 2) ; .,
,
, . .
(bioscrubbing) [.
bio(s) ]

.
(biorefining) [.
bio(s) ]
(,
). . (. ).

(biodeterioration)
[. bio(s) ] (.,
), /
(
, - ;
.).
(biopolymers) [.
bio(s) polymeres , ] (,
, ),
. . . . .
., .
(. , ),

121

(. ,
).

(biopotency)
[.
bio(s) . potentia
] , ., .
(biological preparation) . ,
.
(bioassay) . , .
(bioprocess) [. bio(s)
proces(sus) ]
1), , ; 2)
.
(biopsy) [. bio(s)
opsis , ] 1)
; 2) ,
.
(biodiversity, biovariety) . , .
(biorefinery) [.
bio(s) . raffiner ] ,
, .
. . (.).
, (bioreactor,
fermenter) [. bio(s) , .
re- , actio ]
,
. -

. ,
,
,
(,
.). .
,

. , . , , , .
, , ,
. . ,
, . . .: (
0,5100 ), ( 100
), (10100
3) . .
, , , , - .
(vortical bioreactor) . .
(membrane
bioreactor) . .
(loop bio
reactor) . .

(filter
bioreactor) . .

(airlift
bioreactor) . .

(bioremediation)
[. bio(s) . remedio
] . ,
.
(biohazard) [. bio(s)
. risque, .
rixikon : . ]
, (., ,
.).
(biorhythms) [. bio(s)
rhithmos -]
(, .) . .
- : . ( .),
( .).
(biosensor) [. bio(s)
. sensus ]

, , , ,

,
(.,
). , Neurospora europea
NH3,
Trichosporon brassiacae . .
:
() - ().
. -

122

,

;
. ,
. ,
, . .
, , .
(bioseston) [. bio(s)
sestos ]
(,
, .).

(biosynthesis)
[.
bio(s) synthesis ] ,
. -
. , ( ,
, ) , . , , . .,
, , . ., , (
) , , ,
, ,

123

. . .
.
(biosome) [. bio(s)
soma ] 1) ,
,

; 2) , , E. coli,
, . , ;
; , (, ,
) ; .
(biosorbents) [.
bio(s) . sorbens ] , , (.,
)
(., ) /
. . , .,
;
,
-
, .
(biostasis) [. bio(s)
stasis , ,
] ( )
(., , -

, .).
(biostatistics) .
.

(biosurfactants)
[. bio(s) . surfactant - ] -
. . :
, , . ,
.
(, ) , .
., ,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa,

.
(biosphere) [. bio(s)
sphaira ]
, ,
.
. () ; , , . . (
), ,
, .
. . 1875. .
.. 1926.
(biota) [. biote ]
, , .

(biological testing)
[. bio(s) . test , ]
,
, ,
(. ).
.
. . .
(biotechnology) [.
bio(s) , techne ,
logos ] () ,

, , . .
:
(
: , , ;

; ); ( , , , , ;
, ,
, , , ;
.);
( , , , . ); -

124

. ( : , ,
, , , , , , - ); . (
; ; - , ;
, ;
;
;
; ); .-. . (
,
, , ,
; ); . ( ;
, , ;
). .
1917. . . ., . ,

. . ; ;
; .
(white biotechnology) . .
(blue biotechnology) . .

125

(green biotechnology) . .
(red biotechnology) . .

(biotechnosphere)
[. bio(s) , techne , . sphaira
]
. ,
. . . 1980.
, (biotin, vitamin H)
[. biot(e) . -in(e)
,

] ,
( D-),
; (. () )
()


(.; , ).
.
(., 1901.). ( . Haut )
. . 1931.

, (biotinylation of nucleic acids, biotin


labeling) [. biot(e)
. -in(e) , ]
(
)
(. , H).
(Kd=10-15). -


(.) . .

(biotinylated DNA) [. biot(e)


.-in(e) ,
] , (.
, )
.
. . .
. 1981.
(biotin labeling) . , .
(biotype) [. bio(s)
typ(os) ] ,

(., ); . . . 1905.
(biotic environment) [. biot(e) ] ,
.
, (. ),
.
(. )
..

.
(biotic factors)
[. biot(e) ; . factor , ]
, . ..


.

. .
.
() (biotic potential, reproductive potential) [. biote ;
. potentia , ] ;
.
(biotope) [. bio(s)
top(os) , ]
,
, . .
(.) (.).
(biofuel) [. bio(s)
] ,
,

(, ,
. .) . .
.
. : ( 2) ,
,
. . .
(biotoxin) [. bio(s)
, toxikon .-in(e) , ]
, (, , .),
., , -

126

, , , , , .

(biotransformation) [. bio(s) .
transformatio ]
, , .
( , ) (
, , , ).
. . , .
. .
, , . , , . . - .
-
(drug biotransformation) [. bio(s) .
transformatio ]
.
...
, , , , ,
.
,
.

127

...
450 --. ( ...)
(, ,
), .

, (
...). ... ,
.

.
.: - .
(biotron) [. bio(s)
thron(os) ] , , . .
(, ) .
, (biotroph, paratroph) [. bio(s) trophe
, ] ,


(.,
).

(biopharmaceutics) [. bio(s) pharmakeutike ] ,


. .
(.)
.

(biopharmaceuticals) [. bio(s) pharmakeutike ] ;

, (.).
. ,
, , , , , .
(biopharming) [.
bio(s) pharmakon ]
(. ()
)

. .
(. ) (. ),
.
(biophile) [. bio(s)
philia , ] ,
(,
, ).
(biofilms) [. bio(s)
. film ]
(, , ), ,

. . (), .
.
, . .
(.) (.). . , , ,
-
;
,

. .
: (St. viridans),
(
-), , (St.
aureus), . .
.
,
.
(bioflavonoids)
., .

(biophosphonates)
[. bio(s) , phos
phoros ]
, -- . , ,
,
,
. . , -, (. ).
. , .

(biochemical luminescence) [.
bio(s) , chemeia , .
lumen -escentia ,
]
(
),
;
. -

128

,
.. .
; .
(bioche-mical mutation) [. bio(s)
chemeia ; . mutatio ] ,
,

, .
.. , ., (.
),
- .
(biochrome) [. bio(s)
chroma ]
, ;
(., (. ) .
.;
,
, . . . 1945 .

(biocenosis,
biocenose,
biocoen) [. bio(s)
koinos ] ,
.
. , ,
. .
. ( )
( ) . .
(.). .
. 1877.
(biocenology, cenobiology, biocoenology) [. bio(s)
, koinos . logos

129

] ,

, (.).
(biocycle) [. bio(s)
kyklos ] 1) , : ,
;

. . , (.);
2) ()
.
(biochip) .
.
(bioequivalence) [. bio(s) . aequivalens , ] . . ,
., (. ) .

(bio-based
economy) [. bio(s) .
oikonomike . ] 1) ,
; 2),
(.).
,
(bioelectronics, biomolecular electronics) [. bio(s)
. elektron , ] , ,
. . -

, .
( ), , . (
, ).
(bioethanol) [. bio(s)
aith(er) ] (99%), ( , ., ,
, .)
. .
10 , .
. .
(biuret reaction)
[. bi , ,
urina ; . re- ,

actio ]



(, ),
, .,

(. )
,


.
(NH2-CO-NH-CO-NH2),
1847 . .
150170.
(bifidobacteria) [.
bifidus .
bacterion ]
Actinomycetaceae, 8090%
,
, .-. . . (. , ) ,
, ; ,

, . .
,
, .
. . 1899.
(bifunctional vector) . , -, .
(bifurcation) [. bifurcus ] ,
, -;
.,
().

(blastomere-like stem cells)


[. blasto(s) ,
mer(os) , ] ,


;
.
(blastospores) [.
blasto(s) , spora
, ] ( )
,
.
.
Candid.

(blastocyst)
[.
blasto(s) , kystis
]
, , (. ), 150 ,
(), , () ,

(.
).

130

(blastula) [. blastos ]

();
. ().

(bleomycin)
[.
ble(nnos) , myces
. -in(e) ,
] (. ), , ;
. .
. . . G2 (. ).
.
. .
Streptomyces verticullus 1962. ( 1966.).

(inbreeding) . , .

(blocked reading frame) (. ), -
-.
-,
, - (blot
hybridization, blotting hybridization,
blot analysis) [. blotting , ; .
hybrida ]
( ),

(, ),
(. )


. . -,
--, -

131

-;
-,
--,
-; -, .
(blotting) [. blotting
, ] , (,
) ( ) , (

), c ,
. . -,
--, -;
-,
--,
-; -, .
(alkaline blotting) . .
(floating mutation) [. mutatio ]
,
()
, , . , ..

.
, (walking primer)
[. primer , ]
,


(. - , ). ..
. -
, , .


.
(plaque)
-, ; .
.
. .
,
(plaque-forming unit, PFU) ,
(. ) . .. .
(castoreum) ., .
(Pribnow box)
. .
(Hogness box)
. , -.
(bolus dose) [. bolus,
. bolos , ; . dosis ] , .
(bonitet, growth class, yield
class ) [. Bonitt, . bonitas
] ,
, . . , .
(growth class), . .-.
(yield class) . ., . ,

.

.
-,
(bottom recessive) [. bottom
, ; . recessus -

, ] ,
.
(BOD) . , .
(gap) .,
( ).
(zymosis)
(,
, , ), ,
(., ), , ,
, 2 . . .: ( ), ; ( ),
(. , ) ; ( ), , (.,
); (
),
. .
. . ,
. . .
. 1857.
, (bromodeoxyuridine, BrdU) [. brom(os)

132

, . des-, . de-
, , , , -,
. oxys , ur(on)
. -in(e) , ]
(.),
;
.
.
, . . .
.
(ethidium bromide) . .
(bromodomain) [.
br(ah)m(a) , . dominium ] (. (2))
110 , -
. . 75 ,
(. ).
( ) .,
,
.
, ., ( brm) . . 1992. . .
(heat-shock proteins, HSP)
. .
(burdo, burdon) [. burdo
] (), . . (
) . 1912. .

133

(busulfan) [. bu(tanediol
dimethane) sulf(onate) . an(e) , ]
,
.
. . ,
1959.
(butanol) [. but(yron)
, ]
(C4H9OH), ; , ,
.
(butyrates) [. butyr(on)
, ] , .
, , ;
. . .
, (buffer)
[. buffer, buff
] ,
(. )
;
(., 3 CH3COONa)
(.,
N3 NH4Cl). pH

,

. . ,
, ,
(
).
(running buffer)
. .
(buffer capacity)
(., ) pH, ,
. ., ..
() ;
. .. - .

(rapid amplification of cDNA
ends, RACE) [. amplificatio , ]
(. , )
(. , ), 3'-
5'-
( 3'RACE 5'RACE
),
.
,
(bovine serum albumine, BSA)
[. albumen (albuminis) ]
,
582 ,

,


.


(vaccine) [. vaccinus ] ,
(. ),
(. ), / . .
, (. ; ; .),

(. ; ; ). . ( ) . 1796 . .
1881. .. . , .
(avianized vaccine) . .
(adsorbed
vaccine) . .
(attenuated vaccine) . .
(autogenic vaccine) . .
(DNA vaccine) .
-.
(live vaccine)
. .
(live-virus
vaccine) . .

(mucosal vaccine) .M .
(peptide vaccine) . .
(recombinant vaccine) .
.
(polyvalent
vaccine) . .
(subunit
vaccine) . .
(edible vaccine)
. .
(vaccination) . , .
(valeology) [. valeo
logos ] ,
. . ,

, , ,
, .
.
80-.
..
(validation) [. validation , ,
. validus , ]
(), ,
, ,
,

135

. .
() (. ()
,
).
(validated
target) [. validation , , . validus
, ; . nisan
] (),


.
, (valin, Val) [. val(eriana) , , Valeria -in(e) ,
]
-
[(3)2(NH2)COOH], (. ; ). . , (. , 3) (. ), , .
, , . . . 1901. ( 1902.).
(valproic acid)
[. val(eric acid) , (Eupithecia) valeri(anata), .
pro pion ] 2- , .
c .
.
1882.

(vanillin) [. vanille
,
. -in(e) ,
] (4---) , ,
, . .
. . .
( ,
,
. .), . . . . 1874.

(variability)
., .
() (variable
surface glycoprotein, VSG) [. variable , . varians
; . glykys
. proteine, . protos .-in(e) , ]
, , ,
-.
(variable
region, variable part) [. variable , . varians
]
N- ( )
(. ),
(.).
(variant) [. varians (variantis) ] 1) ,
()
; 2),



,
.
(variation) [. variatio ] 1), , ,
; 2) ,

(.). . , ; .
() (upstream) [. transcriptio ] ,
( )
, .,
... . . ().
(vegetative phase)
[. vegetativus ,
. vegetare , ;
. phasis ] ,
(
), , , (. , ). ..
, , ,
-.
(vegetative) [. vegetativus , .
vegetare , ]
1) -

136

,
( , , ;
);
2) (. ; ).
(vegetative reproduction) [. vegetativus
, . vegetare ,
] ,
, ,
. ..
, a;
( ), ( e
, ).
..

( , ). .. , . ..

(.).
(vegetative
hybrid) [. vegetare , ; . hybrida ] (.(1)), , ; ..
().
. .
(vegetation
method) [. vegetatio , ; . methodos ] , (-

137

, , ), , .
.. ,
( ),
.
(vegetative
period, vegetative season) [.
vegetatio , ;
. periodos , ] 1) ,
()
;
.
..
(
, )

(
).
..
; . ..
, ;
2), ;
.-. .
(vesicle) [. vesicula ]
,
; .
., .
(. ) , . . . .

( ), , .
(vector) [. vector ,
] (, , .) ,
;
/
. . ; ; .
(amplicone
vector) . -, .
(binary vector)
. .
(bifunctional vector) . , -, .
(hybrid vector)
. .
(dicistronic
vector) . .
(replacement
vector) . .
(inducible expression vector)
. .
(insertion
vector) . .

(cloning
vector) . ,
.
(linearized
vector) . .
(directional
vector) . .

(disarmed
vector) . .
(plasmid vector) . .
(intermediate
vector) . .
(retroviral
vector) . .
(self-inactivating retrovirus vector) . .
(open reading frame vector)
[. vector , ]
(. ,
), (. , , ),
, AT (., laZ,
.).
(suicide vector) . , .
(superlinker
vector) . .
(targeting
vector) . .
(transcription vector) . , .
(shuttle vector)
. , -,
.
(expression
vector) . ,
.

(expression shuttle vector) . .
(vector capacity) [.
vector , ] -

138

, (.). .,

10 . ..,
1520. .., 35
45..., 400. .. .
- (suicide vector)
. , .
, (vernalization, jarovization) [. vernus
]
( ) (. )
( ).
. . .,
Arabidopsis thaliana Flc
, Vrn2
. . 1918. .. 1929.
.
. .
1933. . ..
-, (Western blotting) [. western blotting ]
, -,

(. , --,
--).

,
(

),
(). -

139

( () ) ( () ). .
. 1979., .-. . 1981.
(biologically active substance) . , .

(physiologically active substance)
. , .
(mutual
translocation) [. trans locatio ] (.), ( ).

(mutual
exclusion)

().
.. (
);
.. (. (2)).

(drug interactions) , . ... , , ,


-
, .
, .. ... ,

(), ().
(vivarium) [. vivarium,
vivus ]
,
.
(viviparity) [. viviparus ] , , .
. ; .
(., ).
(vivisection) [. vivus
sectio ] ,

, ..
(species)
,
,
. . , .
. . 1693. ., .
, :
;
. ,
2. .
(endangered species) . .

(vicarious species, vicariant) .


.
(visualization) [. visualis ]
, .
(vicarious species, vicariant) [. vicarius ]
, ( )
( ) .
(wilt) [. wilt ] , . . ,
Verticillium dahliae (
.) Fusarium oxysporum ( .). 350
. ,
(.),
.
, .
. , , , , , , , ,
, .
(virion) [. virus ] ()
, ( ),
,
.
. ( , , ) , , ., -
(. , ). .
-

140

.
. .
(virogeny) [. virus
. geneia , ]
-,
;
.
, .,
. .
(. ). .
;
.
(viroids) [. virus
. eidos ]
, , (
). 2 .: Avsunviroidae Pospiviroidae. .
( 247 401 .),
. . . . ( .. ), , , .
, .

-. . , , ..
, , ,
. .
. (. ) 1971 .
..
(virosoma) [. virus
. soma ]
,

141

( ),
.
. . (, ) . ., .


.
(virotheraphy) [.
virus . therapeia , , ]

, . . , , , , , . .

(., , ),
.
,
,
. ,
,
, . , ,

.
-

, .
(virtual
screening) [. virtualis
; . screening , ] . in silico.
(virulence
unit) [. virulentus ]
,
. ..

, 80% .

(dosis
certe letalis).
(virulence) [. virulentus ] , ,
: , 50- 50- .
. . ,
.

III,

,
.
, -. . .
(virulicidity) [.
virus caedo ]

.
(virus) [. virus ] , (20
400), -

,

,

; . . ,
(
)
(. - ; ).
. .
,
, .
,
,
.

. :
(. ), (. ) (. ).
(., ),
(. ), (. ). . : 60 30, 90
10. . , -,
. . ,
. . (. ) . . 1892., .
. 1899.
(amphotropic
virus) . .
(defective virus)
. .
(excluded virus)
. .

142

(lysogenic virus)
. .
(lytic virus)
. .
(oncogenic virus)
. () .
(recombinant
virus) . .
(satellite virus)
. .
(chimeric virus)
. .
(ecotropic virus)
. .
-
(viral-induced insertional
mutagenesis) [. virus .
inductio ; . inserto
, ; . mutatio
genesis ] , ,
-,
(., , ). . .
(viral adapttion) [. virus ; . adaptatio
] 1)

;
2) ,
, .
., ,
,
.. ( ) , . . .

143

(viral adsorption) [. virus ; . ad ,


sorbeo ] , .
; .

, , (., , )
(),
(., ). ,

, ,

. ,
.
- (helper virus) [.
virus . help ]
,
(. ) -. .,

(. )
..,
,
.
- (symbiotic viruses) [. virus , . sym
biontos ] ,
.

(virucide) [. virus
caedere ] ( , ),
. . , ,
, ,
. .
.: , .
(vital staining) [. vita ] .
,
..,
, . .. , .
(vital genes) [.
vita ; . genos , ] ,
; ,
.., (. ).
(vitamin A) .,
.
1 (vitamin B1) .,
1.
2 (vitamin B2) ., 2.
3 (vitamin B3) . , 3.
4 (vitamin B4) . ,
4.
6 (vitamin B6) . , 6.
9 (vitamin B9) . , 9.
12 (vitamin B12) ., 12.
13 (vitamin B13) . , 13.
(vitamin C) . , .
D (vitamin D) ., D.

(vitamin E) ., .
(vitamin H) .,
H.
1 (vitamin H1) . , 1.
(vitamin K) ., .
PP (vitamin PP) . , PP.
(vitamins) [. vita
. amino NH2,
ammonia , . . sal
ammoniacus , ] 1) , , ,


. . , ;
. .,

: (., ), B1 (., 1),
B2 (. , , 2), B3 (. , 3), 6 (. , 6), B9 (. , 9), B12 (.,
12), B13 (. , 13), C (. , ), D (., D), (. , ), H (., H), H1 (.
, 1), (., ), (., PP) . .
: (, ) (A, D, E K). .
,

144

, . .
;
.
(., , B12, H) .
(.); 2) ,
. . (. ). ., 12
-,
.
. 1880 .
... 1912. .
, -,
. . 1929.
. ..
(withanolides) [ .
Withan(ia) (somnifera) .
lactone , . lactis ] , , .
60- .

Withania somnifera (. Solanaceae).

(.,
, .). .
. ,

.
(vitellogenesis) [. vitellus genesis , ] -

145

,
() ,
( )
( ).
(vortical bioreactor) [. bio(s) , .
re- , actio ] (. ,
),



,


; .
(vicinism) [. vicini ] ;
. .
(., ).
(cell
inclusions) .
, ,
.
(extracellular
matrix, pericellular matrix) [. matrix ; ]
, , .
.. : (.), (. )
(. ,
). ..

(. ) (. ). , , ,
. ,

.

(off-system unit of measurement) [. unite de mesure hors
systeme] , , .
1 (
) = 1 /2 = 98,0665
1 ( ), 760
1 = 1,0332
/2 = 101,325.
() (downstream) [. transcriptio ] ,
( )
, .
.
. ().

(internal
irradiation)
(. ),
, . .
.
(intrinsic proteins) 1), () ; 2),

; ,
,

(. ).
(internal ribosomal entry site,
IRES) [. site , ; . ribo(se) ,
. arabinose
. soma ] ,
,
, c
(. ).
. , .

(internal transcribed spacer,


ITS) [. transcriptio ; . spacer , ] , (), , (. (1));

(. ).
(intrinsic activity) [. activus ]
. . .. ()
( , ..
) ( ),
(. ; ).

146

.. .
1964.

(internal
guide
sequence) ,
5'-,
.
. . 1983.
(intraspecific) ,
(., . ).
(intraspecific cross)
,
,
(.(1)).
(intragenic recombination) [. genes
, ; .
re- , , combinatio ]
(. (2)),
; ..
(. )
, ,
.
(intragenic
suppression) [. genes , ; . suppressio ] . .,

, , , . . .
,
(intragenic gene, nested gene) [.
genes , -

147

] , .
..
. .. timp, ,
syn1 ( ),
- . .
, , (intracellular
inclusions, intracellular bodies)

( ),

( , , , . .). .,
, Pseudomonas, -,

(. ) .. ..
. , ..
(.,
),
.

.. (.,
). . .
(intracellular)
(., .
,
).
(intrageneric) (., .,
).

(intrageneric cross)
, ,

(. (1)).
(intracytoplasmic sperm
injection, ICSI) [. kytos ,
plasma ; . injectio ; .
sperma ]
. , . , , . ., .
, (.) ,
.
(intracytoplasmic inclusions)
[. kytos ,
plasma ] , - , ,
, ,
. ..
,
,
( )

, ,
. ..,
, , ., -

( ) ( ); , 46 90500, , , -,
. .., ,
, . .. (.,
,
). . ,
, .
(water treatment)
, .
. : (
),
( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), (., ).
, - (hydrogen
bond, H bond) ,
, 510
;

(
). -

148

, .. ,


.
(hydrogen
ion concentration, pH)
, . .. () 7,0; <7,0
, 14,0>>7,0 ;

(., ). . 1909. pH,
. Potenz () .
(algae)
, .
.
(., .), (., ) .
.
(). , . .
.
.
., Chlorella
Scenedesmus.
,
.
Scenedesmus
. . . - ; . , ,
, -

149

, . , , ,
,
. . , , , . .
,
.
(water bath) ,
(. ).
(excitation)
, ;
.
, .
.
: ,
( ), , .
(age group)

( ) .
,
(backcross) F1 () ,
( ).

(reducing bacteria) [. bacterion


] , . ., -..
. .. , , , .
.

(deoxidizing agent,
reductant) , . . Fe
(, 2, , ,
, ), (, Si, Al, Na,
Ca, Mg, La), ,
(2, NH3, CH4 .) ..
, (imbibition) 1)
, , ., , ;
2) .
(detrimental mutation, deleterious mutation) [.
mutatio ] ,

( 10 <100%);
.. .
., 90%
10%
.
(hazardous substances) ,

. ., .. , , , . .
..
( , , , .)
(, , .).
:
, , .

.. ,


,

. . .
(generation time)
[. generatio , ]
,
(. ). .
.
(doubling time) ,
, ,
. .., ,
(. ), ,
..
, (congenital,
habitual, innate, inborn, inherent)
[. genuinus ] ( ), , () ,
( ) ( ). ., . , .
(innate immunity) . , .
(shake culture) [. cultus , ] , ,

()
(. )
.
(secondary structure of protein) [.

150

structura , ]

a- () . . .
(second
messenger) [. messenger ] . , .
, (secondary metabolite, idiolite) [. metabole ] , , -
, , (, , ,
, .). , .., ,
. -

( ); ..
. ..

( , )
,
. ..
,
. , , ,
; .. .
..
,
(. ). -

151


..

.
. ,
1940- ., . . 1942.
,
(secondary mediator,
second messenger) ,
(, .) . ..
-3',5'-,
-3',5'-, , ,
, (NO) . .
..
:

(. );
, Ca2+- .
: , ,
,
. .
(survival)
, ( ). . -

. .
, .

- () .
()
(deduced amino acid sequence) [.
amino NH2, ammonia , . sal ammoniacus , ] ,
, .. .
, (fossil)
(),
(., ,
.).
(extinction)


, . .
;
,
.
. , .
(gene expression)
. , .
(excision) ..
(code degeneration, degeneracy) [. code
, ] , ,
(., , ); -

(. ). . 1961.
(degenerate
codons) [. code , ]
, . .
(. ) 4 : , ,
. .. , 20
62 .
(degenerate
primers) [. primer , ] (.
(), ),
;

(. ,
) , .
(highly
repetitious DNA)
,
, .
(. )
(.) .
()
. , ,
( 2 300 ..).
.
(. ).

(high throughput screening, HTS)
[. screening , ]

-
(.,
, ).

152

5'-(3')-
(5'-(3')-overhanging end)
(. )
5'- ( 3'-) .
(pulse-chase)
,
,

; ..
, ..
(subtractive hybridization) [. hybrida
] , , ()

(, , )
.
..,
(. ,
) (. , ).
(leaching) ( )

(, , ,
)
(. ).

(bacterial leaching) . .


(G) (. , )
.
(habitus) [. habitus ,
, ] ;
, , . . . .
80- .
..
(gasation) [. gaz, .
chaos ] (
-, ) , ( ),
, , , . . . . .
(lawn) [. gazon , ] ,
,
.
(gas chromatography) [. gaz, .
chaos ; . chroma
grapho , ] (.), ().
( )
- ( , -

). ..

; - (
, , .). ..
,
(10-410-8%). ..
. . (1952.).
(gasotransmitters)
[. gaz, . chaos
. transmitter, . transmitto
, ] , ,
. . , NO,
CO H2S.
(gas
sensitivity of plants) [. gaz,
. chaos ] c

. ..
(.) (,
.).
(galactose) [. gala (galactos) . -ose ,
] ,
(.).

. . .
-

. , ., , -1-, . , , , , , .
(galacto-lipid) .
.
(gallic acid) [.
galla ]
, , ,
, . . .
.. , . -
, .
,
.
.. . 1785.

(halobionts)
[.
hals(halos) biontos ] , .
(haloxerophytes) [.
hals (halos) , xeros
phyton ] .
(halophils) [. hals(halos)
phileo ] ,
( ,
, . .).
-. (. ). .

154

1532% (., Halobacterium Halococcus).


., ,
(.).
(halophytes) [. hals
(halos) phyton ]
,
(, , .).
.
, .
(halophobes) [. hals
(halos) phobos ] , ;
.
.
, , , .
(galbanum) [ . (Ferula) galbani(flua)
]
,
(Ferula
galbaniflua), . ,
, . . , . .,

.
(galvanization) [
. ] ,
(3080 ) ( 50
); , . -

155


.
-
(1791.).
(unreduced
gamete) . .
(gametogenesis) [.
gametes , gamete genesis , ] (.).
(gametophyte) [. gametes , gamete phyton ] , ()
(.),
() .
(gametocide) [. gamete , gametes . caedere ] ,
. . ; (.,
, ,
, .).
(gametocidal gene,
Gc gene) [. gamete , gametes . caedere ;
. genos , , ] ,

, . , .., .
( ). .. . .-

1975 . Triticum aestivum c


Aegilops.
(gametes) [. gamete
, gametes ] , () . .
. .,

. . .
1902.
-
,
(gamma-aminobutyric acid,
GABA) [. gamma
. ,
; . amino
NH2, ammonia ,
. . sal ammoniacus
, ]

(HOOCH2CH2CH2NH2),

(. ),
(.). .-.. . .-..

, , -,

.
( ),
, -
, , . .-.. . . 1950.
- (gammacarboxylation) [. gamma . , , .

carbo . oxys ]
( ) ,
(., ).
.-., ,


(.).
.-. 1974.
(gamone) [. gamos ]
, (. ), ( ).
. , ,
;
.
(gamont) [. gamos
on (ontos) , ] , ,
; . , , (. , ),
, .
(.,
).
(gamontogamy) [.
gamos , on (ontos) , gameo ]
(. )
(. ) .
(gangliosides) [.
ganglion eidos ] (. ), , , ,
;
. . -

156

:
,
,
, ,
, . .
. 1935. ( ); . . 1942.
(gancyclovir, ganciclovir) [.]
[9-(1,3--2-)
], . ,
.
(., ., ) , ,
.
1980 . . . . .: .
. , .
(haplosufficient allele) [. haploos , , ; .
allelon , ] , , ..
()
,
..
(haploinsufficient allele, simple insufficient
allele) [. allelon , ; . haploos , , ] , , . .

.
(haploid) [. haploos , , eidos ] , -

157

,
,
, ;
(., ). . . 1905.
(haploidy) [. haploos
, ,
eidos ] , () .
(haplome) [. haploos , , .
om(a) , , ] , () , ,
;
. (.).

(haplomict)
[.
haploos , , mixis , ]
, ,
.
. .
1916.
(haplotype) [. haploos
, ,
typ(os) ]

.
, , (haptens) [. hapto
, , ] ,
. .
, ,

. ,
(,
). .
, . .: ) ,
() (. ); ) ,
, . . . 1923.
. .

(haptoglobin)
[.
hapto , ,
, . globus
-in(e) , ] ,
,

, . .
,
. .
1938. . ..
- (G-proteins) [. g(uanosine)
(triphosphate) ]
, (. , ),
.
(, , ) ,
-. -.

(); -.,
(., ),
( )

.
-.
,
. -. -, , . ,

( )

-. . -.
.
.
1994.
(hexaploid) [. hex
, plos eidos
] , (6n).
(hexoses) [. hex
. -ose , ] (,
.); ,
(., ).
-
, (helicasedependent isothermal amplification,
HDA) [. helix (helikos) ; . iso therme
; . amplificatio , ] in vitro (. (1)), in vivo. - (. -,
), ,
(SSB), (.
(1)), -,

158

.
.. ,
, .
.-... 2004 .
M., . ..
(helicases) [. helix ] ,
, . -.
, , , . -. , , -, .
, .. . (., ). . . . 1978.
(heliophytes) [. helios
phyton ] , -,
; (., , , - .). .
.
(gel) [. gel(are) ]
, ( , ,
); . (., ). . () ().
- (gel filtration) [.
gel(are) ; . filtrum ] ,

159



. .-.
() (), .
, .
,
. ,
, ,
. . .-. 1959. . .,
( )
. .: .
- (gel eletrophoresis) [. gel(are) ; .
elektron , phoresis
, ]
.
-. (., .,
-
;
-, ).
-

(pulsed field
gradient gel electrophoresis, PFGGE)
[. ge(lare) , . elektron , phoresis , ; . gradiens (gradientis) , ; .
pulsus , ]

, ,
1 90 ; ,
( , . )
100 2000 .
..
- (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) . , .
-
(pulsed field gel eletrophoresis,
PFGE) [. gel(are) , .
elektron , phoresis
, ; . pulsus
, ] ( 10 . ..) ,


, . , . . (, , ). ,

(, , , ).
.
.
. . 1984.
-
(temperature gel gradient
electrophoresis) . -

-,
.
(heme, haeme) [. haima
]
,
, ; , . (. ). .
. 1897.

(haemagglutinins) ..
(hematinic, haematinic)
[. haima (haimatos) ]
. ., . .
(hematogenic, haematogenic) [. haima (haimatos)
genes , ] ; ,
, ,
.

(hematoxylin, haematoxylin) [. haima


(haimatos) , xylon
. -in(e) , ] , ;
.
(hemizygocity) [.
hemi- , zygots ] ,
. ,
, , -, .
., , -,
, ;

160

F0-,


(. ; ).
(haemin) [. haima
. -in(e) ,
]
(.), .

(hemiolodiploidy) . , .

(hemimethylation) [. hemi- , .
methyl CH3, . methy
, ] ,
(. )
.
(hemiploid) [. hemi-
, ,
ploos eidos ] (),
. ..
(hemicelluloses) [.
hemi- , , . cellulose . cellula,
. ,
. -ose ,
]
(., ) ,
. .
(.) , -,

. .


. .
(, )
(, , ); . , , -

161

. . 40%;
. (1741%),
,
, . .

.
, , , , .. (.) . .
.

.
(hemodes, haemodes) [.
haima . des- , ]
,
, , ..
. . ,
, . ., . .
(hemodialysis, haemodialysis) [. haima dialysis
, ]

.
(hemolysis, haemolysis) [.
haima lysis , , ]
.
.
( 12 ) . . , ,
(

) .
. . .
(hemopoiesis, haemopoiesis)
[. haima poiesis ] ( )
,
: , .

(hematopoietic stem cell, haematopoietic stem cell, HSC) [. haima
poiesis ] ,
(, , .);
...

. ..., , ,
., , .
(hemotoxins, haemotoxins) [. haima , toxikon
.-in(e) ,
] ,
, (.).
, (hemoproteins) [. haima
. proteine , . protos .-in(e) ,
] ,
.
. (
),
( ). .
, ,
. . ,

(. ), , 2, , -
.
(gene) [. gen(os) , ]
, - ,
( ) , ( ). .
1909. .;
,
.,
, . 1868.
(ambivalent
gene) . .
(intronless gene)
. .
(intragenic gene,
nested gene) . .
(gametocidal
gene, Gc gene) . .
(hybrid gene) .
.
(hypermorphic
gene) . , .
(hypomorphic
gene) . , .
(hypostatic
gene) . .
(nested gene) . , .

(holandric
gene) . .
(naked gene) . .
(diagynic gene)
. .

162

(diandric gene)
. .
(wild type gene)
. .
(dominant gene)
. .
(donor gene) . .
(dependent gene)
. .
(isolation gene)
. .
(isomorphic gene)
. .
(artificial gene)
. .
(controlling
gene) . .
(cryptomeric
gene) . .
(cumulative
gene) . .

(gene of drug resistanse) [.


gen(os) , ] ,
,
.
.
(lethal gene) . .
(marker gene)
. , .
(mimic gene)
. .
(minor gene) . .
(mutable gene)
. .
(neomorphic gene)
. , .
(operator gene)
. .

163

(major gene, master


gene) . .
(polymitotic
gene) . .
(polymorphic
gene) . .

(polyergic
gene) . .
(regulator gene)
. .
()
(antibiotic resistance
gene) [. gen(os) , ; . resistere ;
. anti bios (biotikos)
] , (.)

, (.,
bla, (.).
(reporter gene)
. .
(recessive gene)
. .
c,
(suicide gene) .
, .
c (composite gene)
. .
(structural gene)
. .

(suppressor
gene) . , .
(chimeric gene)
. .
, (gene delivery, gene transfer) [. gen(os)
, ] (), ) - , )
(. ), )

.
.. (.; ; ; .).
(gene knockout) [.
gen(os) , ; .
knock-out ]

. . ;
.
(gene knockin) [.
gen(os) , ; .
knock-in ]
,
(. ) , ;
..
. .
; .
(gene manifestation)
[. gen(os) , ]
, , ; ,
(.).
- (antimutator gene)
[. gen(os) , ,
. anti . mutans ] ,

;
- (. ).
-, -
(exaggeration gene, intensifier) [.
gen(os) , ; .
intensio , ]
, . .
-.

- (candidate gene) [.
gen(os) , .
candidatus ] ,
(
) .
- () (antibiotic
resistance marker gene, ARMG) [.
gen(os) , .
marquer ; . resistere ; . anti
bios (biotikos) ] (
),
(, , .) (.);
(. ) (. , ).
- (target gene) [.
gen(os) , .
nisan ] 1),
; 2),
(., , . ).
- (modifying gene,
modifier) [. gen(os) , . modificare , ] ,
,
(. ; -; ). .-.

, - () ; .-.,
( ),
..
- (mutator gene) [.
gen(os) , .

164

mutans ] , ; -
(.-).
- (diluting gene) [.
gen(os) , ] (. -),

.
- (suppressor gene) [.
gen(os) , .
suppressio ] . , -.
- (trigger gene) [.
gen(os) , .
trigger ] ,
. .-. D3,
, ,

.
- (exaggeration gene)
.
-,
.
(genesis) [. genesis , ] , ; ,
, , .

(genealogy)
[.
genealogia ] , . , ,
,
.
. -

165

. , ,
;
, ,
.
(generalization) [.
generalis ] ( )
.
(general
totality) [. generalis , , ] , . , .., ().
(generative
mutation) [. generate ,
; . mutatio ] , ; ..
,
.
(generative) [. generate , ]
-. ., .
, . .
. .
(antithelic
generations) .
.
(generation) [. generatio , ]
1) , (. ); 2), ,
.
(lead generation)
[. generatio , ; . leader , -

] c , ,
.
(genetics) [. genetikos
, ] ; , . ,
, . , , , ,
. .
. , (1865 .),
. ,
(1910- .). .
. 1906.
()
(genetic
variation,
hereditary variation) [. genetikos
, ] ,
( ). .. (.) (. ) , (. , ).
.: .
()
(genetic engineering) [. genetikos , -

; . ingenieur , . ingenium , ] , (. ), (. (2)), (. ; )


(., ). ..
in vitro
, .
70. XX. ..
1972., ., ., .
.
,
SV40, E. coli.
. 1980 .
..
. 1941.
(genetic
information) [. genetikos , ;
. informatio , ]
,
.
(genetic map)
. ,
.
(genetic
coadaptation) [. genetikos , ; . adaptare
] , (. )

166

(. (1)).
. .
(genetic
colonization) [. genetikos , ;
. colonia ] , ( ),
,
; ..

(Agrobacterium),

.
(gene
manipulation, genetic manipulation) [. genetikos
, ; .
manipulation, . manus ]
(. () ) in vitro
.
(genetic
modification) [. genetikos , ;
. modificatio , ]
. . . : (
) , in vitro,
, (.), (. ;
), (. (2)), (. ,
) .
(genetic incompatibility) [. genetikos , ] -

167

,
(. ). .. . .,
.. .
(genetic instability) [. genetikos , ; . stabilis , ] ,
( )
. ..

: ,
, , , , . .. ,
(.
(, ) , , ). , ,

(., ),
(., , ). . .
(genetic
flexibility) [. genetikos , ;
. plastikos ] (. ) . ..
.
(genetic
recombination) [. genetikos , -

; . re- ,
,
combinatio ]
(. , ) (. ). . .
(genetic system)
[. genetikos , ; . systema , ,
]

( ), .
(genetic
stability) [. genetikos , ;
. stabilis , ]
, . . .
(genetic structure of population)
[. genetikos , ; . structura , ; . populus , ] (. ), ( , x ) , ; ...

(.).
(genetic
fixation) [. genetikos , ;
. fixation, . fixus ,
, ]
()
, . .
.. , -

, (genetically modified food, GMF) [. genetikos , ; . modus , facio


] , (. , )
,
.
, (genetically modified
organism, GMO) [. genetikos
, ; . modus , facio ; . organismus
, ] , , (. () ; ,
). ...
-
. .:
(. ; ).
(genetic
algoritms) [. genetikos , ;
Algorithmi ]
, ,
,
(., , .). ..
;
, -

168


.
(genetic
anomalies) [. genetikos , ; . anomalia
] ,
/
. (. ). ..

.
(genetic resources) [. genetikos , ;
. ressources , ,
] , , .

(genetic
analysis) [. genetikos , ;
. analysis , ]

,
. ..
,
.
(genetic bank)
[. genetikos
, ; .
banque ] 1) ,
, ; 2)

(., , , .)
,
. ..
,

169

, .., ,

, . (. ).
(genetic homeostasis) [. genetikos , ;
. homoios , stasis , ] ,

;

. .: .
(genetic load,
genetic burden) [. genetikos , ] ; , (., ). ..
, , . .. .
1937.
(genetic code) [.
genetikos ,
; . code ,
]


, ,


(. ),
, , . ..
(
)
. (
16 ) .. , .. .
,
Acetabularia
- , Candida - ,
. .. , -
21- ,
20 . ,

.
- 22- .
.. . 1954 . 1966.
X. , . , .
( 1968.).

(genetic
marker) . , .

(genetic
passport) [. genetikos , ;
. passe porte , ] -

,
, , , ,

(., ),

, (., , ), , (.,
, ).
.. .
1996.
(genetic
polymorphism) [. genetikos , ; . polys morphe
, , ] .
, , . ..

, : , , ..
.. ,
- ,
, .
: ) (., , - ); ) (.,
),
; )
(.,

170

); ) (., ). . .
(genetic risk)
[. genetikos , ]
(. ) ; .. x , ..
(genetic
blocking) [. genetikos , ; . block , ] , - ,

(.,
).
..: (), ,
.
(genetic
mapping) [. genetikos , ;
. charta , ]

(),
:
, , ,

().
. , ; ; .
(genetic
cloning) [. genetikos , ;

171

. clon , ]
()
()

(. )
.
(genetic
background) [. genetikos , ]
, .
(genetic
equilibrium) [. genetikos , ]
- (.).
(genetic sequencing) ..

(genetic
similarity) [. genetikos , ]
(,
. .), ,
.
(genetic
improvement) [. genetikos , ]
.
, 418 (geneticin, G418)
[.] (. ), (. ). . ,

( ).

. 3'-. , . (.,
neo), (. ) , .,
-
(. ). . Micromonospora rhodorangea
. . 1974.
(genin) ., .
(genetic immunization) [. gen(os) ,
; . immunis , -]
(.
), ,
.
(.), .
..,
, ,
. .: -.
(genetic engineering) . () .
(gene conversion)
[. gen(os) , ;
. conversio , ] , . ..


.

..: ) .. ; ) .. .

. . 1928., .. . 1930. ..
2:2 -, . 1949.

,


.
(gene mutation) [.
gen(os) , ; .
mutatio ] , - . ..
:
. ,
; , -
. ..
, ;
.
(gene network) [.
gen(os) , ]
,
, ,

172

.. ., .. , ..
.

..
ex vivo (ex vivo gene
therapy) [. gen(os) , ; therapeia , , ; . ex vivo ] ( ) in vitro
. . in vivo.
in vivo (in vivo gene
therapy) [. gen(os) , ; therapeia , , ; in vivo ]
-
(
) () . .. in vivo
, .
, . ..
in vivo

. , .
- -
, , -

173

.
, ,
,
1990. .
. . ex vivo.
(antisence gene therapy) . .
(gene expression profiling) [. gen(os) ,
; . expressio ; . profil
]
,
. ...
,

(.,
). ... (
, ),
( , , ).
(genetic balance) [.
gen(os) , ; .
balance ] ,

.
(. ) ..
(. ).
(gene pool) . .
(genodeme) [. genos
, , .
deme , . dymos ] (. ),
(.-

); .
(genocopy) [. gen(os)
, , .
copia ] 1)

, ,
. .
(.,
, ); 2) , .
. .
(genome) [. gen(os) ,
, .
-om(a) , , ]
c , , .
.
(., Mycoplasma genitalium .
500 . ..), . .. (.,
3,2 . ..). , .
(. - ). . Haemophilus influenzae (1995 .).
. . 1920.

(negative
genome) . .
(positive genome) . .
(genome instability) [. gen(os) , -

, . -om(a)
, , ; . stabilis
]
(. ) (, ),
. .. . .. (.
(, ) , , ).
(genomics) [. gen(os)
, ,
omics c, , , ; ]
, (. )
, . . . 1995.,
Haemophilis influenza
Mycoplasma genitalia. . 1987.

(genomic
library) [. gen(os) , , . -om(a)
, , ; . biblion
theke ]
, ,

(. , ). .. (
), -

174


. (N)
.. N
= ln(1-p)/ln(1-x/y), x
, y , p
,
.. 1 (p 0,99). .. . .. (. ;
). .: , .
in situ (genomic in situ hybridization, GISH)
[. gen(os) , , . -om(a) ,
, ; . hybrida ; . in
situ ] in situ (. in
situ), , ,
; , , .

(genospheres)
[.
gen(os) , , sphaira ]
(70100)
,
,
.
, (gene
therapy) [. gen(os) , therapeia , ,

175

]

, . . ex
vivo; in vivo.
(genotype) [. gen(os)
, typ(os) ]
, ( , c, ), (
)
(. ).
. , . .
.
, . . . 1909.
(genotyping) [.
gen(os) ,
typ(os) ]
. , .
.
, . .
.
(genotoxic) [.
gen(os) ,
toxikon ] , -
.
(gene pool) [. gen(os)
, . fond,
. fundus ] -

(),
,
,
. (.)
. . . .. 1928.
(genophore) [. gen(os)
, phoros ] ;
, ,
() .
(gentamicin, gentamycin)
[. gent(ian violet) ,
. myc(es) .-in(e) , ]
(.), 30S
.
,
.
, .
, ,
, . .
Micromonospora,
. . 1963.
(autarchic genes)
. .
(additive genes)
. .
(allelic genes)
. .
(vital genes)
. .
(heteromeric
genes) . .

(hyparchic genes)
. .

(global regulatory genes) . .
(homeotic genes)
. .
(homodynamic genes) .
.
(homologous
genes) . .

(homomeric
genes) . .
, (housekeeping
genes, constitutive genes) [.
gen(os) , ; .
onstitutif ] , , , , (., -),

- , . ... ()

, . (. ).

. ... (. ).
(duplicate
genes) . .
(compensation genes) .
.
(complementary genes, reciprocal genes)
. , .

176

(constitutive
genes) . , .
(xenologous
genes) . .

(multiple
genes) . ,
, .

(transposable
genes) . ()
, .
(silent genes)
., .

(surveillance
genes) . .
- () (immediate early genes)
. - ()
.

(incompletely linked genes) . .


(overlapping
genes) . .
(pluripotency genes) . .
(polymeric genes)
. , , .
(polyplicate
genes) . .
(bidirectional genes) . .
(split genes)
. .

(reciprocal
genes) . ,
.
(luxury genes) [.
gen(os) , ]
,
(., -
); .. -

177

(.
).
(symbiotic
genes) . .
(contiguous genes)
. .

(stacked
genes) . .

c
(sublethal
genes) . .
(geobiont) [. ge
biontos ] , .
(heparin) [. hepar .-in(e) , ] ,


; , . .
,

, , .
( )
1916. ..
(herbicide, weedicide) [.
gerba caedere ]
,
, . .
-. . . , , . , . . ( ); .
.
(hermaphrodit) [.
Hermaphroditos ] , -

.
(germinal
cells) . , .
(germicide) [. germen
caedere ] , , .
(gerodietetic food products)
[. geron diaita
] ,

. ., -
, .
(gerontology) [.
geron (gerontos) . logos , ] ,
, .
(gestagens) [. gesto , . genes
, ]
,
(.).
(heteroauxin) [. heteros , , u , . -in(e) , ]
- , (. ),

. . , . ;
(., ), . 1934. -

.
. . .
(heterohaploid) [.
heteros , , haploos
, ,
eidos ]
(.), -
. . . 1935.
(heterogenesis) [.
heteros , genesis
, ]
1) ; 2)
. . 1864. ..
(heterogeneous
system) [. heterogenes ; . systema , , ] ,
, (., ; ).

(. )
510-3 10
(, .).
,
(heterogeneous
nuclear
RNA,
hnRNA) [. heterogenes ] ,
,
.
, (heterogeneity, heterogeneousness) [.
heterogenes ] 1) , . -

178

.
; 2) ,
,
. . .
,

(heterogenot, heterogenotic merozygote) [. heteros


, genos , , ] ,
(. )
(. ). . . 1954.
(heterohybridoma)
[. heteros , , .
hybrida . -oma
]
(.); , .
(heterohistont) [.
heteros , histos
] ,
(),
.
(heterodimer) [. heteros , , di- , , meros , ] , 2 , , .
(heteroduplex) [.
heteros , . duplex ] -,

. , .,
.

179


( ). . ;
.
(heteroduplex analysis) [. heteros , . duplex ;
. analysis , ] (. )

:
, , .
, (heterozygote, heterozygous
organism) [. heteros ,
zygotos ] ,
,
. .
.
(double heterozygote) . .
(inversion heterozygote) . .
(complex
heterozygote) . .

(heterozygosity)
[. heteros , zygotos ]
(., )

(). .

(. , ).

. ,
. . (. , , -). . . 1902.
, (heterosis,
hybrid vigour) [. heteroiosis , ]
, , , ,
. .
, . . . . . . 1911. . .
(heterokaryosis) [.
heteros , karyon
]

(., ); . . , .
(heterokaryon) [.
heteros , karyon
] (. ),

,
.
. . . .
, -

. .
.
. ,
.
, . . 1965. .

. . ; ; .
(heterologous
protein) [. heteros , logos , , ]
, . ., .. , .
, (heterologous probe) [.
heteros , logos
, , ; . probatio ] , (.,
).
(heteromer) [. heteros
, meros , ;
. genos , ]
(), 2
,
.
., GATA-1
,
.
(GATA-2, GATA-3, Sp1).
. .
(heteromeric
genes) [. heteros ,
meros , ; . genos
, ] ,
(.).

180

(heteromeric
protein) [. heteros , meros , ] ,

(). .: .
. .
(heteromery) [. heteros , meros ,
] 1) - (. ); 2) ( )
(. ),
. . .
(heteronomy) [.
heteros , nomos
] ,
-
. .
,
, ,
.

(heteroplasmic, heteroplasmonic) [. heteros , plasma , ]


,
- () (., , ).

, (heteroplastic
transplantation, heterograft) [.
heteros , plastike
, ; . transplantare
]
, (
). . .
(heteroploidy) [.
heteros , , ploos -

181

eidos ] ( ). .
. 1916.
(heteropolymeric protein) . .
(heterosome) [. heteros , soma ]
, ,
, . .
(heterospory) [. heteros , spora , ]

(., ).

(heterotetramer)
[. heteros , , tetra
meros , ] , 4 , , ;
. ,

.
,
(heterotopic transplantation) [.
heteros , topos
; . transplantatio ] . . .

(heteroreceptor)
[. heteros , .
receptor ]
(. (1)), /
, , (., .
-2 ). . .

(heterotopy)
[.
heteros , topos ]


(., ).
(heterotropic chromosome) [. heteros
, tropos , ; . chroma , soma ] ,

(., Y ).
(heterotropic enzyme) [. heteros , tropos , ; . fermentum ] , , . ., .. . . .
(heterotrophic bacteria) [. heteros , trophe ; .
bacterion ] ,
. , CO2 (. , ).
.., (. , ), (. , ). ..
. .. ,
,
.., , , , , , . . ..
,
, ..

, ,
.
(heterotrophs) [.
heteros , trophe
] , (, ,
, ,
.) . ,
, ,
, (. ). .

.
.
. . .
(heterophyte) [. heteros phytos ]
, ,
.

(heterochromatin) [. heteros , ,
chroma (chromatos) ,
. -in(e) , ] (. ), . . , . .
H3
,
(HP1). . . 1922. . .

(paracentromeric heterochromatin,
paracentric heterochromatin)

182

. .

(heterocyclic amino acid) [.


heteros , kyklos
; . amino NH2,
ammonia , . . sal
ammoniacus , ] ,

(, , ).
(heterocycle, heterocyclic compound)
[. heteros , kyklos ] ,
(),

() , , .
.. , , , ;

, . .. , 70%
.
(heterocysts) [. heteros , kystis ]
(. ),
;

. . ,
.
. .
(heteroschizomers)
[. heteros , ,
schizo meros
] (. , , ), ,

183

. ., . StsI FokI, 5'--3'. . .


(hyaluronic
acids) [. hyalos
uron ]

(. , )
(. ),
N--D-
D- .
(13)-ce
..,
,
,

.
..
Ca2+.
.., , 10000-
. .. ,
. .. (
,
) . .. , (
), , , . .. ;
(
) .
.. 1934. .

.;
...
(gibberellins) [ .
Gibberella , -in(e) ,
]
(),

, , ;
.
, Gibberella (Fusarium), Sphaceloma
. 40 ., 20. . -, , 19 20 .
. . .
, , , , . .
-,

(Ascomycetes),
. Gibberella fujikuroi.
. . 1926.

(hibernation)
[.
hibernus , ]
, .. . . ( )
. ( ,
). . ( -

, , .).
(hybrid) [. hybrida ] 1)
; . ,
- (),
() ; 2) ,
(. ; );
3) ,
(-.)
(-.) . . (1); .
(asymmetric hybrid) . .
(vegetative hybrid) . .

(monochromosomal cell
hybrid) . .
(permanent
hybrid) . .
(somatic cell
hybrid) . .
(hybridization) [.
hybrida ] 1) ()
/
() ; 2)
; . .

. -

184

( , ,
) .,
.; 3)
(. ).
in situ (in situ hybridization) [. hybrida ; . in
situ , ]
(. (1)), ()
. .i.s. .
1969.
.
. . c . . , ,
. (.).
(allopatric hybridization) . .
(subtractive hybridization) . .
(introgressive hybridization) . .
(cell hybridization) [. hybrida ] (. )
(, )
. ..
(. ),

185

(. ),

,
..
(
) . ..
()
, ,

. .. .
1960 . (. ), , . 1965.;
() 1972. ..
(collateral hybridization) . .

(colony
-
hybridization,
Grunstein-Hogness
method) [. hybrida ; .
colonia ; . methodos
; . . ] , . , ,
,
. ,
. (

).
.
. 1975.
() (interspecific hybridization,
distant hybridization, remote hybridization) . () .
(crosshybridization) [. hybrida ]


, (
). .. , ., -,

, ( ),
.

(hybrid
population) [. hybrida ;
. populus , ] , .
(hybrid vigour)
., .
,
(hybrid weakness, pauperization)
[. hybrida ; . pauper
]

; ..
() ,
.. .
, , ..,
.
(hybrid
graft) [. hybrida ; .

transplantare ]
(.),
(. ), (. (1))
; ..

.

(hybrid
generation) [. hybrida ]
,



, , .
,
(hybrid protein, fusion protein) [.
hybrida ] , . .. (. ). .. (., ), (.,
), . .: .
(hybrid vector)
[. hybrida ; . vector
, ] (. ), in vitro

(.,
13, ,
); , . .: .

186

(hybrid species) [.
hybrida ] , . ,
; , ,
.
, (hybrid
gene, fusion gene) [. hybrida ; . gen(os) , ] ,
(.
, ). .. (. () ). .: .
(hybrid dysgenesis) [. hybrida ; .
dys- , genesis , ] , , , -,
(. (, ) , , );
. 1977.
(hybrid capture)
[. hybrida ] ,

(/ /) (. ),
, .
(hybrid promoter) [. hybrida ; .
promovere ]
(. ),
, -

187

(. () ). ., 1- , , .., SV40
-1- .
(hybrid enzyme)
[. hybrida ; . fermentum ] 1) , ;
..
, ;
2), , (. , , ); .. , (. () ).
(hybridological analysis) [. hybrida . logos , ;
. analysis , ]
. .. (. (1))
( ).
.. ..
(hybridoma) [. hybrida
. -oma ] ,
(.) -
,
in vitro, (. -

). . . . 1974. (
1984.). . .
(hygromycin) [.
hygros , myc(es)
. -in(e) ,
]
(. ), Streptomyces
hygroscopicus, , , ,
, , ;

. .
,
. 1953.
(hygroscopy) [.
hygros . scopio ] . ., . , ,
,
. .
, .
(., ), , ()
. .
,

. .

. . (., ) .
(hygrophils) [. hygros phileo ]

,
; ,
, .
(hydratation) [. hydor ]
, ;

. .
; , .
-, (guide RNA, gRNA)
[. guide ; ] ,
(. ).
(hydrobionts) [. hydor biontos ]
, , . . , (., , );
(.) . .

(hydrogamy)
[.
hydor gamos ] ,
.
(hydrogenases) [.
hydro(genium) genes
, ] (. ),

. .
.
.
-,
-

188

,

.
, (hydrogenization) [. hydro(genium)
genes , ]
.
(hydrocolloid) [.
hydor , kolla eidos
]

,
(., , , , ). .
. . (., )
-
( ). .

; .
(
) (
), ( ).
,
(hydroxyl) [. hydro(genium) oxi(genium) ] , (, ,
.).
(hydroxylases) [.
hydro(genium) oxi(genium) ]
(. ),

2
(. ,
).
-

189

().
. ,
, . , 21-.
11-, 17- 11-. .
.
3'- (3'-hydroxyl
group) [. hydro(genium)
oxi(genium) ] (., ), 3'-
(
) .
, (hydroxymethylcellulose) [. hydro(genium) , oxi(genium) , . methyl CH3,
. methy , , . cellula
. -ose , ] (. ), ;
,
.
,
, , . .
, ,
- ,

(, , ), ..
, (hydrolases, hydrolytic enzymes) [. hydor lysis
, , ]
, (. ), .
, , ,
. 200
., -

: ( ), ( ), ( ) ..
(hydrolysis) [. hydor
, lysis ,
, ]
. . . (
.)
,
, ., ,
. . .
(. ,
). .
, , . . , ,
, - . . ; .
(hydrolysate) [. hydor , lysis , , ]


(. ), . . , , -
. ; , , .
. , ,

, , ,
. , ,
, .
(hydrolytic enzymes) . , .
(hydroponics) [.
hydor ponos ] ( )
. ,
, , ,
, .; , (.)
. . . 1929.
(hydrostatic
shock) [. hydor statikos
; . choc ,
] , , ., (. )
,
(, ); 400600
/2 II ( )
(
).

(hydrosphere) [.
hydor sphaira ] ,
, ,
. . , ,
;
.
96% .
, 2%
, 2% ,
0,02% .

190

(hydrophilic hormones) [. hydor


philia , ; hormao , ] (. ) ,
(., ).

.
. ..
-
, . ..
(. ),
(.), (.), (. ),
(.) . . .
(hydrophilic) [.
hydor philia , ] ;
(, , ).
(. )
. 1905. .
.
(hydrophobic) [.
hydor phobos ]
,
( ). .
(. ), (. ). .
,
.
(. )

191

. 1905. .
.
(Giemsa method) [
.; . methodos ]
,
. .
1904.

(gynandomorphism) [. gyne , aner


(andros) morphe ,
]
,
,
; (. ). .
. 1915.
(gynogenesis) [. gyne
genesis ,
] (. ), ,

;
.
(hyparchic genes)
[. hyparkhos ; . genos , ]
(. ),

, . . .
(hyperacidity) [.
hyper , ,
. acidus ]
(., ).
(hyperbaric) [.
hyper , barys -

] () , .
., .

. .
, (hypervariable regions) [. hyper ,
. varians ] 1) , , ; ..
(.-; , );
2), (V-) (.), .
(hypervitaminosis)
[. hyper , , . vita
. amino NH2,
ammonia , . . sal
ammoniacus , ] . .

D. . .
(hypervolaemia) [.
hyper , , . volume
. haima ]
. .: . .
.

(hypergammaglobulinaemia) [. hyper
, , gamma .
, . globulus .
haima ]
(.) - -

(. ,
), (.)
.

(hyperglycaemia)
[. hyper , , glykys
haima ] . .

- ;
, .

(hyperaemia)
[.
hyper , haima ]
, . . ()
().
(hyperergia) [. hyper
, ergon ]
,
(.).
(hyper-immunisation) [. hyper , .
immunis ,
-] , (
) . .
, .
(hypercapnia) [.
hyper , kapnos ]

.
(hypermorphic mutation) [. hyper ,
morphe , , ;
. mutatio ]
, ,
,

192

. ..

(. ).
, (hypermorphic gene, hypermorph) [.
hyper , morphe ,
, ; . genos , ] , ,
, .
. , .
(hyperplasia) [.
hyper , plasis ]
,
, - (., ); (. ).
(hyperploid) [. hyper , , ploos
eidos ] ,

,
. . .
(hyper-proteinaemia) [. hyper , , protos haima ] . .
. . .
. .
(hypersecretion) [.
hyper , secretio ] . . .
(hypersyndesis) [.
hyper , syndesis , ]
(. (1))
(. ),
, (.).

193

(hyperthermy) [.
hyper , therme ,
] , ,
, , .
.
(hypertonic solution) [. hyper ,
tonos ]
(
)

. . .
(hypertrophy) [.
hyper , trophe ] ( ) - ,
; .
, (., , .).
. .
(hyperchimera) [.
hyper , Chimaira , , ] (. ), . .
(. ) ,

,
.
,
(hyperchromic
effect,
hyperchromicity) [. hyper ,
chroma ; . effectus
]

-

,
; ..
,

-
. . .
(hypersensitivity) [. hyper ,
sensibilis ]
(. ), ,
,
. . .
, (hypersensitive site, hypersensitive region)
[. hyper , ; . site
, ]
,
(. )
.
(hypobaric) [.
hypo , , barys ]
() , .
. .
(hypobiosis) [. hypo
, , bios ]
. .


,

: , ,
. .
.
(.).

(hypovitaminosis)
[. hypo , , , .
vita . amino

NH2, ammonia , .
. sal ammoniacus ,
]
,
, . .
-
. . .
(hypovolemia) [.
hypo , , , .
volume . haima
] , , . .
. .
(hypohaploidy) [.
hypo , , , haploos
, ,
eidos ]

.
(hypoglycaemia) [.
hypo , , , glykys
haima ] (. . ) . , , . . . .
(hypoergia) [. hypo
, , ergon ]
,
(. ). . .
(hypoxantine) [.
hypo , , , xanthos
. -in(e) , ] 6-,
(. ) .
,
(.), ;

194

. . . 1850.
(hypoxaemia) [.
hypo , , , .
oxy(genium) haima
] , , - , .
(hypoxia) [. hypo
, , . oxy(genium)
]
, ,
(., , ).
(hypomorphic
mutation) [. hypo , ,
morphe , , ;
. mutatio ] ,
, , . .. (. ).
, (hypomorphic gene, hypomorph) [.
hypo , , morphe
, , ; . genos ,
] ,

, , .
. , .
(hpoplasia) [. hypo
, , plasis ]
. . .
(hypoploid) [. hypo
, , , ploos
eidos ] ,

,
, . . .

195

(hypoproteinaemia)
[. hypo , , , protos haima ]
, ,
, , , . . . .
(hyposecretion) [.
hypo , , secretio
]
(.,
, ). . .
(hypostasis) [. hypo
, , stasis , , ] ,

()
(). . .
(hypostatic
gene) [. hypo , ,
statikos ; .
genos , ] ,
(.;
).
(hypothermia) [.
hypo , , therme
, ]
, .
(hypotonic
solution) [. hypo , ,
tonos ] o,

(); ..
. . .
(hypotrophia) [.
hypo , , trophe ]

. .
,
,
/ .
, (hypochromic effect, hypochromicity) [. hypo , ,
chroma ; . effectus
-] ( 40%)
; ..
- .
..
(. ). . , .
(hyposensibility) [. hypo , , ]
(. ). .
.
(histamine) [. histos
, . amino NH2,
am(monia) , . . sal
ammoniacus ,
-in(e) ,
]
, (. ), (., ). , (. (2))
(. ) . . . .
. .
, , . . .

H1- . ,
; 2-
. .
. 1911.
(hysteresis) [. hysteresis , ]
1)
; 2)
, .
,
,
.
. . 1935.
, (histidine, His) [.
histos . -in(e) , ]
---
, (. ; ).
. , (. )
( ).
.
. . . . . 1896.,
1911.
(histogenesis) [. histos genesis , ] , . . -

196


.
(histogram) [. histos gramma ]
,

.
(histolysis) [. histos
lysis , ,
]
(.,
, ).
, ,
(histoincompatibility, parasterility)
[. histos ] , ,
; .
. . , .
,
(histone acetyltransferase, HAT)
[. histos ; . acetum transfero ] (. ), (. ) N-
. ( A) (AT B) .. AT A
, AT B ,
.
(histone code) [.
histos ; . code ,
] (, , )
(. ), , -

197

,
. , ,
, , . .. ,
.
(histones) [. histos
] , (.). .: H1, H2,
H3a, H3b H4 ( . h(istone),


). , ,
; .
.
. ., . 4
.
.
: ( . core
, )
, (.). .


, . 1884. .. . .
(histocompatibility antigens) [. his-

tos ; . anti
genes , ] (.), HLA (. , ), 6.
HLA 5 (, ,
, D DR), . DR .
..
, ,
.
.. , ,
.
.. . ..
. 1958 . ( 1980 .
. .). .:
.
,
(histocompatibility)
[. histos ] , , ; .
. . . .
, ; ; . . , , .
(histotoxic) [. histos toxikon ] ;


.
(histochemia) [. histos chemeia ] ,

,
. .

.
.

. 1825.
(hypha) [. hyphe , ]
, ( ) ;
( ) (
) .
(MHC) .
, .
, (major histocompatibility
complex, MHC) [. complexus
, ; . histos
] , ,
, . ... : I,
(. ),
II, ,
- -,
III, (. );
... HLA,
2. ... 1980.
., . ..
. .

198

(glycans) . , .
(glycaemia) [. glykys
haima ]
.
. ( , .).
(
80120 %)
, .
(glycogen) [. glykys
. genes ,
] ,
. .
,
-D-
;

.
.

-1,4-
; -1,6- . .
(. .
), ,

. . (.).
, (glycosaminoglycans, mucopolysaccharides) [. glykys
, . amino NH2,
ammonia , . .
sal ammoniacus , . glykys ]
, ,
(N--D-,
D--N-

199

N--D-),


(D- L-)
D-; . .
,
(. ),
. . (. ), (. ),
.;
(, , , , ) ( ), . . :
,
,
,
.
,
.
(glycosidses) [.
glykys eidos ]
(., ), (. );
.
.
,
. .
.
(glycosides) [. glykys
eidos ] ,

- , , -

.
. () S-, O- N-. .




. ,
. ,
(glucoside). , . . ., .,
. .
(., . ), . (,
.) ; .
.

(glycosylhydro-lases) [. glykys ,
hydro(genium) lysis , , ] , -

(., ). .
, , .

(glycosylation)
[. glykys ] , ,
.
.
N-,
L- .
N-. ( NH2- , ) -.
( -

).
:
N-

, O-



.
. ( ),

(., ). . . .
, . -, ; -, , ,
,
. . ,
; .

(glycocalyx)
[.
glykys . callum ] , (, ),
. .,
( ),
, .
.,
, . . ,

200

, , , .
(glycoconjugates)
[. glykys . conjugo
(conjugatum) ] , , . . (. , ), (.), , (. ) (. ).
(glycolic acid)
[. glykys ] - (2),

( ); . ( )
,
. .: .
, (glycols, diols) [.
glykys ]
, , ,
,
. , ..
, . , , ,
.
(glycolysis) [. glykys
lysis , ,
] ( )
(., ). .
.

201

.
; . , . .
. .
, , , ,
; .
. ,
. . . . . ( . 1922.), .
. ( 1947.).
(glycolipides) [.
glykys , lipos eidos ]
(.), (. ),
(. ) (. ). ,
, .
. (- ,
),
( ) ( ). . ,

, . . ( ) .

. ();
.
(glycopeptides) [.
glykys , peptos ,
eidos ] , ,

(. ).
. , ., (. ). . ,
,
(.
, ).
, (glycoproteins) [. glykys ,
. proteine, . protos .-in(e) , ] ,
(
% 80%; ,
4%); (. ).
.
(N--D-
N--D-),
N- ( ) . .
N- ( ) , - (
). .

(., , , , , o
). .
, , . .,
,
, , .. .
,
(., , ).
(glycoproteides)
., .

(glycosphingolipides) [. glykys , .
sphingo , , . lipos eidos ] (. ), ,
-10. -
,
.
(glyoxylate cycle) [. glykys oxys
; . kyklos ] ,
(. , );

(-)
-
. .. , , ,
.
(glycerides) [. glykys
eidos ]
(.),
, .
(glycerin) [., .
glykys . -in(e) , ]
(CH2OHCHOHCH2OH),
.
. . .
, (glycine, Gly) [.
glykys . -in(e) , ]

(NH2CHCOOH),
2
(. ; ).
,
,
, , ,
(.-

202

, ). , ,
. .
. 1820.

(global regulatory genes) [.
global , . globus
; . regulare , ; . genos ,
] , .
., ...
rpoS, S -,

.
Escherihia coli
7 ... (ArcA, Crp, FIS, Fnr, IHF, Lrp
NarL),
.
(globulins) [. globulus
-in(e) , ]
, ; , ,
. . .
. 40% .
(submerged culture) [.
cultus , ; . mikros .
organismus , ] , ( )
. ... : -

203

, , , , , .
, (glutamine, Gln) [.
glut(en) . amin(o)
NH2, ammonia , . .
sal ammoniacus , ] L---L-

[H2NC(O)(CH2)2CH(NH2)
COOH], (.
; ). ,
, . . (. , ) . . . . . 1883.
, (glutamic acid, Glu) [. glut(en)
. amino NH2, ammonia , . . sal
ammoniacus , ] -
[HOOCCH(NH2)CH2CH2COOH],
(. ; ). , (, ) . ,
-,
. .. , . -

. ..

. .. .
. 1868.
(glutathione) [. gluten
. theion ] ( ),

- .
. -S-,

, . .
. 1921.
(glutelins) [. gluten
-in(e) , ] ,
; . .
(glutenin),
. .
1924. ..
(glucagon) [. glykys
gonos ] (. ), 29 ,
; (.). . ,

. .
. 1923.
(glucose) [. glykys . -ose , ]
(C6H12O6),

. , , ;
(, ,
), (,
, ), (. , ). . , .
,
.
(glucoside) [. glykys
eidos ] . .

(glucoisomerase)
[. glykys , iso
meros ]
(.), . .
(. ).
-

.
(glucocorticoids)
[. glykys , . cortex
. eidos ] (. ), .
. ,
,
, . .
, . . . , . .
1950. . .

204

(gluconeogenesis)
[. glykys , neos
genesis , ] (. )

(, ).
(glucuronic
acid) [. glykys uron
]
, D-
. .. (.
, ), (. ,
)
. .
.. . ..
, ,
,
. ,
(. ), ,
.., -
. .. 1934.
. . .
, (glutine) [glut(en)
-in(e) , ] . ,
.
, (nested polymerase chain reaction, nested PCR)
[. polymeres , ; . re-
,
, actio ]
(. ,
) ( ),

205


, .
.... . .,
(1530 ) ,
.
, ,
, ,
.
() 1530 .
,
.
.... 1015 , ;
.


10 ,

.
....
.
(nested gene) . , .
(putrefaction)
( ),
(. ; );
. .
. . (. , -

), (. , ), (.). .
(. ).
(putrefactive
bacteria) [. bacterion ]
,
(.).
.. (. , ) ,
,

, (., Bacillus
Pseudomonas). ..
. ,
, , .
,
..

.
(
,
, .)
, .. .:
.
(pyogenic bacteria) . ()
.
(gnotobiosis) [. gnotos
bios ]

(.).
(gnotobiota) [. gnotos bios (biotos)
] -

,
(.).
(gnotobiotic) [.
gnotos bios (biotos)
] ; (. ),
.
, (gnotobiotes, sterile animals)
[. gnotos bios (biotos) ] , , ( ) ; ,



(. ). .
,

.
(holandric gene)
[. holos , andr
(and-ros) ; . gen(os)
, ] , Y-.
, .,
.
(holandric inheritance) [. holos
, aner (andros) ] , ,
Y-
(. ).
, ,
(holoenzyme) [. holos
, . fermentum ] ,
, (.

206

) (. ). .
, , . -, .
(holoenzyme) . .
(blue biotechnology) [. bios , techne
, logos ] 1),
; 2) .. , . ..
(.).
(Golgi apparatus)
[ . ]
, , , , ( , , , .),
. ,
..,
, ,
. ..
1898. ..
(naked gene) [.
gen(os) , ] ,
,

,
.
(homeobox) [. homoios ,
. box , , ,
. -

207

]
180.. 5'-T-3', 3'- (. ),
- (. ) . .
1983.
. . . .. . ; .
(homeodomain) [. homoios , .
dominium ] 60
, (. )
(.
). . , ; - .
(homeosis) [. homoios
, ] ( .)
( .),
(. ) (., ..). ., . 1894 ., .
(homeotic
muta-tion) [. homoios , ; . mutatio ] (. ), , .,
()
.
. .
(homeotic genes)
[. homoios , ; . genos , -

] ,

. ..
(. ). , .., , ,
. ..
(. ). ..
1983 .
. . . ..

(homeopathic medicinal
product) [. homoios
pathos , ; .
praeparatus ] , ,
, , , , , . ...
.
(homeostasis) [. homoios , stasis , ]



. . (. ). .



. . . 1929.

(genetic
homeostasis) . .
(homogenization[.
homogenes ] -
, ,
. . . , -
/
.
(homogeneity) [. homogenes ] , , . . , .
(homogenotization)
[. homos ,
genos , ]
-
,
, ; ., () RecA-
E. coli. (. (, ) ,
,
). .

(replacement).
,
(homodimeric protein, homodimer)
[. homos , ;
, , di- ,
, meros , ] , . .. -

208

, . NO-,
NF-kappaB .
(homodynamic genes) [. homos , ; ,
dynamikos , ; . genos , ] ,
.
(homoduplex) [. homos , ; ,
. duplex ] ,
. . .
(homozygosity) [.
homos , ; , zygotos
]
(. , )

(). .
() ,
. .
. . . 1902.
(homozygous
organism) [. homos , ; , zygotos
] , ( ).
, ; ..
. . 1902.
. .
(homokaryon) [. homos , ; ,
karyon ]

209

,
. .
(., )
(.,
). . .
(homokaryotic)
[. homos , ;
, karyon ]

. . .
(homologue) [. homologos , ] 1), (., , ..); 2)
; 3)
,
,
; 4)

.
(homologous
series) [. homologos , ] 1) ( ) ,
(2-); 2).. ,
. .
1920 ., ,

.
(homologous
recombination)
[.
homologos , ; . re- ,
, ,
combinatio ] (.),


,
; ..
(. ). ..

(. ; ; ).
(homologous
proteins) [. homologos , ] , , , . . . . .
(homologous
genes) [. homologos , ; . genos ,
] ,
( ),

. ..
() ( ..
, . )
( .. , . ). ,
, (. ). .
.
(homologous chromosomes) [. homologos , ;
. chroma , soma
] , -

,
, ,
(., ).
(homologous) [.
homologos , ] 1) ,

,
; 2) ,
, ;
,
(. ).
(homology) [. homologia , ]
1) , , . CH4,C2H6,C3H8 CnH2n+2.
,

, ,
,

; 2)
,
, , .
. . 1843.
. C .
(structural
homology) . .
(homomer) [. homo(s)
, ; , mer(os) , ] ( ),
,
. ., - -

210

-3 ., 4 .
. () (2).
. .

(homomery)
[.
homos , ; , meros , ]
1) ; 2) (. ),
; . (. ). .
.
(homomeric genes)
[. homos , ;
, meros ,
; . genos , ] , (.).
() (homomeric protein, homomeric peptide)
[. homos , ,
, meros ,
; . peptos , ] 1) (),

; 2),
. . .
. .
(homoplasy) [. homos , ; ,
plasis ] ,


, .
(homoplasmic)
[. homos , ;
, plasma , ] 1)

211

, () ; 2) , .
(homoploidy) [.
homos , ; , , ploos eidos
]
.
(homopolymer) [.
homos , ; , . polymeres , ] ( , .),
; ,
, (., []n,
()). . (), 3'- , ; . (. () ) .
(homoserine) [. homos , ; , , . ser(icum)
-in(e) , ]
[HOCH2CH2CH(NH2)COOH],
(., ), ; , .
.
(homosomal
aberration) [. homos , ; ,
soma ; . aberratio ] ,
.

(homocopolymer)
[. homos , ;

, , . cum
. polymeres , ] , , , .
, ().
(homospory) [. homos , ; , spora , ]
(-) (.,
). . .
(homosteric enzyme) [. homos , ; ,
stereos ; . fermentum ] , .
(homotropic
enzyme) [. homos , ; , tropos
, ; . fermentum ]
,
, .
. . .
(homocysteine) [.
homos , ; , , kystis
. -in(e) ,
] [SH(CH2)2CH(NH2)COOH], (. ), . .

(. , ),

.
, (gonadotropic hormones,
gonadotropins) [. gonao tropos , ; . hormao -

, ] (. ), ,
.
..
(. , ; ; )
( .).
(gonomery) [. gonos
, , ,
meros , ]

; .
(gonophage) [. gonos
, , , phagos ]
( )
.
, (gonochorism) [. gonos , , , choreo
, ]
, . .
,
( . = ).

(horizontal gene transfer) [. horizon (horizontos) ; . genos , ] , ,


(
). ...

(mer-)
. ... .
(hormone) [. hormao
, ]
, -

212

( )
,
, ; .

(. ). 100 . , : (., , ), (.,
, )
(., , ). . (. ; ). . . 1905.
(luteinizing hormone) . , .

(melanocytestimulating
hormone,
MSH) . .
(growth hormone)
. , .
(steroid hormone) . .
(thyrotropic
hormone) . , .

(hormonal system of plants) [.
hormao , ; . systema , , ] , , . ...
, .
.,
...,
, , ,

213

. ... (. () )
.
(hormonal
state) [. hormao , ; . status , ]
, . . , . .. , .
.. .
(hormonoides) [. hormao , eidos ]
, (.),
, (., ,
, , 2 .). .: .
-

(hormone-receptor complex) [.
hormao , ; . receptor ; . complexus , ] ,

,
. .-.. ,
.
:
.-..
. .-..

,
.
(hydrophilic
hormones) . .
(gonadotropic hormones)
, .
(lipophilic
hormones) . .
(peptide hormones) . .
(sexual hormone) . .
(steroid hormones) . .
(hot spot) c. .
(gradient) [. gradiens (gradientis) , ]
-
( ,
, .) . .
. ( 5 20%)
;

.
(.
).
(gradient elution) [. gradiens (gradientis) , ; . eluo (elutum) , ]
(.)
, (. )
. ..
, . ,

.
- (gram strain) [
. . Stamm , ] , (. ) (. )
. (. ). .,
( , ) .
(. )

(- ).
, (gram-negative bacteria, G-) [
.; . bacterion ] ,
,
. (. ).
..
( , .),


(. ). ..
Gracilicutes, :
, (23 ) , (. ),
,
, , .

214

, +
(gram-positive bacteria, G+) [
.; . bacterion ]
,
, .
(. ). .. ( , .),

(. -
). .. , ; . . (
2080 ); .. ,
(., ). (. ) .. (. ),

, .
.. Firmicutes.
(grain) [. gran(um) , ] () ; 1
0,0625.
- (grand strain) [.
grand , .
Stamm , ] , , (.,
..).
(granzymes) [. gran(um) , . zyme
, ] ,

- , -

215

, . . 90%
. - ,
.,
-
(. ).

. . . (. ), ,
. . ,
. . 3 :
- .,
- . .,

, .
.
(.) N- . . . . 1986., .
(granas) [. gran(um) ,
]
. ., .

, ;
. (.).
(grading) [. grading ]
( ), (
); . ( -

). .
, ,
,
,
.
(fungi)
, , .
. ,
().
100 .,
, . . :

. .
(. , ). .,
, , , (
). . : ) ( , , , ); ) ( )
) . . (Aureobasidium pullulans,
, ), (Coccidioides immitis
.). . ( .
)

.
. .
(. )
, , , , , .
. (. ), (, -

..) .
,
. .
,
, .
Rhizopus oligosporus 57
, , , . . (, ). . p ( ,
p p p).
(gRNA) .-, .

(incompatibility group of plasmids)
[. Gruppe , ,
; . plasma , ]
(. ), . ,
.
(mating group)
[. Gruppe , , ]
, . ..

, .. (
) ..
(linkage group)
[. Gruppe , , ] -

216

,
(
),
. ..
, . .,
..
,
:
,
.
(V-)
(-) ,
.

() (clumped distribution) [.
Gruppe , ,
] , , (, , , ).
, (guanine, G) [. huanu
. -in(e) , ] (2--6-),
(., ) ,
,
(.). . , , , . . (, )
, , , . . . 1845.
(guanosine) [. huanu . -in(e) , ]

217

(.),
(., ) (.).
. , .
, .,
(., ) , ;

(-5'-3'-),

.
, (guanosine
triphosphate, GTP) [. huanu , . -in(e) , , . tri ,
phos phoros ]
,
(. , ), (. )
;
,
,
, - (. -), - (.) .
(humanization) [.
humanitas ]
( ),
,
. .
(., ).

(humanized
antibodies)
[.
humanitas ; . anti
]
(.),
. , , (. ). .
.
(huminic acids)
[. hum(us) -in(e) -

, ]
,

(. ).
.. , , , ,
. ..
, , ,
, -

.-. .
(humification) [.
humus , facio ]

(. ) , .
.
,
. , . .,

-22.
(hummiarabic) [.
gummi arabicus ] , , ,
,
. . ,
-

,
.
(humoral
regulation) [. humor ;
. regulare ,
] , (, , ) (
, ), , .
(humoral) [. humor
]
. .,
.
(. ),
(, ,
) . .
.

(humoral immune response) [.


humor ; . immunis
, ] (. ) -
(.).
...
:

. (. ) .

-

.

218


... -.
-, -, .

;
G. -
, -
,
. , , ,
. ...
: (. ); (.) (. ).
. .
, (humus) [. humus
, ] , ,
;
, ( )

. .
, .
, ( ) (gap) [. gap
, , ] 1) , (
) ;
2)
.
(hnRNA) .
, .


(dicer) [. dice
] , (. , ) -.
.
,
,
2025..,
. . ., . ,

.
2001. ..
(dactyloscopy) [.
daktylos skopeo ] ,

()
( )
,
,
.
(Dalton, Da) [
.]
,
(1,6710-24 ); . 1803.
(Danforth
equilibrium) [ . ] ,

,
-

, ,
. . 1923.
(darwin) [ . ]
; 1 . 0,1% 1000 . .
. 1949.
(gratuitous
inducers) .
, .
(double heterozygote) [. heteros
zygotos ] ,
.
(double helix) [.
spira , ] , (. -
). -

.

. . 1953.
( 1962.).
(double
fertilization) , : , (
) ;
-

,
( ) . ..
.. 1898.
(double digestion)
(., , ).
(double prodrug, pro-prodrug)
, in viv ( ) .
(double haploid)
[. haploos , ,
eidos ] , , .
(double promoter)
[. promovere ]
,
.

(yeast two-hybrid system) .
.
(bidirectional replication) [. replicatio ] (., , ), (. ).
(two-dimensional culture) [. cultus , ] ,
.
(two-dimensional electrophoresis) [. elektron , phoresis -

220

, ]
(. ),
(. ). ..
. .'
1975.
(dibasic) 1) ( ),
(
, .
) ( , .
), . . , ,
; 2) ,

.

, (double stranded
complementary DNA, dscDNA)
,
(. , ), (.
).
(dicistronic
vector) [. cis
trans , ; .
vector , ] ,

. ..

.
D- (D-dimer) [. di- , , , meros , ] , -

221

()
, ,
, .
(ddNTP) ., .
(de novo) [.] .
De novo (de novo design) [. de
novo ; . design , ]
-
- (
- ),
( )
- - .
(deviation) [. deviare
] 1) ; 2)

;
,
.:
,
. .,


, , . . . 1864.
. .
(degalogenation)
[. de- , , , , -, . hals
genes , ]
(, , ,
), .
(degeneration) [.
degenero ] 1),

; .,

; 2) , , ..

, (., ); 3),
,
,
; . , .
(dehydration) [.
de- , , , ,
-, . hydor ], ,
. . ( )
(,
).
(dehydrogenases) [.
de- , , , , -, . hydor
genes , ] (.), ; ., , . (. ) . , , .
(dehydrogenization) [. de- , , , , -, . hydor

genes , ]
.
(degradation) [. degrader ; ,
. degradatio , , , ] 1) ; 2) , ,
, , . (., ., ;
).
(soil degradation)
[. degrader ; , . degradatio , , ]

, , ,
, .
(degradomics) [.
degrader ; ,
. degradatio , , .-omics
, ,
, ; ]
,
, (. (1)) ,
.
. .
(degron) [. degrader
; , .
degradatio , , . on , ] ,

222

(. (1)) ;
N- . . .
1991.
(dedifferentiation) [. de- , , , , -, differentia
] .
(desactivation) [.
des-, de- , , , -, . activus ]
(
, ,
, .),
.

(deamination)
[. des-, de- ,
, , -, . amino
NH2, ammonia ,
. . sal ammoniacus
, ] (NH2) , .
.
( ),
, ,
.
.
. . , . .
.
(desinsection) [.
des-, de- , , , -, . insectum ] -

223

(., ),
.
(cell desintegration) [. des-, de-
, , , -, .
integratio , , integer ] ,
,
(., , .).
(desinfectants) [.
des-, . de- , , , , -, infectio ] , (. ). . , ,
(, , , ), , , ,
. . , ,
, , , , , ,
. .: ,
., .,
- ., ., ., .
(desinfection) [.
des-, . de- , , , -

, -, infectio ] ,

.
- . . , .
.: .
(deodorants) [.
des-, . de- , , , , -, . odor
] , , (. ).
, , (, ,
,
), (., , ). , . , .,
: ,
- Na-
, KMnO4, ZnCl2 .. . . . .
(deodoration) [.
des-, . de- , , , , -, . odor
] , (.)
.
(deoxycorticosterone) [. des-, . de-
, , , , -,

. oxys , . cortex
stereos ]
, , (. ). . -
, . .:
.
(deoxyribose) [.
des-, . de- , , , , -, . oxys
, . ribose , . arabinose
] , ,
(.). . :
1- . , 3- 5-
. . . () 1929.

(deoxyribozyme)
[. des-, . de- ,
, , , -, .
oxys , . ribo(se) , .
arabinose zyme , ] , .
. ,
,
. . ,
.
, (deoxyribonuclease, DNAasa, DNase)
[. des-, . de- ,
, , , -, .
oxys , . ribo(se) , .
arabinose . nu-

224

cleus ] , . .: .I,
(),
.II, (). .I . .,
5'- ; .II , 3'- . .,
.I -
-5'-.

(., ),
(
,
),
(.-)
(.-).
,
(deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA)
[. des-, . de- ,
, , , -, .
oxys , . ribo(se) , .
arabinose . nucleus
] , , ,
,
(6-), (2--6-),
(2--4-) (2,4--5-)

- ; ,
( ). ..

225

, ,
.
. 1868 .; .. 1953. . . ( 1962.),
1959. . .

in vitro.
(deoxyribonucleoside) [. des-, . de-
, , , , -,
. oxys , . ribo(se)
, .
arabinose , . nucleus
. eidos ] , ,
2'-.
,
(deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate, dNTP) [. des-, .
de- , , , ,
-, . oxys , .
ribo(se) ,
. arabinose ,
. nucleus , . eidos ,
. tri , phos phoros
] (. ).
(deoxyribonucleotide) [. des-, . de-
, , , , -,
. oxys , . ribo(se)
, .
arabinose , . nucleus
. eidos ] (. ), 2'- ( ).

(deoxycholic acid) [. des-, . de-


, , , , -,
. oxys khol ]
,
,
. .. , ( ) .
(deionized water) [. de- , , , , -, . ion
] ,
.
(deuterium, D) [. deuteros ] , ,
2.
(decant) [. decanter , ]
; .
(decapitation) [. de-
, , , , -
caput (caputis) ] 1) ; 2) .

(decarboxylation) [. de- , , , , -, carbo


. oxys ] C2
.
. (., -

, , ),

(. )

.
, (decoct) [. decoctum ] .
, (chromosome decondensation, chromosome
despiralization) [. de- , , , , -,
. condensatio , ; . chroma , soma ]

; - (. , -
). . (. ).
(decontamination)
[. de- , , , , -, contaminatio ]

. . .
-
,

(dextrandegrading enzymes,
dextranases)
[. dexter , . -an(e) , ; .
degradatio , , ; . fermentum ] ,
(. );
(Penicillium luteum,

226

Penicillium funiculosum, Chatomium


gracile, Fusarium sp., Lipomyces starkeyi,
Bacteroides oralis, Bacillus circulans,
Aspergillus carneus .). .-.. (,
)
(, ).


(., );
,
, .
(dextranases) .- , .
(dextrans) [. dexter
, .-an(e)
, ] ,
c (. , ),
(., Leuconosto). .
; . -
(. - ). . : ,

. . , ,

( ),
().
(dextrins) [. dexter
(dextri) ,
-in(e) ,
] -

227

(. , ),
.
(.,
Acetobacter capsulatus Acetobacter viscous) , .
(.). .
,
, ,
.
(division, fission) .
. ; .
,


.
(binary fission)
. .
(deletion mutation) [. deletio ;
. mutatio ] (. ), () .
(deletion
mapping) [. deletio ;
. charta , ]
(.) ; , .
(deletion) [. deletio ] ()

. .
( ) (
). .


. .. . .
(demineralization)
[. de- , , , , -, . mineral,
. minera ] (, )
(., ).
,
, - .
(demutation) [de- , , , , -,
mutatio , ]

, ,
(). . .. 1915.
(denaturant) . , .
,
(methylated spirit) [. denaturatus
] ,

() .
., .
,
,
, .
,
(denaturating agent, denaturant) [.
de- , , , ,
-, natura , ; . agens (agentis)
] , (.). , .. -

,
.
(denaturation mapping) [. de- , , , , -,
natura , ; . charta , ]

- ,
(.) , ; , ,

.
(denaturation) [.
de- , , , ,
-, natura , ]
() ()
, , ., ; (. ).
. ,
. .
,
. .
; .
(DNA denaturation)
[. de- , , , , -, natura
, ]
(, , -

228

), . .
, .
(denatured
protein) [. de- , , , , -, natura , ]
, (, , ), . ..
, , (, .).
, (denaturating
gradient gel electrophoresis, DGGE)
[. de- , , , , -, natura , ; . gradiens
(gradientis) , ; .
gelare ; . elektron
, phoresis ,
] , , (

).
, .
,
;
. . . 1983.

229

(dendrimer) [. dendron meros ]


,

- ().

-, -, - . ,
,
..,
.
ARB2 , A B , ,
. 1952.

(denitrification)
[. de- , , , , -, nitro(genium)
facio ]
, ; (. ). , .,
. . ,
. . .

(denitrite bacteria) [. de- , , , , -,


nitro-(genium) facio ; . bakterion ]
, (.). ..
Pseudomonas,
Achromobacter, Bacillus Micrococcus.
.. (., ),
, , , -

( ).
.. , . ..
, ;
.
(densitometery) [.
densitas . metreo
]
, . . . ., . , - --,

, .
(depressants) [. depressio ] 1),
(.,
, ); 2), . . .
(depressor effect, depression effect) [. depressio ; . effectus ] 1),
, .

; 2)

-

(. ) ( ). .
.

(deprivation)
[.
deprivatio ]
-
. , . -



.
(deproteinization)
[. de- , , , , -, . proteine
, . protos ]
1) ; 2) .

(uncoating).
(deratization) [. de-
, , , , -,
. rat ]
(, .).
(derepression) [. de-
, , , , -,
repressio ]

(
, ..).
(derivate) [. derivatus ] , - (., . ).
(desensibilization)
[. de- , , , , -, sensibilis ] 1)
() - ; 2)
(.),
,
- . .

230

, ; .
.
(desiccants) [. desiccans
(desiccantis) ]
,

(. ); .
, , , ,
.
(desiccation) [. desiccare ] , ; .
(.).
(desmolases) [. desmos , ] ,

. ., 20,22-.
(.) (. ).
:
()-20,
-22 .
(desmosomes) [. desmos , soma ]

, ()
. C 3
.: , . .,
,
; .
.
. 1920.
(desmutagens) [. de-
, , , , -,
mutatio . genes

231

, ] , (. )

( ). . , , , .
, ,
, , , , , (), . . .
. 1981.
(desorbtion) [. de- , , , , -,
sorbe ]
(. ) (.
). . ,
. . , .,
,
, .
. ,
,
,
, . . ,
,
. .

. .
.
(chromosome despiralization) . () .

(destabilization) [.
de- , , , ,
-, stabilis ]
-
, ,
- . ., . .
(destabilizing selection) [. de- , , , , -,
stabilis ] (.),

,
(.. )
.. , . .. . .
1970.

(destruction)
[.
destructio ]
,
. .:
, ,
, ,
. ., .
(. , ).
(desublimation) [.
de- , , , , -, sublimare ] , (.).
(descendant) [. descendens ] .
(detection) [. detector , ] 1),

- (., . );
2) ; . .
(detergents) [. detergere , , ]
(), ,
,
, , , ;
.
. (., ). . (, , , .), (
, , .) ( -100,
.). .

.
,
;
(, );
, .
(environmental deterioration) [. deterior ] , ; ,
. . () .
(determination) [.
determinatio , ] -

232

,
;
, ,
, . .
;

., ().
(detoxication) [.
de- , , , ,
-, . toxikon ]
1) ,
; 2) , /
(., .).
(detritus) [. detritus ] , , (. ) (.,
, ,
). ,

(. , ),

(. , , ).
. ,
.
(defective virus)
[. defectus , ; .
virus ] ,
, , -

233

. 5 ..: ).., - (. ); )..,


; ) (. ); ) ) .
(defective phage) [.
defectus , .
phagos ] ,
-
.
(defensins) [. defense
, . -in(e) , ]
,
- ( 4 ),
(, , , ,
), . , -.
, -.
.
. (. ), . . 1985 .
. . . ; .
, (deflocculating agent, deflocculant) [. de- , , , , -, flocculi
; . agens (agentis) ] , ,
,
,


.

(defoliants) [. de-
, , , , -,
folium ] ,
(.(2)). .
,
. .
: Mg(ClO3)2.6H2O, (lO3)2
l2, (C4H9S)3P, (C4H9S)3PO, 2- () l22()
()2, Na, (CH3)2As(O)OH, CaCN2
. . , . , , ,
.
(defoliation) [. de-
, , , , -,
folium ] 1) , ; 2) ,
; .

(. ), ,
.
(deformation) [. deformatio ]
.

(deformylase) [.
de- , , , ,
-, (aciditas) formi(ca) ] , .

(dephosphorylation) [. de- , , , , -, . phos


phoros ]

, .
; . ,
(.).
(defrostation) [. de-
, , , -, .
frost ] , . . .

.

: ,
, , . ,

, .
(demulsifying agent)
[. de- , , , , -, . emulsion,
. emulgere ] ,

() ,
.
. . . ., Nocardia sp.
Rhodococcus rhodochrous

,
,
-

234

, .
(generic) . , .
(Jordans rule) [
. ]
,
. 1906 . .
..
(diagenesis) [. dia- ,
genesis ,
]
; ,
,
. .
. 1888.
(diagynic gene)
[. dia gyne ;
. genos , ]
, -

.
(diandric gene)
[. dia aner (andros)
; . genos , ] ,
- .
(diagnostics) [. diagnostikos ] , .. ; .
. , : ) ,

235


; )
(, (), (), ()),

, , , .; )
(, , , ..); ;
(), () .;

(, .),
(., , )
, -

, () , . , . .
,

,
, ..
(diazo-ompounds)
[. di- ,
, , azos ]
RN2 ( ;
R ) ArN2X (
; Ar , X
), .

.
(diazotroph) [. di-
, ,
, azos
trophe ] , . . C.
.
(dialysis) [. dialysis , ]

;
(., ),

.
(dialisate) [. dialysis
, ] , .

(dialisator)
[.
dialysis , ]
, (.).
() (diallelic crossing) [. di-
, ,
, allelon , ] , . .
. .. ,
, .

, . n
n2
.

,
(diaminopimelic acid, DAPA)
[. di- ,
, , . amino

NH2, ammonia ,
. . sal ammoniacus
, . pimele
] , L-
, .
(diapause) [. diapausis
, ] ,
.
, . .
(diaspore) [. diaspora
] ,
(,
, ..) (, .).
(diastereomers)
..
(diauxy) [. di- , , , auxo , ] ,
. .

( ,
( ). .

(. ). ., E. coli , ,
. . E.
coli ..
(divergent) [. divergere , ]
( ). .
(1).
(divergence) [. divergere
,
-

236

] 1)
,



,
; . .
1859 .; 2)

. . .

(diversification)
[. diversificatio , ] 1), ; 2) (
,
..).

(diversifying selection) [. diversificatio , ;


. selectio , ] (. ), .
(dihaploid) [. di- , , , . haplos , , eidos ] , ,
,
.
, (dihybrid,
diheterozygote) [. di- ,
, ,
. hybrida ] , .
(dihybrid
crossing) [. di- , , , .
hybrida ] , , -

237


.
(digoxigenin, DIG) [
. Dig(italis) , . oxys .
genin ] (c. ),
(Digitalis sp.), ( ).
.
.
(digression) [. digressio
] - ()
() . : . (
,
. .), . (, )
. (., ). . , . . (.).
,
(dideoxyribonucleoside tri
phosphate, ddNTP) [. di- , , , . des-, . de- , , , , -,
. oxys , . ribo(se)
, .
arabinose , . nucleus
, . eidos , tri ,
phos phoros ]

, 3'- ,
3'-5'- , . -

(.,
).
(disjuntive) [.
disjunctus ] ; ., .
, .
(wild type) [. typos
, , ]
,
() .
(wild type allele)
[. typos , , ; . allelon , ] , , () , .
.: .
(wild type gene) .
.
(dictyosoma) [. diktyon soma ]

(),
.
(deme) [. deme , .
demos ; ,
] , . . ,
(.; ; ).
(dimer) [. di- ,
, ,
meros , ] ( ), (
) . .
D-; ; ; .

(pyrimidine
dimer) . .
(thymine dimer)
. .
(dimerization) [.
di-
,

, , meros ,
] (. ).
.
. 1,2-
1,4-
, .

(diabody)
[. di- ,
, , meros ,
; . anti ] , Fv- (. Fv-),

(. (3));
,
(.) . .. , (. (1)) .
:
-,

(.) -,
, ,
.
, (dimethylsulphoxide, DMSO) [. di-
, ,
, . methyl
CH3, . methy , , .

238

sulphur , . oxys
eidos ] (CH3)2SO, .
,

,
.

, .

. . 1866 . . .
(chromatin
diminution) . .
(dimorphism) [. di-
, ,
, morphe , , ]
,
.
(dimorphic) [. di-
, ,
, morphe , ,
] ,
(.). . .
(dynamic combinatorial library) [. dynamikos
, ; . combinare , ; . biblion
theke ]
, , ,
, ()
. ... .
,
(dynamic mutation, ex-

239

pansion mutation) [. dynamikos


, ; .
mutatio ] , ,

. .. , -,
,

. ..

() -, .
7 ,
, . ..
,
.
(dinucleotide) [.
di-
,

, , . nucleus
. eidos ] (. ),
.
(HA KoA),
().
(diols) ., .
(diploid) [. diploos
eidos ] ,
,
,
( 2n).
. . 1905.

(diploidisation) [.
diploos eidos ]
. . (),
.
(diploid
number of chromosomes) [.
diploos eidos ;
. chroma , soma
] ,
.
(disaccharides) [.
di-
,

, , sakchar
eidos ] , ,

( ). . . . (. ), (. ), (.) . .: .
(disbacteriosis) [.
dys- , , bakterion
. -os(is) ] 1)
,
, ,
; 2) ,
. . 1916 .
..
(imbalance) [. dys-
,

. balance .
] ,
(., ). .:
.
(discordance) [.
discordans (discordantis) , ]
- (.,
); . , (.).
- (disc electrophoresis) [. disc(ontinuous) ; . elektron ,
phoresis , ]

(.),
,
() ;

,
, . .-.
.
(disomic) [. di- , , , soma ] ,
.
(disomy) [. di- , , , soma ]


(n+1 ..).
,

(dispersant) [. dispersus
, ] ,

(. ). . ,

240

. . .
. .

(dispergation)
[. dispergere , ]
, , , ,
(. ). . ,
(
) (.). .
, , , , , ,
. .

(. , ).
(dispersion) [. dispersus
, ] 1), ; 2),
, ; 3)
;
4) ;
,
.
.
, . . .
(dispersion system) [. dispersus , ] ,
. ,
, -

241

. ..
10-710-9 (), 10-610-7 , 10-5 .
.. , , .
(displasy) [. dys- ,
, plasis ]
; .
.
(dysploidy) [. dys-
,
, ploos eidos
]
,
( )
(.,
).
(dissemination) [.
dissemino , ]


. .: .
(dissimilation) [.
dissimilatio ]
- . . (.) , . . .

(dissociation)
[.
dissociatio , ] 1)
(
, .); 2) -

, ; 3) ( ); 4)

,
,
; 5) .
(distal) [. distare , ]

;
. ,
, ,
() .
. .
(distillated
water) [. distillatum ] , , . (. )
(.).

. ,
.. ( n4 ), ; .
n4. .. , , , ., .
(distillator) [. distillatum ] ,
-

,
(. ) .
520/ . .:
, ,
.
(distillation) [. dis-
, ,
, stilla ] ,
, ;
. .: .
. .
(distomer) [. disto . mer(os) , ]
(. ) ,
( );
.
(distribution) [.]
., .
,
(disulphide bond, disulphide
bridge) [. di .
sulphur ]
(-S-S-), ,
. ..

.
, (dithiothreitol,
DTT) [. di- , , , .
theion , . three .
ol(eum) ] , .

-

242


; (. , ).
, (diphtheria toxin, DT) [. diphthera ,
, toxikon . -in(e)
,

] (. ), (
), Corinebacterium diphtheriae, ( ,
). ..
- (eEF-2), . .., ,
(. )
(,
..-, ).
, ..-, (.,
-2-..-

-, ). .. . . 1888.
(differential genome introgression) [. differentia ;
. genos , , . -om(a) , , ; . intro gressus , , ]
()
(.) . ., Helianthus
debilis cucumerifolius ( )
- -

243

Helianthus annuus (71,5%), (7,4%).



(differentially permeable) [. differentia ]
; ,
.

(differential fertility) [. differentia ; . fertilus , ]
() . , .. ; .
, .. .

(differential staining) [. differentia ] 1) ,


(., ., ); 2)
,
(. ).
(differential distance) [. differentia
]
.
(differential centrifugation)
[. differentia ; . centrum , fuga
, ] , -

. ..
,
(, )
,
(., )
.
(differential display) [. differentia ; . display , ]
,
, ,
, .

(differentiation)
[. differentia ] ,
, (
) ();
.
( ., .)
(.).
(differentiation)
[. differentia ]
, ,
. .

,

(., ). . ,
() , -

, ;
. (). .
.
(diffusion) [. diffusio
, , ] (, , ), ( ). .
( .),
, , , . . -
, . . ,
(.,
, ).
(dichlamydic
chimera) [. di- , , , chlamys (chlamydos) ; . Chimaira , ,
]
(. ),
.
(dichogamy) [. dicha
, gamos ]

( ), .
(dichotomy) [. dicha
, tome ]

244

,
.. ., . .
(dicentric) [. di- , , , . centrum ,
] ,
(. )
; .
, .
, (diethylaminoethyl cellulose, DEAE cellulose) [. di-
, ,
, aith(er) , ,
hyle , , . amino
NH2, ammonia ,
. . sal ammoniacus , , . cellula
. -ose , ] ,
, .
50, (DL50) .
, 50.
,
(long terminal repeat, LTR) , .., (). (5'-) ... , ...,
3'- , -
. ...
U3-R-U5,
170
1250, 1080 80100 .. 3'- U5

245

, 5'- U3,
.. ...
. ...
-
. ...
, .
(persistant
modifications) [. modus ,
facio ] ,
, , .
(DMSO) . , .
(DNA) . .
(apurinic DNA)
. .
(highly
repetitious DNA) . .
(kinetoplast
DNA) . .
(complementary DNA, copy DNA) . , .
(DNA ligation) [.
ligo ]
()

5'-
3'- .

. . 1973 .
. .
(DNA methylation) [. methyl CH3,
. meth , ] -

(. -, )
(-CH3)

S-
(. S-) .
N6 5-,
5-. , . .

(. ).

-

, : . () . . (. ). .
- ,

, (. (2)),
, . . . . . 1948 . .
.
(minisatellite
DNA) . .
(mitochondrial DNA) .
.
(native DNA) . .
(non-coding
DNA) . .

(single stranded
DNA, ssDNA) .
, .
(DNA polymorphism) [. poly , morphe , , ]


() (),

. (.) . ,

() 1% . .
,
(.-).
(hemimethylated DNA) . .
(recombinant
DNA) . .
(DNA repair) [. reparatio ]
; . (
),
, (., ,
,
) ,
(. ).
(DNA replication)
[. replicatio ] () , ;
,
( ) -

246

.
-, -.
. (, - ,
), . . , , .
(satellite DNA)
. .

(promiscuous
DNA) . .
(DNA transcription) [. transcriptio ] ,
. .
.
(middle repetitious DNA) .
.
(unique DNA) .
() .
(chimeric DNA)
. .
(chloroplast
DNA) . .

(exogeneous
DNA) . , .
(DNAasa, DNase) ., .
(DNAemia) [. DNA
. haima ] (. ; ).

.
- (DNase footprinting) [. footprint , -

247

] (.) I.
-

(DNA-protein interaction) ,
. (. )
, ,
. .-..
(.,

, . ).
- (DNA vaccine) [.
vaccinus ] (.
)
,
-,
(. ); , , (. ). -.
. , -.
, ,
(. ;
).
-,
(DNA helicase, unwinding protein)
[. helix (helikos) , ] ,

-

. -.
, , , . ( )
-. .
1970.
- (DNA gyrase) [. gyros , ] , II
(. - II)
Escherichia coli,
. -. 100 .
-. .
. 1976.
- (DNA glycosylase) [. glykys ] ,
(. ),
.
20 -.
- (DNA diagnostics)
[. diagnostikos ] (. )

.
- (DNA duplex) .
-
-
(DNA-dependent RNA polymerase)
[. polymeres , ] ,
. 2
-. -.: -,

, -,

; -. -.:
I ,
II
III ,
5S
. -. -.
- . .
1960. -. -. 2006.
..
-
(DNA
insertase)
[. inserto , ]
, (. )
(.).
- (DNA ligase) [. ligo
] ,


5'- - 3'- - . -. , ; (. () ) ,

(. , ).
-.
. . 1967.
- (DNA marker) [.
marquer ] 1) (),
;
2) ,
-

248

,
.
- (sequence
tagged site, STS) . , -
.
-, - (DNA methylases, DNA
methyltransferase, DNMT) [.
methyle CH3, . methy
, hyle ;
] , - (. ).
, : dam- dcmM. N-

, 5 .
. -. in vitro
. -. -
E.
coli (dam dcm).
-,
. -.
(-5--)
5-, .

. -. S-
(. S-).

249

-.
. . 1964.
- (DNA methyltransferase, DNMT) . ,--.
- (DNA polymerase) ..
-
I,

,
(DNA polymerase I, Pol I, Kornberg
polymerase, Kornberg enzyme) [.
polymeres , ] ,
( ), 5'>3' ( ), 3'>5' ( ,
3'--)
5'>3'
( 5'-
- ). E. coli -. I ,
940 .
. . 1957. ( 1959. .).
- II (DNA polymerase II) [. polymeres , ] ,
(.); , (. ) ,
.
- III (DNA polymeraseIII) [. polymeres
, ]

, (. ); : ,

3'- 5'-.
- Taq, Taq- (Taq DNA polymerase, Taq polymerase) [. polymeres
, ;
. T(hermus) aq(uaticus)]

Thermus
aquaticus, 95 (. -). -. Taq (.
, ) . (.
(1)). . .
-
(thermostable DNA polymerases)
. -.
-

(DNA-relaxing enzymes) ., -
.
- (DNA
binding motif) [. motif ,
] ,
(.,
, , - .).
- (DNA synaptase)
[. synapsis , ]
, ( , )
.
- (DNA synthesizer)
[. synthesis , , ] , -
-

.
- (DNA-containing viruses) [. virus ] ,
-
( ) 2 560 .
..
()
(). -.. 24 3 5 2 . 11 -.. (, , , , , ,
, , , ). , ;

26.. -,
375 . ..
-.. ,
; . -.. .

. -..
(. ), , . .. (., , ).
- I (DNA topoisimersae I) [. topos , , . iso meros
, ] ,

250

.
. -. I
(IA IB), ,

.
-. I , ,
Mg2+ 5'- ;
. -. I , ,
, 3'-
;
( ).
. -, .
- II (DNA topoisimersae II) [. topos , , . iso meros
, ] , ATP-
; . -. II ,
(.).
. -, .
-,
- (DNA topoisomerases, DNA-relaxing enzymes)
[. topos , , .
iso meros , ]
,
,
.
-. : -.
I (.- I) -.

251

II (- II).
-.
, 3'- 5'-
, ,
. .
1971 . E. coli.
- (DNA fingerprint)
[. finger print , , ] , ,
- (. ); (. , ) ,
,
.
- (DNA
fingerprinting, DNA fingerprint
technique) [. finger
print , , ]
(. -),

(. ). , (., ).
(. -,
--, -) ( 13, ,

- .).
, ,
,

(. -), . -. , ,
. -. . 1985.
- (DNA photolyase,
photoreactivating enzyme) [. phos
(photos) . luein , ] (. ),
,
-. . . 1958.
. ; .
(dNTP) . , .
(prey)
, , , (.
).
(mining of minerals, mining operations)
,
c .
, (sodium dodecylsulphate, SDS) [.
dodeka . sulphur
; . nitron ] , - ,
; , -

.
,
(. , ).
(dose) [. dosis ,
] 1) , ; ,
()
(.
, ; );
2) ,
,
,
,
;
potential dose
( ),
intake; 3) . ; 4) . , .
(gene dosage) [. dosis
, ; . genos , ]
. ..
, ; ., ,
-, ..
, .

(lethal dose 0, DL0) . .
(radiation dose)
. , .
(cytopathogenic
dose) . .
(dispenser, batcher) [. dosis , ] ;

252

, .
(evidencebase medicine) [. medicus ] ,
()
. .. .
, .. -
(.-),
.
(docking) [. dock ] 1) in silico,
, (., -

) ( ) (, ,
.). . (
, , ) (. );
. . . ,
;
2).- - , (.); 3) (. ).
(domain) [. dominium ] 1) ,

253

;
2) ,
(., .,
. .); 3) ,
.
, (domestication) [. domesticus ] (),

(
), , .
(dominant inheritance) [. dominans , ] ,
.
a (dominancy) .
, .
(dominant
allele) [. dominare , ; . allelon
, ] .
.
(dominant gene)
[. dominans ,
; . genos , ] ,
() (>). .:
.

(dominant selectable marker) [.
dominans , ; . selectio , ;
. marquer ] , , . .:
. . ( ) ; - .

(dominant
epistasis) [. dominans , ; . epistasis , ]
(. ),
()
() ;
..
() I
().
, - (dominigene, dominance
modifier gene) [. domin(ans) , .
genos , ] , (. , ) () ( ); .
, .. (.).
,
a
(dominancy) [. dominare , ] () ,
, . . . .
, ()
(), ,
() (),
( ) .

(conditional dominance) . () .
(semi-dominance, incomplete dominance)

. , .
(underdominance) . .
,
(sex-influenced dominance, sex-conditioned dominance) [. dominare
, ] , .,
,
.
(donor) [. donare ,
] 1),
( ), .: ) ; ) ,

(. ); )
; ) ; 2),
,
- (. (1)).
(donor gene) [.
donare , ; . genos , ]
(.), (.).
, (donor site, left splicing site,
5'-site) [. donare , ; . site , ; . splice , ] 5'- ,
-
(. (1));
.. . .
, .
(donor strain) [.
donare , ; .

254

Stamm , ] ,
, (.,
(.) (. (2)).
, (dopamine, DOPA)
[. d(i)o(xy)p(henylalanine) amin(o)
NH2, ammonia , .
. sal ammoniacus ,
-in(e) , ] (. ) , .
. . ,
. .

. . . 1959.
(dormant) [. dormant , ] , ;
., . , , .. , (. ).
(gene delivery)
. .
(reliability) ,
.
- (dot-blotting) [.
dot ; . blotting ]
,

255

()
. .-.
.
. .
(dopamine, DOPA) ., .
(daughter cell)
, .
, (. )

, ..
, .
-, (drug design) [. drug design , ]
. , .-.,
. ,
,
. .-. (
) (
, ), ,
.
.
,
(.) . , . , .
, -

, , : )
- ; )
0,5 ; ) (log P

-) 5; ) 10 ( ). ,
,
(. ).
,
(genetic drift) [. drijven ;
; . genos , ] -
,
, .

,
.. , . .
(dormant cell)
,

. .,

,
,
, ..

(yeast two-hybrid system) [.
hybrida ; . systema , , ] ,

- . ... ,

-

,
:
- .

, (),

() , . ... 1989. . .
(yeast artificial chromosome,
YAC) [. chroma , soma ] , , . ... (TEL), -, (ARS), (CEN).

... (. ). , ...
: ) ) ,
.
sup4,

, -
.
, ,

256

. ... ( 100 500


...). ...
1983. . ..
(yeast centromeric plasmid,
YCP) [. plasma , ; . entrum
. meros ,
] , 2 m S. cerevisiae, (ARS), ,
(CEN).
CEN 10100

CEN.
...
(. ), .
(yeast)
(. ), ; 1500 , . . , ; .


,
.
() ., (., ),
. , . (Sac-

257

charomyces cerevisiae) ,
Kluyveromyces fragilis
, Saccharomycopsis
lipolytica
. ( ): Candida utilis ( ); Trichosporon
cutaneum, , (., ),
; Phaffia
rhodozyma
,
,
,
. .
, .
.
(flocculating yeasts) .
.
(drosophila) [. drosos
phileo ]
,
.

(duplication)
[.
duplicatio ]
(. ),
-.

. (. ).
.
,
(. ).

(target site duplication) [. duplicatio


. nisan ] () () (.
(, ) , , ); ()
.
(duplicated
genes) [. duplicatio ;
. genos , ]
,
, () (., , hox .). - ,


.
(dscDNA) . , .
dcm-, (dcm-site, dCm) [.
site , ]
(. )

; dcm-.
( - ), .
(breathing)

, ().
- (DEAE cellulose) . ,-.


(eugenics) [. eugenes
, ] . . .
,
(
,
, ); .
,
,
, .
., , - .
.
. ,
. 1883.
(euphenics) [. u , phaino ,
] 1) ,
, ,
. . .. (1929.); 2) ,
.
(EU) . , .

50 (ED50) .
, 50.
(protein
nitrogen unit, PNU) [. zoos
]
,
0,00001 1 .
(unit of biological activity) [.
bios logos , ;
. activus ] ,

(. ). ... , . ., ... , 209
50 . ... ,
. .
(virulence
unit) . .
(genetic map unit) [. genetikos , ; . charta , ]
, , (. ) 1%. 1... = 1 (.).

259

, (efficient unit,
EU)
, , , , ,
(., ).

(unit evolutionary period, UEP) [.
evolutio ] ,

1%.
(unit character) 1),

(. , ); 2), , - .
(acceptor capacity) . .
(buffer capacity)
. .
(vector capacity)
. .
(capacity of medium)
1) ,
-
; 2)
()
() ,
.
(natural loss of
goods) ,
. ;
, . ., .. ,

, ,
, ,
, , ,
. .
(natural
equlibrium) , . .. (. )

(. ), ,
.

(natural
resources) . ,
.
, (natural immunity,
innate immunity) [. immunis , -]
- ,
, ;
.. (, , ) .. ..
, , ;
(.) (.). . ;
.
(natural selection)
. ..
;
..
, .. -

. ..: , , . ,
.. ,
,

. ..
, , ,
, . ..
. ..
. 18581859.

(natural
host) (, ),

260


. ., (, ) .. ; .. -,
.. . .. . .,
- .. ,
. .
.


j- (j-value)
, (. (1);
); j-.
i- (. i-).
(heat resistance)
, .
. (., ,
60 ).
() 4548.
, (gelatine) [.
gelatine , . gelo ] , (. . , ); ,
- , , ,
.
.: , .

(gelatinization)
[. gelatine , .
gelo ] , , .,
,
90 ( 99) . ,
, () ,

. .

; ,
.. .

(ferric-reducing bacteria, ferric ironreducing bacteria) [. bacterion
] ,

, ,
. .. ,
., Geobacter metallireducens, Acidobacterium capsulatum Shewanells spp.
, (yolk, deutoplasm) , ;
. , , , ,
. .
( )
( ).
(yolk nucleus) ,

, ,
(.).
(yolk sac) ,
,
, , ;
, .

(bile acids)
,
(. ) .
. ..
.
.. ().
-7
.. . .. .
.. 1927. ..
(bile pigments)
[. pigmentum ] , ;
(.),
, (c. ). .. . .
(female pronucleus) [. pro , ,
nucleus ]
,
.
(hard drug) , ,
, .
.. -

262

, , .,
.
(hardness of water)
,
( -/);
. .
.
(stringency conditions)
,
, ,
( / , /
, / ).
,
. ..,

, :
, .
(live vaccine, vital vaccine) [. vaccinus ] (.),
, () ,
, , . ,
.., ,
. .. -

263

,

, .
, ..;
, . ..
, (,
, , ), , , , , , , , . .. , ,
. .
.
(livevirus vaccine) [. virus ; .
vaccinus ] (. ), . ... () ,

(., , .).
,
(., 1796. . ). ...
,


(., , ). -

... ,
.
-
(founder
animal) 1) , ;
.-. (., 50%); 2) , ,

(. ).
(transgenic
animal) . .
(liquid culture)
[. cultus , ] , / ;
.
(liquid fertilizers) , . ..

, , , ,
, , .
(liquid nitrogen) [.
azoos ] , 195,79C;
, ,

. .
(liquid
chromatography) [. chroma (chromatos) , grapho
, ]
(. ), -

() . ..

. .., , ,

( ), .. (. ),
, ,
,
, .
.. (.
, ). .. -
, , , , ; ,
. , ,
, ,
, , , , , ,
, ..,
,
, , , , , ,
,
. ..
, - , . .. , -

264

, , . .
1903. ..
, (high pressure liquid chromatography, HPLC)
[. chroma (chromatos) , grapho , ] (. ) 3 , 200300 . . .
(life cycle) [. kyklos ]
. .., ,
, ,
; ..
- ,
..
(vitality
mutation) [. mutatio ] , ;
..: ,
.
(viability, vital
capacity) ,

,
. . -

.
(fat neutral) [.
neutralis

265

] , ,

(. ). .., ,
,
.
, , .
. ; .
(fatty acids)
4 ,
.

..
(1424).
(., ) .
.. ,
, , . .. ,
- (.- , ).
..
1964. . . .
(volatile
fatty acid, short certain fatty acids,
SCFA) . .
(essential fatty acids) . .
(fatty alcohols)
;
, .
.. -

(.
).

, (.- , ).
(fatty acid metabolism)
(. ) . (. ) . .. :
; ( ,
, , ) .. . ,
. . - .

(. )
(. ).

(. ). (. ), ( ), . , ,
;
.

. -

,
. , ,
,


.
,
.
,
,
. ,
,

. (. ),
(. - ,
).

(.), , .
-,
(. , )
. .. , , , .
.. , -

266

. .. .
. .:
.
(fats) , ,
( 98%) (),
(. ). -
(13%), ,
(0,53%), ,
(0,051,7%), (, ),
A, D, ,
. .
,
.
. ,
( 4 26) (, ,
, 9-, , ).
.
, , . . ( , ,
)
.
(polyunsaturated fats) . .
(Joels liquid) [
.] ,
.


Z- (Z form of DNA, ZDNA) c 18 , , , (., 5'--3'
3'--5');
(., ADAR1,
E3L) . .
B-, Z-
.
(dependent gene)
[. genos , ]
,

. .: .
(pollution) (),
(, , , .) ,
(
), ,
..
(anthropogenic pollution) [. anthropos
genos , ] ,
.

(pollution of environment, contamination)

( ) ,
.
...

(heavy-metal contamination) (.),

,

(, , , , .).

(pollutant) ,
/ , , ;
..
.
(cell
division lag) (. )
, , .
()
(mutational lag) .
, () .
(segregational delay, segregational lag) , ;


1 ,
,
. .. .
1951.
(law of
homologous series) [. hom-logos
, ] ,
, , ,
,
.
,

. ...
.. 1920.
(legitimate
recombination) [. re- ,
, , combinatio ] , . . .

(locked nucleic acid, LNA) [.
nucleus ] , 2'-
4'-
- (...), S- (-...)
- (-...); ,
, -
(. - ) .
...

,

268


, .

.
(closed
reading frame)
(. ),
-.
(base pair
substitution) , ; ... (. ) (.).
(nonessential amino acids) [. amino
NH2, ammonia ,
. sal ammoniacus , ] (.), .
, , ,
, , , , , , , , , .
(replacement
therapy) [. therapeia ,
, ]
, , , . ,
,
. ..
,

.
(replacement
vector) [. vector , ] ,

269

. ..
,
-, .
.. ,
(. ).
(replacement site)
[. site , ] ,
(. )
,
.. , .
(allele substitution) . .
- (freezesqueeze)
,
(
);
60% , .
(lagging
strand) , (. ,
, ) 3' 5'-.
(end-filling)
,
,

( ),
(. ).
, (embryo) [. embryon ] 1)
( ); 2) ,
, .
(germ line) [.
linea -

] 1)
, :
; 2)
, .
. , .
, (germ cells,
reproductive cells) , , . . . ,
; ..
. ..
. .
1897.
, .
(anlage) ,

- .
(wood preservation) .
(dimethyl
sulfate protection) [. di ,
. methyl CH3, .
meth , . sulphur
]
,
, , ,
(., ).
(DNase protection) , (., - ), (. , ) -

; (.
).
(RNase protection) , () ( ),
(. , )
;

(. ).
- (zebrafish)
(Danio rerio), : , . .-.
2005.
(green biotechnology) [. bios , techne
, logos ] ,
- , . ., () .-.
. ..
2003. .
(green bacteria)
[. bakterion ] , (. , ), , . ..
: )
,
H2S -

270

; ) , ,
,
.
..
- ().
C.. . .

(green fluorescent protein, GFP) [.
fluor -escent ,
] ,
,
-.
, ...,
()

. ... , ,
, -.
- . ...
(395 470 ). ( ) ...
( 488 ) (.
EGFP). ... . C
. 1962 .
Aequorea victoria (
2008. .
.). , ...,
1992. . . . . Anthozoa , ..., ,
. . , .

271

(zygote) [. zygotos , ] , , (2n) ;


. . . 1902.
(zygotic induction) [. zygotos
, ; . inductio ]
F--


F+-.
.. .
. 1954.
(zygotic lethal) [.
zygotos , . letalis ] (. ),
(. ), ; .. ,
.
(zygotic sterility) [. zygotos , ; . sterilis ] ,
(. ) .
(zygotic selection)
[. zygotos ,
] ,
( ), , , .
(zidovudine) [.]
..

(zymase) [. zyme ] , ; ,
. .
. 1896.
(zymogen) [. zyme genes , ] , ,
(., . ).
(ash level, ash percentage,
ash value) [. Sol , ] (),
(, ,
.) .
% . 3. ;
: ,
, .
(ecological risk area) [. zone ; .
oikos ,
logos , ] ,
.
(probe) [. sonde ] 1) , ,
.
; 2) , -

(., - , );
3)
, ,
. .
.
- (zoo blot) [. zoon
. blotting , ] - (., -)



.
(zoobenthos) [. zoon
benthos ] , .
.
. 60
,
.
(zoonoses) [. zoon nosos ] ,
(
). .:
) . (, , , ,
, , , , , , , , , , , ,

272

.) ) , (, , , , ,
, , , , .). . ,

(. ).
, (zoospore, planospore) [. zoon
spora ]
() , . . ( 2, 1, 4 ). . .
(zoophages) [. zoon phagos ] ,
.
(zoocenosis) [. zoon koinos ]
; .
(.).
(zoocides) [. zoon . caedere , ]
(. ),

, . .
(: Tl2SO4,
BaCO3, Zn3P2, , ),
(: , , ) (: , , ).
3. ; ,



.


i- (i-value) ,
; j-
(.j-) i-.
1 ,
j/i 2
, 1 < j/i < 2 , .
(iatrogeny) ., .
50 (ID50) . , 50.
(identification) [.
identificare ]
1) -
-; 2) ,

, , .
(idioblast) [. idio , , blastos ] ,
-
, , . ; ., , - ( ).

(idiogram)
[.
idio , ,
gramma , ] :
, ,
,
.
(idiolite) [. idio , , lithos -

] . ,
.
(idiopathic) [.
idio , ,
pathos , ] .
(idiosynkrasis) [.
idio , ,
synkrasis ]
(
)
(, ..),
(., ); . . .

()
(idiosomatic
variability) [. idio , ,
soma ; .
variability , , . varians ] , (), (
) ; .. , .. (. ). ..
. . 1926.
(idiotype) [. idio , , typos ] 1) ,
(. ),
(. )

(. ); 2) () (. ),
-.

(idiochromosome)
[. idio , , , chroma ,
soma ] , (. ).
. .
1891.
(elective
culture) . ,
.

(elective
medium) . , .
(bent DNA)
, , ., , , . , . , , , , ,

() .
(curing) 1) ; 2)
, ,
, .
(. ).
,

(variability) [. variability , , .
varians ]
, ,
, .. .
,

274

(., ,
, ). . . , , .. .
,
.,
.
(genetic
variation, hereditary variation)
. ().

(idiosomatic variability) . ().


(individual variation) . .
,
(clinal variability) .
, .

(quantitative variation) . .
() (combinative variability,
combinative variation) . ()
().
(continuous variability) . ().
(mutative variability, mutative variation)
. ().
(somaclonal variability, somaclonal
variation) . ().
(isoacceptor
tRNAs) [. iso .
acceptor ]

275

(. , ), ,
(.); . -. . ,
( 6) , ; . ,
.
(isoalleles, potency alleles)
[. iso allelon
, ]
,
,
. . . . 1943.
, (isogametes,
homogametes) [. iso
gamete , gametes ] ,
, .
(isogamy) [. iso gamos ]
, e (.); .

.
(isogenic strain,
isogenic stock) [. iso
. genos , ;
. linea -
] () , ( ) ; , . ..
.

(isogenomic,
isogenomatic) [. iso ,
genos , .
-om(a) , -

, ] ,
.
. . 1920.
, (isograft, isotransplant) [. iso . graft , ] ,
,
; .,
. . .
(isozygoty) [. iso
zygotos
]
(.) .
(izozymes) . , , .
(isoimmunization)
[. iso . immunitas
-] (. ) (. ),
;
.
,
(isocoding mutation,
samesense mutation) [. iso . code , ; .
mutatio ] , (
)
, .. .
, (isoleucine, Ile)
[. iso , leukos . -in(e) , ] [H2NCH(COOH)CH(CH3)
CH2CH3] (.; ), ;
. . ; , -

. , . .
. (1904.) .
(isolated
culture) [. isolation , ; . cultus , ] 1)
,

.
, ,

; 2) ,
. . ..
. (1893.); 1913 . . ..
(isolated
protoplast) [. isolation , ; . protos plastos , ] ,
. .. . .. , . ..
,
,
(. () ). ..
,

276


, , ,
, . ..
. 1892 .; .. .
1960.
(isolation gene)
[. isolation , ; . genos , ] , -
,
(c. ).
(isolating
mechanism) [. isolation , ]
,
, .

(isologous cell lines) [. iso logos , , ;
. linea -
] , ( , ).
(isoloci) [. iso
. locus ] ,
. , . .
(isolates) [. isolation
, ] 1), ,
. . , () -

277

; 2) .

,
- .
, (isolation index) [. isolation , ; . index , ] .
.. , :

..=1, ..=-1,

..=0; ..
. 1942.

(isolation,
insulation)
[. isolation , ] 1) ( ) () , ; ; 2)
, (.,
.
); 3)
, (.).
(reproductive isolation) . .
(isomerases) [. iso
mros , ]
,
, . . (. ). ., -

-1- 6-. ., ,
(. ),
(.); .,
-
, (.).
(isomerization) [.
iso mros , ]
-
(. ); . .
(gene isomery) [.
iso mros , ;
. genos , ]
,
,
( .
),
( .), .. ,

.
(isomers) [. iso
mros , ] 1) . , , , , (.,
); 2) . () (., D-
L-). .
1830. ..
(isometric) [.
iso , metron
] ,
. . .
(isomorph) [. iso morphe , , ]

(), ,
.; ., .

.
. . 1949 .
(.).
(isomorphism) [.
iso morphe , ,
] ( ). . .
1819. KH2PO4, KH2AsO4
NH4H2PO4.
(isomorphic gene)
[. iso morphe ,
, ; . genos , ] , ,
. ..
.
(isoprenoids) [.
iso , . pr(opyl)ene . eidos ] ,
(2--1,3), ,
.
, . , 5-,
. . . ,
, . . -

278

(v
brasiliensis). . ,
.
A,
D, E . - -
D . , . (. ), , .
. .
,

IPTG)
(isopropylthiogalactoside,
[. iso , . propyl(ene)
, . theion gala
(galaktos) ] - E. coli; , lac-
(. , lac-).
(isothermal process) [. iso
therme ; . processus ] , .
..
-.
(isotype of
immunoglobulin) [. iso
typos ] (. ). 9 .. (IgM, IgGl, IgG2, IgG3,
IgG4, IgAl, IgA2, IgE, IgD),
,
. . ,
Fc-
.
..

279

- .
(isotonic
solution) [. iso tonos
] ,

. ., 0,9%

, (. , ).
(isotopes) [. iso topos ]
, . . , .. ,
. .
, .
. ()
();
,
. .
(.,
).
. . 1943.
(isotransplant)
., .
(isotransplantation) [. iso . transplantare ] (. ),
(., ).
(isophene) [. iso
phaino ] ,
() () .

, ,
(isoenzymes, isozymes) [. iso
. fermentum ]
,
,
,
- . . ()
, . ; ., ,

( )
5 . (, , ,
). . . . 1957.
(isochromosome) [.
iso . chroma ,
soma ] ,
(.),
; .
,
. . .
1939.
(isoschizomers) [.
iso schizo , meros , ] (. , , ), ,
,
-
. ., . MboI, DpnII, PfaI .,
. . .
(isoelectric
point, pI, IEP) [. iso

elektron , ] , (. ) , ;
.. . .. 1
( ) 12 ( ),
.. 5,5 7. ..
(. ) .

(isoelectric focusing, IEF) [. iso


elektron , ; .
focus , ] (. ),

,
(. ) .
(isoenzymes) . , , .
(imbalance) . .
(imidazole) [. imid(e),
. amide ,
. am(monia) , . .
sal ammoniacus , , . eidos , azo(os) . ol(eum) ]
, , 1- 3-
. .
- .
.
, . , , , 12, ( ). -

280

. . (, .) . . 1858.

(immanent gene action) [. immanens (immanentis) c,


; . genos , ] ,
.
(immobilization) [.
immobilis ] , ,
. .

: , (.,
), . . .
; ;
.
(immobilization of bacteria) [. immobilis
; . bacterion ]

. , .,
,
.
(immobilized cells) [. immobilis ] , , , ;
.. (. ).

immobilized
(coupled
enzyme,
enzyme) [. immobilis ; . fermentum ]

281

,
, . ..
; , , . ..: )
; ) , , ( ); ) ; )
,
; )
(., ,
); )
, . .
, . (.); ) , .
. .
(. , )
, , .
.. (
). ..
: L-,
- , ,

6- ,

, , ,
,
- , . .. :

, , , . .. , . .. .
. 1916 .,
,
. .. 1971. .
. .
(immortalization)
[. immortel ]
, (); ().
(immunization programme) [. immunitas -
. programma ,
] (. , ),

( )
.
, (immunization, vaccination) [. immunitas
-]
(. ),
(. ) (.). . ( ,
) .
( ).
,
.
(adoptive
immunization) . .
(immunity) [. immunis
, ]
(, , ,
, .) ,
(., ),
.
, (., ) . .
.
, ,
-

282

. .


. ,
(), , . . .
XIX ,
. .: , , . . , ; ; ; ; .
(adaptive
immunity) . .
, (natural immunity, innate immunity) . ,
.
(passive immunity) . .
(acquired immunity) .
.

(transplantation immunity)
. .
(phage immunity) . .

(immunoaffinity
chromatography)
[. immunis , -; . affinis , , ; .
chroma (chromatos) , -
grapho , ]

,
(. ), (. ) ().

283

(immune response)
[. immunis , -]

. .. , .

.. (. ; ).
.: .

(immunogen)
[.
immunis ,
- . genes , ]
, . . ,
,

.
(immunoglobulins)
[. immunis , -, globulus -in(e) , ]
, (. ) - ,
. . (L) (H) , .
.
-: IgA, IgD, IgE,
IgG IgM.
.
,
. -
(CL), a
N-
(VL). -

,
N-, - (VH), (1, 2, 3). ., , N-
, . . VH- VL-. ., , Fab-
( . antigen binding); , , ,
Fc- ( .
crystallizable). Fc- , .

5 ., -. IgA
-, IgG - ..
,
IgG IgA. .,
4 IgG:
IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 IgG4, 1, 2, 3 4 .
- .

.
(immunodepressants) [. immunis , - depressio
, ]
(- ), (
, .) (, ) ,
.
, .

(immunity substance) [. immunis , -]


, ,
; , . . .
, (immunocompetent cells,
immunocytes) [. immunis , -, .
competens (competentis) ; ] , ( ).
, ,
-, -, .
(immunological memory) [. immunis , -
. logos , ]
(. ).

(immunological tolerance) [. immunis ,
- . logos , ; . tolerantia ] ,
( ) ; ( )
. .. (.); ..
(. ).

284


(immunological medicinal
product) [. immunis , - .
logos , ; . praeparatus ] , (., , , ,
),
(., , ), (., , , ) ( ,
,
, ).
(screening by immunological assay) [.
immunis ,
- . logos , ; . screening , ] (.)
(. ), .

(immunomodulator) [. immunis , - modulator


] , (. ) . .
. , . . ( , ), ( ) (
).
. -.

285

. .

(chromatin
immunoprecipitation,
ChIP) [. immunis , - praecipitatio , ; . chroma (chromatos)
.-in(e) ,
] (. ) , :
( ), (
), - (. ) . ..,
. ..
, in vivo
.
(immunoprophylaxis) [. immunis , - .
prophylaktikos ]

. .
.
,
. . ( ) (

-).
(immunoselection)
[. immunis , - selectio ,
] 1)

,
,
.
,

; 2),

(. ), , ;
.
(immunosorbent) [.
immunis ,
- sorbeo ] (. )
(. ),
(.,

).
(immuno-suppression) [. immunis ,
- .
suppressio ]

. . .
(immunotoxin) [.
immunis , -, . toxikon
. -in(e) , ]
. . , ,
(.), (.).
-

, -
. .
. .
,
.
,
(enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA) . , , .
(immunoferritine method) [. immunis
, -,
ferrum -in(e) ,
; .
methodos ] ,

, (, ).
-
.

(immunochromatographic assay) [. immunis , -, . chroma


(chromatos) , grapho
, ; . analysis , ] ,
-


.
(immunocytokin)
[. immunis , -, . kytos , , kineo -

286

, .-in(e) ,
] , (. ). . . ., .,
-2,
,
, .
(immunocytes) .
, .
(immunoelectrophoresis) [. immunis , -, .
elektron , phoresis
, ] , . . ,
,
(), ;
(.).
(implant) [. in
plantare ]
()
,
(., , , ,
..).
(implantation) [.
in plantare ] 1) ; 2)
(.,
57- ); 3)

287

(. , ).
(impregnation) [.
imprgnation, . impraegno ]
(., .
).
(imprinting) [. imprint , ] 1)
; . . ; 2) .
, ( );
.
(
,
, 40 , ). . (. ). . . 1960. ; 3) . (. ).
, -
(flash photolysis) [. impulsus ,
; . phos (photos) lysis ]
(
1 10-12 ),

. :

,

( 10-610-3
, 103), , .

10-5 1 .
-
.
, . . ,
( )

. ,

. - -
,
. .. , , -, , ,

. . .. , , , , . 1950.
. .,
( .)
1967.
(in vivo) [.] ; ,
, , .

(in vitro) [.] . , ;


.
(in commune) [.]
, .
(in crudo) [.]
.
(in nature) [.] .
(in silico) [.] .
, .
(in situ) [.] (
).
(in summa) [.] .
(in utero) [.]
.
(in facto) [.] ,
.
(in extremis) [.]
.
(insertional
inactivation) [. in- ,
, activus ; . inserto ,
]
.
..
(. )
(. , ). ..
.
(inactivated agent) [. in- ,
, activus ; . agens (agentis) ] , ,
- , ; .,
(. ).

288

,
(inbreeding depression)
[. inbreeding, . in ,
breeding ; . depressio ] (, , )
(.,
). .. , (
,
).
(inbred line, inbred
strain, I-line) [. inbreeding, .
in , breeding ; . linea ] ,

(. , ) ( ).

,
(inbreeding minimum)
[. inbreeding, . in , breeding ; . minimum ] ,
(. , )
,
. . , .
, (inbreeding)
[. inbreeding, in ,
breeding ; . Inzucht
] ,
,
. .
,

()

289

() ( .) .
,

. . , . . ().
(invagination) [.
in , vagina , ] , , ,
.
., . (
), .
(invasivity, invasiveness) [. invasio , ] 1)
(c. ); 2) ,
,
.
(invasion, infestation) [. invasio , ] ,
(, , )
,
, -
.
. , .
. , , , , ;
, , , ; -

;
, . . , , , ,
.

,
,
. ,
(. ),
, .. ; (. ),
,
. . .
(inversion heterozygote) [. inversio , ; .
heteros zygotos ] , (. );
I (. , )
,
.
(inversion) [. inversio
, ]
1) ,
180.
: bd bd. . ( .), ( .). .

. 1926 .;
2)

(, )
(). . .
(cosmopolitan inversion) . .

(inversion duplication) [. inversio , ;


. duplicatio ]
(. ),
, ;
inv-dup.
(inverted terminal repeats,
ITR) [. inversio ,
] , ,
(.
) (.
(, ) , , ).
,
(inverted repeats, IR) [. inversio
, ]


, . .. (.).
(inverse agonist) [. invertere ; .
agonistions , ] (),
, (. ), .

290

..
.
(involution) [. involutio , , ] 1) ; 2) , ; 3) (., ); 4)
(, ,
.).
(end-product inhibition)
. , , .
(inhibitor) [. inhibere
, ] 1) ,
, , ,
. .

, , . , ,
; 2) , , , ,
; 3) , (., D, )
(., , , ).
(germination inhibitor) [. inhibere , ]

291

, ( )
; .. ( , .),
( ) ( )
.
(ribonuclease inhibitor) [. inhibere
,
;
.
ribo(se) ,
. arabinose . nucleus ] 1) (50 ), ,
(. , );
, ..

( , ); ..
(RNH)
p15.5 11
Ha-ras; 2) , , . , .
(enzyme inhibitor) [. inhibere ,
; . fermentum ]
,
.
.. , .. -
.
.., . ..
. . ..

, , .
(ingredient) [. ingrediens ] 1)
- ; 2)
, . ..
. 1917 . .
(2).
(isolation index)
. , .
(environmental quality index, EQI) [. index
] ,

. ... ,
, , . ., (.
, ).
(therapeutic
index) . .
(tolerance index) . .

(chemotherapy index) . .
(index marker)
[. index ; . marquer ] ,
70% ( ,
,
,
..); ..,
23 . ..,

.
, (individual,
unit) [. individuum ,
] 1)
(), , ,
, ,
. . ,
;
2) , .

(in-dividual variation) [. individuum , ] , (), ( , ..) . ..


. .
. 1926.
, , , ,
,
,

.

(individual mating) [. individuum


, ] , , , ,
.
(individual
selection) [. individuum , ] ,

292

.
(indigo) [ . Indigo(fera tinctoria)
] - ,

.
. . Indigofera, . 1880 . .
.
(indicator) [. indicator
] 1),
(.,
. ,

); 2) (. ; , ),


; 3) (.), ,
; 4), ,
, .
, (indicator strain, indicator species) [. indicator ] () (, , , ), : ) (, ,
, , .); ) (., ,
) (.,
); )
, ,

293

, . (., ;
,
). ..
, . .. ., .
.
(indicator species) . , .
,
(indole acetic acid, IAA) [.
ind(igo) , . Indigo(fera tinctoria) . (phen)ol , . phainein ,
. (alcoh)ol ,
. al-kohl
] (.; ),

; . .. ;

(.).
(inducer, inductor, evocator) [. inductor ]
, () ,
(, ),
, .

,
(gratuitous
inducers) .
, .
(induction media) [. inductio , ] , (. (4)) -

,
; 2),

().
(induction) [. inductio , ]
1) ,
,
(. ) ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) ( . 1901 .). .
.
(induced
mutation) [. inductio ,
; . mutatio ] , - .

(in-duced polyploidy) [. inductio , ; .


polyploos eidos
] (. , )
,
.
.. ,
; ,

: , , .
(induced
repair) [. inductio , ; . reparatio ] ,

, ;
.. SOS-
.

(induced
pluripotent stem cells, iPSC) [. inductio , ; .
plures potentia ,
]
(. ),

, .,
. 4 : oct3/4, sox2, klf-4 c-myc.
.... . . 2006.
(induced
mutagenesis) [. inductio , ; . mutatio . genesis , ]
(.).
,
(stress-induced
proteins, stress proteins) [. inductio , ; .
stress ] ,

;
...
(.
, ), . . ... () (
).
(inducible gene)
[. inductio , ; . genos , ] , ( ),
(
, -)
(, , )

294

.
, . .. (. ).
(inducible
promoter) [. inductio ,
; . promovere ]
(. ), . ., , , ;
,
. . .
.
, (inducible enzyme,
adaptive enzyme) [. inductio , ; . fermentum
] ,
( , );

. 1937., ..
(. ).

(inducible expression vector)


[. inductio , ; . expressio ; .
vector , ]
(.), (. ).
(initiation) [. injicere
, ] 1)

295

,
;
( ), ; . ,
-
( .), - (- .)
(.
); 2)
, ,


(. ; ; ).
(initiation
of replication) [. injicere , ; . replication ]
(. , , ),
(. ()
, ) ,

- (. ). ..
: - (., ), (.-,
- ), ,
(SSB), .
(initiation
of transcription) [. injicere , ; . transcriptio ] -

(. ),

() -
,
. ., ..
II

, TFII (transcription factors of RNA
polymerase II): TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIID,
TFIIE, TFIIF TFIIH. TFIID
, - TFIID.
TFIID
- (.
, -)
..
(initiation
of translation) [. injicere , ; . translatio ]
(.),
(. ) .
, , .. . ..
IF (. initiation factor), eIF (. eukaryotic initiation
factor). .. - :
. .
-

, ,
5'-, c
, .
5'-
(.,
),
5'- . ..
-
; IRES-
(. ).
,
(initiator codon, start codon,
chain initiator codon) [. injicere
, ; . code
, ]
5'- , ,

(. ) .
..
..,

.
(. ), , . ,
.
(encapsulating agents) [. in ,
capsula ; . agens (agentis) ] ,
. ..

296

(.), (.)
(. , -). .
..

. . .
(encapsulation) [.
in , capsula ] (, , ),
(),
0,21
, (. ). . , .,
.
(incorporation) [.
incorporatio , ]
- , . . 5-


.
(incretion) [. in , (se)cretus ] , ( )
. . .
1855.
(incross) [. in , . cross , ] (. )
.

297

(incubator, hatcher) [.
incubare , ,
] , ,
(, , .).
. .
(hatchery) [. incubare , ,
] (),
, , . (. ; (2)).
(incubation
period) [. incubatio , , ]
1)

(,
, , ,
) (); 2)
- .
(incubation) [. incubatio , ,
] 1)

;
2) (
, , .)

(); 3) (. (2)); 4)
; 5)
.
.
(inosit) [. is (inos) , ] [C6H6(OH)6],

;
--
( ). ()
. . .
(inositol) [. is (inos)
, . ol(eum)
] (),
;
( ,
).
(inoculum) [. inoculatio
] 1) (
, , .), ( , ,
.). . (. (1)); 2) ,
; 3) ,
.
(inoculation) [. inoculatio ] 1)
(, ); 2)
; 3)
(. (2)) . .: ().

(insecticides)
[.
insectum caedere -

] - .-.
. .: ,
; , .
; ,
( )

; , . . . , ., , , , .. . .
(insertion
mutation) [. inserto ,
; . mutatio ] , ()
. ..
, ., (., ).
(insertional translocation) [. inserto
, ; . trans locatio ] , -
; .. (.).

, , IS (insertion sequences, IS-

298

elements) [. inserto ,
] (. ), 700
1500.., ( ..)
, , () .
E. coli 19 IS1-. IS-
E. coli
.
..
; .. ,
,
( ).
. .,
()
. ..
() ,
, .
..
, , . , .., , . , IS1, o
,
,
, ,
. ..
,


. ( -

299

, )
..
,


. .. ,
. .. ., .
. 70- .
.
, (insertional vector, integraton vector) [. inserto , ; . vector , ] ,
.
..
, -, .
..
(. ).
(insertion
mutagenesis) [. inserto ,
; . mutatio
. genesis , ]
,
(. ) (., ); .. ,
.
, (insertion, interlocation) [. inserto ,
] ,

. . -

,

(. ; ,
).
(instillation) [. instillatio ]
(., ).
(homing) .
, .
(insulin) [. insula , -in(e) , ] , -
.
.,
51 ,
, . . : , . .
;
, . .
. .,
,

, .
.
().
. 1922. . .. . 1923. .
. . . ,

. 1954. ( 1958.).
(insulator) [. insulation ]
(), . .,
-
. , ,
; , , .,

.
(intasome) [. int(egratio)
, soma
] , attP
attB,
- .
(integrases) [. integratio , ] , - (. ),
-

(c. - ), 5'- 68- . . - 3040 , ;



( 1) , ( 2),

300

T
.
., , (.) int, attP.
(integration
vector) . ,
.
(integration) [. integratio , ,
integer ] 1) ,
,

-, ; 2)
;
,
; 3)
(). . .
1857.
(integrins) [. integer
-in(e) , ] (., ), (.),
, , .
.
RGD (--),
. RGD-

301

(. ):
,
-3. 20
. (., ., LFA-1,
1, p150). , . . - ,
(focal adhesions).
, .


. .

.
(integron) [. integratio
, ] (. ), ,
(intI),
(attI). . , ( ,

). . . . 1989.
(intein) [. in(ter)
(pro)tein ] , ,
1301600 , -
(. (3)).
.

( 100 ).
. , -

, . . . . . . 1994 . . .
(selection intensity) [. intensio ,
] ,
();
.. (.
).
(interactive surface) [. inter
actio ]
,
. ..
. . 1990.
(interactome) [. inter , actio .
-om(a) , , ] , -, - , .
(intergradation) [.
inter gradatio ] (, ); (

) . ; . .
1942. . .

,
(intercalation agents,
intercalates) [. intercalatio
, ; . agens (agentis)
] , ()


. (),
( ).
..
,
.
.. ,
.
(intercalation) [.
intercalatio , ]
1)
(., ); 2)
(. , ) .
, (interkinesis,
interphase) [. inter
kinesis ] (. ,
)
(.),
.
(intercross) [. inter
. cross ] ;
. Aa Aa.
(intercurrent) [.
inter . (con)currere
] , (.,
. ).
(interleukins) [. inter , . leukos
. -in(e) ,

302

] ,
() ;
. . (. ). .
1978. II , .
(intermedin) . , .
(internalization) [.
internus ] ,
(. ). .
, , . .
- (. ) , -
.
,
(interoreceptors, interoceptors) [.
interior receptor
]
, , . .
,
, , ..
. , , , . .
, .
(interoceptors)
. , .
(interposon) [. inter
positio , ]
, in vitro (. ). .

303

(.),
,
. .
. . 1984.
(interradial translocation) [. inter
radius ; . trans locatio ] (.
),
.
(interstitial) [.
interstitium ] . . ,
(., . ,
, ).
(interphase) ., .

(interference microscope) [. inter


ferio , ;
. mikros scopeo , , ]
, ,

,
, ; (.(4)).
(interference) [.
inter ferens (ferentis) , ] 1)
,
.
. . , 1916 ., ; 2) -

(. ); 3) ,


- (., - ); 4) ,
(, .),



(. ).
(interferons) [. inter , ferens , ]
(-, - -) , (- -, , ) ,
(- -) , . .
,
,
.

. . :
(
), ,
,

.
.
, .

.

. ( ).

.

(
, )
. . .
. 1957.
(intoxication, poisoning) [. in , .
toxikon ]
()
(., ). .:
.
(intrabodies) [. intra ] (.
),
(. )

. .
,

.
(introgression) [. intro , gressus , , ] (. )
(.,
).
(introgressive hybridization) [. intro
, gressus ,
, ; . hybrida
] ,

(.); ..

304

.
(introduction) [. introductio ] 1) () , () ; ; 2)
.
(intron) [. int(e)r(vening) (z)
on(e) ] ,
, (.),

(-) (.). , , ., . ., (1
250) ( 100 10000 ..) . .
, . ,
. .

. I II,
(. ).
5'- .
(5'- )
3'- . (3'- ).
/A. , .
, . . 2008 . (
). . . 1978. -

305

1993 . .
..

(intussusception)
[. intus susceptio ] ( )
; .,
-
( ).
(infection
unit) [. inficere , ] , .
.. :
50%-
(. , 50)
, .
(infectious nucleic acid) [.
inficere , ; .
nucleus ] , ,
-
.
(infection) [. inficere
, ] ,
. . .
1841.
(abortive infection) . .
(late infection)
. .
(productive
infection) . .
c (mixed infection) . .

(phage infection) . .
(infiltration) .
, , .
, (messenger RNA, mRNA) [. informatio . RNA
] ,
(., ).
(informational molecules) [. informatio
, ; . moles
-ula . ]
( ), , ( ).
(informosome) [. informatio ,
soma ] ,
,
. . . .
1964. .
(informofer) [. informatio ,
phro , ] ,
(), (.
, )
30S- . . . 1974.
(infrared
radiation) [. infra ] ,
, (
0,74 12 ); , .
(encystment) [.
in , . kystis ]

(. ),
. .: .
(inbreeding) .,
.
- (inbreeding depression) . ,
-.
- (inbreeding minimum) . .
(injection
chimera) [. injectio ; . Chimaira , , ]
(. ), -.
, . .. . 1968. . .
(injection) [. injectio
] 1)
( )

.
.: , , ,
,
, .;
, . (., ); 2)
( ).
(ion) [. ion ] ,

. . 1834. . .

306

(ionization) [. ion
]

. .,
.
(. ).
(ionizing
radiation) [. ion ]
(-,
, , .), (.) .
(ionites) .
, .
()
(ionic bond) [. ion ]
, (.).
(ion chromatography) [. ion ; .
chroma (chromatos) ,
grapho , ]
(. ),
(.)
, , .
.. , , ,
, ; , , ,
. .

(ion exchange chromatography)


[. ion ; . chroma
(chromatos) , grapho
, ]
(. ), -

307


(. )
.

,
.
. , (. , ).
, .
. ., .. , (-S3-). . .. , , , ;
.
.. (,
510 , 107 ) , ,

( , , .)
. ..
(.), , ,
. .. .
(19371940.).

(ion
exchange membranes) [. ion
; . membrane , ] ,
(. , ), () , . . ..: , ; ,
- (5570%
) (, ,
.); ,
(1530% ) (
-
,
). ,
..
,
..:
-,
, ,
( ), , (
). .. . , ., .
, (ionexchange resins, ionites) [. ion
] () ,

. .. (), () (-

). - , - . (.,
) ,
(. ,
-).

..
( ) , .
, . .. ,
. ..: () .
(ion exchanger) [. ion ; .
filtrum ] ,
(.) .
(ionophores) [. ion
phoros ]
- , ,

,


. .
. ,
, ,

,
. .
(. -

308

),
: (+, Rb+), A23178
(Ca2+, H+), (K+, P+) (H+, Na+, K+, Rb+).
. .
.
(Skulachovs ions)
[. ion ; .] ,


.
.. . , (SkQ),
,
. SkQ , .
.. . 1974.
(IR) . , .
(IPTG) . , .
(mRNA)
; (. -,
).
(irradiation) [. irradiare , ] 1) ( ) ; 2)
;
3)..

309

(irrigation) [. irrigatio
, ] 1)
, ( ) , ; 2)
, .
(exclusive mapping) [. charta ,
]
( ), , .
(exclusion) . , .
(excluded virus)
[. virus ] ,

.

(artificial
food) ,
(,
, , ),
. .
( , ,
,
, ,
)
,
, (. ), ,
,
..

, , , , ,
(
).

: ) ,
, . ,
; ) ,
,
. , , ( - ) )
,
,
. . ..
, , , , . , , , . ..
, (
, ).

, ,
- , , ( ,
, ), , , , ( ,
, ), , ..
(artificial
population) [. populus , ] , () - .
(artificial phospholipid membrane) [. phos , phoros lipos ; membrane , ] , ,
1 , (.,
),

.
( , , );

.
,
6. (. ). ...
, ,
, .
., ...
(, , .)
.
... .
. 1972.
1 (P1 artificial chromosome) [. chroma
, soma ] 1, E. coli
(100300
. ..).

(bacterial artificial chromosome)
. .

(yeast artificial chromosome, YAC)
. .
, (mammalian artificial
chromosome, MAC) [. chroma
, soma ] - , , ( ),

.

310

...: in vitro
-
,

, ,
-. ...

. ...
. . 1983.
. .
(artificial insemination) , ; ( ) in vitro.
.. . ..: () ()
; ,
(. ) (. , ).
.. ()
.-. ; ,
, .
(artificial gene)
[. genos , ]
,
in vitro

311

(.
() ).
(artificial selection) ( ..) (
..) -
, ,
; ..

(, , , , ..).
(artificial parthenogenesis) [. parthenos genesis , ] ( )
- . ., .. .
,

, .
(evaporation, vaporation,
volatilization) ,
; .
.
, (provenance) / .
(ionizing radiation source) [.
ion ] , (. ).
(depletion, exhaustion)
1) ,
, ,
, -

,
; 2). ; .
(impoverishment of
soil) , .-.

.
(depletion of
resources) [. ressourse ] 1)
; 2)
.

(.
), (, ).
(istron) [. i(nsertion)
s(equence) (in)tron
, . int(e)r(vening)
(z)on(e) , .
inter interventio ; . zone ] ,
I (.) (. , , IS-). . Clostridium difficile
. . 2000.
(stock culture)
[. cultus , ]
,


.
(feedstock) , ,
(,

, , ,
.).
(endangered species) ,
,
.
( , ..),
.
..
.
(chromosome banding) [. chroma ,
soma ; . band
, ] ,
,
- ,
/- . . .. (. ), . ..

; : G-, C-, R-, Q-.

312

IS-
(IS-elements)
[.
i(nsertion) , s(equence)
. elementum
] . , , IS-.
(iterons) [. iteratio ]
,

-
(. , , ). .,
pSC101 E. coli . 5- 20- .
. . .
1977.
(iteroparity) [. iteratio pario ,
]

, , ,
,
. . .
(IAA) . , .
(enzyme-linked immunosorbent
assay, ELISA). , , .
(MAC) . , .


(cavitation) [. cavitas
(cavitatis) , ]
,
, ,
. .
,
(). . . : ) ; )
; )

,
; ) ()
; )
; )

; ) (.) ..
. . 1894.
(cadaverin) [. cadaver
-in(e) , ] (1,5-), (.,
).

(cadherins)
[.
ca(lcium) , . calx
(calcis) , . adhaerere
, -in(e)

]
-
,
., ., .- . . : E-. ,
N-. , P-.
,
. .
(. ) . ,
. .
-
. . (
). .
. 1977.
(casein) [. caseus (casei)
-in(e) , ] (. )
, ; . .
(.),
. .
, , ,
..

(kairomones)
[.
kairo(s) , . (hor)
mone, . hormao
, ]
(. ), -

,
-. . , ; , ; ,
, .. . .
- (sodiumpotassium pump)
( )
( ),

. :
,
,
.
(kallikreins) [.
kallikreas
. -in(e) ,
] ..
(callose) [. callus , ]
(. , ), , ( ,
). . ; . , . . , (. );
. , , . .

314

(callus) [. callus
, ] , in vitro

(. ). .
,
. . in vitro.
(callus culture)
[. callus , ;
. cultus , ] , (, ..) . ..
(. ).
.. (. ),

. .. , , , .
(calorie) [. calor ,
] , 4,1868.
., . (1 ),
,
1 1.

(.,
1 9,0).

(calcitonin)
[.
calci(um) , . ton(es)

315

, .-in(e) , ]
(.
), 32 ,
.
. . .
.
, :
,
, .
. . 1961., 1968 . .:
.
, D (calciferol,
vitamin D) [. calci(um) ,
phro , ol(eum)
] ,
, ;
.
.: D3, D2 . .

,
. D
.
( 1928.).
(gum) [. kommidion
(kommi) , ] , ( , ),
.
. ,
.
, , -

. .
, ,
, . . (.), - (. -),
(. ), , . .: .
(canalized character) [. canalis ,
] ,
,
.
(kanamycin) [ . (Streptomyces) kanamyc(eticus) .
-in(e) , ] (. , ), Streptomyces
kanamyceticus;
( 30S ),

.
. (. ). .
.-
. Streptomyces
kanamyceticus 1956. ..

(canonical sequence) [. kanonikos , ] . , .
(carcinogen) [. cancer
, .
gen(es) , ] , -

. . , , ,
..
. . . ,
4-, , 3- . . ,
(., ,
, ), , , ,
.
(capillary) [. capilla ] 1) (., , ); 2) , ; 3) ,
.
(capillary chromatography) [. capillaris ; . chroma
(chromatos) grapho ,
]
(. ),
( 0,11,0 ). ()

,
( ).
..

.
.. : )
,

316


; )

-; )

; ) .
(), ( , ..)
(., ), .
.

, ..
(capillarity) [. capilla ] () . .,
. , .
(capsid) [. capsa , ] . ., (. ), . .: (
) ( ) ( );
. (.). . , , ., , .
(capsomere) [. capsa
, . meros
]
(.); . -

317

(.) .
(capsula) [. capsula , ] 1)
,
(., .
, , ), (
, ,
. .). .
, ; 2) , (. ; );
3) ,
,
(,
.). ,
.,
,
, , , , , , .. (), - ., ,

. . .
7099% . .
, - .
(capsulation) [.
capsula , ] () (. (3)). .
,


(). .

;
, ,
. , .
, , , , , ,
.
(capsuliferous bacteria) [. capsula , ; . bacterion
]
Klebsiella
Enterobacteriaceae,

(). .. ,
, , , .
(capsuliferous microorganisms) [. capsula , ; .
mikros . organismus , ]
(. ),
, ,
.
, , , (Torulopsis .).

.. ,
. ..,
, (., ).
(capsular
polysaccharides) [. capsula , ; . poly ,

, sakcharon eidos
] ,
, , . ,
: , .
.. (. ) (. ),

. .. (.).
(quarantine
regulations) [. quaranta (giomi)
] , : )
, ,
, . ; )
, .
(carbamide) . , .
(carbohydrates) [.
carbo (carbonis) . hydor ] ,
(.).
(carboxylases) [.
carbo (carbonis) . oxys
]
(. ), , . .
(-COOH).
, , .: , , , . . . -

318

. ., - .

- , .

.
, -
(carboxyl terminus, C-terminus) [.
carbo (carbonis) . oxys
]
,
-
(-). . -, NH2-.
,

cellulose
(carboxymethylcellulose,
gum) [. carbo (carbonis)
. oxys , . methyl
CH3, . methu , .
cellula . -ose ,
] , ,
. . , .
, . ,
,
. . ;
,
; ; ; . , , , ;

319

, , . . .
1918.
(carboxypeptidases) [. carbo (carbonis) ,
. oxys peptos , ] ,

- ;
.
(carbonic acids)
[. carbo (carbonis) ] , (-).
-, -
.. (, .). , NH2, = ( ,
, - , ).
..,
6,
. .. ,
, ; , , ; . ..
, , , , . .. , , ;
, ,
. .. , . . ; ;
; .
(cardiolipins) [.
kardia , lipos
. -in(e) ,
] -

, ,
; (. ) . . . ., (.) (.)
( ) . .
( ).

(karyogamy)
[.
karyon , gamos
] ,
; .
(

.).
(karyokinesis) . .

(karyoclastic)
[. karyon ,
klao ] ,
(.),
; .
.

(karyolysis)
[.
karyon , lysis , , ]
(., ); .
(.).
(karyolymph) . , , ,
.
(karyomere, chromosomal
vesicle) [. karyon ,
meros ] , (. -

), .
, , , (karyoplasm,
nucleoplasm, karyolymph) [.
karyon , plasma
]
,
(. ); . .
(karyoplast) [. karyon , plasts , ] ,

,
;
.
.
. -.
(karyorhexis) [.
karyon , rhxis
] , (.) ,

.
(karyostasis) [. karyon
, stasis , ]
, , .
(karyotype) [. karyon
, typos ] , , ; .
( ), -

320

. . .
1924.

(karyotype
ortoselection)
[.
karyon , typos
; . orthos ,
, ; . selecto , ] ,
(
). .. ..
(karyocholosis) [.
karyon , holos
, ] , ,

(.).
(carnitine) [. caro
(crnis) -in(e) ,
] -N-- , ( BT),
(. ) .
H , .



- .
L-K. . ( ),
. .
L- . . L-. , -

321

, , ;
. 1905. ... . .
(carnosine) [. carnosus
, caro -in(e) , ]
,
- ,
. . ,
. . , ,
,
. . 1900. .. (
).
(carotne) [. carota ] (. ); : ,
, .
-.,
, ( ). -. ,
, . .
. 1831. . (Daucus
carota).

(carotenoids)
[.
carota . eidos
]
( 600), . . , (. ), ,
;

. ., . . ( 50)
. . .
(1937.) . (1938.).
(carrageenans) [.
carrageen, . carraign ]
(., ),
D-
(..
).
. ,
4-- D-,
3,6--D-;
,
. . ,
, ,
(Gigartinales), (. ).
;
. ( )
. .
, , .
. (Chondrus),
(Gigartina), (Phyllophora
nervosa) . . ,

( ).

-

,
, ;

.
(restriction map)
. , .
,
(linkage map, genetic map)
[. charta , ]
( )
,
, ,
(.).
(chromosome
painting) [. chroma , soma ] in situ,

; ..
, ,

.

(mapping)
[.
charta , ] ( , ) (), . . ( )

. :
-

322

,
;
, ; in situ .
, ,

. , ,
,

. .
; ; ; ;
().
(genetic
mapping) . .
(denaturation mapping) . .
(positional mapping) .
, .
(restriction mapping) . .
(physical
mapping) . .

(cytogenetic mapping) . .
(cascade mutagenesis) [. cascade ; . mutatio .
genesis ]
, (-

323

) (), .
() . ..
.. 1972. .
(caspases) [. c(ysteinyl)
aspa(rtate-specific)
(protea)ses
--
]
, (. ), ,
. 14., (.,
.-8 .-9), (.-3) (.-1, .-4, .-5
.-13). .-
.-;
, . . . . 1992.
(cassette) [. cassette
] 1)
, (.,
); 2)
(. ()
) ,

,
. .
.
, (castoreum) [. kastor ]
,
.
,

. ,
.
(catabiosis) [. kata ,
, bios ] , .
(atabolism) [. katabole , ]
, , (,
,
.) (, .).
. , , , (
).
. ( ),
. . (. ) . .
(. )
.
(catabolite
repression) [. katabole , ; . repressio ]
, (. ). .,
, . (.
, ) -

( )
( ).
(catabolic
plasmid) [. katabole , ; . plasma , ]
(. ), , ,

(. ); ,

(. ).
(catalase) [. katalysis
] - (.),
2.
(catalysis) [. katalysis
]
(),
,


. .
. 1835.
(fermentative catalysis, enzymatic catalysis)
. .
(catalyst) [. katalysis ] ,
,
. . (., ).
. .
(catalytic
antibody) ., .

324

, (catharobiontes) [. katharos
biontos ] ,
(.,
Heribandiella).
(catenanes) [. catena
] , ,

.
, () . . , ., .
(catenins) [. catena
-in(e) , ] (-., -.,
p120-. .), (.) , ,
,
, (. ). , ., . . . . 1989.
(cathepsins) [. kathepso .-in(e) , ]

(., )
,
(. ),

.
. ., . G ,
; . -

325

, (.).
. . .
1929.
. . 1936. .: .
(catechins) [ .
(Acacia) catech(u)
, . catechu , , . -in(e) , ]

(, , .);
,
, (Acacia catechu). . . , . .
, .
. .

(catecholamines)
[ . (Acacia)
catech(u) , .
katechu , ,
. amino NH2, ammonia , . sal ammoniacus
, ] , (.
), (,
) (, , ). .
; . (L-). .
,
, . .
1839. . .

.: , .
(cation-exchange resins) [. kat(a)
ion ] ,
(
) -
.
() ..
, (). ..
( ),

,
,
, , ,
, .

(caulogenesis)
[.
kaulos genesis , ] de novo (.).
,
(good clinical practice,
GCP) [. klinike ,
kline , ]
,

. ...

, .
. () ; .

(qualitative
character) ,
(, )
(., , a ..).
(quality of life) ,
, . .. , , . (living
standarts).
(quadrivalent, tetravalent) . , .
(quadroma) [. quadri-
, ,
. -oma ] (.), ; . (. ) , , - , .
(quasispecies) [. quasi
, ]
; ,
. ., ( , ) , . .

326

,

-.
,
() (quorum sensing) [. quorum (praesentia
sufficit) ( ); . sence , ]
()
(.), .; . .. ,

( ),

.

N--. -
, (., V. fischeri). .. , .
..

; ., , - Proteus Serratia, , , (. ) .
.. . . 1981. Pfotobacterium fisheri.

327

(DNA) .
, .
(cDNA library)
. .
(double stranded complementary DNA) .
, .
, (chalones) [.
chalaino ]
,
,
, . . (., G1-. G1 S-
). . , , .
(keloid) [. kele , eidos ]

, ;
, . (. )
(. ).
(keratins) [. kras
(kratos) .-in(e) ,
] , ,
, - - ( -. -.). . .. ,
, . . ,
, ,
. -., -

,
.
(ketoses) [. Keton ,
. Aketon
. -ose , ] , (==) (.,
, .). .
.

(cybernetics)
[.
kybernetike ] :
, , , ..
(killer particle)
[. kill ]
, , 10 ,
, ,

,
(. ).
, .
(killer cells) [.
kill ]
-, ; G
(. ). .: .
, (kilobase, kb) [. kilo,
. chilioi . base
] , . 1 = 1000
(..) . . .
(kymograph, cymograph)
[. kyma grapho ,
]
- -

; , .,
.
(kymography) [.
kyma grapho , ]
(.).
(kinases) [. kineo , ]
(), (-PO3H2)
(.).
(kinetic
proofreading) [. kinetikos . correctio
]
()
,

(.).
(kinetic
complexity) [. kinetikos ] , (0t1/2, 0 t )
() .
(kinetoplast
DNA) [. kinetos ,
plasts , ] , , 2038 (-)
0,52,5 (-) . ..
- (.
) ,
- ;

328

. Kinetoplastida.
, (kinetosome) [. kinetikos soma ] , ; .
.
(kininogenases)
., .
, (kininogenins,
kinino-genases) [.
kineo , ; .
-genes , . -in(e) , ]
(. , ),
(. ) (. ); ,
,
, .
(.). .: .

(kininogens)
[.
kineo , ; .
genes , ] , ,
. . (. ) (.). .:
.
,

, -

329

.
(kinins) [. kineo ,
.-in(e) , ]
;
,
,
, , , , ,
. . , (.), , (.).
.: , ( ) . .. .

. .
. 1958. .
.
(acid protease) [.
protos ] , , 2,05,0. . 2 ..: -.
Aspergillus,

Mucor. .
, .
(oxygen effect)
[. effectus ] -

() ,
,
() . . .. .
. 1921.
(nucleic acid)
. .
(acid number) ,
(), , 1 .
(acidophilic bacteria) .
, , .
(acidfast bacteria) [. bacterion ] , ;
- ,

. .. . .: .
,
(colon bacillus, coli bacteria) [.
klon . bacterion ]
(Escherichia coli), ,
. .. , , (., ).
(. () )
; . 1885 . (.
).

(intestinal bacteria) [. bacterion ] Enterobacteriaceae,


,
,
.
.. Proteus, Escherichia, Salmonella, Shigella Klebsiella.
Escherichia coli (. ).
(antibody class) [.
classis ; . anti ] ,
(. ),

. ..: IgA, IgD,
IgE, IgG IgM.
(cluster) [. cluster , ] 1)
,
, , , ; 2).
.
(gene cluster) [.
cluster , ; . genos , , ]

,
. ., - -

.. ; 16 ..,
2 ,
. , ..,
.
(clastogen) [. clastos
genes ,
] ( ), (. ).
(clastogenesis) [.
clastos genesis -

330

, ] (.).
(clastogenicity) [.
clastos genos ,
]
(. ; ; ).
(clathrin) [. clatri .-in(e) , ] (180 ),
( ) . . (. ). .
(.). . . 1975.
(cleistogamy) [.
kleistos gamos ]

.
(Klenow fragment)
[ . ; . fragmentum , ] I E. coli, (., ); .. 5'3'
3'5',
5'3'-
.
(. () ).
(cleptoparasitism)
[. klepto . parasitos ] ( ) , -

331

. . , .
(cell)
, , . .
(, , ),

(., 1014 .). (),
.
, , . , , .
.

(.); .
(., ). .
0,10,25 ( ) 155 ( ).
.
- (producer cell)
[. producentis , ] , . .-.
(., - .-.
-) ,

(.)
(. (2))

, . .-. , .-. (. ).
, (germinal cells)

[. germen , , ]
, (. , )
(
). .: .
(feeder cells)
. .
(cell adhesion)
[. adhaesio ] ,
(. ),
;
. ..: -.
.. :
(. ),
-, ; (. ) , ;
(.) ; , ,
; (. ) ,

. ..: ()
. ..
Ca2+

(., ). ..
. .. -

.
(cellular affinity) [. affinis ] ; .. . .
.
(cell engineering) [. ingenieur ,
. ingenium , ] ,

, .
.. (. ),
.


(, , , .). .. ;
, , (., .).
(cell culture) [.
cultus , ] ,
, in vitro
. .., ,
- (.,
,
..), , ,
. ..
.
, , ,
, ,

332

, .
..
, , -

. ..
in vitro,
.
(cell line, cell strain)
[. linea -
] in vitro
() , ,
,

,
.
(cell microenvironment) 1), ,
: ) , ) ,
( ), )
: ,
. ..:
,

. , ..;
2) ,
.
(cell population) [. populus , ] .

333

.. (
, ., ), .. (
, ,
, . ) .. (

, .
).

(cell
lineage) -

(. ).
, .. , Caenorhabditis elegans, 816 (
302 ).
(cell selection)
[. selectio , ]
.
. .
(cell therapy)
[. therapeia , , ] ,
,
. .. , . .. , .
(cellular nucleus)
,
. ..
-

,
(. ). ..
,
, 20
60. .. . 1831.
(cell display)
[. display ] , (.,
, ) (), . .
.,
, , (. ) . .
.
(cellular immune response) [. immunis
, ]
,
- (-).
( )

- -. - . -

,
. - .
-

- Fas-, (. ) -; -
, (. ).
(cell cycle) [. kyklos ] ,
. .. ; .. (.)

: (G0 G1)
(. G0; G1), (S) (. S), (G2) (. G2)
(M) (.).
(climatron) [. klima
thronos ] ,
, . . ,
(.), , .
,
(clinal variability) [. klino ] ,
,
. ..
- .
..

334

. . 1939.

(clearance,
Cl)
[.
clearance ] -
, () . .
. . VD(VD=D/C0, D , C0 )
. ..,
, VD
(., , , .).
(clone) [. clon ,
] 1)
,

,

(., ,
; ,
, ;
,
),
; 2) ,
(. ()
); 3) .
(recombinant
clone) . .
(clonal
propagation) [. clon ,
] in vitro

335

, .
(cloning) [. clon
, ] 1) . ,
(. (1); ; );
2) . (. (2);
); 3) . (. ).
(gene cloning)
. ; (2).
(DNA cloning)
[. clon , ] , .


(. ),
(. )
, , .
( ),
-, .
.
(direct
cloning) . .
(positional cloning, positional mapping)
. , .

(therapeutic cloning) . .
(embryo cloning) .
.

(cloned DNA,
passenger DNA) [. clon , ]
- , (., ) ,
- (., E.
coli)
(. ).
, (cloning vector) [.
vector , ; .
clon , ] (.), ,

, ,
.
- (C-mitosis) [. mitos
] (. ), (.).
,
(coaugulantes) [. coagulatio , ; . agens
(agentis) ] ,
, -
, , . .
.
. , (). .


(, .). .
(), ; . (. ). .

,

.
(coadaptation) [.
co , . adaptatio ] 1) (. )

(. ); 2)
,
; 3).

, .
(coamplification)
[. co amplificatio , ] 1) (. ) ,
., (. II
HER-2 ); 2) -

(. ,
).
(coacervate) [. coacervatus , ]
,
;
- . . , ,
.
(1924.).
, 12 (cobalamine,
vitamin B12) [. cobalt ,
. Kobold , ,
,
. amino NH2, ammonia , . sal ammoniacus

336

, ] - , .

, . ,

(. ) , . . , (, , ).
.
Propionibacterium freudenreichii, P. shermanii Pseudomonas denitrificans. . . .

1948 . . (1955.) .
1964. ..
(cobionts) [. con
. bion (bintos) ]
,
, .. .

(covalently closed circular


DNA, cccDNA)[. co ,
valens ] ,
; ... ,
.
(covariation) [. co ,
variatio ]
, ,

- , .
( /-

337

,
/)
( ). ., . . .
(code) . ; .
(genetic code)
. .
(histone code)
. .
(codecarboxylase)
[. co , , de- ,
, , , , carbo (carbonis)
. oxys ] (.),

D-.
: .
(coding capacity) [. code , ]
, (, . .
;
). , 1 6070 .
(),
() (coding chain (strand),
sense chain (strand)) [. code
, ] , ,

( ).
,
.
. (),
().
(coding triplet) ..

(codominance) [.
co (cum) dominare , ] .
. , .,
:
, ,
, ,
.
, , (codon, triplet, coding triplet)
[. code , ; .
tripler ]
,
, () ,
() () .
64 . - . 61
20 (. ); 3
-. (.-).
(nonsence
codon) . .
(initiator codon, start-codon, chain-initiator codon) . .

(terminator) c. -, , ; .
(degenerate
codons) . .
(Kozak
sequence) [ . ]

,
(
) () [(/)
]. ..


. . 1987.
(CFU) .
, .
(cointegrate) [. co ,
integratio , ] ,

(. ),

(. ). . ;
(.).

(cointegrative vector system) [.
co , integratio , ; . vector
, ; . systema , , ] ,
(. , ). -, .
Agrobacterium
Ti- ,
, -
.
(cointegtation) [.
co , integratio , ] ,
(.). . (. -

338

(2)) ,

(.).
(koinotype) [. koin typos ] ,
,
, .

(koinophilia)
[.
koin philia ,
]
() ; , . . . .
. 1994.
(cocaine) [ . (Erythroxylum) coca
.-in(e) , ] (c.
),
,
,
; ; . . . 1855.
(cocarboxylase) [.
co , , carbo (carbonis)
. oxys ] ..
(coccus) [. kokkos ]
,
;

(), () . . , .
(cocultivation)
[. co , . cultus
, ] in

339

vitro, .
(coli bacteria)
. , .
(colinearity) [. co
, linearis ]
1)

( );
.
,

; 2)
.
(colicin) [ . (Escherihia) coli , . klon
. -in(e) , ] -
(. ),
E. coli., ;

.
. .
- .
. ( . , ,
.. ). .
. 1948. . .
(colicinogeny) [ .
(Escherihia) coli
, . klon
, . -in(e) , ,
geneia , ]
Escherichia (.).

(colicinogenic bacteria) [ . (Escherihia) coli


, . klon ,
. -in(e) ,
, . genes , ; . bakterion ] Enterobacteriaceae, (. ),
;
.

,
col (colicin factor, colicinogenic factor, col-factors) [ . (Escherichia) coli , . klon
, . -in(e) , , . genes
, ; .
factor , ]
(.
), (.).

(colicin
typing) [ .
(Escherihia) coli , . klon ,
. -in(e) ,
, . typos ,
, ]
(.); .
(quantitative variation) () , , ,

.
(quantitative
PCR, qPCR) . -

,
.
(quantitative inheritance)
() ,
() ; ..
.
- (quantitative-activity
relationship, QSAR) [. structura
, ] , ,
,

, .
(quantitative character) , (),

; ..
, , ..
(collagen) [. kolla
genes , ] (. , ),
. .
, . . 1/21/4 ; 10 .
,

340

. . , ,
(. , ).
. , ,
, .
, .
, ,
.
(collateral hybridization) [. colla-teralis , ; . hybrida
] , .
(colloid(al) solution) [. kolla eidos
] ,
,

. .. . .. . .
1925.

.. ,

.
,
(colony forming unit, CFU) [. colonia ] , , 1
.
(colony) [. colonia ] ,
.
. .
; -

341

.
.
(column
chromatography) [. columna
, ;
. chroma (chromatos) , grapho , ]

(.,
), .
(column reactor) [. columna ,
; re- ,
,
actio ] (),
; .
(colorimeter) [. color
. metreo , ] ,
.
(colchicine) [ .
Colchi(cum) -in(e) ,
] (22256)
(c. ), . .
,
. .
;
.
1820 .
(Colchicum
autumnale) . . . . -.

(colcemid) [ .
Colchicum
. eidos ]
(. ), , (
), .
(ring chromosome) [. chroma ,
soma ] ,
, , ,
.
.. . .. , ;
.. ( ) .
(combinatorial library) [. combinare
, ; . biblion
theke ]
, ,
, -. .,
, ,
, , . .. . .
1985 .
(. ). . ; .
(combinatorial chemistry) [. combinare , ; . chemeia ] , -

( , . )
(.) ()
. ..

.
. -, .
(combinatorial control) [. combinare , ; . controle
, ] ,

.
(combinatorial synthesis) [. combinare , ; synthesis ]
,
- ( . building
block). .. ,
;

( )
,
,
.
() () (combicombinative
native
variability,
vari-ation) [. combinare , ; . variability, .
varians ] ,
.

342

(combination breeding) [. combinare , ]


,
; ..

.
(cometabolism) [. co
(cum) . metabole , ]

,
. . . , .,

, ,

.
(commensalism) [.
com- , ,
, mensa , ]
,
(. ),
() ()
,
.
. .
,

(commiscuum, comparium) [. com-


, , ,
misceo ]
,
, . . .
. .
. 1929.
(committed
cell) [. commitment ] , , . . , -

343

. .. - .
(compartmentalization) [. compartment ; ] 1)
() ; ., ,
(
, , .); 2) (), ;
, . .
. a-
1973.
(compensation genes) [. compensare , ; . genos
, ] ,
,
.
(compensation) [.
compensatio , ] 1)
,

; 2)
; 3)
; 4) (., ); 5). -
(.).

(competent
cell) [. competens , ] 1),
,
; 2) ,
; ., ,
, ..
(. ).
..
(.
() ) .
(compilospecies) [.
compilatio ] , , . , .
(complex
heterozygote) [. complexus ; . heteros zygotos ] ,
.
(complex locus)
[. complexus ; . locus ] ,
(/
), . .. , -
.
(complex
frameshift) [. complexus ]
(.
), , . .,
,
his,
.

(complexons) [. complexus ]
( ), , /
, , , .
(., ., , );
. . (
),
,
.- , ; ;
,
,
- .

(complement)
[.
complementum ]
1)
( 9 20),
,
,
IgG
IgM, ; ,
(. , ). .
, (. )
, . . . . -

344


, . .

( , .),
( ) , ,
,
,

.
. , . . ( )
.
. . .
1900. ; 2) , , (. , 1932).
, (complementary DNA, copy DNA, cDNA)
[. complementum ]
,

(. ).

(complementary RNA, copy RNA,


cRNA) [. complementum ] in vitro
- ( 7)
; .

(. (2)).

345

(complement
chain) [. complementum ] .

(gene complementary action) [.
complementum ; .
genos , , ] ,

-
.
(complementarity) [. complementum ] ( )
, ,
,
(--,
,
) . ., ,
,


, .

.
, (complementary genes, reciprocal genes) [. complementum
; . genos , ] , ,
, . .,
(Lathyrus odoratus)

.

(complemen-

tary nucleotide sequences) [.


complementum ; .
nucleus . eidos ]
,

(-, -, -).
. .

(complementary structures) [.
complementum ; .
structura , ]
,
, . , (. ).
(complementation test) [. complementum
; . test ,
] ,
,
:

,
.
(complementation)
[. complementum ]
1)
()
. . ,

. , , , . . -

, (. ); 2). .
(complementation of viruses) [. complementum ; . virus
]
,
,
. ..
(),
, (), . .
, ,
, ,
, ,
, .
(negative complementation) c. .
(recessive complementation) c. .
(components) [. componens (componentis) ]
1) -;
2)
; .
. 1917 . .
(2).
(computed tomography, CT) [. computer, . computare ,
; . tomos
grapho , ] , -

346


, .
..
,
, - ,
. .. ,

.
..
1979. .
. .
(computational
chemistry) [. computer, .
computare , ; .
chemeia ] ,
in silico (c. In silico).
. in silico.
(computer simulation, computer modeling)
[. computer, . computare
, ; . modulus
, ]

- ,
.

(omputer-assisted drug design,
CADD) [. computer, . computare , ; .
design , ] , , .
(convection) [. convectio , ] -

347


; .
(convergence breeding, convergent improvement) [. convergere , ] , ,

, .
(convergention) [.
convergere , ] ( )
. ,
., ,
,

(.). .
..
(conversion) [. conversio ] 1) ( , .) (.
, ,
).
(. ), .
( 100% , ,
) ; 2)
(. ).
(gene conversion) . .

, , (phage conversion, prophage-mediated conversion) . ,


.
(convertase) [. conversio ] -
,
( , ,
.) ; ,
-
. ., . (3.)
(. ).
1997. . (TNF-ot-) ,

(TNF-) . . (),
. . . .
,
(. )
(.). .
.
(.).
(congener) [. con- , , , gener ,
, ] 1),
.
. , ., -, -,
-, - ; 2) (,
, .),

, ( ).
(congenic strains)
[. con- , , , . genos , ] ,
.
..
() ,
(. , ).
(conglomerate, pudding
rock) [. conglomeratus , ] - (, , .); , , . . .
(congression) [. congressio ]
(. ),
. .
,
.
(congruent crossing) [. congruens (congruentis) , ,
] , , . .. 1935. .. . .
() (chromosome condensation,
[.
chromosome
spiralization)
condensatio , ; . chroma ,
soma ] -

348

() ,
; ..

() (.),
(.).
(conditioner) [. conditio (conditionis) , ] 1) , ; ., ,
;
,
.; 2) ,
, ,
,
, ,
, .
(conditional medium) [. conditio (conditionis) , ] ,

. ..

,

. ..,
, .
(conditioned storage) [. conditio (conditionis) , ] (.,
)
.
(conidiums) [. konia
eidos ]
, (-

349

) , . Neurospora. . : . .
, .

(concatmerization) [. con- , , , catena .


meros , ] , (. ).
(concatmeric molecules) [. con- , , , catena
. meros , ; . moles
ula . ]
,

. .,

.
(concordance) [.
concordans (concordantis) ]
-
.
., , ,
. .
.
(competitive enzyme inhibition) [. concurro , ; . inhibere ,
; . fermentum ] .
. .
(competition) [. concurro , ] 1), -

,
, ,
, , , .. , ,
() .; 2) ()

; , . ,
(.,
). .
.
(connexins) [. connectere ,
-in(e) ,
]
, () , .
. .
. 1974.
, (A)(T) (connector method, poly(A)poly(T) method) [. connectere
, ; . methodos ] ,

(. () ) ,

3'- , 3'- . -

(A)
(T) .
. . 1972.
,

(consensus sequence, canonical


sequence) [. consensus ,
] ,
( )
(., ) ,
.
. .. (), . .. ()
. .,
.. (. ),
, 83979385638350
(
).
(conservants) [. conservatio , ] ,
, ,
(, , ). .
, , , , ,
. (.), . (.). .
. . . ,

350

.

,
,
pH
. .
(. ); ., (, , ) .

(conserved sequence) [. conservatives ]
,
. ,
.. - .
(conservative substitution) [. conservatives ]

,
.
(., ).
(conspecific) [.
con- , , ,
specificus , ]
,
.
, (Michaelis
constant, Km) [. constans ; . ]
, ,

351

; ..
:
K.., . , ,

, . , . ,
(., ) , ,
, . , ,
,
.
, . , , - ,
. . 1913.
(constellation) [.
constellatio , ] 1) ; 2) , ( ..).

(constitutive
resistance) [.
onstitutif ; . resistance ] ,
(.).
(constitutive
genes) . , .
(constitutive) [.
onstitutif ] 1) , -

-, , ,
(.,
. ); 2) , (., . ). . ,
; ;
; .
(constitutive promoter) [. onstitutif
; . promovere ]
(. ), .
(constitutive
synthesis) [. onstitutif ; . synthesis , , ] ,
( ) .
(constitutive enzyme) [. onstitutif
; . fermentum ] , (
(. , ))
,
(. ,
)
.
(construct) [. constructio ]
() ,
(. () )
.
(consumentes) [. consumo ] (. ),

,
(. (1)), -

. .
, ,
; (. ). . ,
. .
, , .

(contagious)
[.
contagiosus , ] 1), ,
; 2)
; . ,
(), 1
100.
, (contact inhibition,
density-dependent inhibition, DDI)
[. contactus ;
. inhibere , ]

. ..
in vitro
: .
,
, . ,
, ,
, .
,

.
. -

352

, , , ,
. ..
. .
1954. .
, (contaminant,
impurity) [. contaminatio , ] , ,
. . .
(microbial
contamination) . .
(contig) [. continuum , ] ,

. .
.
() (continuous variability) [. continuum ,
] ,

.
.. . , .., .

(mating
continuum) [. continuum , ] ( ) ; .. -

353

( ) ; .. (., ).
(controlling
gene) [. controle ; .
genos , ] , .
(check variety)
[. controle ; .
sorte, . sors (sortis) , ] , .

(counter-selection)
[. contraselectio ] . . , .,
,
(. ) .
(confluence) [.
confluere ] ,
; . ,
.,

,
.
(confocal optics) [. con , focus
] ,
. ..
, . , , ; ..

, .
.
(conformational
proofreading)
[.
conformatio , , ; . correctio ]
() , ,
. ..

.

(single-strand
conformational
polymorphism,
SSCP) . .
(conformation) [.
conformatio , , ] ,

, ..
(terminal deoxynucleotidyl
transferase, TdT) . ,
.
, (end-labelling)
5'- 3'- , ; ..
, ,

- (.
-).
(concentration) [.
concentratio
] , ( ) - (, , ).

.: .

, () .
- () -
() ;
. . .

, 100 ( 1) , 1000 (. ; ). . (
1 ) (
1 ).
(concentrate) [.
concentratio
] ,
()
() .
, . .
,

,
; . .
,
-

354

,
,
,

.

(address-message concept) [. conceptio ; .
adresse ] , ,

(), ().
(conjugate) [. conjugatio ]
( in vitro)
, () ; .
.
, ,
(. ) , , , , . .,
.
(. , ), (. ) .;
. -2

; - .
..
(conjugative plasmid) [. conjugatio ; . plasma , ] ,
.
. .

355

(conjugation) [. conjugatio ] 1) , ,

; 2) (.).
(conjugation
chromosomes) . , .
(conjugated protein) [. conjugatio ] 1) ,
. ., , , ; 2) , .
. ,
, .
(abundance of
mRNA) [. copia ]

, ; .
(. ) .
(copolymer) [. co ,
. polymeres
, ]
(. ),
(., )
(
.). .: .
, (coprecipitation) [. co ,
praecipitatio ] (, ),
(),
, , -

;
. . ,

,

.
( , .)
( ,
.).
,
-
. . . .
, ,
;
. , ., ,

(. (2)).
(corepressor, repressing
metabolite) [. co , repressor , ] ,
() , (. )
.

(Kornberg
enzyme) [ . .
fermentum ] . I, ,
.
(core histones) [.
core , ; . histos
] (. ), (. ) ;

.. , 1.
(short interspersed elements,
SINEs) [. elementum ]
( ..)
, , (. () ,
). ... Alu- 300
..,
1 . ...

.
(proof-reading) [.
correctio ] ,
, ,
, .
3 .: , .

()
(correction) [. correctio ;
. genetikos , ] ( ) ()
() , .
(correlation) [. correlatio ] 1),
, ,
; 2) , , (, , ),

.

356

. 1800 .
..

(corticosteroids)
[. cortex , . stereos
eidos ]
,
, . . . (.) (. ). . ,
, . - () (. ),
, , . . .
.
(corticotropin) .
, .
- (cos sites) [. co(hesive)
s(equence) ()
site ,
]
12 .., ,


. .-.
(.).
()
(indirect mutagen) [. mutatio . genes , ] , ,

-

357

, .
(cosegregation) [.
co , segregatio ]
. .
, , .. .
(cosmeceutics) [.
kosme(tike)
. (pharma)keutike ] ,
,
-
. , .
, ,
., , ; , , ;
,
;
, , ;
(. ),

- . . 80- . ..
(cosmid, cosmid vector) [.
co(mplementary) s(equence) , .
complementum (plas)
mid , . plasma
, ] , -

(. ),
cos- (.-)
,
. . ,
30 .
.. . . . 1978.
(cosmopolitan inversion) [. kosmopolites, kosmos
polites ; . inversio
, ] (.),


. ., Drosophila melanogaster .. In(3R)Payne
.
(cosupression) [. co
, suppressio ] ,

; .
, . . ; .
(cotransduction) [.
co , transductio ]
(. )
-. .
, ..
.
(cotranslational transfer) [. co , . translatio ]

(. ) ;
() , -

,
.
(cotransfection) [.
co , , trans , ,
(in)ficere , ]
(. () ), (. ) -

: ,
, .

, .
(>80%) . . ;
, , , .
. .
(cotransformation)
[. co , transformatio
] , (.).
(cofactor) [. co , factor , ]
, . .: , (); , ;
().
(caffeine) [. caf ,
. qahweh . -in(e) , ]
(1,3,7-) (c.
),
, , , , -

358

; .
,

. .
-
,
- ,
, ,
.
. 1820.
..
, (coenzyme) [.
co , fermentum ]
,
,
. . ,
. .
, , .
(. ). . . 1897.
, (coenzyme A, CoA)
[. co , fermentum ] (.)
( ), . , ,
-. , , , .. ,
()
.

359

,
.
. 1945 . (
1953.).
(cofermentation) [.
co , fermentum ]
. .
,
.


.
Q (coenzymes Q)
., Q.
(cochaperones) [.
co , . cappa ] , (. )
.
(coevolution) [.
, evolutio ,
] , . . : , (., ) , , . .
.
. .
. 1964 . -

(. ). .
.
(coenzyme) . , .
(variation
coefficient) [. coefficiens ; . variatio ] ; .
(survival index) [. coefficiens ] , , .
, (coefficient
of inbreeding, Wrights inbreeding
coefficient) [. coefficiens ; . inbreeding, in ,
breeding ]
(.), ; ,
: F=1-P, ; .. ,

, . .. , ,
1, . . , . ..
. 1931.
(intelligence quotient, IQ) [. coefficiens
; . intellectus ,
, ]
, . IQ = [-

()/
()]100. .. :

. .. .
1912.
(coefficient of hereditability) [. coefficiens ] -
. .. , .
(selection coefficient) [. coefficiens ]
,
.
(coefficient
of prophylactic effectiveness of
vaccine) [. coefficiens ; . prophylaktikos ; . effectivus ; . vaccinus ]
, () ;
.
(sex coefficient)
[. coefficiens ]
, 100
.

360

(sedimentation coefficient) [. coefficiens ; . sedimentum ] ,


,
.
.. S (
.,
1923 . ): 1S=1013
.
..
, ; ..

1200S. .. , .
(coefficient of
relationship, quotient of similarity)
[. coefficiens ]
, ( ). .c.,
(. ()), .
,

,
, .
(red biotechnology) [. bios , techne
, logos ] , . (, , ), . .. 2003.
.
(amylum, starch) [.
Kraft Mehl ]

361

, (. )
(. )
1:3, , ,
. . (. ) (.), (. ),
(.) . ,
(.).
, ,

. .
, , .
. .

(creatine)
[.
kreas
(kreatos) . -in(e) , ]
-
,
. . .
(. , ) .
. ,
,
. . . .
1832 . .
.
(Krebs cycle) . , .
(cruciform
structure) [. structura ,
] ,

(cryobank) [. kryos
, , . banque
-, ] (, ),

( 196 C) .
(cryobiology) [.
kryos , , , bios
logos ] ,

; (.).

(cryobionts)
[.
kryos , , biontos
] , .
(cryogel) [. kryos , , . gelare ] (.), ,
-.
,


. ., . , ; R. oryzae, ., . .
, -

.
(cryogenic) [. kryos
, , genos , ] ( 120
).
(cryoglobulin) [.
kryos , , , .
globulus -in(e) ,
] ,

37;
( , , , ,
,
). . -. ,
. (.),
; .
(cryoconservation)
[. kryos , , .
conservatio ,
] (, , ),
(. ).
.
;
,
, ..
(cryoprotector) [.
kryos , , . protector , ] ( 0)
, , -

362


(. ). . (, c
0,3 ,
. , ,
, , , ), , . (,
., ). .
.
(cryophiles) [. kryos
, , philo ]
,
( , , .). .
(. , ).
(cryptic DNA)
[. krypts ] .
(cryptic
plasmid) [. krypts ;
. plasma ,
] ,
.
(cryptic
polymorphism) [. krypts ; . polys morphe
, , ] ,
.
(cryptic
promotor) [. krypts ;
. promovere ] ,
, .
, ,
.
(cryptovirogenic)
[. krypts , . virus
. genes , ]

363

(cryptogenes)
[.
krypts ; . genos
, ] ,
(.
).
(cryptoxanthin) [.
krypts , xanthos
.-in(e) ,
] , .
(cryptomeric
gene) [. kryptos
meros ; . genos , ] . .
(cryptotope) [. krypts topos ] ( ) (. )
,
, .
(cryptochromes) [.
krypts . chroma
(chromatos) ] ,

;

(. ).

(crystalliferous bacteria) [. krystallos ; . bacterion


] ,
(., Bacillus thuringiensis).
(cRNA) .
, .
(crossbreeding) [.
cross breeding ] ., .

- (cross-hybridization) [. cross
. hybrida ] , ,
;
.
(crossing-over) [.
crossing ,
over , ] ,
() . . .
(unequal
crossing-over) . .
- (cross-feeding) [.
cross feeding ] ,
, .
(host range) , ,
(.). ., .. ( 350 ), ;
.. .. (. ), (. )
..

.. () : ,

(. ). .
.
(cycle of
matter)
, . ..
, ,
(. , ).
(xanthan) [ .
Xanth(omonas)
. -an(e) ,
] (., ) Xanthomonas
campestris,
, . . ( ),

. (
). . .
50- . A. .
(xanthine) [. xanth(os)
.-in(e) , ] 2,6-, (. ), . . ,

. , ,

364

( .. ).
(. )

(. ).
. (c. ) , , . . , .. (.) (. ). . .
(cellulose
xanthogenate) [. xanthos gennao ; . cellula
. -ose , ]
, ; ..

().
(xaptoprotein) [.
(e)xapta(tion) . proteine , .
protos . -in(e) , ]
, . .,

,
,
. . 1992.
. ..
(xenia) [. xenia , xenos , , ]
,
, . .
( 1- -

365

) ( 2-
) .

(xenobiotic)
[.
xenos bios (biotos)
]
( , , ,
. .); ,
. . (., , ), (.,
), (., ). , . , ,
.
(xenogamy) [. xenos
gamos ] ,

.

(xenogenic)
[.
xenos genes , ] , .
.
. . () . . .
(xenologous
genes) [. xenos .
logos ; genes ,
] , ()
( ).
,
, . . , , ,


.
() ,
.

()
(xenoplastic transxenogenic
transplantation,
plantation) [. xenos
. plastike , ; .
transplantare ]
(. ) , , ( , ).
(xerophytes) [. xeros
phyton ] , , . . ( ,
, , , ,
, ..), ( ) , (
, .), (, .)
( ). . ;
; .
(xylan) [. xyl(on) -an(e) ,

] -

(. , ),

(.), ( ),
. . ,
,
(.). . (.)
(.).
(xylanase) [. xylon
] (. , ), (. ) (. ). . , , ,
,

. .
( , , ,
, , , .), ( ), .-
( ).
, (xylem, xylen,
wood) [. xylon ] ,
, . . ,
.
, (xylite, xylitol)
[. xylon ]

, ( ), .
. -

366

(, , , ) . .
(. ) .-. . , , , ,
, . . . , .
(xylitol) . , .
(xylose) [. xyl(on) . -ose ,
] , ,
(. ), ,
.
(.) (.); ,

.
. ( , , , , .),
.
(cultivar, cultivated variety) [. ulti(vated) var(iety)
, .
cultus , varians (variantis) ] ,
, , ,

367

. .: ,
.
(cultivation) [.
cultus , ] , , . . .
,
(cultivated species, domestic species)
[. cultus , ] , . ..
, , ,
.. .
. .
K (cultigen) ..
(culture) [. cultus , ]
(.,
, ).
(., .,
; ,
; ; ; ; ; .).
-
(carrier
culture) . , -.
(shake culture) . .
(two-dimensional culture) .
.
(isolated culture) . .
(culture of isolated protoplasts)
[. cultus , ; . isolation ,
; . protos
plastos , -

] ,
(.
),
, ()
. (. ). in
vitro. . .
(stock culture)
. .
(callus culture)
. .
(cell culture)
. .
(lyophilized culture) . .

(meristem
culture) . .
(culture
of microorganism) [. cultus ,
;
.
mikros . organismus , ]
, (
), - ( ), , .-.
.
..: (. ),
, (. ) . .: .

(axenic culture of
microorganism) .
.

(monoxenic culture of
microorganism) . .
(polyxenic culture of
microorganism) . .
(continuous
culture) . .
(enrichment culture) .
.
(monolayer
culture) . .
,
(organ culture) . , .

(open continuous culture) . .
- (batch
culture) .- .

(primary
culture) . .
(carrier
culture) . , -.
(synchronic
culture) . .
(mixed culture) . .
(stationary
culture) . .
(suspension
culture) . .
(tissue culture)
. , .
(tridimensional
culture, three-dimensional culture)
. .
(pure culture)
. .

368

(culture
broth) [. cultus , ] ,
- in vitro


.
(culture alteration) [. cultus , ] , ,
, , .
(culture medium) [. cultus , ]
,

, in vitro. ..
, , , , .
.. ..: , , , , , .
(cultivated
plant) [. cultus , ] , , ,
, ,
..
..
. ..
,
. ,
.. 2500 .
(coumarin) [. coumarine, . umaru

369

] ,
9,10---. .
, , , ; . ,
,
,
,
.. . . 1868.
(cumulative
isomery) [. cumulatio , ; . iso
mros ] , ;

.
(cumulative gene)
[. cumulatio , ; . genos , ] ,
(. , ). ,
(). .,
, . ..
, ., , ,
, , .
. .
, (cumulative effect, cu-

mulative action) [. cumulatio , ; . effectus ] (), ,


. , .
(cutin) [. cutis
-in(e) ,
]
, , , . . -
, 16 18
2 3 . .
.
, (cap,
methylated cap) [. cap ;
. methyl CH3, .
methy , ] , 5'- , 7-, 5'-5'-

(m7(5')(5')Nm, N
,
, , m ). ,
.
-7-. . : )
; ) ) .
. . .

1975 . . .
(capping) [. cap
] 5'-
, ,
(., ).

370

, (curie, Ci) [ .
. -] ( ): 1
3,71010 (., ).
. . . -,

1935.


(labile) [. labilis
, ]
, , . ., (. , ) . , (. ) .
(laboratory equipment) [. laboratorium,
laboro ] ,

,
: ,
, , , , , ,
, , ,
,
.
- (lag growth phase)
[. lag , . phasis ]
, , ,
.

,
,
. .-.. () ( ),
.

, ,
. .-.. () (. () ). . .
(laser) [. . l(ight)
a(mplification)
(by)
s(timulated)
e(mission) (of) r(adiation)] ,

; , .
( ,
.) .., (. ). .
. 1960., 1964.
. , . . .
(laser microprobe) [. . l(ight)
a(mplification) by s(timulated) e(mission)
of r(adiation); . mikro(s) . proba(tio) ]
(.)
( ) .
(lyonisation) [
.]
X,

- . . (1962.),
,

X , ( ,
X), X
, .
(lactase) [. lac (lactis)
] (. , ),
( )
,
(.),
.
. .:
-.
(lactams) [. lac (lactis)
] ,
(CONH).
, .,
-, -, - -. .. .
,
. .,
- , .
. (.,
-).
. (-.)
. 1908.
(lactate) [. lac (lactis) ]
() . . ., . , . .
(lactoglobulin) [.
lac (lactis) , globulus -in(e) ,
]
, ( 50 60%

372

). .
, . .
-
.
(lactose) [. lac (lactis) . -ose , ]
, (.), ; (
4,5% ., 7,5%).
,
.

,
lac-
(lactose operon, lac-operon) [. lac
(lactis) . -ose ,
; . operare ,
] E. oli
6 . ..,
-
,
: lac Z (-),
lac Y (-) lac A
(-);
.. .
(lactones) [. lac (lactis)
]
, -COO . ,
., -, -, -, -. (.,
-,
-,
-). . , .
,
.
. (.,
), , . -

373

.
, ., - . .
(.).
(lactotransferrin)
[. lac (lactis) , trans(fero)
, ferr(um) -in(e)
,

] ..
(lactoferrin) [. lac
(lactis) , ferr(um) -in(e) , ]
(. , ),
,
. . ,

-
,


. .
.
. 1939 . .: .
(lactoflavin) [. lac
(lactis) , flav(us)
-in(e) ,
] ., 2.
(laminar flow)
[. lamina ] ,
,
. . .
(laminin) [. lamina -in(e) , ] (. , )
, , , .; -

(,
), (. ). . , ,
, , ,
.
. . .
1978.
(lanolin) [. lana ,
ol(eum) -in(e) ,
] ,
,
, (. ),
; .
, . ,
.
.
.
(lantibiotics) [.
lanti(onin) , . lanti
, . (anti)biotics , . anti
bios (biotikos) ]
(.), ,
; . (, ,
.) .
30 .,
: (, ) , (,
, )


- .

,
.,
; .
, .
. . . 1988.
(latex) [. latex ] , ,
, ,
, ,
. .
(, ,
). ..
(.
), . .

.
.
(latent) [. latens ] ,
(.,
).
(lateral) [. latus
] , , ,
, .
(sodium lauryl sulphate) [ . Laur(us) (nobilis) . sulphur ] (. ), - (), . , .

,
(.,
). .. , .
(laurinic acid)
[ . Laur(us)
(nobilis) -in(e) ,

374

] [3(2)10],

(. );
, ( 45%),
. ..
- (.,
. ). .. .
50 (LD50) . , 50.
(leucism) . .
(leucoplasts) [. leukos plastos , ] (.), , , ,
. . .,
, , , , . .
(
) ( ). , , .
(.).
(leucocytes) [. leukos
kytos ]

, , . .,
(), ., (, ).

(differential blood count).
, (leucine, Leu) [.
leukos . -in(e) , ]
L--

375

[H2NCH(COOH)CH2(CH3)CHCH3], (. ; ), .
---

(. ) . .
. ,
, , , , . . . 1819.

(leucine
zipper) [. leukos
. -in(e) , ] (. (2)),
- , -
3040 , ( ..
45),
.
.. , , . .. -
/ . .
1988.
(lek) [?] -

( ),

; ,
, ,
. . , ,
Drosophila conformis ( . ).
(compatible
drugs) . .
(drug disease) , -

, ,

/
() ,
,
. ..
1901 . . , , -

, , ,
.
(drug
addiction) ,
(., , , , , .) (.,
, ,
.), . () .. ..
.
..

, (
) -
.
(drug resistance of microorganisms) [. mikros . organismus ,
] , ,
-

. ... () (. (3)),
-
, . ... ,
; (., ). ... , ,
.
()
(medicinal product, drug, medicament) [. praeparatus ] (.) ,
. ..

,
,
.
(homeopathic medicinal
product) . .
(immunological medicinal
product) . .
(dual
action drug) ,
. ., ... , , , , .

376

(hard drug)
. .
(soft drug)
. .
c (orphan drug)
. c.
(lectins) [. legere -in(e) , ] ,

. .

;
(., ).
, , ,
;

. .
, . , ,
. .
. 1954.
(lentiviruses) [. lentus virus ]
Orthoretrovirinae, (. ), , , , , ,
.
. .
;
.
.
. -

377

. . . .
(leptin) [. leptos ,
. -ine , ] (. ), , , . ,
.

, ;

. .
. 1958.
(afforestation) 1)
; 2) .
(zygotic lethal)
. .
(monophasic
lethal) . .
,
(conditional lethal) . () .
(pollen lethal)
. .

(recessive
lethal) . .
(invisible lethal)
. .
, (lethal dose, LD)
[. letalis ; . dosis ] / ,
. . , 50.
(lethal mutation)
[. letalis ; . mutatio ] (.), ;

..
( , ), ..
. .
.
(lethal gene) [. letalis ; . genos ,
] ,
. .
.
(volatile
fatty acid, short certain fatty acids,
SCFA) 8
,
.
, , , , ,
. . (, ) , :
( ) ( ). , ,
, .

- , ...
-
. , . ...
,

(.).

- , .
... -

,

.
(lecithin) [. lekitos . -in(e) ,
] ,

(. , ),
(., ). . , ., , , , , .; , . . ,
,
, , , D, ; .
. .
. 1850.
(lyases) [. luein ,
] ,
, . 100 ., ,
(=,
= ..). . (.),
(.), (. , ) . .
-.
, (ligase chain reaction, LCR) [. ligo
; . re- , -

378

,
actio ] , in vitro

(. -)
-, -.

, - , . .
. ...

; .
1991.
, (ligases, synthetases) [. ligo ]
,
;
(-, -S, -N -). .
-.
(ligand) [. ligo ] , . . ,
. .
, .

chromatography)
(ligand-exchange
[. ligo ; . chroma
(chromatos) grapho ] (.
), -

379

. ,
(
)
, .. .
.. ,
Ag+, .
.. , . .
(. ).

-, u2+, , , ,
. .. . 1962.
(ligation) [. ligo
] 1)
()

, , - (.). .
.
in vitro
,
. . ; ;
2)
(. ).
(DNA ligation)
. .
(expressed protein ligation, EPL)
[. ligo . synthesis , , ] ,
-

() , .
,

,
(., (.)).
... (, , .). . . 1998.
(bluntend ligation) [. ligo ]
(. () ), -
4,
(. ); ( ).

(oligonucleotide ligation assay, OLA) . , .


(lignin(e), xylogen) [. lignum
(ligni) -in(e) ,
]
, , , , .
(. -

, ). . . , . . 2030% .,
50%. . , ( , ,
, ,
..). .
, .
(lignocellulose) [.
lignum (ligni) , cellula
. -ose , ] (. ), , .
(leader peptidase) [. leader , ; . peptos , ] ,
. . , .

(leader sequence) [. leader , ] 5'-


, 5'- . ..
(, -
.).
, (leader sequence peptide) [. leader , ; . peptos -

380

, ] N-
, 1530 , (. ,
-),
. ., XI ... 18 ,

(-)
. C. , .
(leadzyme) [. lead . zyme ,
] (), (-
). . .
. 1992.
() (leading
strand) [. leader , ] () ,

(.).
(lysate) [. lysis ,
, ] 1) ,
, . . ; 2) ,

.
(cleared lysate)
. .
, (lysine, Lys) [. lysis
, .
-in(e) , ] L-,-
[H2NCH(COOH)(CH2)4NH2],
(. -

381

; ),
( . , ).
.
,
.
. . 1889.
(lysis) [. lysis , , ] , , , (. ), ,
(., , ). . ()
1898 . . . .
(lysis from without) [.
lysis , , ] ,
(

) ,
.
(lysis from within)
[. lysis , , ]

, .
(lysogenization) [.
lysis , , geneia , ] (. )


.
(lysogeny, lysogenicity)
[. lysis , , geneia , ]
.
-
. () 1898. ... . 1921. .,
. . ; . 1950 . . ..

(lysogenic
bacterium) [. lysis , , genes
, ; .
bakterion ]
,

.
. .
(lysogenic conversion) . ,
.
(lysogenic virus)
[. lysis , , genes ,
; . virus ] ,
(. ) .
(lysogenic response)
[. lysis , , genes ,
]
,
, .
(lysogenic strain)
[. lysis , , -

genes ,
; . Stamm ,
] (., 12 E. coli ).
(lysosome) [. lysis , , soma
] ,
0,20,8 , ; . ., ., , , ( ).
. (, , , , . 20), . , . , . .
1949 . . ( 1974 .). .
.
, (lysozyme,
muramidase) [. lysis , , zyme ]
(., ),
(. , ). . , ,
(. ).
; .. , , , ,
,
.
. ,

382

. . 1922. .,
. ..
, (liquefaction) [. liquor .
faction ]
. ., .
(
-) (. , ).
() (Hayflick
limit) [. limite, . limes
, ; . ] () ( 70
80 , 70- 2030
). .., (., )
. .. .
1961.
(citric acid) [.
laymun ] 2-1,2,3-

[(2)2()], ,
;
(. ,
)
(. ).
..:
68%
.., 814%, 10%.
..
Aspergillus niger. ..
,
, ; -

383

.
(lymph) [. lympha ]
,
;
,
, , . . .

(lymphokines)
[.
lympha , kinesis -in(e) , ]
(., )
15200 , , (.,
). . (.), ,
.
. , , ,
. .
. 1969.
-
, (lymphokine-activated
killer cells, L) [. lympha ,
kinesis .-in(e) , ; .
activus , ; . kill ] , -2 (. ) in vivo
in vitro , , .
,
,
. .-..
. . 1982.

(lymphocytes)
[.
lympha . kytos

]
(. ),
, ,
, .
.
; - -.,


(.
; ).
(linearization) [.
linea -
]
,
. (. ).
(linearized
vector) [. linea
- ; . vector , ]
( ), (. ). ..,

(.-).
(linear plasmid)
[. linea -
; . plasma , ]
(.),
, ,
; .. , , , , . ..
- -,
(.,
.. Kluyveromyces lactis ,
;
Streptomyces sp. FR-008 .. ,

). ..
(. ) .
(linear phase) [.
linea -
; . phasis ]
,
; ..
(.
).
(line selection) [.
linea -
] 1)
, -
( )
( .. );
2) ,
.
(liniment) [. linire , ]
,
, .
(line) [. linea
- ] (), ,

. : ) ,


( . );
) ,
, ,

(
) ; ) -

384

,
; ) ,

(. ).

(tester
strain) . .
(germ line)
. .
(isogenic strain, isogenic stock) . .
(inbred line, inbred
strain, I-line) . .
(cell line) . .
(self-pollination line) . .
(balanced
stock) . .

(transgenic
line) . , .
(pure line) . .
(sensitive
strain) . .
(linker) [. link ,
] 1) ,
;
; .
. 1977 .; 2)
,
(. ) ; .
1 (. ); 3),
515 , , . . (. -

385

, ). . (. () ) ,
(., . ).
(linolenic acid)
[. linum , oleum
] (. ).
.
.. , . ,
. .
1844.
(lyophilization, freezedrying) [. lyo
phileo ] ;
,
, , .
(lyophilized culture) [. lyo phileo ; . cultus
, ] ,
(.). ..
4 .
(lipase) [. lipos ]
(. , ),
. . .
(lipidation) [. lipos eidos ] , N- -

(. ), (.) - ,
-
(. ) (. )
. . ,
(. , ).
(lipid rafts) [.
lipos eidos ] (, ) ,
. .. .
..
, (., src, Hedgehog, - - .).
..
.
,
.. .
(lipids) [. lipos eidos ] ,
, . . (), (), ., ().
. .
, . .

. , .
;
,
, .
. .
. .,


. . ,
, ., ;
. ., , :
(. , -), . - ,
, , .
.
. .
,

(. ) (.).
(cohesive ends, stiky
ends, cohesive termini)

,
;

, ., (EcoRI,
BamHI .). ()

386


() ,
. ..,
,
. 1963.
(lipolysis) [. lipos
lysis , , ]
( )

(. )
(.).
(lipoplexes) [. lipos
. plex , ] , . ( ) . ., , ()

(.). .

(lipopolysaccharide, LPS) [. lipos , polys


, sakcharon eidos
] , (. ),
(. ,
). . , . . . .
,
- .

.
.
, D-. . -

387


, . .
.
, (lipoproteins) [. lipos , protos
.-in(e) , ]
(.) (), ( );
. .
, (. , , .) , (.
,
, ).
.: (. )
, . , . . .
(liposome entrapment) [. lipos soma
]
. (. ) .
(liposomes) [. lipos
soma ]
,
- , (.);
,
. .
. . -

,
,
, ( , ,
.) . .
. .
,
, ( ) .

,
. .
-, .,
(Rovi, ), (Dragoco,
), (, )

, ). .
1964. .
. . .

(lipofection)
[.
lipos (in)ficere , ]
, , (. ). . , ,
.
(lipophilic
hormones) [. lipos
philia , ; .
hormao , ] (0,30,8 ) (. ), -

(.),
,
. ..
,
( ).

(). .. : ,
,
. . .

(lipophilic)
[.
lipos philia , ] ,
() (. ).
. , ., , , . .
(. ) 1909 .
.. . .

(lipophobic)
[.
lipos phobos ]
,

(. ). . (., )
,
. . (.) 1909. ..
. .
(lipochrome) [. lipos
chroma ]
, ; . . (
), () .

388

(lytic
bacteriophage) [. lytikos , ; .
bakterion phagos ] (., ),
,
. .
.
(lytic virus) [.
lytikos ,
; . virus ]
(. ),
(. )
. . .
(lytic cycle) [.
lytikos , ; . kyklos ]
-,
, ,
(),

,
. . .

(lithotrophic microorganisms) [.
lithos trophe ;
. mikros . organismus , ] ,
. .. : , ( Pseudomonas,
Alcaligenes, Aquaspirillum, Paracoccus
Xantobacter,
Nocardia,
Mycobacterium Bacillus); ,
(Nitrosomonas,
Nitrosolobus, Nitrosococcus, Nitrosospira

389

Nitrobacter); ,
, , (Thiobacillus thiooxidans),

(Thiobacillus
ferrooxidans); ,
(Gallionella Leptothrix) ; , (Methanobacterium,
Methanococcus,
Methanosarcina

Methanospirillum);
, (Desulfovibrio, Desulfotomaculum,
Desulfobacter, Desulfococcus, Desulfosarcina, Desulfonema); ,
: ---
(Thiobacillus denitrificans).
- . ..

( , , , ).
, , .
..
(. ) .
(licensing protein) [. licentia , , ] ,
,
-


(. ).
.. : , Cul4-Ddb1Cdt2 Emi1.
() (logarithmic growth
phase, log growth phase, exponential growth phase) [. logos arithmos ; .
phasis ] ()
, ( ,
: =)
. ., , 2 ,
: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 .. .
( ), . ...
(. ),
:
, , , , ..
...
(. ).
. .
LoxP- (loxP site) [. lo(cus) (of)
X-(over of) P(1) P1 site , ] 1
34 ..,
13 ..,
8 .., Cre (.), , .
. . 1981.
(locus) [. locus ]
1) ,
(. )
; 2) -

.
. . .
1915.
(histocompatibility locus) [. locus ; . histos ] . .

(complex
locus) . .
(pseudoautosomal locus) . .
(variable number
of tandem repeat locus, VNTR) [.
locus ; . variable , . varians ; . tandem
, , .
tandem ] ,
;

,


; (.).
- (locus-specific)
[. locus ; . specificus
, ] (, ) (), () . .,
.-. (. ) ,
; .-.
/

.
(fragile site) . , .
(LSD, lysergic acid diethylamide) [. L(yser)s(aeure) D(iethyl-

390

amid)
]
, ;
,
. , , ,
(., ). . 1943. . 1954.

(luxuriance)
[.
luxe , . luxus ] ; . (.).
(LCR) . , .
(luliberin) [. lu(teus)
liber(o)
-in(e) , ] , , 10 , ()
(. , ). .
, . .: .
(luminescence) [.
lumen (luminis) -escentia
, ] ,
;
( ) .
(., ,
), . ,
10-12

391

. :
(
), ( ), ( ),
( ), ( ), ( ), ( ) . .,

, .,
( ) (
, , ), . .
(., ). -
( 3, DAPI, , .) . . ; .
, ,
(luminescent bacteria, photobacteria)
[. lumen (luminis) -escentia ,
; . bakterion ]
,
Photobacterium,
; . .
.
, . -

,
, , .
.. ;

. ,
, . .. ,
,
. , .., .
(luminophores) [.
lumen (luminis) . phoros
] , (. ). -, -, -, -, - .
..:
(
,
), 5- 6- , . ,
. ,
,
(., , .).

, (luteinizing hormone, lutropin) [. luteus ; . hormao , ] (. , ), ,


, 2 , . ..

.
.. - (. ).
.. .
(lutropin) [. lu(teus)
, . trop(os) , . -ine , ] . , .
(luciferins) [. lucifer -in(e) ,
] ,

(. ),
. ()
.
.
. . . .
.
(
Photinus,

392

Cypridina, Renilla),
(
Latia neritoides). .

.
.
.
(lambda phage) [. phagos ] [. 11-
. ; . phagos
] (. , )
45 . .., E. coli; .. . , att.
..
(. () ). ..
( 15 . ..),
,

. ..
. 1950. . .
(lard) [. lard]
, .
.

(magnetofection)
[. magnetis, Magnetis lithos,
. , . , .
(in)ficere , ]
(. (2)) , , .
(.) Fe3O4.
(magnetic stirrer) [. magnetis, Magnetis lithos,
. ,
. , ] , .
-
(magnetic resonance imaging,
MRI) [. magnetis, Magnetis lithos,
. , . , ; .
resonance, . resonans
; . tomos ,
graph , ] ()
(.
).
-
.
( )
, ,
,
.

(
), ( ). ,
()
. .-..
,
. .-. , ,
. ... . . 2003.
(magnetic particles) [. magnetis, Magnetis lithos,
. ,
. , ] ,
(, , ,
.), . .,
..
,
(.), ..,
.
,
-
(. ) .. , -

.., . . .
(magnetic
immunoassay) [. magnetis, Magnetis lithos, . , . , ; . immunis , - . analysis , ]
, (. ), (.
),
, -
.
[.

(macrolides)
makros . lactone
, . lac (lactis) ]
( 60) (. ), . . Streptomyces.
. , 12
(, , , , , , , ,
, .). . ,
(), ,
( S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae,
S. aureus). ., . H. influenzae, H. pylori
(M. avium .). -

394

.
.
,
, , 47 (, , , , , .); . ,
.
. . -450 .
. : > > = > >
> . .
, , ,
, . . - (. ).

(macromolecule)
[. makros , . moles
-cula . ]

. ( ., , , .).

(macromutation)
[. makros . mutatio ] , , .
, .

(macronutrients) [. macros .

395

nutritio ] , ( );
(, , ),
,
.
(
). , ( 1,5 2 ), .
.
0,5
/. . .
(macrorestriction map) [. macros . restrictio ;
. charta , ] ,
( 8 ..).
,

(macrosporogenesis,
megasporo
genesis) [. makros ,
spora , genesis , ] () .

(), , .
(macrobeads) [.
makros ] , , . ,
,

.

(macroevolution)
[. makros .
evolutio ]

(.. , , , ), ,
.
. . 1927.,
: -
(.).
(macroelement) [.
makros . elementum
] ,
(, ,
). . 96%
. . .
(macroergic compounds) [. makros
ergon , ] , () . ..
;
,
. ..
(., ), ,
,
,
, ,
. .
, , ,
, , , -

. (., ).
: (. , ), (. , ),
(. , ) (), , , , , 1,3- , - ,

. .., ,
(. ).
, (), ,
. .: , .
(maxizyme) [. maxi-
,
,
, . zyme , ]
- (.). . ,

, . , -

396

. .
. . 1998.
-
(maxi-cells) [.
maxi- ,
, ] , -.
, , .-. ,
, -,

. .., .-.
, , , .
. -.
,
(dose letal 0%, DL0) [.
maximum ; . dosis
] (.),
,
.
,
(small interfering RNA,
siRNA) [ inter ferens
]
, - (. ). .. 2022 ..,
- . , ..
-
(. -). (~1%
), ...
.. -

397

, .,
,
. .. ,
(.,
). ..
. .
1999. . .
, (small
nuclear RNA, snRNA)
(100300 .) ,
.
, : ) , 5'-
(. , )
(U1, U2, U4, U4atac, U5, U7, U11
U12) ) , ,
,
(U6 U6atac). U7 ,
-,
(
)
(. )
-.
,
-. (. ) ,

.
150 -.
(small
nucleolar RNA, snoRNA) ( 200) ,
(C/D H/ACA), . ..
. (
) .


( ,
)
,
.
(minor
groove ligands, minor groove binders,
MGB) [. ligo ] (), . .. -
N-,
N-
(., ,
,
.). .., -,

-
.
(malonic acid)
[. (acidum) mal(icum)
] [CH2(COOH)2],
( ,
, .);
.. . .. -

. . .. , ,
, 1 6 .
.
1858.
(acidum malicum),
.
(malt) [. maltum ]
, (. ),
, .
(maltose) [. maltum . -ose , ]
, , . . .
() , . .

. 2 . , . . .
.
- (maltose-binding protein) [. maltum
. -ose , ]
40 , malE E. coli
K12, (. ). ,
.-..,

, . .-..
.

398

(minor mutations)
[. mutans (mutantis) ,
] (.),
.
(mannitol) [. manna
] , ,
; .. . . (
).
,
; .
(manometry) [. manos , metreo
] 1)
; 2) ()
- .
(mariculture) [.
mari(nus) . cultus
, ]
,
. ,
, , , ( ).
, ,

(.). .

.

399

(DNA marker) .
-.

(genetic
marker) . , .
(molecular weight marker) [. marquer ; . assotiatio ; . moles -ula
. ] , , , .,
, , - .
-
(marker-assisted introgression) [. marquer
. assotiatio ; . intro gressus , , ]
- (. -)

(. ) ()
.
-
, (marker-assisted selection,
MAS) [. marquer
. assotiatio ; . selectio , ]
- (. -)
(. ) .

,
- (sequence
tagged site, STS) [. marquer
]
(. ),

(.,
).
(gene taggeted
chromosome) [. marquer ; . chroma ,

soma ] 1) ,
;
2) , , .. ,

.
(expressed sequence tag, EST) [. marquer
; . expressus , ] , (, ) ;
,
.
, (marker gene, genetic marker)
[. marquer ; .
genos , , ] , ,
, ( ,
.); ..
(. )
.
(marker peptide)
[. marquer ; . peptos , ]
,
. ., .
- .

(masculinization)
[. masculinus ]

,

.
(mass mating)
[. massa , ] -

,
(. .
)
(. ).
(mass selection) [.
massa , ] ,
,
;
.. ( )
,

. . .

(bulked segregant analysis, BSA) [.
massa , ; . segregatio
; . analysis , ] :

,
,
,
,
,
.
- (mass spectrometer) [. massa , , .
spectrum , .
metron ] , () , ,
. . , -.
-, - (mass spectrometry, mass
spectroscopy) [. massa , , spectrum ,
. metron ]

400

( , m/z)
,
. .-.
, ,
,
.
m/z

(. ). .-.
(, .); .-.
.
.-. .
(1910 .). .-.
2002 .
. ..
(maternal
inheritance) ,


. .: .

(maternal
effect) [. effectus ]

, ; -

..
( ,
x );
..
;
.. -

401

-
Lymnaea peregra.
(breeding stock,
breedstock) . , .
(matrix) [. matrix ;
]
, (,
.) . . . 1929 . .
; , .
(pericellular
matrix) . .

(matrix metalloproteinases, MMP)


[. matrix , ; .
protos . -in(e) , ]
,
- (
20),
. M.. , ,
, .
(.). ..
,
, , .
(template) [. matrix (matricis) ; ] ,
()
.

, (messenger
RNA, mRNA) [. matrix (matricis)
; ] ,
. , .
(. )
, , , , (. ).
-
: ,
;
,
() () .
. , .
. 1961. (
1965.). .: , .
(template strand)
[. matrix (matricis) ; ] ,
. ., ..
(. , ).
, (matrocliny, matroclinal
inheritance) [. . matrix (matricis) ; . klino
] ,
, ;
. () (. ).
. . 1891.
(maceration) [. maceratio , ]
1)

( )
, ; . (., ); 2)
.
(transposable genetic element,
mobile element) .
(, ) , , .
(megabase, Mb) [. megas basis ] , ..
(megaplasmid) [.
megas plasma
, ]
(500800 ..),


Rhyzobium, . .
.
(megaprimer) [. megas . primer , ] .., (.
, ) (. (1)),
, .

(. ).
(megasporogenesis)
., .
(mediator) [. mediator
] 1) , -
II. . . . 1990. 2) ,

402

(.) ,
. .
. . (.) (. ). . .
(copper fertilizer) , .


.

, , .
. .. (CuSO4.5H2O), ,
( - ) - ,
l. .. ,
, ,
,
..
() (interspecific hybridization, distant hybridization, remote hybridization) [. hybrida ] , , , ; ( )
. ..

. .: () .

403

() (interspecific cross) . () .
(interspecies hybrid) [. hybrida ] ,
, , . .
(. () ).
(intergenic regions) [. genos , ]
, ; . , ..
,
, ,
.. .

(intergenic
spacer, IGS) [. genos , ; . spacer ,
] ,
(., , ); .. (. ).
(interdeme selection) (. ) , (.);
.
(1931.)
,

,
.

()
(mesenchimal
stem cells) [. mesos ,
, in , ,
enchyma , ] , -

(.. ,
).
... ,
, . ... , , ,
. .: .
(mesoporous) [. mesos , poros , ] 2 50.
(mesosoma) [. mesos
, soma
] ,
,
.
(mesotrophic) [.
mesos ,
trophe ]
; , , (., ).
(mesophiles) . , .
, (mesophilic microorganisms, mesophiles) [. mesos , phileo ; . mikros .
organismus , ] ,
2045 (
3537).

20 .
4045,

..
6070 ,

100130
,
180
. ..
, ,
. ,


. .. :
,
.
,

(meiosis, reduction division) [.


meiosis ]
,

() .
.
, (
). . I (.
), II.
. . 1882. .
1888. . 1905. . ..
(meiotic
ratio) [. meiosis ]
, () ()
, . .

(. , ) .
(melanins) [. melas (melanos) ,
. -in(e) ,
] ,
- ,
(. -

404

); , . .
.
, ,
. , .,
, ,
(.,
). , ., .
(melanotropin) .

,
.
,
(melanocyte-stimulating hormone, MSH) [. melas (melanos)
, , kytos ,
. stimulus .
, ,
; . hormao
, ] (. ),
.
N-
- ;
(. , ).
.. (. ) ; ( ). ..
. .: , .
(molasses) [. melasse
]
,
, .

405

(melioration, land reclamation, drainage and irrigation) [.


melioratio ]
- ,
-.

,
. .
(biological
membrane) . .

(artificial
phospholipid
membrane) .
.
(semipermeable membrane) . .
(membrane ultrafilters) [. membrane
, ; . ultra- ,

,
, , filtrum
] ,

,
,
; ..

. .. ,
. .. (. ),
, , , ,
.
(membrane
bioreactor) [. membrane ,
; . bios , .
re- , , actio ]
,
, , .

(menthol) [. menth(a)
ol(eum) ]
, (2--5) .
, .
, , , ,
(., ).
( Mentha)
1774.
(mericlinal chimera) [. meros
klino ; . Chimaira
, , ] ,
. . .
(meristem) [. meristos
]
,
.
. () , , ; , () (,
, ,
.). .

, . . .
(meristem
culture) [. meristos ;
. cultus , ]



. . .

(mercaptans)
[.
merc(urius) captans ] , (SH),
. . ,
. . ,
,

. .
.
. 1824. .: .
, ,
(merodiploid, merozygote) [. meros , , diploos eidos ] ,
- , F'-.

(meromixis)
[.
meros , mixis , ] ()

, . . . . 1957.

(merostathmokinesis) [. meros , ,
stathmos , kinesis
]
(. , )
, ,
, ; . .

406

() , (ori,
origin, origin of replication) [.
site , ; .
injicere , ; .
replicatio ]
, (. ).
() (insertion site)
[. site , ; . inserto , ] 1) (. )

(. ); 2)
, ;
,
(. ). .: .
()
(antigen binding site) [. site
, ; . anti
genes , ]
(. ), (.); (. ).
(habitat)
, ( ); .
(. ).
- (meta-analysis) [.
meta , , .
analysis , ] , -

407

;
, .
, , ,
. , .-.

-
(. ). ., .-.

,
,
1000 66, 36 . .: .
(metabiosis) [. meta
, , bios ]
,


. .
-.
(metabolism) [. metabole , ] 1)
,
,

(), (). . ,
,
. ,
. -

.
, .
, . ; 2)


, (. . ).
(metabolite) [. metabole , ] ,
,
,
(. ). . (.
; ).
(secondary
metabolite) . .
(primary metabolite) . .
(metabolic engineering) [. metabole
, ; . ingenier , . ingenium
, ]
(. () )
, .
..
,
. .,
, , -
4--; -

,
(., ).
(metabolic load) [. metabole ]
(., ), . ,

,
,
..;
. ..
(. ) .
(metabolic
block) [. metabole ;
. block , ]
(.) , .
(metabolic pathway) [. metabole ]
, , ; .. , , ,
.
(metabolomics) [.
metabole -omics
c, ,
, ; ] , , (., ,
..) ,
-

408

,
.

(metagamic)
[.
meta , , gamos
] ,

(.,
).
(metagenesis) [. meta
, , genesis , ] 1)
, , ,
, ; .
. . 1866 . . ;
2)
.
. . .
1957.
(metallothioneins)
[. metallum, . metallon
, , . theion
. -in(e) ,
]

,
;
: .-I .-II (
),
.-III, . . 1957 .
. ..

(metalloenzyme)
[. metallum, . metallon
, . fermentum ] ,

409

; ., ( ), (),
(), (, ) .
(methane-producing bacteria) [.
methane , .
methy , ; . bakterion
]
(. , ), CO2 (CH4);

,
. .. ,
.
. - (
).
. .
(methanogenesis) [.
methane , .
methy , genesis , ]
, .
. : ,
.
(1800 / 4000 ), ,
. - .
. (. ). , (

);
-

, (
),
,
( ). : . ,
, . , .,
,
65% , 30% , 1%
(2S)
, ,
. , 28 3 , 16,8 3 20,8
. . 1776. .,

.
, (methanetank)
[. methane ,
. methy . tank
] , ,
. . , (.).
. : -
. . ,

, ,
,

. . -

,
.
, , .
. .
(metaplasia) [. metaplasis , ]
; .,
; , .
(metastasis) [.
meta , , stasis
, ]


()
(). .: , ;
, ; () ,
.

., , ., -.

, ,

,
, . ,

410

, .
(methanetank) . , .
(metaphase) [. meta
, , phasis ] ,
,
,
.

(metachromasy,
meta-chromasia) [. meta ,
, chroma ] () . ., , ,
,
,
. . . ..
,

methyltransferases,
(methylases,
MTase) [. methyle CH3,
. methy , hyle
; ] ,
(-CH3) (. , -;
), (.
)

(. ).
., , . .
- . 1962.; -. E. coli . .
1964.
(methylation) [.
methyle CH3, . methy
, hyle ;
] -

411

(, , , )
(-CH3) (. , ). .,
. (. ) 5-;
-5-.
. () . .
23S p , 28S
. . 23S
(. ). 2'-O- . (., ). .
(.
), . . 6 D-.

.
.
(., , ) , . .

(.,
.
).
(protein methylation) [. methyle
CH3, . methy ,
hyle ; ]
,

(. ). .. -

. .
,
(N-), (-). ..
(. , ).
, (- - ), S-
(.S-)
.
, ., -9 H3
HP1,
. ..
, ,
. . .. . . 1966.
(DNA methylation) . .
, (methionine, Met)
[. methyle CH3, .
methy , , hyle ,
. theion .-in(e) , ]
-
[CH3SCH2CH2CH(NH2)COOH], .

,
(.
)
,
. . .

3- . L-.
,
, , -

.
. 1922 .
..
(label) , , ,
,

. .: (tag).
, (absorption method) [.
methodos ; .
absorptio ] , (.), , ( )


, .

(association
method) [. methodos
; . associatio ] , (linkage
disequilibrium) .

,

,
.
. ..
,
, , .
(proximity ligation assay, PLA) . -, .

412

(vegetation
method) . .
(hanging
drop method) [. methodos ] ,
.

,
,
. , , ,
. ., . .. (. ),
.
- (Grunstein-Hogness method) . , .
(shotgun experiment) .-,
.
-,

(pro-ximity ligation assay, PLA)


[. methodos ; . ligo ] ( ) , (. ) ,

-,
(. )
. -, , -
.

413

(. , ). .
. 2007.
- (MaxamGilbert method) [. methodos
; .
. ] (.). 32
(3' 5')
, (; +; ; +); ,

. . . 1977. ( 1980 .
. . ).
(membrane filter method) [. methodos ; . membrane , ; . filtrum ]

(- E.
coli); , ,
.
(chain termination
method) [. methodos ] ,
(.
), (.

, ). , . , 3'-. ()
().
-
( ) , .
.

-,
. ,

, . ...
. 1975. ( 1980. .
. ).
,
(replica plating) [. methodos
. replicatio ]


.

(penicillin selection method) [.
methodos ; Penicillium (notatum)
; . selectio , ] -


. ...
(. ) 1
,
,
( ) .
(A)-(T) (poly(A)poly(T) method) .
, (A)-(T).
(proband method)
[. methodos ;
. Proband
] (. )
( ) ;
.. .
(random
primer method) [. methodos
; . primer ,
] -, (),
. ,
, - (
),
-.
(methotrexate, amethopterin, MTX) [. meth(yle)
CH3, . methy , ,
. (amin)-o(p)t(e)r(in) , . ammonia , .
pteron . -in(e)- ,
] (C20H22N8O5), ,
(. , -

414

9), . . , ; .
(labeling)
(. ) ();
.
.
(labeled compound) ,
, ,
, .
.. ,
. .., ,
,
,
. .. : , in vivo in vitro,

, , .
(migrant selection) [. migratio ]
, .
. .
(mycose) ..
(mycosis) [. mykes -osis ,
] .-.
, , , ,
, . . , . . -

415

(., , , ), ,
..
(., , , - ).
(mycoplasma) [.
mykes plasma , ] , , Mycoplasma,
;
,
, .
. . .
750 .

(mycophages)
[.
mykes . phagos ] , , ( ).
. (), (), ().

(microbiological diagnostics) [.
mikros , , bios
logos , ; .
diagnostikos ]

.
.. .
.. ,
, .
.. , (
), , -


(. )
(. ). , ,
. . .. . , : .
,

-.
, , (, .), ( ) ..


.
(microbiosynthesis) [. mikros ,
bios ; . synthesis , , ] , . , , . ..
. .. (, )

-

, .
, , ,
,
(. () ). .. (., ) (., , , , ,
, . . ).
.. (., ). ,
10100 . , . , 400-
400 ,
400 40
. , .., : ,
, , , , , , - . ., .. (.), ; - . ..
,
(
, , , ,
.).
.. (., ,
) .
(microbicide) [. mikros , , bios

416

. caedere , ] / () , , , .
(
) , . , .
, ., (. ; , ).
(microbial
contamination) [. mikros
bios ; . contaminatio
, ] 1)
()
(., , ), ();
; 2) () ,
, .
.: .
(microbial count,
bacterial count) [. mikros , bios ]
, ,
1 , 1
1 2
. . () ,
.
(microbial
insecticides) [. mikros , bios ; . insectum
caedere , ] ,

417

- .-. ,
,
.
.. . .. ,
.
(. ), . ,
..
(. ).
, .
,
, , .. , / . . .
(microbial
antagonism) [. mikros ,
bios ; . antagonisma , ] ,
. , , (, .).

:
,
(.).
(microbes) [. mikros
, bios ]
, (. ).
(microencapsulation) [. mikros , , en . capsula ] () -

, ,
. . .

(microinjection)
[. mikros ,
. injectio ]
, (
1 2 ) - ., .
. ,
.
40 , 90 , 100
, 110
1600 .
(microdroplet assay, MDA) [. mikros , ; . analysis , ] ,


,
.
.

(microcell)
[.
mikros , ] ,
,
.


(micromanipulator) [. mikros , -

. manipulateur , , .
manipulus , manus ]
,
,

(.).
(micromanipulation) [. mikros , . manipulation , . manipulus , manus ] (, , )

,
.
(micronucleus) [.
mikros , . nucleus ] 1)
, , ; 2)
, ;
(. ).

(micronutrients)
[. mikros , .
nutritio ] ,
.
.
( ).
. , ,
.. ,
, . .
-

418

(
0,5 /).
(microorganisms)
[. mikros ,
. organismus ,
] ,
: , ,
, , .
, ;
. . ,
(., ., ; , ). . XVII. .. .: .

(lithotrophic microorganisms)
. .
(memesosophilic
microorganisms,
phile) . .

(psychrophilic microorganisms, psychophile) . , .

(thermotolerant microorganisms)
. .

(thermophilic microorganisms)
. ,
.

(extremophilic microorganisms)
. .
(micropyrenic
nucleus) [. mikros , -

419

pyren ,
]
,
.
(microsubspecies) [.
mikros , ] (
) () .
(microbeam radiation) [. mikros , ]
( ) - ,
.
(microRNA, miRNA)
[. mikros , ]
,
-
(. -). .
(21
23..) , ,

. II. . -
. .

- ( ), , ( ). .
. . , . , 5001000 .. ,

. : , (.), .
. .
. 1993. C. elegans.
. . . 2001. . , .
(microsatellite DNA) [. mikros , . satelles (satellitis) , ; . DNA ]
,
(25..),

(
50 )
( ) . .
.
(VNTR-, .
)
,
- (.).

(microsome)
[.
mikros , soma
]
,

( 450, .), . . ( )

, , ., .
(microsome
fraction) [. mikros , soma ; . fraction , , . fractio ] ,
-

, (. , ) (.); .. ,
.

(microspore)
[.
mikros , spora
, ]
, (, ) .
(microsporangium)
[. mikros , ,
spora , angeion ,
] ,
;
.
.
(microsporogenesis)
[. mikros , ,
spora , genesis , ] .
,

- (microsporocyte,
pollen mother cell) [. mikros , , spora , kytos , ]
, (., ) .
(microbodies) ., .
(microtome) [. mikros
, tome ]
.
(microfiltration)
[. mikros , fil-

420

trum ] ,
. . ( )
(.) , 0,010,1

, ,
( ).
(0,110 ).
. .

(microchimerism)
[. mikros ,
. Chimaira , ,
]
(
) ,
.
: , ,
.
. . .
1996 .
.. . .

(microchromosomes) [. mikros , ; . chroma ,


soma ] ( ) , ;
,
- , , , , ; . ,

421


.
(microcins) [. mikros
, . caedere ]
(. )
(510 ), ,

. . . . .
.,
(15, 17, 7,
51),
(17, D93),
(D140, D15),
(492),
(J25) . . 1976. ..
(microcirculation)
[. mikros ,
. circulatio ]

: ( ),


. .
, (
): , . . , . 1954. , .

(microevolution)
[. mikros , .

evolutio ]

, . . .. 1927.,
: -
(.).
(microelements, trace
elements) [. mikros , . elementum ] ,
( ) . . 30
. . , . .
, ,
. .

. . , .. () ( ). . .

(microarray)
[.
mikros , ; .
array ] ( ), ()

( ),

, , (.).
(micronucleus
test) [. mikros , ; . test , -

] ()
,
( );

... .
(micronucleolus, nucleolinus) [. mikros , ] , ,
.

(mixoploid)
[.
miktos ; . plos
eidos ]
, ( ,
).
(mixotrophy) [.
miktos trophe ] , . . ,
, . . .
(micton) [. miktos ] , , ,


.
(millipore
filter) [. mille . poros , ; . filtrum
] ( 0,005
8 ) ;
-

422

, ..
(mimetics) [. mimetes
] , (, ) . .
- ,
. , .
(mimicry) [. mimicry
, . mimikos
]

(., ) ; . : (., ) (.,
), (., , ). 2 . : .
(mimic gene) [.
mimia . genos
, ] ,
,
() ;
, .. . .

1932.
(mimotope) [. mimia
topos ] , (.), .
, , , -

423

-.
,

(mineral) [. minera ] ,

,
.
(mineralization) [.
minera ] ,
. , . , .

100 000 1 1 , ..
2 .
, ,
.
(. ),
;

.
(water mineralization, water salinity) [. minera
] ,

, /3.
(mineralocorticoides) [. minera , cortex
. eidos ] (. )
(.), ( 11-).
. ( , )
.
(soil nutrition)
[. minera ] -



.. +,
NO3-, PO43-.
(mineral
fertilizers) [. minera ] , ( ,
), . .. (, , , )
,
(., -
-); ( ) . ..
, . () ().
,
, .
(minizyme) [. mini
, , , . zyme ,
] (. ),
. . . . 1992.
- (mini cells) [. mini
, ,
] 1) , ,
; 2) ,

. .-. -


- (.-) ;
, ; 3)..
, (minimum bactericidal concentration, MBC) [. minimus ; . bakterion
. caedo ; .
concentratio , ] (), / /, (. -)
(0,515 ).

(minimum
,
MIC)
inhibiting
concentration,
[. minimus ; .
inhibere , ; . concentratio , ] ; , .
... ,
, ,
. >1
. .
, .
(minimal medium) [. minimus ]
1) , -

424

,

(. ),
(. )
; 2) ,

.
(minimum effective cell
density)[. minimus ;
. effectivus ]
, . .... ,
.
(minimal
promoter) [. minimus ; . promovere ]

(. ), (. ,
-) , ,
;
, (.).

(minimum inoculum size) [. minimus ; . inoculatio
] () (.),
,
, .
- (mini-gene) [. mini , , , . genos , ] , (. (-

425

) ), . , (.
, ).
- (mini-prep) [. mini
, ,
, . prep(aration) , , . praeparatus ]
.
(minisatellite
DNA) [. mini
,
, , . satelles
(satellitis) , ]
(. ),
(10100 ..),
. .
. , -, . . (VNTR-, . )
,
- (.).
(minor gene) [.
minor ; . genos ,
] , ( , .).
- , (-) (minusstrand RNA) ,

()

-
(.- , (+)).
(myristylation)
[. myristica ]
, N- ( )
() (. ), 14 . . , ., ,
;
. .
.
. 1982.
(myristic acid)
[. myristica ]
, [3(2)12].
, ..
.. () Myristica moschata,
a
Myristica.
Canarium
commune, . (. ).
(siRNA) . .
- (missense mutation) [. mis- , , , sense , ;
. mutatio ] ,

, . .,
.-. ,
,
S,


.
- (missense suppression) [. mis- , , ,
sense , .
suppressio , ]
, (. -);
, ,
, (., .-. ,

, ); .-. .
(mitogen) [. mitos
genes , ] ( ,
.),
(. ). ., .
- (., ),
. - . coli (.).
-
, (mitogen-activated
protein kinases, MAPK) [. mitos genes ,
; . protos ,
. -in(e) ,
, kineo , ] - (. ),
,
() ,

(. ).

426


,
M.-..,

,

,
. 10 M.-..,

, , ,
.
, M.-.., . Erks
(extracellular regulated kinases), p38, Jnk
(c-Jun N-terminal kinase),
, MAP/Erk (MEK),
MEK (MEKKs:
A-Raf, B-Raf, Raf-1).
(mitodepression) [.
mitos . depressio , ]

(., AlCl3, 2-); . .
(mitosis) [. mitos ]

, ,


. . , :
(. ), -

427

, , ;
. . ,
11,5 . .
.
- , Polo,
Aurora .
., Aurora A , Aurora B
.
. .
(18761879.)
. (1882.).
. , .
(mitomycins) [.
mitos , myc(es)
. -in(e) ,
] (. ), Streptomyces caespitosus,
,
, , . .
(mitospore) [. mitos
spora , ] , , .
(mitotic
fidelity) [. mitos ]
; ,
..
- (., ) -

. , .., ., MIF2
.
(mitotic) [. mitos
]
(.).
(mitotic index)
[. mitos ; . index ] ,
(. ), ( ,
); ..

,
(.).
(mitotic cycle)
[. mitos ; . kyklos
] ,
(.).
,
(mitochondrial DNA, mtDNA) [.
mitos chondrion ]
,
(., ) . . , 15 240 . ..
., .
510
16568 .., 37 .
.
. , , ;
,

(. ) . .
. , . ,

,
. . .

(mitochondrial respiratory
chain) [. mitos chondrion ]
(, , , ),

, (. ).
, (mitochondrion) [. mitos chondrion ; soma ]
, . .
,
. , . . , , . ,
, .
,
.
. . ,
2500; (., , , ) . ( .). . (. ). , .
, : , - (,

428

-, --).
. .
1897. (1894.)
. .
(mithramycin) [.
mithra , myc(es)
. -in(e) ,
]
, . . - -
-.

. .
Streptomyces griseus. . .
1960. .: (plicamycin)
(mithracin).
(mycelium) [. myces
] (),
, .
. .
(micelle) [. micella, .
. mica , ]
1), , (.. );

.
; 2) ,

,
. .
-
,
(., . ).
() (target)
1) ,
, -

429

,
; 2) , ,
(. )
; 3)
,
; 4),
; 5) . (.
(, ) , , ).
(polyecious
plants) , : ) , ) )
,
;

, .
(high-copy
plasmid) [. copia ;
. plasma ,
] , 1
; .. . .. , ., . .: .
(abundant
mRNA) [. copia ]
, (), 1000 (
10000) ; M.
100, .

50% .
(multinucleate
cell, polykaryocyte) , (. ) ( ); ..
,

.; ..

(.).
(multiple drug resistance)


; (.
)
, .
... : , .
,
- . ., , ... ,
MRP-1 (,
),
LRP (o
), II .
(MRP-1, LRP) ( II) .

(multiple ovulation and
embryo transfer, MOET) [. ovulum , . ovum ;
. embryon ] ,
, -

,

. : ) , ) , ) ( ,
) )
.
(multiple
paternity)
. ..
(, ).
(multiple alleles) [. allelon , ]
, ,
.

(multiple cloning site, MCS) [.
site , ; .
clon , ] ,
(.).
(multiple effect, manifold effect) [. effectus
] () .
.: .
(mobilization) [.
mobilis ]

(. ) (. ).

()
,
(mobile genes,
transposable genes, jumping gene)
[. mobilis ; . genos , ]
(), -

430

, ,

(). , .. , , . .. (.). . (, )
, , .
(, ) , , (transposable genetic
element, mobile element) [. mobilis ; . genetikos , ; . elementum
] , , ,
. :
(.) (. ).
,
.
... ,
.
,

.
1030% .

. ... , .
(modification methylases) [. modus

431

, facio ; .
methyl CH3, . methy
, ] , (. ) , (. , ,
).
(modification) [. modus , facio ]
1) (. . ); 2) () ;

.: , ,
. . ,
.
(modulon) [. modulatio
, ]
,

. .
. . 1964.
(modulation) [. modulatio , ]
1) , , -
(, .)
; 2)
,
.
, (mosaics) [. mosaique , ] , ,


, . . ,
,
.
., . ,
, ,
, . . .
(mosaicism) [. mosaique , ] ,

(
); (., ). .
( M.) M. (
.). M.
(, , ); M. , , .
(variegation) [. mosaique ,
; . pigmentum ] () . ..
(), (
. .); .., ,
..; ..

(., , )
,
, .
(mosaic development) [. mosaique , ] , -


; .. ,

.
(mosaic proteins)
[. mosaique ,
] , (. ),
. .. () .
(mosaics)
., .
(molecular
biology) [. moles -ula
. ; . bios
logos , ] ,


. .. . 1938.
(molecular
genetics) [. moles -ula
. ; . genetikos
, ] ,
.
..
. ..
. .
1953., .. . .
(molecular
graphics) [. moles -ula
. ; . graphike,
grapho , ]
.

432

(molecular
breeding) [. moles
-ula . ; . selectio , ] , (. () ) - : .-.
,
.

, (molecularly imprinted polymers, MIPs) [. moles
-ula . ;
. imprint , ; . polymeres
, ] ,

- .


,
, . ...
, ; . . 1940.
(molecular cloning) . (1).
(molecular modeling) [. moles
-ula . ; .
modele, . modulus , ] -

433

()
.

(molecular farming)
[. moles -ula .
] .-.

(. () )
-. .
.
(molecular
beacons) [. moles -ula
. ] , 5'- ( ), 3'- (. , ); , , ,

..
-, .
.. (. , ). ..
( ). ..

(. , ).
(lactic acid)
- [CH3CH
(OH)COOH],
, (. ). ( ,
,

.). .. ; , .
(lactic
acid bacteria) [. bakterion ] , Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc
Streptococcus. .. ,
. .. Leuconostoc
(. ),
.
Streptococcus , , Lactobacillus,
.
(gene silencing) [.
genos , ] , ,
. , (. ). ,
..,
, , . .. . . -;
; .
(silent genes)
., .
, (silent allele, null allele) [.
allelon , ] (. , ), .

.. . (., )
.
(silent site) [.
site , ] , (. ) , . . ;
.. , , .
(mol, mole, M) [. moles
] (),

(, ); 1. (, ),
12, .. 6,0221023.
. ( ): (/),
(3/), (/) ..
(molality) [. moles
] , (-)
, 1000 .
(molarity) [. moles
] , (-)
, 1 ( /).
(monitoring) [. monitor , ] , .
.: 1),

434

-, ; 2),
: ,,
..; 3),

. . , , , ,
. ., .. e
,
.. . .
(land monitoring)
[. monitor , ] ,
,
.
.. (. ) .
(monoallelic expression) [. monos ,
allelon ; .
expressio ]
(
) ,
(. (2)).
(monoallelic) [.
monos ,
allelon ] 1)
;
2) (. ).
(monohaploid) [.
monos , ,
haploos , , eidos ]

435

,
( )
; . . 1935.
(monogeny) [. monos
, geneia , ]
.
(monogenic
character) [. monos , genos , ] ,
( .. = ).
(monogenic inheritance) . , .
(monohybrid) [.
monos , .
hybrida ] ,
.
(monohybrid cross) [. monos ,
. hybrida ] , .
(monozygotic twins, monoovular twins,
monochorionic twins, co-twins) [.
monos , zygotos , ] ,
(.)
. ..
, .
(monocaryon) [.
monos ,
karyon ] ; ( )
( , ).
(monoclinous) [.
monos , klino

] (
),
.
(monoclonal antibodies) [. monos
clon , ; . anti
] (. )
,
(.). ..

(. ),
. , .. . ..
, , ,
, .
..

: ,

; .. .
(monoclonal) [.
monos , .
clon , ] ; .,
. (. ).
(monoxenic culture of
microorganism) [. monos ,
xenos ; .
cultus , -

; . mikros ,
. organismus , ] , , ., . .
.
(monoculture) [.
monos , .
cultus , ] 1) ,
; 2) , .
- - , ;
3) ( )
,

.

(monolepsis)
[.
monos , lepsis , ]
()
( , )
. . .
(monomer) [. monos
, meros ,
]
; ., .
,
.
(monomeric
fragments) [. monos , meros , ; .
fragmentum , ]
( 200
..), .
;
(.).
(monomolecular layer) . (2).
(monomorphic) [.
monos ,
morphe , , ] -

436

, . , ,
. . .
, (monoploid,
monoplont) [. monos , , plos eidos
] ()
.
(monoplont) . , .

(monosaccharides)
[. monos , ,
sakchar eidos ] (., , ),
() (,
, ..) . .
.
., D-,
, ,
.
, , , D-
( ), . D-, ,
. D-
(. ) (. , ). D-
; . D-,
D- L- .
(., )
. . .
(monolayer) [. monos
, ] 1)

437

;
2) ( ),
() , , (.,
. ). .
, . .,
. . (, .) .

(monosomic)
[.
monos ,
soma ] ,
(2n-1).
, (monosomy,
haplosomy) [. monos ,
soma ] ; . . (
) .
(monosomic
analysis) [. monos , soma ; . analysis , ]
, (2n) (2n-1)
();
,
.
(monospermy) [.
monos ,
sperma ] , . .
-

; .
.
(monophasic
lethal) [. monos , . phasis ;
. letalis ] , -
()
.
, (monofactorial
inheritance, monogenic inheritance)
[. monos ,
. factor , ] ,
(.,
AB0).
(monophyletic)
[. monos ,
philla , ] ; (), . . (. . )
.

(monochromosomal cell
hybrid) [. monos , , chroma ,
soma ; . hybrida ]
,
( )
(, ...
,
); ...
, .
, (mono-

centric chromosome, monokinetic


chromosome) [. monos ,
. centrum ; chroma ,
soma ] ; ( ) . .. ,
.

(monomonocistronic
cistronic
mRNA,
message) [. monos , , . cis
trans , ] ,
;
.,
(. ).
(morganide, Morgan unit)
[ . ] ; 1
. = 100 (), 1 ,
1%.
, ., ,
,
1 ., . . . 1921.
(morula) [. morula, .
morum ]
, ,

. . (.).
(morph) [. morphe ,
, ]
/ -

438

(.); . (., , ..).


(morphactins) [.
morphe , , .
aktivus ]
,

. . . . 1965.

(morphogen)
[.
morphe , , genes
, ] ( ), - () ,
,
(.. . ). .
, , , .
(morphogenesis) [.
morphe , , genesis
, ] ,
(), () (
) ,
.
(morphoses) [. morphosis ] (),

(.,
,
..).
. . . , .

439

(morpholine) [. Morpheus , , . (alcoh)ol , .


al-kohl
.-in(e) ,
] (-1,4),
;


, -
, ,

(. -
, ).

(morpholino)
[.] ,
.
.
. . ( 25 .) .
, (.
)
. . , ,
. .

. . ,
-
.
-
, - (morpholino-modified
oligonucleotide,

morpholino
phosphorodiamidate
oligomer, morpholino) [. Morpheus , , . (alcoh)ol ,
. al-kohl
.-in(e) , ; . modus
, facio ; . oligos , , . nucleus .
eidos ] ,
,

.
.-..,
5'- , (
); ..
-
. ... .
. 1997.

(morpholino phosphorodiamidate oligomer) . - , .


(morphological mutation) [. morphe ,
, logos , ;
. mutatio ] ,

( , ,
c ..).
(motif) [. motif , ]
, (.,
- . -

. .); . :
. (,
), . ( ) ..
(uric acid)
2,6,8-,
.
..
()
,
. . 1776.
, (urea, carbamide) (H2NCONH2),
; .
.- .
;


, , , ;
. .
. (1773.) , 1818. ..
(DL0) . , .
(mRNA) . ,
.
(monocistronic mRNA) . .
(polycistronic
mRNA) . .
(MSH) . , .
,
F+-

(male
bacterium) [. bacterion ] , -

440

F-

; ...
.
, ,
(male sterility, cytoplasmic
male sterility, CMS) [. sterilis
] , ;
(
.. ),
.
(male pronucleus, arrhenokaryon) [. pro , , nucleus ]
(, ),
.
M (mucosal vaccine) [. mucosis ; .
vaccinus ] c.
.
(mucopeptides) [.
mucos . peptos , ] ..

(mucopolysaccharides) [. mucos , .
poly , sakcharon
] ., .
(multivoltinity)
[. multum . volta
, ]

; . ,
.
.
.
(multigene
family) [. multum .
genos , ]

441

,


- (., , , ).
(multigenic
character) ,
(. ).
(multi-domain proteins) [. multum
. dominium ] ,

(. (2)). ..
,
, ,
,

,
-.
(multicopy plasmid) [. multum
. copia ; . plasma
, ] , (. ).
(multi-locus
probe) [. multum locus
; . probatio ]

, .
(multimer) [. multum
. meros , ]
,
.

, , ..;

.
, .
,

(multiplex PCR, multiprimer PCR)
[. multum plex ,
] -

(. , ), ,
. , - , .

,

.
(multipotency)
[. multum potentia ,
]
. .
. .

: , . . ; .

(multifactorial inheritance) [.
multum factor ,
] , . .. (,
.).
(multienzyme system) [. multum
. fermentum ;
. systema ] , . .. -,

. , , ,
,
, ;
-

, . -,

,
. : ) ,
( ), ) ,
.
(formic acid)
(HCOOH), ,
, ,
.
.. ,
,
. . ..
.
,
, ; , , ,
, , , (., ), ,
, .
(muramidase) . , .
(muramine) [. mur(us)
. amin(o) NH2,
ammonia , . .
sal ammoniacus , ] (. , )
,

N-

N- , (14)- . . (- -

442

) ( ) (.) (.).
(mureins) . .
(mutable gene) [.
mutatio ; . genos
, ] , ,
.
, (mutability) [. mutatio ]
( ,
) .
. ,
.
10-510-8.
(mutagen) [. mutatio . genes ,
] , (. ) , . .
( , , , , .), (., , .)
(- - , , ). , ,
, .

, .. , ,
,
. -

443

, ,
. ,
.
. .
,
, . ,
, .

.
,
(. ), .
. , . , . ( , . ,
.),
(
-
), (.. ),
. . (., )
(. ),


;
(.), -

(.).
.
, .
. (. ). ,
. (.).

(mutagenesis)
[.
mutatio . genesis
, ] 1) (.),
() ()
(.). .

, . .
, (.),
(. ) (.).
(, )
-
( ,
),

, . .
. , ,
, ; 2)
,
,

. ( .)
( .), , ( .,
.).
(induced
mutagenesis) .
.
(insertion
mutagenesis) . .
(cascade mutagenesis) . .
(directed
mutagenesis) . .
(radiation
mutagenesis) . .
- (sitespecific mutagenesis) . .
(random mutagenesis) . .
(spontaneous
mutagenesis) . .
(mutases) [. mutatio ] (. )
(. ),

; ., . 1
6.
(mutant) [. mutans (mutantis) , ] ,
. . ,

444

(. ).
(mutant species) [.
mutans (mutantis) , ] ,
- ,
;

..,
, ().
(mutarotation) [.
mutare rotatio ]


(. ). . , ., ,
,
.; . M. - .
. 1846 . . , 1899 .
..
(mutasome) [. mutans
(mutantis) , . soma ] , ,
, -, . . . 1989.
(minor mutations)
. .
(parallel
mutations) . () .

445

(chromosome
mutation) . .

(mutational hot spot) [. mutans


(mutantis) , ] () ,
(. )
.
() (mutative variability,
mutative variation) [. mutans
(mutantis) , ] , . ..
, .
(mutation
trend) [. mutans (mutantis) , ; . Tendenz,
. tendere , ] ( ) .
(mutation load)
[. mutans (mutantis) ,
]

,
. .: .
, () (mutational lag)
[. mutans (mutantis) ,
; . lag , ] , (.).
(mutational
equilibrium) [. mutans (mutantis)

, ]
(. )
.
(mutation) [. mutatio ] () (. ) , . . . . ,
. .
; : (.),
(. ), (. ).
( ) .
(.), (. ), (. ), (. ) . .
. ,
, (). . .

,
,
- ,
,
,

(. ).
. (. ),
,
(. ,
),
. ., , , . .

. . .
.
. . .
1901.
(abiotrophic
mutation) . .
(amorphic mutation) . .
(anaphragmic mutation) . .
(auxotrophic
mutation, nutrient requiring mutation) . .
(nonsense
mutation) . -,
.
(biochemical mutation) .
.

(floating
mutation) . .
() (in-frame mutation) [. mutatio ] ( ,

446

, )
(- ).
(detrimental mutation, deleterious mutation)
. .
(generative
mutation) . .
(gene mutation)
. .
(hypermorphic mutation) .
.
(hypomorphic
mutation) . .
(homeotic
mutation) . .
(deletion mutation, deletion) .
.
(dynamic
mutation) . , .
(vitality
mutation) .
.
,
(isocoding mutation,
samesense mutation) . , .
(induced
mutation) . .
(insertion
mutation) . .
(depletion mutation) [. mutatio ] , ,
; .

447

(lethal mutation) . .
(leaky mutation)
. ,
.
(morphological mutation) . .

(loss
mutation) [. mutatio ] ,
- ;
..
(. ).
(neutral mutation) . .
(neomorphic
mutation) . .
(unstable
mutation) . .
(null mutation)
. .
(reversive mutation) . , .
,
(conditional mutation) . .
,
(down promoter mutation) [. mutatio ; . promovere
] ,
, . . .

(plasmon
mutation) . .
()
(leaky mutation) . , .
() (semi-lethal mutation, sub-lethal
mutation) . , () .

(polarity mutation) . .
(loss-offunction mutation) [. mutatio ] , .
,


. ... (. ).
. .

(gain-of-function mutation) [. mutatio ] , /
(
). ...
(. ). .
.
(forward mutation,
direct mutation) . .
(reverse mutation) . , .

(frameshift mutation) ,
. .
.
(somatic
mutation) . .
(splicing
mutation) . .
(spontaneous
mutation) . .
(subvital
mutation) . .

(supervital
mutation) . .
(suppressor
mutation, second site mutation)
. .

(schistic
mutation) . .
() (point
mutation) . ()
.
(expansion mutation) . ,
.
(mutein) [. mutatio -in(e) , ] , ; .
(mutualism) [. mutuus
]
(c. ), ,
. .
.
(
),

( ). .

, ,
,
.
(mucigel) [. mucus
gelare ] (110
)
,
( , , ). . , -

448

, , . .
,
; . . , , , .
(mucin) [. mucus
-in(e) ,
]
(. ), ,
. ; . 19 , . .
, . . 1835. . .
(soft water) , 2 -/ ( ). .. .
7 -/. .
.
(soft drug) ,

. ., .. ,
.
(snRNA) .
, .


(nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide, NAD) . , .
(surveillance
genes) [. genos , ] , ;
. . , ,
, .
- (Nadi reaction) [.
nadi , , , , .
re- , , actio ]
(. ) - , . .: ,
- .

(good laboratory practice, GLP) [.
laborare ; . praktikos
, ] , p
p , p
p p p p,
,
pp

ppp,
pp.
...
,
.

. . () ; ;
( ).
,
(supernatant) ,
.
(NADP) . , .
(nalidixic acid)
[. na(phtha)le(ne) ,
. naphtha , . di- , , , . (carbo)x(yl)ic , . carbo .
oxys ]
,
-, (. ), . .. . ..
, .

. . 1962 ., .. . .
1963. .

(nanomaterials)
[. nanos . materia
] ,
(. ), 100 , -

, . . ( 1 )


, , . .
(.).

(nanotechnology)
[. nanos
, techne , logos ] ,
-
, 10-9 (, ),

(. ). .
, (, , )
(.),
,
. . . . (. ). , . . 1959 .
(nanotubes) [. nanos ]
(. ): 1) ,
; . ,
(.), , -

450

(. ); 2)-
, ,
.
.
,
.
,
.
. (., ) , .
(nanoparticles) [.
nanos ]

, , 100500 .
(excipient, excipiens, vehiculum) 1) , ,
, (., ,
, , .); 2)
, (., ).
(directed amplification of minisatellite DNA, DAMD)
[. amplificatio ,
; . mini-
,
, ,
. satelles (satellitis) , ] (. , ), (. -

451

). ()

, (VNTR-, . ).

(targeted drug delivery, drug targeting)
(, ), , . ...
(. ), (. ), (. ) .
(directional cloning) [. clon ,
]
(. (1)),

, ,

.

() . . .
(directed
mutagenesis) [. mutatio . genesis , ]
,
. (. , ) (. ). ..
,

. .:
in vitro.
(directional
vector) [. vector , ] ,
( ) . .. (.), ,
.

.
(tailing)
3'-
( )
(tail)
(. ,
);
(., ()
() )

. . . 1976.
(narcotic) [. narktikos
, ] , ,
/ ;
, . -

1981. .
, ,
( ),
, , . . , (
) ,
. , . .
.

,
(mismatch,
mispairing) [. complementum ] ( ),
-, -, -, ,

,
(.).
(inheritance) () . .
(, ,
, )
, (, ). . , ; ,
.
(autosomal
inheritance) . .

- (autosomal dominant inheritance) . -


.

452

- (autosomal recessive inheritance) . -


.
(holandric inheritance) . .
(dominant inheritance) . .
(monogenic inheritance) . , .
(monofactorial inheritance) . .

(multifactorial inheritance)
. .
(independent inheritance) .
.
(unilateral inheritance) . .
(plastid
inheritance) . .
(polygenic
inheritance) .
, .
(polyfactorial inheritance) . , .
(recessive
inheritance) . .
(blending
inheritance) . .
,
(sex-linked (sex-limited, sex-controlled) inheritance) . .

453


(cytoplasmic inheritance) . .

(extrachromosomal inheritance)
. .
(hereditary information) [. informatio
, ] , -
/ ,
.
.: .
(hereditary disease) , . ..
( ) , , , .; ( )
, .; -
,

, , . ..
(), (-,
-,
).
.. 10%
.
(heredity)
;

. ,
. .

.
(heritability)
; . . . . 1939 .
(heritage)
,
(. )
.
(recurrent backcrossing)

-
;
.
(native DNA) [.
natura ]

,
.

(naphthoquinones)
[. naphtha .
kina ] ,

( , ,
, , ). 1,4- , ,
. . .
,
Boraginaceae (
Arnebia, Echium, Lithospermum
Onosma). .
. .
1,4-.
, , ;
2--1,4-

3; 2--1,4- .
(drug targeting) .
.
(nonrecurrent parent) [. back
cross ] ,
.
(nonrenewable resources) [. ressourse
] ,
a a
a a (,
, ). ..
,
, a
a
a .

(negative autogenous regulation)
[. negativus ; .
autos genos , ; . regulare
, ]
. .: . . , .
(negative complementation) [. negativus
;
.
complementum ] ,
,
.
,
(negative regulation, negative control) [. negativus ; . regulare
, ] ,

454


(); ,
-
. .
.
(negative selection) [. negativus ;
. selectio , ] , , , .

(., ).
(negative
regulators) [. negativus ; . regulare
, ] , , . . (. , ). .
.
(negative genome)
[. negativus ; .
genos , .
-om(a) , , ] ,
,

. :
, . .. , ., .
.. . 1971 .
. .

(independent inheritance) ()

455

;
, .. ,
.
(independent assortment) ,
, , ..
AB, aB,
Ab, ab AaBb; ..
.
(environmentally friendly) ,
(),
( ) ,
. . .
(illegitimate recombination) [re- ,
, combinatio ]

,
, (.). ..

, ,
. .., -
,
. ,
..,
, .
.. .
. 1982.

(illegitimate transcription) [. transcriptio ]


,
, . , , . , , .., 24 ,
,
( ). ..
,
., . .. .
1989. . .
(essential acids) [. amino
NH2, . ammonia ,
. sal ammoniacus ,
]
,


. .. , , , , , , ,
( ).
(essential fatty acids) , , ,
; ... , -, , . ( ) . ,

,

, , , . ...
(.), . .
,
, .
.
(essential nutrients) ,

. . ; ; .

(unidentified
reading
frame, URF) [. indentifico ] ,
,
,
.
(noninducibility)
[. inductio ] 1) (. (1))
, , (.) ;
2)

.
(neuraminic
acid) [. neuron , .
amino NH2, ammonia , . sal ammoniacus , ] , , 5--3,5--D-D- -

456

; N-a,
N- -
(. )
. .. (
N-a- N--..)
, .

.. ,
- .
(, , ) .. ... . .., , .
..
. .. . 1941.

(neuromediator)
[. neuron , . mediator ] ,
.
. . . 3 :
, ,
( ).
. , , , (), .
. ()

457

1936. . ..
(neuropeptides) [.
neuron , , peptos , eidos ]
,


. .

-
. ..
-,
, .,
(., ., , ). . 50
,
-.
,
, 45
. . , .

( .
). . y
( , -, , .). ,
(. )
. , . , , , ,
.. ,

, . -

,

., ,
.

. .,
. . .,
, 7 ,
, .
. . - ,

. . 1969. . .
(neutral mutation) [. neutralis ; . mutatio ] ,
( , ). ,
,
.. . ,


.
(noncoding
DNA) [. code , ]
. ,
, .
(noncoding
region) [. code , ]
1) ,
(. , , ); 2)
,

(. 3'- 5'- ).
(), () (noncoding chain (strand), antisense chain
(strand)) [. code , ;
. anti ]
,

( T ).
.. 5'3'. .. , ,
.. N- -. .
(), ().
(noncoding
probe) [. code , ;
. sonde ]
(. (2)),
() , (. , , ).

(incongruent crossing) [. congruens , , ]


, ;

. ..
1935. .. . .
(nonconjugative plasmid) [. conjugatio ; . plasma , ]
,
, (.,
tra-). .. R-.
.., ,

458

,
. . .
(necrosis) [. nekros ] ,



. ., . .
. ; .,
; ,
. .. . . . .
(nectins) [. nect(ere) -in(e) , ]
- Ca2+- . . , -
, (. )
. . , . .
. . .
. 1971.
(necton) [. nektos ] ,


. .
, , , -

459

, , , .
-
()
(immediate early genes) [.
genos , ] ,
(.,
- N cro); , .-..,
, , -
.
(nonMendelian inheritance) [
.] , , , ,


, ()
.

,
(gratuitous
inducers) [. metabole ;
. inductor ] , (. ),


(.,
, . ,
).
(irreversible, non-reversible)
,
.
, (inhomogenous, heterogeneous) [.
heterogenes ] .
(neomycin) [. neos , myc(es) .-in(e) -

, ]

(. ,
), 3 (,
), Streptomyces
fradiae.
.
,
(. () ) (. II).
. 1949. Streptomyces
fradiae.
II (neomycin phosphotransferase II) [.
neos , myc(es) ,
. -in(e) ,
, . phos , phoros . transfero ] , (. ); . .
,
(neor).
.
. 1982.
(neomorphic
mutation) [. neos
morphe , , ; . mutatio ] , , ,
. ..
(. ).

, (neomorphic gene, neomorph) [. neos


morphe , , ;
. genos , ]
, ,
. ..
. 1932 .
(neoplasm) [. neos
plasma ]
, ;

.
(neoteny) [. neos teino , ]
(. )
(.,

).
(nonpathogenic bacteria) [. pathos genes , ; . bacterion ]
, , (, , , .). ., ..,
, ,
.
.. (.) .
, ,
(.
); ., -

460

, .
(nonpermissive conditions) [. permissive
] , ,
. . .
(incomplete penetrance) [. penetrantis
, ] ,
. ..
.
,
(leakage) [. block , ] () (. , ) ,
..

, .
(incomplete dominance) . , .
, (misfolding) [.
fold ] (.),
, ,
,
. ., ..
:

. ..

461


(., ) . ..
(.)
.. , . E. coli , ..
,
(. ). .. . 1974. (
) .

(incompletely linked genes) [. genos , ] ,
, .
(hapten)
., , .
(misfolding) . ,
.
(continuous
culture) [. cultus ,
] 1)
, (. )
(. ) , (. () ); 2) ,
;
in
vitro . ..

.
(continuous fermentation) [. fermentum ]


. ..
.

(commaless genetic code) [. genetikos ,
; . code ,
] (. . ) (. .
commaless),
(.).
(indirect
fluorescence) [. fluor
-escent , ] () (c. ,
), (),
.
(indirect
end labelling)
, ,
,
,

(. ,
, ).
(indirect organogenesis) [. organon ,
genesis -

, ] (. ),
.
(linkage
disequilibrium) . .
(unequal
crossing-over) [. crossing , over ,
] (.), ,
. .. (.,
),
1 , 3 .

(unreduced gamete) [. reductio , ; . gamete , gametes ]


(. ), (., )
( ) ,
. .. 2 :
I- II- ;
(, .) , ..
(nonreciprocal recombination) [. reciprocus ; . re- , ,
combinatio ] (. ), ;
..
(. -

462

(2)) (. (1)).

() (nonsynonymous substitution) . () ().


() () (synonymous
substitution) [. synonymos ]
,
- . . () ().
(incompatibility)
1)
, ; 2)

( . . 1918.);
3)
,
/ (.,
, , , ; ; ;
.); 4) .
(. ); 5) ( . 1953.).
(, ) (nonspecific
transduction) [. specificus , ; . transductio ] ; -

463

, .., 22,

(. (1)).
(unstable
mutation) [. stabilis ;
. mutatio ] ,

; ,
.. (.
(, ) , , ).
(genome
instability) . .
(imprecise
excision)
,
-
( ),
, ; ..

.
3'- 5'-
(3'- or 5'-non-translated regions, 3'NTR or 5'-NTR) [. translatio ] , 3'-
5'- (), . 3'-
, , 3'- ,
5'-, , 5'- .
, : - (. -),
- (., -), (- ) .

(runaway replication) [. replicatio ]


. ., ,

-
SV40



39
33
.
, PP (niacin, vitamin
PP) [ . Ni(cotiana) (tabacum)
, ac(idus) . -in(e) , ] , -3-
(
,
).
.
. .
,
- , ,
, ,

(. )
. ,
,
.
(. pellagra preventing ).
.
.: , , , , , , ,

. . . 1867 .,
1937 .
( ).
.: .
(nisin) [.]
(), ,
Streptococcus lactis.
. 34 , , ( , , .); ( 7 ) . . in vitro (,
.), (., . tuberculosis),
, . . , SH- .
.
(, , ). .
,
. .
Streptococcus lactis
NisC, .
1928 . .
..
(low
melting agarose gel) [. agar
. -ose , ;
. gelare ] -

464

(. ),
(3035),
,
.
, (nick)
[. nick , ] 5'3'-

--
5'-P-; . (.-).
(nicked circle)
[. nick , ]
,
.

, . .:
.
(nicotine) [ . Nicoti(ana) (tabacum)
-in(e) , ]
(. ), ,
,
.
.
, . . . -
. . . 1809.
(nicotinamide) [ .
Nicotiana (tabacum) , -in(e)
, ,
. am(monia) , . sal
ammoniacus ,
. eidos ] , ,
.
. . 1935.
. . , PP.
,
(nicotinamide-adenine dinu-cle-

465

otide, NAD) [ .
Nicotiana (tabacum) , . -in(e) , , . am(monia)
, . sal ammoniacus
, , . eidos ,
aden , di- , , , . nucleus
. eidos ] ( , , 2 ), (.),
- ;

. . . . 1904., .
.- 1936.
, (nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate, NADP)
[ . Nicotiana
(tabacum) ,
-in(e) , , . am(monia) ,
. . sal ammoniacus
, , . eidos ,
aden , di- , , , . nucleus
, . eidos , phos
phoros ] (. ;
),


, (. , )

, D-.
(nicotinic acid)
[ . Nicotiana
(tabacum)
. -in(e) ,
] -3-

,
. .. (, , .),
, , , , , . ..
: .. ,
,
, ; ..
() ; .. () ( ),
(.,
PP). .. 1867. ..
(nyctinasty) [. n
(nyktos) nasts ] ,
. , . . () /
().
- ( ) (nick-translation) [. nick
, . translatio ] ,
I
(. , ),

, ,
-I (.
-I).

I
3'--. I, 3'--
5'- (
-I 5'-3'- ).
- . .-.
, . .
, .
(ninhydrin) [.]
(), ,

- ; ( ),
(
, ).
(nipagin, methylparaben)
[. nipagin . NIPA Laboratories Ltd.] - , - ,
. .
-
;

.
(nystatin) [. N(ew) Y(ork)
Stat(e) - .-in(e)
,

]
(. ), , -

466

. . .
,
Candida; . .
.
, (
, ) ,
. ,
, , ,
(. ). .
, ,
- . H. Streptomyces
nouresii. . .
. 1957 . .: , , , , .
(nitrification) [.
nitro(genium) faceo ] ,
: (NH3) (NO2) (NO3). : ) ., (. ), )
.,
( );
.
. .

, . . .
(nitrite
bacteria) [. nitro(genium)

467

faceo ; . bakterion ] (. , ), (. ,
), (. ). .. ,
. 1890. ...
(nitrogenase) [. nitro(genium) . genes , ] ,
(. ), N2 NH3
(. , ) , .
.
(nitrosoguanidine)
[. nitro(genium) , . huanu
.-in(e) , ] ,
(. ),
, . . ;
.
(nitrosomethylurea) [. nitro(genium) ,
. methyl(e) CH3, .
methy , hyle ;
] ,
. .
, , .
(nitrocellulose) [.
nitro(genium) , . cellula
. -ose , -

] , . ,
.
.
, , ,
. , ., .
(filamentous bacteria) [. bacterion ]
(., ), , ( 1 ),
.
.. , ,
. ..,
. (Sphaerotilus
natans), . .: .
N- (N-terminus) . , NH2-.
(new
chemical
entity,
NCE)
[.
chemeia ] ,
.
(nodal culture)
[. nodus ; . cultus , ]

.
(nodulation) [. nodus
] ,
(., Micrococcus sp. Rhodococcus sp.) (., 2,4- ) .

-,
-, --
(Nothern blotting, Nothern blot hybridization, Nothern blot analysis)
[. northern .
blotting , ] ,
--
(.-, -, --),

. ,
(. ). - .

; . .
1977.
:
. ( ) .
. .
(nosoareal) [. nosos
. arealis,
area , ]
,

.
(nosological
form) [. nosos logos
, ; . form ]
,
/ ;
. .: .
(gene knockout)
. .
, (conditional gene knockout)

468

. ()
.
- (knockout animal)
[. knock-out ] ,
() (. ).
(gene knockin) .
.
(accession number)
,
.
- (nonsense codon)
. , .
-,
(nonsense mutation)
[. nonsense, . non ,
sensus ; . mutatio ] , , , -
.
( ), , .
- (nonsense suppressor) [. nonsense, . non
, sensus ; . suppressio ] ,
, -
(.-, , ). .-.
(.).
(noosphere) [. noos
sphaira ] (.),
,

469


. . . . 1927. .., .,

, - . , (. ), .
,
(nootropic compounds, nootropics)
[. noos tropos , , ] ,

, ( ) ,
(. ) . ..
:
, . ..

,
,

,
.
..
, . ( ), . ..

(), , (), , - , .
.. . ,
,
, ; , (., ), ; ; , . .., . . , , , , , . .
1972. . ,
, ,
,

, - .
(nootropics) . , .
(reaction norm) [.
norma , ; re- ,
, actio ]
. ..
. -

, .., , , ..
(normovolemia) [.
norma , , .
volume . haima
]
. .

.
(normal flora) [.
norma , flos
(floris) ]
- .
,
, ,
.
(carrier) 1), (.-); 2)
,
; 3)
,
; 4), ; 5)
,
; 6) , .
. , , ,
( , .)

470

. (,
..). . . , .
(nuclease) [. nucleus
] (.
, ), . ., (, )
(, );
S1 .
. - :
,
; , . . ,
. .
.
, (nuclear) [.
nucleus ] .
(nucleic acid)
[. nucleus ] ,

(. );
: ( ) ( ). .. ..
, . .. . 1868.

471


(infectious nucleic acid) . .
(nucleoside) [. nucleus
] , (
) ( ); , , .
. :
, , , ,
; .

. . , ,
. . .
. .

(nucleoside
analog) [. nucleus ; .
analogos , ] ,
, ,
; ., ,
(. ).
(nucleosidase) [.
nucleus ] ,
; .

.

, (nucleoprotein) [. nucleus , .
protos . -in(e) , ]
. (
),
.. (
),
( , ),
; . .
(nucleosome) [. nucleus . soma ]

10 ,
,
(.).
., 19731974 .,
, .. . ( 2A, H2B, 3, 4),
7/4
( 146 ..); ()
50 200 ..,
1.
. 262 (108
, 130 , 24
).

,
, . . . 1974., .
. . 1975.
(nucleotide) [. nucleus
. eidos ] (.);

. . ( )
( ); , .
,
., ,
, .
,
, . .
,
,
(.,
). . (.., , ).
. -, - . .
() (., ).
. . 1957.

(obligatory nucleotide of codon)


. .

(facultative nucleotide of codon)
. .

(nucleotide sequence, base sequence)
[. nucleus . eidos
] . .. -

472

.
(nucleophil) [. nucleus phileo ] ,
(),
;
.
.
(nuclide) [. nucleus
. eidos ]

(Z
) (
).
. , (.,
-16, -131, -235),
,

(16, 131I, 235U). .
. 1947 .
(null mutation) [.
nullus ; . mutatio ] , ; . ., .. CYP21A2 (
, ,
,
.).
(null allele) [. nullus ; . allelon
, ] . , . . .
(nullisomic) [. nullus
. soma ] ,
(2n2);
.

473

(nutraceuticals) [.
nutr(icium) . (pharm)
akeutike ]
(, ..),
. . , . . , ., , , . ,
,
(, , -

, )
. . ,
.
. . 1989 .
..
(nutritiology) [.
nutricium . logos
, ] , . , , ,
, , ,
.
. .


(disarmed
vector) [. vector , ] ,
; ., Ti-
(. Ti-), -
,
, , , -.

(obligate
anaerobes) [. obligatus , ; . an
. , er
bios ] , -
(. , ). ..

,
.
.. ;
. .. , ( , , - .)
(, , .) .
-

. .. , , , ,
.. ;

. .. , ,
,
,
. ..
. ; , ,
, , , . .
, .
(obligatory nucleotide of codon) [. obligatus , ;
. nucleus . eidos ;
. code , ] ,

.
. () ().

(obligate
parasite) [. obligatus , ; . parasitos
] -,
.

475

(irradiation, exposure)
(,
,
-), ; .
(enrichment culture) [. cultus , ] , .
(rounds per minute, rpm) , ( g );
., 100000 (750,000 g).

(reverse
genetics) [. genetikos , ] ,
() -
().

() (. ),
.

(reverse
mutation) . , .

, (inverse polymerase chain reaction, iPCR) [.
polymeres , ; . re- ,
, actio ] (. , ), -



; ....
,
,
().
(feedback)
.
.. . .,
;

.
,
(reverse transcriptase) [. transcriptio ]
- -,
;
-
, (. () ). .. , ,
: 1)-, ,
; 2) ,

-, - 3)-
.
. . 1970 . -
(
1975. .).
(reverse
transcription, RT) [. transcriptio

]
(.
, ). .. 1970.
. . ( 1975.
. ). . .

- , -
(reverse transcription-PCR, RTPCR) [. transcriptio ; . polymeres
, ; re-
,
, actio ] , -;
(. ) (. , ).

-
(real-time reverse transcription polymerase
chain reaction, qRT-PCR) [.
transcriptio ; .
polymeres
, ; re- ,
, actio ] (. , ),

. .

.
(semination) . .
()
(conditional lethal) [. letalis

476

] ,
() ; ..
() ,

( )
.
() (conditional mutation) [.
mutatio ] ,
(, , .) , .
.
() (conditional dominance)
[. dominare , ] , - ; ... , .
() (conditional lethal
gene) [. letalis ; .
genos , ] ,
(., ), .
()
(conditional gene knockout)
[. knock-out ; . genos , ] ()
,

(. )
-

477

,
().
.... . .
2 :
1),
,
loxP-;
2),
cre ( , loxP-),
- .
.... . Cre,
, cre .
()
, (total bacterial count,
TBC) [. mikros bios
] ,


( /3). . .

(mutual
prodrug) ( , . ),
, .
(volume analysis)
[. analysis , ] () , ,
. ,

- ( , ). .. ( ) , , ,
.
(ovicides) [. ovum
caedere ]
,
, . , ,
-3, ,, . . .
(ovulation) [. ovulum
, . ovum ] ()
. .
, .

.
.
(monoecious
plant) , (

). .. , , , , , .
, (monocopic plasmid, single-copy plasmid) [. copia ; . plasma , ] (.),


. ..
. .. ( pSC101)
. . 1973.
(single-sided
PCR) . .


(single nucleotide polymorphism,
SNP) [. nucleus . eidos ; . poly ,
morphe , , ] (. (2))

, . ..
(
), (
) .
, .., 3 . ..
.
(unisexuality) ()
, ,
,
; . () () ().
(monolayer
culture) [. cultus , ] , ( ).
(unilateral inheritance) ,
, , Y- ( W-) .

(XY)
( ),
( ).
, (single stranded DNA,

478

ssDNA) ,
. . , , ,

S1-. ..
.

in vitro.
Fv- (single-chain Fv, scFv) [. f(ragment)
of v(ariable region) ]
(. (3)) VH- VL-
(.). (.
); (. ), (triabody) (tetrabody) .
(nick)
., .

(single-strand conformational polymorphism, SSCP)
[. conformatio , , ; . poly
morphe , , ]
,
. .
(domestication)
., .
(odorants) [. odor ] , -

479


, (. ).
.: , . . , , .
.
(ozone) [. ozon ]
(3), , -, -. . , . .


-
300 ,
2 , . .
. .
, , . .
,
.
. ,
, (, .) . , ,
. .
X. 1840.

(bordered
vesicle) ,


(.) (.).
(.).
(oxidation) [. oxys
, ] 1) ; 2)
; 3)
. . .
(., ) ,
. .
(. ).
. ,
(. , ) .
.
(oxidizing agent, oxidizing
compound, oxidant, oxidizer) [.
oxys , ] ,

- . . . F, ,
l, ;
. F2, O2, 3, l2,
, , , , ,
, ,
( HNO3, lO4),
(., , 2r27,
n4), . .
,

, , -

,
, , , ,
, ,
. .
, (. );

.

(oxidative phosphorylation) [.
oxys , ; . phos
phoros ]
(. , ) ()

.
(. , )

, . , .
.., , ;
, , .
.. . . 1930.
. , ..

, (. .).
(. ), .. -
-.
(oxidative
stress) [. oxys , ;
. stress ] -

480

/, (. ), .
.. ,
. ., ..
( , ).
.. - ;
.
, NO (nitric oxide, NO)
[. oxys , ; .
azoos ] ,
: ) (., ,
); ) (., ); ) , ; )
. ..


NO-. NO
. , . . ( 1998.).
()
(definitive host) , .
(Gram stain)
[ . ] -

481

, ,
:
(. ,
+) (. , -). ..

, . 1884. ..
(environment)

,
;
.

(oxazolines)
[.
ox(ys) , a(n) . , zoe , . ole(um)
.-in(e) , ] , . 2- (., ). 2--2-
- (. -
, ).
(oxigenases) [. oxys
genes , ] (.),
;
. .
2 (., ) (. , ). . (., -


).
(oxidases) [. oxys ] (. ),

.

(oxidoreductase)
[. oxys . reductio
, ]
,
- ; .
200 ., (, , ..).
.: (. ), (.), (. ),
(. ),
(. ), (. ).

(oxiproline)
[.
oxy(s) , . p(yr)roli(di)ne2-(carboxylic acid) -2 , . pyr
, . ol(eum) -in(e)
,

] ( ). L-O. ( ), ; . L-O. (
. O2).
L-O.
. .
. 1902.

(oxytocin) [. xytoc(ic) .
-in(e) , ] (. )
,

. .
, .
. .
1955.
(oleic acid) [.
oleum ] ,
. ..
. . , 7085%.
.. , ;
.. .
.. .
(leosomes) [. oleum
. soma ] ,
()
.
(olivomycins) [.
oliva , . myc(es)
. -in(e) , ] -
(.), ( ), 2,6-, - . .
;
, -

482

( ).
-
. 1962. .
Actinomyces olivoreticuli.
(ligos) [. oligos , ]
, 15 30 . (, ,
.). . ,
. . ; .
(oligogenes) [. oligos
,
genos , ]
, , , , ;

(. ). .
,
. .:
. . .
(oligogenic
character) [. oligos , genos
, ] ,
; , , .., . . .
(oligodominancy) [. oligos ,
. dominare , ]
.
(morpholino phosphorodiamidate oligomer) . ,

483

.
(oligomeric proteins) [. oligos , mros
] , .
(oligomers) [. oligos
,
mros ] ,

.
. . ., ,

, ., .

, . . . , .
, , . . .
() .,
. . ,
(
. ); . .
.
(., ,
, ) (, ). -

., . ., .
- , .

(oligomerization)
[. oligos ,
mros ]
1) (., )

; .
.. 1936.;
2)..

(oligonucleotide)
[. oligos ,
, . nucleus
. eidos ] (5
20.) ,
.
. .
(oligonucleotide primer) . (1).
- ,
(oligonucleotide ligation assay,
OLA) [. oligos , , . nucleus
. eidos ; . ligo
; . analysis , ]
, , 3'- ,
,
.

;
.
- (morpholino-modi-

fied oligonucleotide) . ,
.
(oligopeptide) [. oligos , , peptos , eidos ]
(. ),
( 2 10) ,
. ,
8 . . (. , ).
(oligosaprobes) [.
oligos , sapros ] , , ( ); .

(oligosaccharides)
[. oligos , , sakcharon eidos ] (.),
(
2 1020), (

). (), (), () .. .
(), ().

. .,

,
(); -

484


. .
( ) , . ., . ,
. c ( ), ,

.
.,
,
,
.
(oligotrophs) [. oligos , trophe ] , (.,
, ).
(omnipotent suppressors) [. omni ,
potentia ; . suppressio
] -
(., sup45
sup35); ,
; , .. , .
(omnipotent) [.
omni , potentia ]
, . .,
,

485


. .
, ; ., . (eRF1),
1 2, -
.
(saponification)

( ). .
, (.,
. , ,
. .). .

.
(oncogene) [. onkos , genos , ] ,
() (.). . - (. ()
). ,
(), . , ,

. ,
2 .
()
(oncogenic virus, tumor virus) [.
onkos , genos ,
; . virus ] ,
(.) . ..
(.),
. .. -

,
(., ), -
. .. ( 1911 .) . 1966.
(oncomarkers) [.
onkos , . marquer ]
. . ,

. ,
, ,

, , , . . -2-, , 125, UBC11, 18 .
. .
:
) ; )
. ;
) . . ., .
(oncornavirus) [.
onkos , , . RNA
( ) .
virus ] - ,
. . ,
. -


- ,

-,
.
.: . , , , , ,
, , ; .
; . D.

Alfaretrovirus (
- AMV,
.), Betaretrovirus
( ),
Gammaretrovirus ( , )
Deltaretrovirus ( , ,
).
(oncotransformation) [. onkos , . transformatio ] , , . .

(),
,
(.).
(ontogenesis) [. on (ontos) genesis , ] , ( , .)
. .
(, -

486

).
. . 1866.
(oogamy) [. oon
gamos ] , , (), ; .

,
.
(oogenesis) [. oon
genesis , ] () . . , .
. : .
; (.), (.).
()
, .
(., ), .
( ), (
)
. ( ).
(oogonium) [. oon
gone ]
,
(.), ( ); .
.

487

(oogony) [. oon
gone (goneia) ]
(.) .
(oocyte) [. oon
kytos ]

. . (.) (.);
(, ) . (
I ); (,
, )
. ,

. I . ,
( I II ).
- (opal codon) [. opalus
- ;
. code , ]
,
;

.
- (opal mutation) [.
opalus -
; . mutatio ]
(. -, ),
- (.).
(opalescence) [. opalus -
-essentia , ] , ; , ., ,
. .
( )

, . , ,
(
).
- (opal suppressor)
[. opalus ; . suppressio ] , ,
- (. -)
(. ), . .
-
(.-).

(human perils)
( )
, , , ,
(., , , , .).
(peril of object)
[. objectum ]
,


.
(hazardous substances) , : , , ,
, (
).
. .
(hazardous waste)
, -

(. ),
, ,
, ..


. ..
, , , , , ()
.
..
, ()
, .
(operator) [. operator
] ,

.
(operator gene)
[. operator ; .
genos , ] ,
.
,

(operon,
transcripton) [. operare , ] ,
, , . ,

(. ); ,
.
() () . -.
. ., .

488

. 1961. ( 1965.).
, gal-
(gal-operon) [. operare , ; . galaktos
] E. coli,
, , :
-1- .
(lactose operon)
. , lac-.
, trp-
(trp-operon) [. operare , ] E. coli,
,
, .
(opines) [. opinio
-in(e) ,
] , (. , ), .
.: ,
, . .
,
Agrobacterium tumefaciens;
,
(. ) (. ). . , Agrobacterium tumefaciens, ,
. .
. . 1956 .
(opioid peptides)
[. opion eidos
; . peptos , ] -

489

, (, .) . .. ( )
, : -
(H2N------COOH)
- (H2N-----COOH), , - . ..

-:
,
, ()
.

(
), - ,
.
.., , ( , ).
.. , , , . .. ( ) , ,
. . 1975.
. .
(fertilization, fecundation, impregnation, fertilizing,
insemination) () () ()
. -

. .
,
;

.
(
., , ,
,
)
.
, , ,
(.). .
( ). (), ,

( ).


,

.

,
.


.
in vitro (in vitro fertilization, IVF) [. in vitro ] 1) in vitro
(.
in vitro) ;
, -

(. , ) (. ); 2)
, ,
.
(desalination, desaltation) , . .
:
, ..
(opsonization) [.
opsonion ]

(. ) ,
.
(. ), (, .), ,
(. ) (. ) .
. (. ),
(. ) , , .
(Fc-) Fc-
(. ).
, .
(opsonins) [. opsonion
. -in(e) , ]

490

,
(. ) (. ). . , . .
(. )

(. ). . . . 1903.
. .
(opsonic index) [. opsonion ; . index , ] , (.) .
(optimization) [.
optimus ] . . ;
.
(codon optimization) [. optimus ;
. code , ] ,
in vitro , , ,
, .
(lead optimization) [. optimus ;
. leader , ]

,
-, .
, (optical
density, OD) [. optos ,

491

]
,
(F0),
,
(F),
: D= lg
(F0/F); .. , : D=lg(1/t);
, .. 1
2
. .. . .. . XIX .
(optical) [. optos
, ] , ; ., .
,

; . ,
(, .).

(fibreoptics)
[.
optos , ]
,
; .

.
, , .
.
, (tumor suppressor, cancer susceptibility gene, antioncogene) [.
suppressio ] , ,
. .. ( , ) . ..: p53, RB
(retinoblastoma), WT-1, DCC (deleted in
colonic carcinoma), NF-1 (neurofibrosarcoma) APC (adenomatous polyposis
coli).

, ..
.
(tumor stain)
[. Stamm , ]
,
. ..

, .
(tumor)
, ,
(benign) (malignant).
. .
, , ,
,
. .
() :
.
. . -
. .: , , .
(oral) [. oral, . os
(oris) ]
(., . ).
(organoides) [. organon , eidos
] ( ), , ,
( , ,
.). .

, , , , , , , ( )
. . ,
.

(organically modified silica nanoparticles,


ORMOSIL) [. organismus , ; . modificatio , -; . nanos
]
, ;
.
(organic
substances) [. organismus
, ]
,
. ..
: ,
, , , ,
.
(organic
fertilizers) [. organismus
, ] ,
,
-
. .. ,
.-. ( )
(, , ). ,
. . .. (),
,
(.,
) -

492

, . .. - .
( )
.
- . .. ( ,
, ), .-. ( , , , , ).
(organic
complex) [. organismus , ; . complexus , ] - , , ,
; .,
, ,
.
,
(organ culture) [. organon ; . cultus ,
] , in vitro .
,
, ., , (., , ).
(organogenesis) [. organon genesis , ] -

493



. .,
,
.,
.

(organosilicons)
[. organismus ,
, silex (silicis)
] ( ), . .: ( ),
/
; ( , ,
); ,
; , () .
. .
.
,
.
(origin, ori,
origin of replication) .
() , .
(ornithine, Orn) [. ornithos . -in(e) , ]
L-,-
[NH2CH(COOH)(CH2)NH2], , .
; -

,
. . - (, S).
. ,
(. , -,
);
.
, ,

(ornith cycle, Krebs-Henseleit cycle,


urea cycle) [. ornithos
. -in(e) , ; . kykios ,
] , NH3 ( NH4+) . .. CO2 (. ).

2 , (.). (.), , , (.) . . ..

.
-5'- ( ) 5'- ( ). (., ),
(

4 NH2)
(
5). ..
,
. .. . . 1932 . (
1953.).

13 (orotic acid, vitamin B13)


2,4--6-
, ,
, ; . ..
. .. , ; .
(ortet) [. orthos ,
] ,
.

(orthologic
genes, orthologous genes) [.
orthos , , logos , ; .
genos , ] (.
) ,
(),
,
- .
(. ) .. . .. . 1970.

(orthomyxovirus)
[. orthos , , , myxa .
virus ]
-

494

, 80120 . . 78
; (. ). , .
(orthoselection) [.
orthos , , . selectio , ] ,

,
- .
(orthotropic transplantation) [.
orthos , , tropos , ; . transplantatio ]
, .
(orphn) [. orfanos ] ,
(. ,
),

(., ). . ,
, . , . , ,
.
(precipitation chromatography) [.
chroma (chromatos) grapho
, ] ,
, -,

495

.
(l23, , ,
, , ) , , (., ). .. ;
. ..
( .. ,
, , )
. . . 1948.
(promoter
clearance, promoter escape)
. .
(insemination)

. . . ,
(., ,
.); . .
(. )

.-. .
(artificial
insemination) .
.
(underdominance) [. dominare , ] ( )

.
(sequelae) , .
(osmolyte) [ . osmos
, lytos , ]
,
( ,
). .
,
,
(., ), , .
(osmole) [ . os(mos)
, . mol(es)
] (. ), . 1. =
1000 .
(osmosis) [ . osmos , ] (), ; . ,
(.. ).

(osmotic)
[.
osmos , ] (.).
(osmophilic
bacteria) [. osmos , philia , ;
. bacterion ] ,
,
, . . .. , ., , . .: .
(nitrogenous
base, base) [. azoos ] . .

() (basic
number)
,

. .. .
(major gene, master
gene) [. genos , ] , , . .
.
() (basal repressed
level of expression, repressed level of
expression) [. repressio ; . expressio ]
,
; ., E. coli 70- ...,

1000-.
(major element)
[. elementum ] ,

. ..
, , , , ,
, .
, (oscillation)
[. oscillum ] 1) ,
(., .
, . .); 2) .
(., ); , .,
. (., , ).

496

, (waste, refuse, garbage)


,
, ,
. .


, , ,
, , . . ,
, , .
(apostatic
selection) . .
(natural selection) . .
(zygotic selection)
. .
(individual
selection) . .
(artificial selection) . .
(line selection)
. .
(mass selection)
. .
(migrant selection) . .
() (recurrent selection) . () ,
.
(disruptive selection) . .
(reverse selection) . .

497

(stabilizing
selection) .
.
(phenotypic
selection) . , .
(delayed
complication) ,

, . , (.)
..
(distant hybridization) . () .
(anneal, annealing) , (, ) . . ,

,
-.
.: .
(dominance deviation) [. dominare
, ] (
)
;
... : (., ),
(.).

(open continuous culture) [. cultus , ] , .

(open population) [. populus , ]


, . . ,


.
(open
reading frame)

( )
TAA, TA
TA. ...
; ... .
(lead discovery)
[. leader , ] ,
.
()
(open circle, relaxed circle) [. relaxatio ,
]
,
, .
(relative plasticity) [. plastike
, ]
,
; .. (. ).
(relative plating efficiency) [.
productivus , -

] , , ,
100%. . .
(fingerprint)
- , . - . . , .

(negative superspiralization) [.
super , spira ,
]
,
.
(graft
rejection) [. transplantare ] (. ) , .
- , (batch culture)
[. cultus , ]


, , ,
. .-..
(. ).
(refrigeration) ,

498


. , .
- (ochre codon) [.
ochros , ; .
code , ]
,
;
(.).
- (ochre mutation) [.
ochros , ; .
mutatio ] , -
(. -);

-
(. -,
).
- (ochre suppressor)
[. ochros , ;
. suppressio ] ,
, -
(. -)
(. ), .. - (.-).
()
(environmental conservation, environmental protection) , ,
, , .
(nature protection)
, ,
, , . , , , -

499

.
19 1991.
(environmental impact
assessment) , .
,


.
(appraisal of damage)
,
,
, .
(anthropurgic focus) .
.

(focus natural univectorial) [.
monos vector , ] (. ),
,
.

(focus natural monohostal) [.
monos . host ]
(. ),

.

(focus natural polyvectorial) [.
poly . vector ,
] (. ),

,
.

(focus natural polyhostal) [.
poly . host ]

(. ),
.
, (treatment, refinement, purification, clearing, cleansing, clarification)
,
, , ,
. ., .
.
.
. . . .
cleaning,
(., ) clearing,
cleansing.
. .
(cleared lysate)
[. lysis , , ] ( ), ()
; , .. , ,
.
(mistranslation)
[. translatio ]
(., ) . , , ,
--
.
(sample error)

.
(mismatch,
mispairing) . , .


(pagon) [. pag(os)
on ] , , , 1.
(paleosoils, fossil soils)
[. palaios ] , , ,

( ) ,
. . ,
.

(palingenesis) [.
palin , genesis
, ] ,
; . . 1874.
(palindrome) [. palin
, dromos ] ,
. . (. ).
(palliative) [. palliare ] . ., .
,
, .
(palmitylation)
[. palmes (palmitis)
] (., , Ras), -



(. ), 16 . .
.
(palmitic
acid) [. palmes (palmitis) ] ,

[3(2)14]. ,

(.,
3947% ..), (., 90% ,
30% ..). .. ,
.
.. -.

(. ). .. ( .. ), , ;
, , ,
, ;
,
, ; , .. ,

501

. ..
. 1840.
.
(pandemi) [. pandemia ] , , (., , ).
(panel) [. Paneel ] ,
; ., .
,
(., ) .
(panmixis, random mating) [. pan mixis ] ,
,
.
. , , . .

,
3 (pantothenic acid, vitamin
B3) [. panthoten , ]
[HOCH2C(CH3)2CH(OH)CONH
CH2CH2COOH],
. , , . .
(
,
.., ).
, . . ..
.. (711 100 )
(3,44,7 ) ,
(2,77,0 ),
(1,02,6 ); .. (1435 100 )
. ..

, , .
..
(. , ),

;
. ..
,
, (, .),
(, ), -
.,
. .. . . 1933 .
.. 5.
(papaverine) [. papaver
-in(e) ,
] 6,7--1-(3,4),
(. ),
(Papaver) ,
(P. somniferum). . , . .
( ), 0,51%
, (3,4-)
[C6H5C()NHCH2COOH]. .
. ( ) . .
. 1848., . 1909.
(papovavirus) [.
pa(pilloma) , .
papilla , . po(lyoma) , . pol -oma
, .

va(cuolation) ,
. vacuus . virus
]
- , ; 2 .
2 : Polyomaviridae
Papillomaviridae. . 4555
, . , . . (.,
, SV40 ).
, .. (base pair, bp)
[. nucleus . eidos
] ; ..
. .. : ,
; -- .. .
, ..
. ().
, 1 (paraaminobenzoic acid,
vitamin H1) [. para , ,
, . amino NH2,
ammonia , . . sal
ammoniacus ,
. benzoa ]
,
;
,
, . ( ..) .. , .

502

..
.

(parageneon)
[.
para , , , genesis , on ] , (
).
. . .
1942.
(paragenetic)[.
para , , genetikos
, ] 1),

; 2).
,
; .
.
(parahormone) [.
para , , hormao
, ]
..
(parasite) [. parasitos
, para , ,
sitos ] , ()

.
( ). , . ,
-, ()
, ., . . , , , , .

. . ,

503

,
.
(verminous) [.
parasitos , . para
, , sitos ] (.), , (., . ).
(parasitism) [. parasitos , . para ,
, sitos ] ;
,
, . , , ()
() . .
Agrobacterium ,
, ;
(. , ).
() (parallel mutations) [.
parallelos ; . mutatio ] , ;
.. ,
() , . . .
(paralogous
genes) [. para , ,
logos , ; . genos
, ]
(. )
,
,
; .. . .. -,

-, -, -, - - . .
1970. . .

(paramyxovirus)
[. para , , , myxa
. virus ]
- ,
100300.
. . . , (-)
.
,
(., ). .
.
(paramutation) [.
para , , . mutatio ] ( ), ( , )
. . - .
. . . 1956.

(paranecrosis) [.
para , , nekros ]
- ;
(.) . ,

.
(paranormal) [.
para , , . norma
] -

().

(parapatric speciation) [. para
, , patris ]
,
; ( ).
, (paraplasm) [. para , ,
plasma ] ( , ,
..).
(parasexuality)
[. para , , .
sexus ]
(. ).
(parasexual process) [. para ,
, . sexus ; . processus ] ( )
(


- );
.., ,
(. ). .
. 1954.

(parasterility)
[. para , , .
sterilis ] .
, , .
(paratope) [. para ,
, . topos ] -

504

, .
(paratroph) [. para
, , trophe ]
., .

(parapharmaceutics) [. para , ,
. pharmakeutike ] ,
,

.
. .
()
, (paracentric inversion, parainversion) [.
para , , . centrum
, ; . inversio , ]
,
, .. , .

(paracentric)
[. para , , .centrum , ]
(., . ).
(parenchyma) [. para
, , . enchma , , ] ;

, ,

; . (
..).
(paripotency) [. poor
(paris) potentia ]

, . . .

505

(greenhouse effect) [. effectus ]


;
. ,
.
, . .. ,
.
(parthenogenesis, virgin
birth) [. parthenos genesis , ] () ,
(,
) .
,
. ., ,
.
. (. ),
(. ),
( ). .

(., . .
). . 1849. .
1886. .. . .
, (parthenogenote, parthenogenone) [.
parthenos genos
, ] , (. ). .
. 1954.

(parthenocarpy)
[. parthenos
karpos ] (.),
;
. ( ) ( ) .
. ., .
, , , ,
, , , . .
. 1902.
(parthenomixis) [.
parthenos mixis
]
,

.
(partisoma) [.parti(tion) . soma
] - , par
, ,
-,
,
.
(partial pressure) [. partialis ]
, ,
.
.. .
() (conditioning) [. passeport ] ,
, , ,
-

. . , .
(passage) [. passage
, ] .
. (1).
(early passage)
. .
(passenger) [. passager , ]
,

() -.
. .
()
(passive equilibrium, neutral equilibrium) [. passivus ,
]
,
.
(passive immunity) [. passivus , ; . immunis , -]
(. ), , (.), ; . .. 1888 .
..

(passaging)
[.
passieren ,
] 1)
in vitro (); 2)
( ,
); 3)

506

. . .
c (blind passage) . .
(passaged
culture) [. passage , ] ,
(.) . .: .
(pasterization) [
. ] ( ), 6070
1530 . , ,

. .

, .
. , ,
. ,
, . , . ., (. ). .

. ,
; . 34 . . . .
. 1864.
(patent) [. patentis , ] ,

.
. , .

507

. . .


. . ,
- . , . . ,
(, , ),
.
(proprietary medicinal product) [. (patentis) , ; . praeparatum ]
,
.
(pathovar) [. pathos
. var(iety) , . varians ] ,
(.).
(pathogenicity) [.
pathos genes , ] .
() (pathogenic bacteria) [.
pathos genes , ; . bacterion ] , , . ., .. -

, (Yersinia pestis),
(Bacillus anthracis), (Mycobacterium lepreae),
(Corynebacterium diphtheriae),
(Treponema pallidum), (Vibrio
cholerae), (Mycobacterium
tuberculosis), (Legionella pneumophila). ,
Helicobacter pylori
, . .
( , ) , (. ), ..
(., ,
).
(morbid, pathological) [. pathos logos , ] ,
(.(2)).
(pathology) [. pathos
logos , ] 1), ,

; 2)
, .

(patroclinous inheritance) [. pater
(patros) klino ]
, .
(pauperization, hybrid
weakness) . ,
.
(maximum permissible discharge) .
, .
(acceptable intake, maximum allowable dose) . , .
(maximum permissible concentration) .
, .

(restriction fragment length polymorphism, RFLP) . , .


- (RFLP-method) [.
methodos ] ,
(.

, ) , , .
, () () -
(.-, -, --).
(maximum allowable discharge
of substances into water body)
. ,
.
(pectins) [. pektos , ,
. -in(e) ,
]
(., ),
. . , (. )
(. ).
,
, ,
. . . . , ,

508

.
. , . , . . , ,
. .
,
,
-D- , . . ; .
.
. 1825.
(pelargonic
acid) [ .
Pelargonium , ]
[CH3(CH2)7],

. ..
,

, ,
(
) . , , , ; ..
,
(., . ..
).
.
(foam, scum) 1)
;

;
2) ,

;
-

509


.
(penetrance) [.
penetrantis , ] ( ).
(
) ( , . ) .; . . % (
. 100%). .
..- 1927.
. .
-

(penicillin-binding proteins, ) [
. Penicillium
-in(e) , ] , , (.) . .-..,
, .
(. )

.

(.).


(.).
(penicillines) [ .
Penicillium -in(e) , ]
(. ),
Penicillum . -

. , - . .
, . . , (.,
Staphilococcus aureus). . . 1929. ( 1945.).

(pentasomic)
[.
pnte soma ] ,
(..
5 ).
(pentose
phosphate cycle) [. pnte ,
. -ose , , .
phos phoros ; .
kykios , ]
,
CO2

()
H+, , 3 7 . ..
,
( ) . ..

(. ).

.. . . , : , ,
, . .:
, , .

(pentoses) [. pnte
. -ose , ] ,
5 . .
(, ),
( ).
(pepsin) [. pepsis . -in(e) , ] ,
(.
, ),
,
; (.).
-
,
. .
. ;
. 1836 . . ,
. 1930 . .
.
(peptide) [. peptos , eidos ]
,
, .

-, -, .. ., -
, (. ). , . ,
(N-), -

510

(-).
.
. .


. .
, (.); . , . . . .
. . . 1902. . .
1984.
(leader sequence
peptide) . , .
(marker peptide) . .
(peptidases) [. peptos , eidos ] (. , ),
;
, , . . . . . ; .
(peptide library) [. peptos , eidos ; . biblion theke ]
(. ),
. .. , -

511


(. ),
, , .
..
. .. , . .. .
1985.
.
(peptide vaccine)
[. peptos , eidos ; . vaccinus ] (.), (. ),
(.)
.
, ,
. .. , , , , , , ,
.
, ( , ,
. .).
,
, ,
. .. , , 1974. ..

(peptide bond) [.
peptos ,
eidos ] (CONH)
( ),
- - ;
.
-
,
(peptide nucleic acid, PNA)
[. peptos , eidos ; . nucleus
] , 615 ,
N-(2-)
, 4 . -.. , , , . .-..
.
. 1991.
(peptide
antibiotics) [. peptos , eidos ;
. anti bios (biotikos)
] (.), (. ). ..
- ,

( , , , ).
..:
) (. ; ; )
(., );
)

(., C)
(., ), (., ); ) (., ,
E M),
(. ); ) (.), , (), () (;
.); )
() (, , ). ..
,
. ..
, . .. .

(
, ) (),
( D, )
(),
(, , ), (, ).
( ) () , ( 1-, ). .. () ; . ( , ), (
, ),
(), (, , -

512

); .. - .
(peptide hormones) [. peptos , eidos ; . hormao , ] (. ), (. ). .., 3 200 , (-, --, (.)), (, (.), (. , ), (. ), (. , ), (. , )),
, ( (. )
(. )) ( (. )), .
..
, .
, .
, ,
.


, (.
, ). ..
() . 1932 . (
1955.).

513

(peptide receptor) [. peptos ,


eidos ; .
receptor ] ,
(. (2)).
.. ., .. , (, ).
200 .., - (. -). ,
.. . . .

(peptidoglycans)
[. peptos , , eidos glykys ]
-
,
(N-

N- ) (, , .); .
- ,

(. ). . ,
. .
, . .: , .

(peptidomimetic)
[. peptos , , eidos mimetes -

] ,
, . .
, . . .
(antimicrobial peptides) .
.
(peptization) [. peptos , ]
, (, ,
),
,
.
. (), . . .

, (.), .
(peptoid) [. peptos , eidos
] (.), N- .
(peptone) [. peptos , on ]
, , ;
(, , )
. . -

, ,
. .
. . ; .
(peptonization) [.
peptos ,
on ]

. .
(., ), .
. .
(pervasive gene action) [. pervasive
, .
pervadere , ; . genos , ] , ( ,
,
); ... . 1947.
(pervaporation) [.
per vapor , ] , , , ,
-
( ), .
/ ,
; , , . ,
,

514

, , . .

.

(primary
culture) [. cultus ,
] ,
(, ) . ..
,
,
. .. ,
(.).
(primary
structure of protein) [. structura
, ] ; ... . ( 1958.). . .

(primary sex ratio)


, , . .
- , .
(primary amines)
[. amino NH2, ammonia , . . sal ammoniacus , ]
(. ),
(., , , .).

515

(primary antibodies) [. anti ] (.),


-
(.,
(. , )).
(primary
metabolite) [. metabole ]
,
. .. ,
,
.
,
. .. , , , ,
.
.. (. () ).
..
. ,
( )
; ;
. ..
, . . ., ,
100
/ ( :
, -

). C. ,
.
(primary
polyploid) [. polyploos eidos ] (. ), - (., )
.
(primary
transcript) [. transcriptio ] ,
; .. -
(.-).
(perhydrol) [. per
. hydor ] 30%-
,
.
(transamination)
., .
(vehicle)
, () . .: .
(crossing-over) ., .
(cross-protection) ,
-
.
(cross-reaction) [. re- , actio ]
(. ) ,

(. ).
(crossresistance) [. resistance , . resisto -

, ]
() , ,

(),
.

(cross-reacting antibody) [. re-
,
, agree ; .
anti ] (. ),
(.),
.

(cross-reacting antigen) [. re-
,
, agree ; . anti
genes , ] (. ),
(.), .
(cross pollination) ..
(overlapping
genes) [. genos , ] ,
; , ..
(. ).
(overlapping reading frames)

( 1
2 .). .
.
(technology
transfer) [. techne ,
logos ]
-

516

, .
(nuclear transfer) . .
, c(overproduction) 1)
(, ,
.), . .

, ; 2)

-,
(. () ); 3) -
, (.,
. ).

(downstream processing)
, (. ) (. ), ,
.
(embryo transfer, embryo transplantation) ()

; .. .
(
) ,

517



.
(perikaryon) [. peri
, , karyon ,
] ,

. , ., .
(periclinal
chimera) [. peri , ,
klino ; . Chimaira , ,
] (.),
,
() , ,
().
(perinatal) [.
peri , , . natalis ] , ,
( .
28- 7- ).
(perinuclear
cisterna) [. peri , ,
. nucleus ]

.
G0 (G0 period) [. periodos
; . g(ap) , ] (),
(. ), (
); G1 (.G1).
G1 (G1 period) [. periodos
; . g(ap) -

, ]
( ),
,
, ;
,
(. S).
G2 (G2 period) [. periodos
; . g(ap) , ]
, ( S) (. );
, .
S (S period) [. periodos
; . s(ynthesis)
] (
), ; G2 (. G2).
(half-life period)
[. periodos ]
,
(. )

2 ; 1/2. T1/2
.
(batch culture) [. periodos ;
. cultus , ] . - , .
(periodic fermentation, batch fermentation) [. periodos ;
. fermentum ]
. . .

(batch culture process) [.


periodos ; . cultus , ]
() .
,
; ,
. , (. ).

(peripatric speciation) [. peri , , patris ]
(.
),
, ,
-;


(.
).
(periplasm) [. peri
, , plasma ] - , (.), .
(perisperm) [. peri
, , sperma
] , ( (.), ; . .
(peritoneal) [.
peritonaion ] , ; .,

518

. , , .
(peripheral
proteins) [. periphereia ] ,
. .. :
(., ), (.,
), (., -), (., ). ..
, .
(periphyton) [. peri
, , phyton ]
, , . .: .
(percolation) [. percolatio , ]
., .
(permanent) [. permanens (permanentis) ,
] 1), ; 2).
(permease) [. permeare ] ,
,
.
(, , ).
. . 1954 .
(permissive temperature) [. permissive
, , .
permissio ] ,
.
(permissivity, permissiveness) [. permission -

519

, , . permissio ] 1)
, ; 2)
; 3) . . ; ; .
(permissive
conditions) [. permissive , , . permissio ] 1) , ,
; ., ,


; 2), (.
) .
(permissible
enzyme) [. permissive , , . permissio ; . fermentum ] ,
-,

, () .
(permselectivity)
[. perm(eare)
selectio , ]
.
(permutation) [. permutare ]
()

(., 4).
(pernicious) [. perniciosus , ] ( ).
(peroxidase
reaction) [. per .

oxs ; re ,
,
actio ] , (. )

(H2O2) . , ..
,
-, ..
. . -.
(peroxidases) [. per
. oxys ]
- (.),
(22).
: . . .
. ,
;
, ,
. . , , . .
. . ,
.
. ( , ). .

,

. . ( )
.. .
1903.
(peroxide dismutase) [. per . oxys
, . dis- , , , , mutatio , ] , (.).
, (peroxisomes, microbodies) [. per
, . oxys soma
] , 0,31,5,
; . .
, . . -
. . , , .
, ,
. .
. 1965.
(persistance
form) [. persistens (persistentis)
, ; .
forma , ]
,
(10
), .
. , .,
(
600 . ),
(400 ), ( 1,5 ) .

520

..
.
,
(persistance) [. persistens (persistentis) , ]
, ; ., , 1/i, i
(.. ).
(persistent) [. persistens (persistentis) , ]
; (., ., ).
(persistence) [.
persistere , ]

()


.
(perforation) [. perforare ] 1)
, ; 2) , , ; 3),
; 4)
( , )

(.: ).
() (perfusion cultuire, flow culture) [. perfuso , ; . cultus , ] , ( ) .

521

(perfusion
pump) [. perfuso , ]

- ( , ). . .
(perfusion) [. perfuso
, ] 1),

(. ); 2) ( , , . .) ,
. .
. 1858.
(elemental
pesticide) . .
(pesticides, crop protecting agents) [. pestis caedere ]
,
(),
(,
), (), (),
(), .-. (),
-
(),
() . .

, ; ;
,

. . ,

.
. , . .
-
();

, .
.
(petite) [. petit ] Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ,
-
(. -),
.
- (petite mutation)
[. petit ; . mutatio ] , (.) ;
, ( ) . .-.
. . 1948.
(loop bioreactor) [. bios , . re-
,
, actio ] (. , ),
. . .. , ,
,
-

, .
(Petri dish) [
.] 7 1, ,


, , . .. .
1877.
(pigmentation) [.
pigmentum ]
, (.).
(pigmentes) [. pigmentum ] , . .
, (380750). . , .
. .
(, .). .
, ,
-.
. . .
(bile pigments)
. .
(pycnosis) [. pyknos , ]
, ,
(.,
). .
,

p; . (.-

522

, )

.
(picolines) [. pic ,
ol(eum) -in(e) ,
] , ; , (., , , , 6), ,
.
(picocines) [. pico caedere ]
, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,

.
. .
(pixel) [. pic(ture) el(ement) ]
, ; , . .
- Y-. , , .
(pili) [. pilus ] ,
, (.); : Escherichia, Salmonella,
Serratia, Caulobacter .
., ()
(., 6 ); ., - , ., (F-
.). . , . , , -

523

.
. .
(pilicides) [. pilus caedere ]
,
(.)
.
, (pinosome) [. pino
soma ] ,


(.).
(pinocytosis) [. pino
kytos , ] , (. , );
( . ) ( . ). .
, . ,
.
. ,
, . . .
-, ,
. . .
1931.
()
(pyogenic bacteria) [. pon
genes , ; . bacterion ]
, ,

(, ). ..
( , , )
( , ,
). ..
(, ,
) ( , .).
, , .
(pyridine) [. pyr
.-in(e) ,
] ,
;
, , ,
(.)
. . ,
, . .
( ) 1846. . , .
, 6 (pyridoxine,
vitamin B6) [. pyr , .
oxi(genium) -in(e) , ]
( ), ..
. . -5- .
,
. .
, ;

.
.
, , , , , ,
. . , ,
. . 1934.
.-.
(pyrimidine) [. pyr
, . imide
. -in(e) , ] ,
(C4N2H4). . , . . .
: , ( )
( ).
. :
-6-
,
, .
(pyrimidine bases) [. pyr ,
. imide
. -in(e) ,
]
(, ,
.), (.). ..
,
, (.) . .
(pyrimidine
dimer) [. pyr , . imide .-in(e)
, ;
. di- ,
, , meros
, ] ,
- -

524


( ,
),

.
(pyrogenic) [. pyr
genes , ]
.

.
, 3-
1,52
10 .
0,6 3-
1,4 (.).
(pyrogens) [. pyr
genes , ] , ,
, . . .
(pyrolysis) [. pyr
lysis , , ] (,
, , .) . .,
. (450) ( ) ,

. . ()
1877. .. .: .
(pyrrolidine) [. pyr
, . ol(eum) -in(e)
,

] , , -

525

, ; . .
, . ,
(,
, .), ; . .
. ,
2-, 1--2-,
. .
(.
, ).
(nutrient medium) ,
,
in vitro , , , ; , ,
, , . , .
.. , ,
, . .
.., ,
, , ,
.., . ..
, .
..

. ..
( , 199 ..).
(nutrient substances) , -

, . .., , . .. ,
, , .
(nurse culture)
[. cultus , ] ,
, , . .
.; ,
.
(feeder cells)
., .
(digestive enzymes) [. fermentum ] (. , ), . .. ,
.
(. ,
), (.), (. ). ..
.
(trophic chain)
. , , .
(food additives)
,
,
; , ,
, ,
, ,
.. 500 .. ..
6 : ) -


( , , ); ) (, , , , , ); )
(, , , , , , , , , ); )
(, , , , ,
, , , , , ,
- ); )

(, , ); )
(, , , ,
, , , ).
(DNA melting)

(. ),
.
-
, , , .
,
.

250270 .
-

526



3040%.
(buoyant density) , , ,
(.,
).
..
;
c, .., .
(plasmalogens) [.
plasma , , . al(cohol) (dehydrogenatum) genes , ] (. ), , . . ,
( 22%
) . .
,
. . ,
. .
, ,
,

.
, . . . , ., ;
. . -

527

. .
1954.
(plasmapheresis) [.
plasma , aphairesis , ] ,
,
,

. .
( 600
) ,
(
200 ). . , , , , , ,
, ,
. .
. 1914
(plasmid) [. plasma , ]
, , (
) .
.
(.),
(R-), , (. , D-). .
, (
) . . (, , .), (. () -

)
(. ).

. (. ).
. . 1952.
.
,
(root inducing plasmid) . Ri, .
(catabolic
plasmid) . .
(conjugative plasmid) .
.
(linear plasmid) . .
(monocopic
plasmid, single-copy plasmid)
. , .
(high-copy
plasmid) . .
(nonconjugative plasmid) . .
(narrow-host-range plasmid)
[. plasma ,
] , .

(. () , ). ., , ColE1, scherichia. oli.
. .
(monocopic
plasmid, single-copy plasmid)
. , .


(stringent plasmid) [. plasma , ;
. controle ] , 12 1 . . .
,
.

(broad-host-range plasmid) [.
plasma , ] ,
, ., .
, , tra-. (
)
. (. () , ). .,
, RK2,
, . .
.
- (helper plasmid) . ,
-.

[.
(plasmid
incompatibility)
plasma , ]
(. )
.
.. .

528

(plasmid donation) [. plasma , ]


(. )
- -
(. ).
(plasmid vector)
[. plasma ,
; . vector , ] (. ),
()
.
(highcopy plasmids) .
.
(plasmin) [. plasma ,
. -in(e) ,
] (. , ),
.
. (
92 ), , SS: (68 )
(25 ). . , . . , . . , V, VIII
XII, , C1, 5
. .

() ,
, .

529

, .
, 790 . . , ( , , , ).
. . .
1945. .: .
(plasmovirus) [.
plasma , . virus ] (), , , . . . .
.- . 1996.
(plasmogamy) [.
plasma , gamos ] ; () .
(plasmogenes) [.
plasma , genes , ] (),
, . . , .
; .
..
1908. ..
(plasmon) [. plasma ,

on ] () ;

(.). . ;
.

(plasmon
mutation) [. plasma , on ; . mutatio ] ,
(.).
(plasmorrhexis) [.
plasma , rhexis ]
(.).

(plasmotype)
[.
plasma , typos ] ,

. . .
(plankton) [. plankts
on ] , . .

.
(planosoma) [. planus
. soma ] , (., ).
(planospore) . , .

(plantibodies)
[.
planta ]
(.), . . .
(plastid
inheritance) [. plastides , , plasts , ] -

(. )
,
(.);
, .
.. . 1908. Mirabilis
jalapa.
(plastidom) . , .
(plastids) [. plastides
, , plasts
, ] , ,
, c
. .
,
. .
( ), ( ),
(), () (),
. .

, , .
(genetic
flexibility) . .

(relative plasticity) . .

(plastodeme)
[.
plasts ,
. deme , . demos
; , ] (), -

530

()
, .
, (plastome, plastidom) [. plasts ,
. -om(a) ,
, ] , ( ); , .
. 120180 . ..,
100 . () .
, .
(placebo) [. placebo , ] , , .
(pleiomorphism)[.
pleion , morphe , ]
(., ) ,

.

(pleiotropy)
[.
pleion , tropos , ] ,


. .
, ..
,
. . . 1910.

531

(mold, mould)

( ) ,
, ,
. .
;
.

(moldlike bacteria) [. bacterion ] (),


()
( . . ).
(moldlike fungus) , , () ; : (), (, ,
.). , .
, ,
. .
(plethora) . .
, (fecundity, prolificacy)
,
,
; , ,
. .
,
. . ( ) .-. .
(soil fertility)
-

, , ,
- . .. .-. ,

. ..
(ploidy) [. ploos
eidos ] ,
; . , ( ),
( ) , . , ,
, .
. (.).
(population
density) [. populus , ] ,
. .. ,
, ;
,
.
(pluripotency genes) [. plures potentia , ; . genos ,
] , (. ) . .. , oct4, sox2, nanog

. .. . .
.

(pluripotency)
[. plures potentia ,
] . .
(. ). .
; .
- , (+) (plusstrand RNA) , () . .
- , (-) .
(adverse reaction)
[. re- ,
, actio ]
,
, ,
,

.
(by-product) [.
productus ] , .
(accidental host)
, .
- ,
(surface-active agent)
, ..
,
, -

532

() ,
. .-..
. .-.. ,
, , . .-.. , () , () .
, .-.. ,
-, ,
-.
, , ,
.-..
,

. .
.
(surface culturing of
microorganisms) [. cultus ,
;
.
mikros . organismus , ]
(. , )
;
.
(repeated backcrossing) [. back cross ] ,
( ) (.
), .

533

()
,
(recurrent selection) ,

; .. (.) (
) .
. 1945 .,
. . .

(absorbing capacity of soil) () , . ...: ;
;
- ( )
;
,

; . ( / 100 ) ;

( ), ,
..
(radiation absorbed dose, rad) [. dosis ] ,
; -

. ; 1 100
( 0,01 ) ; 100 = 1 .
(recombination suppression) [. re- ,
, combinatio ]

(.), , , ,
..
(subspecies) .
; ; ; .
(running buffer) [. buffer, buff
] , (.).
, - (carrier culture) [.
cultus , ] , (., ) ;

..
(acidification) c. .
, (acidulant) ,

() (., ).
(rack)
(. ).
,
(leaky mutation) [. mutatio ] ,

,
() ; ..
.
(late genes) [. genos , ]
,

. ., . . . . .
(late infection)
[. inficere , ]

e
.
(positive
regulation) [. positivus ; . regulare
, ] ,
- (
).
(positive selection) [. positivus ;
. selectio , ] ,
. ., ,
(.).
-

(positive-negative selection) [. positivus negativus


; . selectio ,
] , , ( ),

534

,
, ( ). , .,

,
(. ). .-.. , ,
: , (
), , ( ).
,
,
.
(positive
regulators) [. positivus ; . regulare
, ] ,
-, ; ..
. .. C/EBP. . .
(positive genome)
[. positivus ; .
genos , .
-om(a) , , ] , , . .
. . .

535

(positional mapping) .
, .
, (positional
cloning, positional mapping)[. positio , ; .
clon , ]
,
,
-
-. ..


,
; , ( , , ),

.
( GC- , ,
..), , . .. ,
, - ,
. . . , , , ,
X- , I .
(positional
allele) [. positio , ; . allelon ,
] ,
-

(.
).
(position effect)
[. positio , ; . effectus ]

. . .

(poikiloxerophytes) [. poikilos ,
, xeros phyton ) , .
(poikilocytosis) [.
poikilos ,
kytos , ]
;
., ( )
, , .
(index) . .
,
. .,
, .,
, .
(generation) ,
, ,
(
).

(hybrid
generation) . .
(resting cell)
G0 ;
.. , .

() (antibody-coated
bacteria) [. anti ; .
bacterion ] , (.), . , ,
, , .
, ,
,
. . ... .
(useful minerals, mineral wealth) ., , ,
. .. ,
, . ,
..
(polyadenylation) [. poly , . adenine , . aden .-in(e) , ] 3'-
, 200 [()] (.
, ()). ()

; 1416 . . 1 40%
100% . . .
,
()
(polyadenylated
tail,
poly(A)-tail) [. poly , .

536

adenine , . aden .-in(e) , ]


()-
3'- 10200 .,


(.); , .. ( , 5'- )
.
(polyacrylamide gel) [. poly , .
acri , . amino
NH2, ammonia , . sol
ammoniacus ,
. eidos ; . gelare ; ,
(. ) N,N'--, ;
. ..

(.) (. ).
-, (polyacrylamide gel
electrophoresis, PAGE) [. poly
, . acri , . amino
NH2, ammonia ,
. sol ammoniacus ,
. eidos ; .
gelare ; . elektron
, phoresis ,
]
(, , )

(. ).
, .

537

() .

: ,
.
(. , ) , .

(
, SDS-PAGE).
. 1966.
(polyamines) [. poly
. amino NH2,
ammonia , . sal ammoniacus , ]
, , (., , , ),
. . .
(polyampholytes)
. ,
.
(polyvalent
vaccine) [. poly valentis ; . vaccinus ] ,

(.) .
(polygamy) [. poly
gamos ] ,
( )

; .
, .
(polyhaploid) . , .
(polygenic
character) [. poly genos , ] , .
.. , .
, ,

(polygenes,
polymeric genes, multiple genes)
[. poly genos ,
] ,
()
(. , ).
. ( )
.
. .
1941. . .
(polyhybrid, multihybrid)
[. poly . hybrida
] , , ;

(. )
-
.
, (polyPHA) [.
hydroxyalcanoates,
poly , hydr(ogenium) , oxi(genium) .
al-kohl ,
, ] , ,
(.,
Alcaligenes
eutrophus,
Azotobacter

chroococcum, Ralstonia euthropia)


(., ), -
,
. ,

. . (., -) . . , .
(polyene
antibiotics) [. poly
-ene , , ;
. anti bios (biotikos)
] (. ), C=C. C , ,
(., , ,
, , .). .. ()
() .
..
() ,
. .. (.).

(polyketides)
[.
poly , . (A)ket(on) . eidos ] ,
, , , ; -

538

(, , .), .
. (. ),
(.), (.), ( ) .
(polyclonal antibodies) [. poly
clon , ; . anti
] (. ),

(. );
,
-. .. - (. ). .
.
(polycross) [. poly
. cross , ]
, 100 ,

5 ; .. .
(polyxenic culture of microorganism) [. poly
xenos ; . cultus , ; . mikros
. organismus
, ] ,
,
. ,

. . .

539

(polylinker) [. poly
. link , ]
,
(. , ,
);
.

(polymerase)
[.
polymeres , ] ,

(. ) ; , .
(-.) (-.), ,
( - .), ( -
.).
- -. (.
, ).
,
(polymerase chain reaction, PCR)
[. polymeres , ; . re-
,
, actio ] , in vitro -
- (), . ... 3- (
2030 ): , -

- -


; , . ... , ,
(. () ) -.
. 1985 . (
1993.).
(asymmetric polymerase
chain reaction) .
.
, (real-time polymerase chain
reaction, quntitative polymerase
chain reaction, qPCR) [. polymeres ,
; . re- ,
,
actio ] (. , ), , .
. .
1991 . ( TaqMan).


,
5'- (. , )
3'-
,
(

(2))
. ,
3'- . Taq-
,
5'3'- 5'- , .


, ,

.
( ) . .

.
(nested polymerase chain reaction) .
, .
(inverse polymerase chain reaction) .
, .
(long distance polymerase chain reaction)
[. polymeres , ; . re-
,
, actio ; . fragmentum , ]
(. ,
),
( 510 . .. ).
Pfu Deep Vent (. -);

540

-.
.
(hot start polymerase
chain reaction)[. polymeres , ; . re- , ,
actio ] (. , ),
.
- (., ); -

55.

(polymerization)
[. polymeres , ] 1)
; .,
(),
(); 2). (
) ; , .
. . 1929.
, (polymery)
[. polymeria ,
]

541

(., , ), , .
. .
. .

.
.
; , , . .,
, ,
. .-. ,
,
, , , .. .
.- 1909.
(polymersomes) [.
polymeres
, soma
] 50
50 ,
, ,
,
,
. 10 ()
.

. .
. . 1999.
(polymeres) [. polymeres ,
]
( . ),
()

( ). , ,
/ . .
.
(polymitosis) [. poly
mitos ]
(. ),
(
), ;
- (. ).
(polymitotic
gene) [. poly mitos
; . genos , ] ,
; .. (.).
(polymorphism) [.
poly morphe , ,
] 1)


,
. . : ) (), ,
; ) ,

()


; )
, -

; 2) ( ), , , , ,
- , . ., ,
(
.). .
, .

. .
(. , ). .
-
,
.
, (amplified fragment length polymorphism, AFLP) [. poly
morphe , , ; .
amplificatio , ; . fragmentum ,
]
,
(. , ) .
.... (. (2)); -
(.-).
, (restriction fragment length polymorphism,
RFLP) [. poly morphe
, , ; . restrictio

542

; . fragmentum , ]

, . ....
;
-
(. -).
(DNA polymorphism) . .
(polymorphic equillibrium) [. poly
morphe , , ] ( )
.
(polymorphic) [.
poly morphe , ,
] ,
, , . ,
(. ), (. ),
.
. .
(polymorphic
gene) [. poly morphe
, , ; . genos ,
] , (
95%).
(polyunsaturated fats) [. poly ]
,
; (.,
, ).
(polynucleotide) [.
poly , . nucleus
. eidos ] ,
. ., -

543

, (), (). . .
3'-
5'-. 5'3', .. .
(polynucleotide kinase) [. poly , .
nucleus , eidos kino
, ]
(. ), -
(. , )
5'-
.
(polynucleotide
ligase) [. poly , .
nucleus , . eidos .
ligo ] ,


(. 4) (. E. coli). . . .
.
(polynucleotide phosphorylase) [.
poly , . nucleus , .
eidos , phos , phoros lysis ] (. ), () . . . 1955 . .
1955. , .

(polypeptide)
[.
poly , peptos , eidos ] , (.),
-
( 1020),
. .
,

. .: .
(polyplicate
genes) [. poly . plico
(plicatum) ; . genos
, ]
( ,
..)
,
; ..
: A1a1,
A2a2, A3a3 ..
(polyploid) [. polyploos eidos ]
, , 2n ( 3n, 4n ..).
(primary
polyploid) c. .
(polyploidization)
[. polyploos eidos ] , (. ) , ,
.
, (polyploidy,
euploidy) [. polyploos eidos ] ,
;
3n (), 4n (), 5n () .. ( ) (

).

(. ). . . (., , , , , ) . .
, . , ,
,
, ., . 2n .
(induced polyploidy) . .
(polyprotein) [.
poly , . protos
. -in(e) , ] -,
,
; . , , ,
-
.
(polyribosomes) [.
poly , . ribo(se) , .
arabinose . soma
] (. ), .
. .
, (polysaccharides, glycans) [. poly ,

544

sakcharon eidos ]
, (,
) (, )
(,
. ., , , ), ; .

(. ). . (, ) ( )
,
(, , , ). . .
1970. .: .
(polysomic) [. poly
soma ] ,

(.).
(polysomy) [. poly
soma ]


(, .. , , ..);
.
.
(polyteny) [. poly
tainia , ]

(. ).
(polythetic
group) [. poly thetikos
, ]
,
,

.

545

()
(polytypic species, complex species)
[. poly typos ] ,
,
(,
. .),
; .. -;
, p .
(polyergic gene)
[. poly ergon ; . genos , ] , .
, (polyfactorial
inheritance, polygenic inheritance)
[. poly . factor , ] , . .
,
(. , , ).
(polyphenism) [.
poly phino , ]
(. (1)), , . . ( ); .
.
(polyphenols) [.
poly , phaino , . ol(eum) ]
100 , -

. ., , , ,
. ,
, (.,
) -1,
. ., , , ;

.
, (polyphyletism) [. poly phylon , ]
() ;
Rodentia, .
(multifunctional proteins, moonlighting
proteins) [. poly .
functio ] , ,

(., , .). . .
(polycentric chromosome) [. poly
. entrum ,
; . chroma ,
soma ] , ( , , .. ); .. .
(polycistronic
mRNA, polycistronic message) [.
poly , . cis ,
trans , ] , -


;
,
(.). ,
., , .
. ; .,
. E. coli
(. , lac-) : -,
.
(polyhedrin) [. poly
, hedra , , .-in(e) ,
] ,
(., )


,
. .
.
(polyelectrolytes)
[. poly , electron ,
lytos ] , .
. ,
(
). ,
. , . .

.
-,
, . [CH2CH(SO3H)]n;
. . -

546

, ,
, (.
-
,
); .

.
, (polyethylene glycol, PEG, carbowax) [.
poly , aith(er) , ,
hyle glykys ] , HOCH2(CH2OCH2)CH2OH, 1
6.
46 ( ) , , ,
.
(pollinosis) [. pollen
-os(is) , ]
, ,

.
.
(complete medium)
,

(., , .).
(bottom recessive) .-,
.
(holoenzyme)
. , ,
.

547

(sexual dimorphism) [. di- , , , morphe


, , ]
,
(. (1)). .. ( , );
.. (. ). ..
(., ..)
..
(sexual character)
, ; ..
. .
(F-factor) .
F-, .
(sexual hormone)
[. hormao ,
] (.)
, , ,

. .. . . () ();
, , . , . .. ,
- , .
.. .. () ,


(. ),
.
.. ()
, , ,
19-,
, .

. ,
,
,
21-. ..

; ., ..
, .. ( )
. () 1927. .,
1931. (), 1934. . . (
1939.).

(reproductive cells) . ,
.
(sex chromosomes) [. chroma , soma ] ,
( : , Y, W, Z ..). , Y . .. 1891. .. .: .

(haptens) . , , .
(halfdiallel cross) [. di- ,
, ,
allelon , ]
, .
. ()
.
, (semi-dominance, incomplete dominance) [. dominare , ]
,
,

.
, () (semi-lethal mutation, sub-lethal mutation) [. letalis ] ,
( ) .
(hemimethylated DNA) [. methyle
CH3, . methy ,
hyle ]
, ; .
.
(semipermeable membrane) [. membrane , ] , ;
..
(. ).
(half sibs) [. sibs
] , (
).

(semisynthetic antibiotics) [. syn-

548

thetikos ;
. anti bios (biotikos)
]
(. ),
. .,

,
, (, ,
). . .
, (semisterility, partial sterility) [. sterilis ]

( ) . ., .
, , , , .
(demi-embryo) [.
embryon ]
(816 , . )

(. ),
.
(polarization microscope) [. polarization, . polaris
; . mikros
scopeo , , ] , (. .
) ; ..
,
.
,
, .

549

(polar granule)
[. polaris ;
. granulum ]

, ;
, .. ( ), .
(polarity mutation) [. polaris ; . mutatio ] ,
(. (1)).
(polarity) [. polaris
]
, () , . ( )
.
(. (1)).
(polarity effect)
[. polaris ;
. effectus ] 1)
, . ., (. ) .., . ..
,

-
.; 2) , .

(pomology) [. pomum . logos , ] . . -


,
;
. . ..
(population growth rate, PGR) [. populus , c,
(
) ;

.
(population doubling level) [. populus
, ]
.

,
- (population waves)
[. populus , ]
, ; ( , , ),

. ..
,
,
. . 1905.
(population) [. populus , ] ,
(.), ,
-

. . , . . , .,

, . .

(, ,
, ..). . . 1903.
(cells population)
[. populus , ]
.
- (foundation
stock) [. populus , ] ()
( )
; .-. (). .-.
(. ).
(open population) . .
(porins) [. poros , .-in(e) ,
]
,

. . , . .

. .
, ,

, ,
-
-
. . -

550

(.).
.

(.).
(porosity) [. poros
, ]
, ,
.
.
.
(threshold dose) [.
dosis ]
( , , . .), -
(, , ..) . ., ..
(.)
2030 . .
(1), (2).

(threshold
value) -
,
.
(threshold character) ,
()
. .
.
(breed) ,

(.)
- ,
. () .,
, () .,
-

551

;
. ..

(porphyrins)
[.
porphyr(eos) .
-in(e) , ] (.),
. .
() . . ( , ) ( ). .
, ,
,
.
(. , ).
() (platting, inoculation)

;
. - (. ).
(Kozak
sequence) . .
(post-adaptation)[.
post adapto ] ,
.
. .
(extrinsic protein) ,
, , , .
(permanent
hybrid) [. hybrida ] ,

( ) , . .

.

(post-transcriptional modifications) [. post transcriptio ; . modus


, facio ] () ; .. , , , .

(post-transcriptional gene
silencing, PTGS) [. post
transcriptio ; . silencer ; . silentum
; . genos , ] () ,
: , -
(. -), (. , ) (. ). ...
, , , . .
.

modifications)
(post-translational
[. post . translatio
; . modus , facio ]

, ..
.

, , , , . . ,
.
., , , .
.
.. , . .. ( 500) : (. ), (. ),
(. ),
(. ), (. ), (. ),
(. ), (. ), (. ), (.), (. ), (. , )
. ..
.
(potential dose)
. (2).
() () (potential
variability, cryptic variability, concealed variability) [. potentia
, varians ] , ;
(. ). ..

552

.
(potention) [. potentia
, ] ,
, .
(loss-ofheterozygosity) [. heteros , zygotos
]
,
(. , ); .. ,
. ( ) .
(progeny, offspring)
() ,
() ;
. ( , ),
( , ..).
(soil, ground, terrain) , , ,
.
(., ).
-1, -3 (-1, -3 rule) , 1 (. )
(, ,
, ), 3
, .

553

N- (N-end rule)
N- , N- ,

-.
, , ,
, 2
. 10 .
(base-pair
rule)

: - - - -
.
(dextrality)
(-)
-, 1953 .
(primer) [. primer , ] 1)
1525.
( .),
, (. , ), . ; 2)
,

; 3'--, -
. . .
-
(primer walking) [. primer , ] (.) (>1
. ..) c
(. (1)),
. -

,
,
.

.
(walking
primer) . , .
(arbitrary
primer) . .
()
(random primer) .
() .
(universal
primer) . .
(degenerate
primers) . .

(primosome)
[.
primer , .
soma ] , ;
. . .
() , (good
manufacturing practice, GMP) [.
praktikos , ]
, ,
,
,
. ...

. . -

; .
(pre-adaptation) [.
prae , adapto ]
,

,

() ; .
,
,

. . .
(prebiotics) [. prae
, bios (biotikos)
] ,

(), . ,
, ,
. . ,
. . . 1995.
,
(acceptable intake, maximum allowable dose, MAD) [. dosis ] ,


, ,
.
, (maximum concentration
limit, maximum permissible concentration, maximum allowable
concentration, MAC) [. concentratio , ] -

554

,

; , . .,
,
,
, - .
.
,
(maximum permissible discharge)
() ,
.
,
(maximum allowable discharge of
substances into water body)
,

.
(. , ) , , .
(predetermination)
[. prae ,
determinatio , ] 1)
, -

555


; 2)
. , . :
( ),
,
(, ) , ,
( .),
( .).
(ancestral)
( ) .
.
(ancestor) ,
-
;
(
.) ( . ..). .
(., . ) . ( -,
-

).
(pollution prevention) , , , ,
, (. ). ..
, , , ( , , ,
/ ), , -

. ..
,
.
ab initio
(ab initio structure prediction) [.
structura , ; .
ab initio ]

.
. (
1972.).
(deduced amino
acid sequence) .
() .

() (representative
sample) [. representatif ] , , ,
, . .
.

(precursor)
1) (, ,
), ; 2)
, .
(premature termination) [. terminare
] ,
(. ). .. -

,
(., ,
-
.), (.) .
(premixes) [. r , , ,
misceo ] 1)
,

.-. . . , , -
. .
( , , ,
, .)
( (. ), (. ), (. ), (. ), (. , ),
- );
2) - .
( ), ( ),
(, .)
(., , ).
- (premessenger RNA, premRNA) [. r , ,
, ] ,

,

(. ).

(premutation)
[.
r , , , -

556

mutatio ]

( ,
..),
, . . (
); . .
() (prenatal diagnostics) [.
prae , , , natalis
; . diagnostikos ]
(,
, ,
. .)
. .
.
(prenatal development) [. prae , , , natalis ] ()
;
.
(prenylation) [.
pr(opyl)ene ]
(. ),

(.) -
. . .
(preparation) [. praeparatus ] 1) ; 2) ,
, ,

557

.
, -
pre-sequence) [.
(prepeptide,
prae , , , . peptos ,
] ( ),
() ,
-
(. , ). ., N-
., 23
,
.
, (prepotency) [. rtens (praepotentis) ]
. .

; .
(discontinuous variation) ,
( . .),

; .., . .
.
(discontinuous replication) [. replicatio
]
(. ), .
(discontinuous
character) , (.,
..); .. -

(
,
..).
(pressor effect)
[. pressus , ] , .
., ..,
. .
.
(pre-filter) [. prae , , ,
. filtrum ]
,


.
(precipitate) [. praecipitatus ]
1), ; 2) ,

;
; 3),
; . . .
(precipitation) [.
praecipitatio , ] 1) (., .

); 2) -,

;
. ( ), .

. .
(Pribnow box) [
. ; . box , ]

(TATAATG) (. , ), 10 .. . ..
, - (
);
(. , -). . 1975.
(habituation) 1) in vitro ;
., , ,
(. ); 2) , ;
.
, (serviceability, usefulness, applicability,
suitability) ,
(),

().
, (decoy)
1)
, ,

558

;

. ., .,
, , Tat; 2).
.
(admixture, impurity, mixin)
1), , , . C. (); 2) (mixin) ,
- ; ; . ,
.

(primordial germ cells) [.


primordialis , ] (),
. ..

,
.. .

() (acquired resistance)
[. resistance ,
. resisto , ]

,
.
(acquired immunity) [. immunis , -]
. .
, (acquired character) , -

559

;
.. .
(prions) [. .
pro(teinaceous) in(fectious) (particle)
]

(., ,
- .), PrPSc (Pr prion, protein,
Sc scrapie),

PrPC, . rC
:
,

(. ), , .
PrPSc PrPC (.),
, -
-, -
, . PrPC (
PRNP). . 1982. (
1997.)

(natural
population) [. populus , ] ,
, ( ) .
(native
variety) [. natura ]
(, , ,
..),

, .. .
,
(natural resources) [.
ressourse ] ,
,

. .. , , . ..
: , , ,
, , , ,
, , ,
..
(natural focus)
,

( ) ;
..
.
(focus natural univectorial) .
.

(focus natural monohostal)


. .
(focus natural polyvectorial) .
.

(focus natural polyhostal) .
.
(fitness) ( , , )
, .

(paracentromeric heterochromatin, paracentric heterochromatin)[. entrum .


mros , ; . heteros
, chroma (chromatos)
. -in(e) ,
] (. ), (. ) ; .. .
(proband, propositus) [.
Proband ] ,
(
).
( ) (gap) .,
( ).
(probiotics) [. pro
, , . bios
(biotikos) ] , (, ), , ,
.
.:
(
); , , ; -
, .

.

560

(
), (,
, ) . (, , , , , ,
, .), , . , . , , , , . . ,
(.
( ), , ), . , L. acidophilus, L. bulgaricus
Streptococcus thermophilus
. . . 1954. .: .
(probiotic
strain) [. pro , , . bios (biotikos) ;
. Stamm , ]
, . . .
(provirus) [. pro , , . virus ]
,
- ,
.
.
. .
-, -

561

- (.,
); .
(.
).
(provitamin) [. pro
, , , . vita
. amino NH2,
ammonia , . . sal
ammoniacus , ] , ,
(., ).
(progenesis) [. pro , , . genesis
, ]

.
(progestagens) [.
pro , , , .
gesta(tion) genes
, ]

(
, .). .
, .
. () 1933.
. .
.

(progesterone) [.
pro , , , .
gesta(tion) ] ,
, ( ) ,
,
,
, .
(forecasting, prediction) [. prognosis ,
] ,
-

-,
. ., . (forecasting environmental
change).
(progradation) [.
pro , ,
gradatio ,
gradus , ]
() . . , (.).
(programming)
[. programma , ] ,

,
,
:

;
.;
. .
(progress) [. progressus
] ( , )
; .. (1925.) . (
,
) -
. (, -
., ) ;
. (., 1935.)
( ) .
(chromosome walking) [. chroma ,
soma ]
(. - -

), , . ,
. , . . .,
. , .
(. ).

.
...

,
. ...
(. ). ...
., . . 1979.
(life expectancy, longevity, lifespan)
(), .
.. ; 3 , ..: -, - ; ..

562

.
(decomposition
product) [. productus ] ,
. ., .. ( ) .
(productive infection) [. productivus , ; .
inficere , ] ,
, .
. ; .
(productivity) [.
productivus , ] ,
. . ..

( , ,
.).
(production) [. productio ] ,
, . .
, .
. /.
(producer) [. producentis , ]
(
), . .
, -

563

, . , . ( ),
.
. ,
, . . (),
(, , , - , , .). .

. ., , , ; ., . (. ), .
(.), . .
(sire)
, .
(derived line)
[. linea -
] (),
-
()
( ..)
;
(promoted, advanced) , , , ..
() ,
(random amplified polymor-

phic DNA, RAPD) [. amplificatio


, ; .
poly morphe , ,
] ,
() (. ).


, ,
.
(arbitrary
primer) [. primer , ] ()
,

, ;
(. , ),
,
.
, (prokaryotes, prokaryotic
organisms) [. pro , , karyon ] , ; . . . . , , (.), . . 1937. ., . (.).
(proximal) [.
proximus ] -


. ., ,


; , , ,
(). . .
(prolactin) [. pro , , lac (lactis) ] (. ) (. , ), ; . . : , , . C.:
, .
(prodrug) [. pro
, , ] ,
(. )
, . . ,

-, ,
,
. . ,
. . . 1958.
-
(bioprecursor prodrug) [. pro
, , ] (.),

. ,
-

564

.
, (proline, Pro) [.
p(yr)roli(di)ne-2-(carboxylic acid)
-2- ,
. pyr , . oleum
-in(e) , ] -
; (. ). .
(, ). .
.
. ,
, . . 1901.
(proliferation) [.
proles , fero
] 1)
( ) ,
; 2)
. ( )
.
(prolification) [.
proles , facio
] - , (.,

).
(prolonged) [.
prolongare ] ; ., .


.
(intermediate
vector) [. vector , ] E. coli,
, () , -

565

.
() ..
Ti. .. ,
-.
E.coli Agrobacterium
tumefaciens .
(intermediate
hybrid) [. hybrida ] ,
() ( )
.
()
(intermidiate host) , ,

(
); ..

.
(promille) [. pro mille
] ,
(1/10%).
(promoter) [. promovere
] - , , ; -. .
: 35
10 (. ). .
,
- II, : ( 25)
(. , -) -

, 75 (.-).
. . . 1961.
lac- E. coli.
(alternative promoter) . .
(hybrid promoter) . .
(double promoter) . .
(inducible
promoter) . .
(constitutive promoter) . .
(minimal
promoter) . .
(weak promoter,
low-level promoter) .
.

(stage-specific promotor) . .
(subgeno-mic
promoter) . .
(tissue-specific promoter) . .
(promoter
clearance, promoter escape) [. promovere ]
-

.
(promoter strength)
[. promovere ] ,

.. (, - .) .
(tandem promoters) . .
(promutagene) [. pro
, , , mutatio . genes ,
] ,
( ) . .

-450.

(industrial microbiological processes) [. mikros


, , bios .
logos , ; . processus
] ,
/ . ... 5 : )
; ) ; ) ; )
) . ...
- , , ,
, ,
,
.
(pronase) [. pro(tei)
n(e) , . protos
. -ine ,
] (. , ), Streptomyces griseus
4- ,

566

,
. . .
(permeability, penetrability) ,
.
( ) (
) .
.
, . (., )

-.
(pronucleus) [. pro
, , nucleus
] ( . . )
(). . , . , . (., ) .
, (proopiomelanocortin, POMC) , , , 241 . . .
(. ).

., -

567

: .
- ;
. -
, - -
; , .
-
-. .
.
, -
(propeptide, pro-sequence) [.
pro , , .
peptos , ] ( ), -
, - (., -). .,

N- ()
,
- (.).
(properdin) [. pro
, , , perdere , -in(e) , ] , , ,
(.) ;
, . . . 1954.

(prostaglandins)
[. prosta(ta) , . prostates
, . gland(ula)

. -in(e) ,
] , , 20
.
. .
20 . .
; , . , ,
. .
. (
1970.). , .
, . , . . 1982.

(prostasomes)
[.
prosta(ta) ,
. prostates
. soma ] (
150200 ), ,
, . . 1983. . .,
..
(prosthetic
group) [. prosthetikos ] , .. .

: .

(sequence space)

.
., ..
, 100
20 ,
20100 .
(protamines) [. protos . amino
NH2, ammonia , .
sal ammoniacus , ] (4
12) ,
, ; . (.). .
. . 1872.
.
(proteases) . , .
(proteasomes) [.
proteine , . protos
, . soma ] , (. ,
). . , 14
.
4 ,
; , 14
, 6 AT. . , . , (. ), 26S .,
.

568

(proteid) [. proteine
, . protos eidos ] (. ),

( ). .
;
, , .
(protein) [. proteine
, . protos
. -in(e) ,
] ., .
(proteinases) [. proteine , . protos . -in(e) , ] (. , ), ,
, (.,
, , .).
. : . ( ), .
( )
.
(protein kinases)
[. proteine , .
protos . -in(e) , ,
. kino , ]
,
(. , )
.
. :
.
; . ; .
,
,
; . -

569

; .
. , .,
. . (. ) (. ; ;
- ); .

(mitogen-activated protein kinases, MAPK)


. - .
(protein phosphatases) [. proteine ,
. protos . -in(e)
, ,
. phos phoros ] ,
. . ., . . (. ) ( ,
,
.).
,
, . ,
.

(proteoglycans)
[. proteine , . pro-

tos . -in(e) ,
, .
glykys .-an(e) , ] (., ), .
.
. , . . ,
2,22,3% .
. ;
. , .,
. .
, . .
. ,
. .
.,
,
.
, (proteolysis, proteolytic
activity) [. proteine ,
. protos lysis -

,
, (. , ).
, (proteolytic enzymes, proteases)
[. proteine , . protos lysis ,
, . lytikos , ; . fermentum
]
(., ), () .

.. (
). , N- ( ),
(), ,
(., ). .. ;
, ., , 10 11 ( ,
), , N- ( ). ..
,
.
,

( ). (, , .) -

570

(, , ). ..
( ) ,
(.,
). . ..

. ,
., ,
.

. , .. (., ,
)
1,52,
45, .. , . .
..
(2+, Mg2+
.).

-
(., ). , - ,
, . ..
,
,
. ,
, , ( ), , (. ).
..

( ). .. -

571

(),

(2-, 1-,
.). .. ( , , , .). .. , .
,
. ,
,

(.), , .
(proteome) [. prote(ine) , . protos
.-in(e) ,
, . -om(a) ,
, ] , .
. 1994. M..
(proteomics) [. prote(ine) , . protos
.-in(e) ,
, .-omics c,
, ,
; ] , ,
()
, .
() (an antidote for)
., ().
(protoclone) [. protos
, clon ,

] ,
,
.
(proto-oncogene) [.
protos , onkos
genos , ] ,
, (. ); . (., c-src),
- ( c-ras), .
(protoplast) [. protos plastos , ] ,
,
( ) () , . . , (.) . L-

. . :
,
, . . ( )
-.
. . ,
, , . . . 1953. . .
(prototype) [. protos
typos ] -

, -
-.
(prototroph) [. protos trophe , ] ,

(. ). .
,

, , ,
. . .
(flow culture)
. () .
(flow cytometry) [. kytos ,
metreo ] ,
,
(., ),
( 33258 .) . ,
; ..

(. ; ), (. )
.
(flow
karyotyping) [. karyon ,
typos ]
(. ), /

.

572

(prophage) [. pro , , phagos ] (. ),


; .
(prophase meiosis)
[. pro , ,
phasis ; . meiosis
]
(. , ),

(). .. I : , , , , .
(prophase mitosis)
[. pro , ,
phasis ; . mitos
] (. ), ,
.
(proenzymes) [.
pro , , . fermentum , ] .
., .
(. ). .
.
(gene expression profiling) . .
, , (percolation, seepage,
infiltration) . ., , /
; (. .

573

)
( ).
. () .
(processivity) [.
processus ] , . ., . -

.
()
().
(processing) [. processing , . procedo , ] , . .
- ( , , ,
, .).
, (processed pseudogenes,
retrogenes) [. procedo ,
; . pseudos
. genos , ]
(.,
), 3'-
(); , ..

, .
(jumpinggenes)
. .
(chromosome jumping) [. chroma ,
soma ] -

(. ),
,
- ,
(. ),
(
), .
(forward genetics) [. genetikos
, ] , :
()
( ).
. .
(forward mutation,
direct mutation) [. mutatio ] () .
(psammophytes) [.
psammos phyton ] , , .. .
(pseudoagglutination) [. pseudos . agglutinatio ]
(, ..),
, , .
. .
, (pseudoalleles, semi-alleles, paralocuses,
paraalleles) [. pseudos
allelon , ] ,

,
;
.

(-)
(-) ;
. (1952.),
. , -

.
(pseudoallelism, semi-allelism) [. pseudos
allelon , ] ,
(. , ). . . 1951.
,

(pseudoapogamy, somatogamy) [.
pseudos , apo , ,
gamos ] ,
.
(pseudoautosomal locus) [. pseudos
, autos soma ; .
locus ] (),
, , - Y-
,
, . . .. , ; (
, ) ..


.
(pseudovirion) [.
pseudos . virus ]
,
. .
, . .,
. .
.
SV40.
, (pseudogamy) [. pseudos
gamos ] , -

574

; . (, , ).
(pseudohaploid) [.
pseudos , haplos , , eidos
] , ,
, .
, (pseudogenes, silent genes) [. pseudos
. genos , ] ,
, ,
(. ), .. ,
,
(. , ). . . . (). .
. . 1977.
(processed pseudogenes, retrogenes)
. , .
,

(pseudohybrid) [. pseudos
. hybrida ] ,

; .

.
(pseudowild type)
[. pseudos typos ] ,
(),
.

575

(pseudodominance) [. pseudos .
dominare , ] .
(pseudomixis) [.
pseudos mixis ] ,

, ;
.
(pseudomosaicism)
[. pseudos . mosaique , ] (.), ,
in vivo ; , .
, -
.
(pseudomonosomic)
[. pseudos , monos ,
soma ] ,
2n-1,
; - .
,
.

(pseudopolyploidy) [. pseudos , polyploos eidos


]
( ,
), ;
. ,

,
;
. .
(pseudo-compatibility) [. pseudos ]

(
S) p S-
.
(pseudotyping)
[. pseudos typos ]
, , ,
(. ), . . (. ) (. ).

(pseudoexogenous adaptation) [.
pseudos , exo ,
genes , ; . adaptatio ] (.), , .
,
(psychrophilic microorganisms, psychrophile) [. psychros philia ,
; . mikros
. organismus ,
] ,
0
( 10). .. . ..
20, 30.
,

.
, .. , . ..
, ,
, , . ..
( ,
),
.. . .. . ..
.
(gene pool) ..
(cord blood
bank)
, (. ),

(),
( 196)
.
(purine) [. purus
-in(e) ,
] (C5N4H4), (.) (.),

,
( ), (, , ).
. .
.
-

576

. . . 1884.
(purine bases)
[. purus -in(e) , ]
(, .), (. ). ,
.. (),
().
.. (.,
), ( )
.
(puromycin) [. purus , . myc(es)
. -in(e) , ]

6---9(3'--L---3'-D-)-, (. ), . . -,

-
; (), , , . . .
-
1950. . .
(purple bacteria) [. purpura -
- ; . bacterion ] ,
,
,
. .. 50
. ..

577

(.). 6

50 . ,
,
. , ..
,
, .. ; .
, (puffs) [. puff
]
, () .

(PCR) .
, .
(asymmetric
PCR) . .

(real-time PCR, qPCR) . , .
(nested PCR)
. .
(hot start
PCR) . c .
(pollen lethal) [.
letalis ]
(. ),
.


R-,
(Rplasmid,
resistance
factor,
resistance transfer factor) [.
r(esistence) , . plasma , ] (.), , , (., ), , , . . .
. 1960.
Ri-,
(Ri plasmid, root inducing
plasmid) [. r(oot) i(nducing) . plasma
, ]
Agrobacterium rhizogenes,
,
. . .
1980.

(rhabdovirus)
[.
rhabdos . virus ]

( 175 , 70 ),
.
.
. .
. . ,
. , . .

(rad) [. rad(iatio) ] . .
,
(radiation dose) [. radiatio ; . dosis ]
,
.
.. , , .
. .
(radiation
chimera) [. radiatio ;
. Chimaira , ,
] , ,
. ,

, .

. . .
(radiation
damage) [. radiatio ]
; ..
,
. -

579

1940., , () ..
(radiation
mutagenesis) [. radiatio ; . mutatio .
genesis ]
- ().
() ..,
() ,
( ), () .., ( , ) ; ..
( ) ,

. .. ,
, .-. .



.
(radiation) [. radiatio
]
,
, , , -
-.
, (radioautograph, autoradiograph) [.
radia(tio) , . autos
grapho , ] ,
(., ).

(radioautography) ., .
(radioactive
label) [. radia(tio) ]
,
(, ,
);
- .. , 14C, 32P, 35S .
(.).
(radioactivity) [.
radia(tio) activus
] ( , . .)
(. )
; ,
(), .
.: ) - ( ),
) - (), ) -
( ).


-, - - .
(, , )
,
- -.
.
, ,
.
.
.
, 1 , -

()
(., ). , (Ci) , 1 -226
3,71010 , ..
3,71010. . . 1896., .
1898. . ..
(radioactive
waste) [. radia(tio)
activus ]
,

. . ,
.
(radioactive
isotope, radioisotope) [. radia(tio)
activus ;
. isos , , topos ] ,
, . . .. (. ). .
.
(radioactive half-life) [. radia(tio) activus ]
50%- ,
.. .
.
(radioactive
decay) [. radia(tio)
activus ] ( ) (. ), .
. .
(radiogenic
therapy) [. radia(tio)
. genos , ;

580

. therapeia ] (. )
(. ),
. , , ,
,
,
(., ,
; ,

, .).
, (radioimmunoassay, RIA) [. radia(tio) immunis , -;
. analysis , ] , . .. ,

. . . 1959.

() (radiocarbonic method)
[. radia(tio) carbo
(carbonis) ; . methodos
]
(14)
, . ..
. 1950. (
1960.).
(radiolysis) [. radia(tio)
. lysis ,
]
( , .)
-

581

. .
(.,
).
(radiomimetics)
. , .
, (radiomimetic substances, radiomimetics) [. radia(tio) . mimetes
] ,
; .. : ,
.
(radionuclide
kit) [. radia(tio)
nucleus ] , (. ) (. ), , .
(radionuclides) [.
radia(tio) nucleus
] (. ),

. . (
), . (
P.)
() P.
.,
, , ,
, .
. 1800;
. .: .
(radioprotectors)
[. radia(tio)
protector , ]
,


;

. . , , ,
. (., , ,
).
.
(), , . .
,
(radioresistance) [.
radia(tio) .
resistance , .
resisto , ] (, )
. . ; ., , . . .

(radiosensibility) [. radia(tio)
sensibilis ] ; .
. . (),

, , , ,
. . . .
(radiotherapy) [.
radia(tio) .

therapeia ] ,
.

.
(226Ra) (222Rn), (60), (90Sr),
(32), (131J), (198u),
(137Cs). P.
, .
(radiotoxins) [.
radia(tio)
,
.
tox(ikon) . -in(e) , ]
, ( ),
;

(.,
, , ).

(radioresistance) . , .

(radiopharmaceutical) [. radia(tio) . pharmakeutike ; .
praeparatus ] ,


(. ),
.

(radiation
sensitivity, radiosensitivity) [.
radia(tio) ]
; ,
. : . -

582

, ( 3 ,
) .
.
. . , 50% (.50). :

,
.
(diclinous) . . , ( . = ).
(decomposition, disintegration) ()
(),
.
.
(litter size) ,
.
(population size)
[. populus , ]
.
, (propagation, reproduction)

, . .
3 : , . .
;
. (
).

583

(vegetative reproduction) . .
(bidirectional genes) [. genos , ] ,



.
(variety) ,

, .
. . ,
. . . , .
(heterogeneity, heterogeneousness) .,
.
(disruptive selection) ,

;
.. .
(thinning) 1)
; 2)
; 3)
.
(eating, attack, pitting)
, , , . .

. . .
(ramets) [. ramus
] , , ( )
-

(.).
(reading frame)

, (. )
(. ).
.. ,
.

.., . .. .
; ; ; .

(blocked reading frame) . .
(closed
reading frame) .
.
(unidentified reading frame,
URF) .
.
(open
reading frame) .
.
(reading
frame shift) (. ) ,
, , ( ), -

, .
, , ,
; () , () . ... ; ,


.
(rhamnose) [ . Rhamn(us)
. -ose , ] , 6-;
,

. . . .
.
(randomization) [.
random , ] 1)
(., )

. , .
; 2). , , ; .
(arrayed
library) [. Rangierung, .
ranger ; . biblion

584

theke ] (. )
(. ),
()
(,
.) . ..

, .
(early genes) [.
genos , ]
1) ,
; , .., (.
); 2) , de novo
(., fos jun).
(early passage) [.
passage , ]
in vitro.
. .
(race, variety) [. race]
, ,

() . .

. .
,
(., ).
(decay, decomposition) - (, -

585

); . , . .: . . .
(unwinding
protein) . -, .
(brood) ,
;
brood
.: , , , .
, (distribution, spreading) [. distributio
] , - , , , ,
,
, .
(c)
(assimilate distribution,
partitioning) [. assimilatio , ] (.) .
(bisection of
embryo) [. embryon ]
,
,
( ), , ;

(
..).
()
(random primer) [. primer , ]
(),

. .. . . .

(map distance) [. genetikos , ; . charta , ]
(), . ...
,
; , 1% (1 ).
(solution) ,
.
,
. . , .
. . . ,
.
. , ,
-. .
(.
) (. ).
(Ringers solution,
physiological saline) .
, .
, (solvent) [.
solvens ] 1), ; 2), .
(vegetation)
() .

(nascent polypeptide chain) [.

poly , peptos , eidos ] ,


, . ...
,
, (. ).
() (nascent
RNA)
,
(); 5'-
.
(splitting, segregation)

() (. ) (. )

(.,
).
(split genes)
[. genos , ]
, , .. , (),
(). .. ;
( ).
(raticides) [. rat
. caedere ] ,
; .
(refinement) [.
raffiner ] 1)
-
(,
.) (. , );
2) -

586

()
.
(raffinose) [. raffiner -ose ,
]
,
D-, D- D-;

. .

,
Clostridium perfringens ; .
.
(racemases) [. racemus
] (. ),
, ; , . .
L-.
(racemates) . .
,
(racemic compounds, racemates) [.
racemus ] (), (.).
.. ,
.. . , ,
..;
. .. ,
.
(rational drug design) [.
rationalis ,

587

; . projectus ]

,
, .
(reagins) [. re- ,

, ago
-in(e) , ] (.) (..
), (, ) . .: , .
, (reagent,
chemical agent) [. re- ,

,
actio ] , .
(reaction) [. re- , ,
actio ] 1) ,
;
2),
.
(single primer
amplification reaction, SPAR) [.
re- , , actio ;
. amplificatio ,
; . primer , ] ,
(. , ) -

, .
(Feulgen reaction) . .
(reassortation) [.
re- , , . assorti
, ] , (., Orthomyxoviridae, Arenaviridae,
Reoviridae). ., .
. . .
(reassociation) ., .
(revaccination) [.
re- , , . vaccinus ]
() (
)
.
,
(reverse mutation, back
mutation) [. reversus ;
. mutatio ] ,
,
.
(reverse selection)
[. reversio ]
,
,
; ., ,
..
(reversion) [. reversio
] 1) -


; 2)
;
3),
180.
(revertase) .
, .
(revertant) [. reversio
] 1),
(. )
; 2) .

(regeneration)
[.
regeneratio , ]
,
( , ),
, ,
() .
. (
), . ( ), (
) ( ).
. 1712. ..

(regional stem cells) [. regionalis
]
(.),

(. )
(., , , .). ... (. ) .
-

588

, .
. .
(standing orders) [.
reglement, regle ]
1), ; 2)
, , , ..
(regression) [. regressio
] 1) ; 2) (
) ()

,
() .
(regulon) [. regulare , ] ,

, .
., . , E.coli.

(regulation sequences) [. regulare
, ]

, . : , ,
-
. . ; - ,
-
.
(regulatory gene)
[. regulare ,
; . genos , ] ,

( ) ; .. ( -

589

) ,
,
, .
.
.. . ..
(. ).
.. (.,
tat, rev, nef ),

. .. . . 1961. . .
(regulatory
enzyme) [. regulare
, ; . fermentum
] ,

, ()
.
(humoral
regulation) . .
(negative regulation, negative control) . , .

(negative autogenous regulation)
. .
(positive regulation) . .

(regulation of gene expression) [.


regulare , ; . expressio ;
. genos , ]
/

- ,
., ,
(,
..). - , -,
, . .
, .
(RNA editing)
. .

(redifferentiation) [. re- , , differentia


]
() .
() (rare
bases) ,
, , :
, , , , ,
.; ..
4 ,
( ) , ;

40 .. ..
. . 1965. .
(redressation) [.
redresser ] , , -

- .
(reduction
division) . ,
.
(reduction) [. reductio
, ]
1) ,
(., ); 2)

(); ( ) . ( ); 3)
, , . . .
(decay of
variability) [. reductio , ]

.
(reduplication) [.
reduplicatio ] ., , .
, (reducers,
decomposers) [. reducens (reducentis) , ] ,
, (.). . ( ). .
. .
, , .
(reduced fertilization) [. reductio
, ]

590


( ) .
(reduce) [. reducere
] 1)
, ; 2) (.).
(resveratrol) [. res(ina) veratr(um)
ol(eum) ] (.
),
, ,

,
, . .
.
, . , . . . ,
. . ;
. .

(Veratrum album) 1940.

(resistance)
[.
resisto , ]

; , , (), .
. ; ., . ( -

591

.). . ;
(); ; .
(crossresistance) . .
(resolvases) [. resolvere , ]

- (.
), (. ).
. (.) (. )
-

res-
(. ),

(. - ). . XerCD
.
. . 1979.
(resorbtion) [. resorbere
] 1) , ; 2) .
(resorcin) [. res(in)
orchil ]
;
- ,
, , .
- (rhesus factor) [ . (Macaca) rhesus factor , ] ,
85% , Macaca rhesus
( ).
.-. -

.
.-. 1940.
. ..
(reinversion) [. re-
,
, inversio , ] , , . . .
(reinfection) [. re-
,
, inficere , ]
( )
. .

(. (2)).
RecA-

(RecA-assisted restriction endonuclease cleavage, RARE cleavage)


[. rec(ombination) ; . restrictio ; .
endo (endon) . nucleus
]
, RecA.
RecA


, ; RecA

. .
.- 1991.
(recapitulation) [.
recapitulatio ] ,
.

(recombinases) [.
re- , , combinatio ] ,

- .
., . Cre (cyclic recombinase) P1 , LoxP-
(.LoxP-); V-D-J-. . .
(. )
(Rad51 Dmc1) (RecA).
(recombinant) [. re-
,
, combinatio ]
1) , ; 2) ,

(. () ;
).
(recombinant vaccine) [. re- ,

, combinatio ;
. vaccinus ]
(. ),
(. ).
.. , in
vitro .
.. , , ; .

592

(recombinant
DNA) [. re- , , combinatio
] ,
, (. () ). .
.,
. . 1980.
. ; () .
() (recombinant plasmid) [.
re- , , combinatio ; . plasma , ]

(. ),

,
- . .., , SV40
, E. coli,
. 1972 . ( 1980.).
(recombinant
RNA) [. re- ,
,
combinatio ]
, in vitro T4 - in vivo - (. ).

(recombinant inbred lines, RI lines)
[. re- ,
-

593

combinatio ; . inbreeding, . in
, breeding ;
. linea -
] ,
F1-, , (
); ...

.
(recombinant
protein) [. re- ,
,
combinatio ] ,

, (. ). .. ,
. ..,
, .
(recombinant
virus) [. re- , , combinatio
; . virus ] ,

. ..
,
(. () ).
(. ) .. .. ( ) 1982.
.: .
(recombinant
gene) [. re- , -

, combinatio
; . genos , ]
, ; .. in vitro
(.
() ) . . ,
.
(recombinant
clone) [. re- , , combinatio
; . clon ,
] (. (2)),
(. ). .
.
(recombinant toxin) [. re- ,


combinatio ; .
toxikon ] ,
(. ), (. ).
., , -2, .
(recombinator) [.
re- , , combinatio ] , , . E. coli, chi. (.
Chi ).
,

(recombination
index, recombination frequency) [.
re- , -

, combinatio ; . index , ] . . , ..
(n)
() (
2n+x). ..


( ).
(recombination) [.
re- , , combinatio ] 1) ,
,
();
,
,

,
. .:
, ( ) ( ),
(), -,
() , ( ). , , . ( .),

( .); 2) , . . ; -

594

; ; .
(additive
recombination) . .
(genetic
recombination) .
.
(gene recombination) [. re- , , combinatio
; . genos , ] , . .
.. , . .. . .
. ..
. .,
(-) .
(homologous recombination) . .
(legitimate
recombination) . .
in vitro (in vitro recombination) [. re- ,

combinatio ; . in
vitro ] , (. () ),
in vitro,

(. ).

595

(illegitimate recombination) . .
(nonreciprocal recombination) . .
-
(site-specific recombination) .
- .
(recon) [. re- ,

,
com(binatio) ] (.); .
. 1957.
(reconstructed cell) [. re- ,

, .
construere ] , (. ()
).
(rectification) [.
rectificatio , ] ; ;
, ,
-
.
(recultivation, reclamation) [. re- , ,
cultivo
]
,
( , ,
. .). . , , . .

(recuperation, recovery)
[. recuperatio ,
] , . , , ,
.
(recurrent
selection) [. recurr ,
] .
() ,
.
(recurrent
parent) [. recurr , ] , .
. .
(recurrence) [. recurr , ]
1), ,
(. ); 2) ( ) .
(relaxation) [. relaxatio , ] 1)
, , - (.)
; 2)

- ,
,
, ; 3)
,
.
(relaxin) [. relaxatio ,
-in(e) ,
] (. )
, ,

; .
. . . . .
. 1926.
-, - (releasing hormones, releasing
factors, R-factors) [. release , . hormao
, ]
,
, () ()
; .
(relict) [. relictum ] , ,
.
(remontancy) [.
remontant ,
]

.
, (renaturation, reassociation) [. re- ,
, natura ,
]
,
. .

. . ,

(. ).
(renin) [. ren
-in(e) ,
] -

596

( 40 ), I, II. . ., . , , , . . ( ) 2 : )
(prorenin), ) . .
1898. . ., .
(rennin) ..
(roentgen) [ . ]
-, 2109 1 3
0o 760 ..; 1 . = 2,5797610-4 /.

0,0620 . (1895.).
(x-ray
structural analysis) [ . . structura , ; . analysis ,
] (,
.), . ..
.
(reobionts) [. rheos
, biontos ] (
), .
(rheology) [. rheos , logos ] -

597

,
; ., . . . 1929.
(repair
enzymes) [. reparato ; . fermentum ] ,

(. (2)). ..
,
, - I, (), ,
(., -).
(reparation, repair) [.
reparato ] 1) ,

; , ;
2)


(. ).
.: , . (. , ) . .


(. ). . () . 1948.
(excision
repair) . , .
(repellents) [. repellens
(repellentis) , ] , .

. ,
. .
,
, , . . ( ), . (
)
. ( ). . : , , ( ). . (., , ). . .
(bench mark, control point)
[. repere , )
1) ( ] () ,
( )
; 2),
.
(replica) [. replicare ] 1) ,
, ; 2)

(. , , ).
(replication
fork) [. replicatio ]
, (., , ); ,

(.) Y- ,


.
(replicative
form) [. replicatio ; .
form ] ,
(. , , ) .
- (. -
, (+))
- (.- ,
(-)), -
, , .. (),
(). ( ),
(rolling hairpin), .. ,
. , ( ), (. ). .. () .
..
. 1967.
- 174.
(replicator) [. replicatio ] 1) (ori),
() ,
,
(. ); 2) (.).

598

, , (replication, reduplication,
autoreplication) [. replicatio ] , .


( )
()
- .
,
() .
,
,

. : 5'- 3'- , -.
, ..
,
. . (. () ,
) .
. , , ,
, ,
(origin recognition complex),
. -

599


.
-, , -.
- , PCNA
(proliferating cell nuclear antigen). PCNA
, , . (lagging) . ( ) - , .
(runaway replication) . .
(discontinuous replication) . .
(replicon) [. replicatio
]
(. ),
,
(. , , ). .
,

. . ,

(
); .
. .
1963.
(base replicon)
. .
(reporter gene) [.
reporter . reporto
; . genos , ] ,
, . , .,
, , -

, (., ,
,
-,
.).
(representative)
[. representatif , ] ,
, ,
.., ;
, () (), ,

().
(repressible
enzyme) [. repressio ;
. fermentum ] ,


.
(repression) [. repressio
] ( ) , / .
. ;
.
(catabolite
repression) . .
(repressor) [. repressor
, ]
,


(. ).
.
( 1020
). . ( ),

. (., ,
), .,
,
. .
(reprogenetics) [.
re- , , pro(ductio) . genetikos , ]
, . . . 1997.
(reproductive isolation) [. re- ,

,
productio ; .
isolation , ]
,
; , . ..
, , .

(reproductive
overcompensation)
[. re- ,
, productio ; . compensatio ]
( , )
(
, ..).
(reproductive cloning) [. re- ,

600

, productio ;
. clon , ] (. (1)),
,

.
(reproduction) [. re-
,
, productio ]
., .
(restitution
nucleus) [. restitutio ] () , I II (.,
).
, , (restriction enzymes, restriction
endonuclease) [. restrictio ] (),
.
. . 1

1000 ..
,
(.,
EcoK EcoB). . 2
,
,
, 48 . (.,
BamHI). . 3 2426 .. . 500 .,
100 () . .

601

(EcoK) 1968. . .. . 1973 .


. . .
. -
- :
(., Streptomyces albus Sal,
Echerichia coli Eco). .
(., );

, (. () ), .
. ., . .
1978.

()
(restrictive temperature) [. restrictio ]
, , . . .
(restricts) . , .
, (restriction map) [.
restrictio ; . charta
, ] ,
(. ,
, ).
. .
(restriction mapping) [. restrictio
; . charta , ] -

( )
() 2
(. , , ).
,


(. ).
, (restriction fragments,
restricts) [. restrictio ; . fragmentum ]
, (., , ).

(restriction
endonucleases)
[.
restrictio ; . endo
. nucleus ] . , , .
(restriction
analysis) [. restrictio ; . analysis , ]
. .
.
(restriction) [. restrictio ]

(. ,
, );
. . 1962.
(resource sconsumption) [. ressourse ] , ,
, , , .


.
(retinoic acid)
[. retina ] ,
(. , ) .
..:
-.. , 13- .., ,
9--.. .. CYP26.
.. , , , D, , . .. ,
(.
). : , , ,
.
(retinoides) [. retina
. eidos ] , (., ); .
( ), , ,

(., ).
: ,
.
,
., ,
. ., -

602

, 11--.
( ) . .
. . ,
, . -
, .
. .
. . 1976.
, (retinol, vitaminA) [. retina ol(eum)
] ,
-;
, ,
. .

(.), , , . ,
, . .
-. .

(. -, . , 1915 .). .
1931 . . ( 1937.).
(retort) [. retorta ]
,
, , ;
, .

603

(retraction) [. retractio
, ] ,
() (.,
).
(retroviral
vector) [. retro- , , , virus ; . vector , ] ,
(. ), . , (gag), (pol) (env), (.,
).
.. ,
, , ..
. .. -
, . ..
,
,
. , .. , .
, .. ..,
, () ( ), .. , , , ,

(.). .. -

,
.

(self-inactivating
retrovirus vectors) . .

(retroviruses)
[.
retro- ,
,
,
virus ] (80100
), (.
, ),
.

(.). . ( ,
,
.), . (.,
). . (. () ) . .
. . 1908.,
1911. . . ( 1966 .); . (HTLV) .
1980. . .
(retrogenes) [. retro-
, , , . genos
, ] . , .
(retrogradation) [.
retrogradus ] ,
. ., . , -

( , ). ,
. (
.
).
, ,
(retroinhibition, end product
feedback
inhibition)
inhibition,
[. retro- , , ,
inhibere , ]
, ,
(), , , .
.
,

. , ..
. .
. . 1953.
(retroposition) [.
retro- , , , positio
, ] (
,
(. , )),
, (. , ),
.

604

(retrotransposon)
[. retro- ,
, ,
transpositio ] , ,
, (.), .. , ,
, . . , . .
- - .
. ,
.
, .
,
,
.
., (., L1 ).
. ,
,
, ,
. . .

(retrofitting)
[.
retro- , , , .
fitting , ]
1)

(. ) (. ). . -
(. () )

605

; 2) .
(refraction) [. refractus
]

.
(receptor) [. receptor
] 1)

( , .),
, ()
(), ,
; 2)
,

,

/ , (. ). . , .
(protein receptors) . .
-
(receptor-binding screening)
[. receptor ; .
screening , ]
, , (. (2)), ;


.
(re[.
cessive
complementation)
recessus , ;
complementum ] ( ) () ; ..
.
(recessive lethal)
[. recessus , ;
. letalis ] ,
- .
. .
(recessive
inheritance) [. recessus , ] ,
.

(recessivity)
[.
recessus , ]
.
. . . . , ..
, () .
(recessive allele)
[. recessus ; .
allelon , ] (),
; (. ). . 1926 .,

.. . .: .
(recessive gene) [.
recessus , ;
. genos , ]
. .
(recessive trait)
[. recessus , ] , (. )
(. ) .
(recessive epistasis) [. recessus ,
; . epistasis , ]
(. ), (. )
, , ()
.

(recrudescence,
relapse,
recurrence) [. recidivus ] 1), -
;
2) , . . .
(recurrent strain)
[. recidivus ;
. Stamm , ] () (., . coli, ),

,
, (. (2)).
(recipient) [. recipiens
, ] 1),

606

(); 2), , (
) , .

(.)
(.).
, (reciprocal translocation) [. reciprocus ;
. trans locatio ] ,
( ) ; ..

. ., .. 8 14q32, c-myc 8
14 ,
.
(reciprocal genes)
[. reciprocus ; .
genos , ]
. , .
() (reciprocal crosses, mutual
crosses) [. reciprocus ]
,

( ) , .
(reciprocal
hybrid) [. reciprocus ;
. hybrida ] ,
(. () ); ..

() .

(reciprocal
exchange, interchange) [. reciprocus ] (-

607

)
, ,
. ., ..
1 (. , ). .
, .
(recirculation, recycling, self-ligation) [. re- ,
, circulatio ] 1) , . .
. . ,

, ;
.
5'- ; 2) ,

, , .
. : ., , ..

. .
(rejuvenation) [. re-
,
, juvenilis ] 1)
(.
); 2) ,
,


(, ..).

(ribose) [. ribose , .
arabinose ] ()
5105; .
() , . . . () 1909.
(ribosylation) [.
ribose ,
. arabinose ] (c. ),
. .
, .,
(. , ). . . .
1968.
(ribozymes) [. ribo(se)
, .
arabinose . zyme
, ]
, ;
, . . .
. 1980 .

Tetrahymena. . .
.
1989 .
(allosteric ribozymes) .
.
, (ribonuclease A, RNase A) [. ribo(se)
, .
arabinose . nucleus
] , 3'-
c 5'--

;
-3'- , -5'.
D, D (ribonucleaseD, RNaseD) [. ribo(se)
, .
arabinose . nucleus
] ,
I,
3'-
,
.
, H (ribonuclease H, RNase H) [. ribo(se)
, .
arabinose . nucleus
] , ; ( ).
. . 1972.
L, L (ribonuclease L, RNase L) [. ribo(se)
, .
arabinose . nucleus
] 2',5'--
,
(.).
. . 1979.
P, P (ribonuclease P, RNase P) [. ribo(se)
, .
arabinose . nucleus
] ,
, ; (.).
T1, T1 (ribonuclease T1, RNase T1) [. ribo(se)
, .
arabinose . nucleus

608

] , 3'- 5'-
. 3'-
-3'- .
, (ribonucleases, RNases) [. ribo(se) , .
arabinose . nucleus
]
(. ) , .
.
1972. . , .
. .. .
, ; D,
D; P, P; T1, T1; H,
H; L, L.
, (ribonucleic acid, RNA) [. ribo(se)
, .
arabinose . nucleus
]
, , , (.), 4
(), (),
() () .
.
:
(, ), ( ),
( ), ( ), ( ),
(), ( ) . ,
,

609

.
,
(.,

). .
,
, , , .,
16S . ,
.

, .
-
.
(. ) .
1889.
. .
, - (riboswitch) [. ribo(se)
, .
arabinose ] , 5'- ,
. . : ,
- (, , .),
. , , (. ) , . ,
,

. , -

., , , . ., , , .
. . .

: - ,
, ,
.
. .
, . , ,
. .
2002. . . . .
(riboprobe) [. ribo(se) ,
. arabinose .
probatio ]
, in vitro, ()
(.).
-

(ribosome-inactivating proteins, RIP)


[. ribo(se) , . arabinose . soma ; . in
, ,
activus ]
,
.
2 .-..: 1 , N-;
2 ,
.
,
-

. .-.. , . .-.. ,

. ., Trichosanthes anguina .-.. I, (trichoanguin); (Beta vulgaris L.) .-..
I; .-.. II , , .
. , Q.
() ,
(ribosomal RNA, rRNA) [.
ribo(se) ,
. arabinose
. soma ] ,
(.), ();
80%
. ( ) 28S, 18S 5S . 28S

, 18S p
. (26S 16S ).
(ribosomes) [. ribo(se)
, .
arabinose . soma
] ( 20 ) (), ,
, :
. .
.
, -

610

. , .
,
. . . 1955 .
( 1974 .). . .
1958. . .
(ribophagy) [. ribo(se) ,
. arabinose .
phagos ]
(. ) (. ), -
Ubr3/Bre5p. .
. . 2008.,
.
, 2 (riboflavin,
vitamin B2) [. ribo(se) ,
. arabinose
. flavus ] , ;
,
, . . ,
, . .
, , , . . ,
Eremothecium
ashbyii Ashbia gossypii, Clostridium Ascomycetes.
.
1879. .. . 1935. . . ( 1938.). .: .
(ribulose) [. rib(ose)
, .

611

arabinose . -ose
, ] (), ;
. (D-) .
.
. . -1,5/.
-1,5- / (ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase / oxygenase, RuBisCO) [. rib(ose) ,
. arabinose
, . bi , ,
, . phos phoros , . carbo (carbonis)
(genium) ]
(.), 2 -1,5-.
. 8 , ; . .
.
(rhizoid) [. rhiza
eidos ] , , ,


(
).
(rhizosphere) [. rhiza
sphaira ]
( 23 ), .
. ..
,
. . 1904.
..

,
(Ringer's solution,
physiological saline) [
.]
(. ),
, ,
,
;
. ..
.
.. 0,850,9%
; . . 1882 .

(rifamycins)
[.
reformare , .
myces .-in(e) ,
]
(. ), Streptomyces
mediterranei. .

- -,
, , .
. . . .
, , . . . 1957. . 1963 . . .
. .
(ricin) [ . Ricin(us) (communis) -

] , ,
2- (
),
.
. , (. ). .
,

.
. N-
28S . .
. ,
1888. . .
. 1987 . . ; - .
(RNA) .
, .

(antisense
RNA) . .
(heterogeneous nuclear RNA) . , .
(messenger
RNA) . , .

(catalytic
RNA) ..
(complementary RNA) .
, .
(small
interfering RNA) . , .
, (repeatassociated small interfering RNA)
. .

612

, (small
nuclear RNA) .
, .
(small
nucleolar RNA) . .
(messenger RNA)
. , .
(RNA methylation) [. methyle CH3,
. methy hyle ; ]

(, ) (-CH3),

S-
(. S-), . .
: , ,
, (.
, ). (. , ), (. ) ;

. . 23 S
(. ).
.

(. ).
(microRNA) . , .
(monocistronic
RNA) . .
(transfer RNA)
. , .
(RNA editing)
[. redactus ] / /

613

,
(.);
( ). . ,
,
. .

. . . .
1986.
()
(ribosomal RNA) .
() .
-
-
(RNA-dependent DNA polymerase)
. , .
- (RNA interference) [. inter ferio
, ]
(), .

:
(. ,
), (. )
(. ). , -.,
: ,

- -, ,
.
-.
.
, Dicer, -

III,
(. , ;
) ~22 ..
, RISC
(. RNA-iduced silencing complex),

A.

RISC - .

.
, , . ,
RISC, -,
, .

-.:
(. ; ).
, -.
, , -

(). -.
. . 1998. . elegans (
2006.).
- (RNA ligase) [. ligo
] ,

(., -. 4).
- ,

(., ).
- (riboswitch)
.
,
.
- (RNA-polymerse)
.- -.
- (RNA recombination) [. re- ,
,
combinatio ]
() (. )
() ,
- (,
, .). -. - (- ) -. ,
-. -
.
1963. .: ,
,
,
.
- (RNAcontaining viruses) [. virus ]
, - ,
.
30 -..: Retroviridae, Reoviridae,
Picornaviridae, Coronaviridae .
- -.. 7103 2105 .
-..

614

-,

;
-.
-.. - ( , ) -
( , , , .);
,
-. -.. Retroviridae .
-.. (. ; ) ,

, , , .
-.. .
-..
( ,
),
( L-A, Cryphonectria
hypovirus 1-EP713) (
MS2, Q-B).
. - .
1957.
(RNases) . , .
(RNAemia) [. RNA
. haima ]
(. ); .
(parental type)
[. typos ]
( ), -

615


- (., ).
(parental
generation) , o .
(rhodopsin) [. rhod(on)
, ops(is) . -in(e)
,

] ,

;
,
11-- (
).
() . -.
. . . () 11--
. (. ) , ,
(. ). 1932 .
. . ,
: ( 1967 .
. .).
(pedigree
selection) [. selectio , ]
(. )

. .. ,
a ,
. .

()
(pedigree tree) [. genealogia ]


. .. . 1866. .
(birth rate) ( )
,
( 1000
).
,
1000
( 15 44 ). , ., . (live birth rate)
, 1000 (natural increase)
.
(roller culture)
[. roller, roll , , . rota ; .
cultus , ] ,

.
. -.
, , .
, , -


: , ,
, , .. ,
. ..
, .
(luxury
consumption) (. ) ,

.
(rotamers) [. rota(tio)

. mer(os) ] , (. (3)) ,
(., ). , ; , .

(rotational base substitution) [.
rota(tio) ]
(. ),
( )

, 180
.

616

(rotation) [. rotatio ]
1), ; 2) - (., );
3) 180 (. ).
(rRNA) . () , .
(rutin) [ . Ruta (graveolens)
-in(e) ,
] (. ),

(. ). , , , (.
, .).
, , ,
. .
1957. . .
(rutinose) [ .
Ruta (graveolens) . -ose , ] ,
(. )
(. ). .
(. ), Datisca glomerata .
2002.
- (zebrafish) . .


S-
(S-adenosylmethionine, SAM) [. s(ulfur) ;
. aden , . methyle
CH3, . methy ,
, theion .-in(e) , ]
(. , ), ( ); (
-)
(. -; ).
S.-. , , , 6-, 12 .
C3- (C3 plants) [.
c(arbon) , . carbo
] ,
(. )

( , (3) ). . . 4-.
4- (4 plants) [.
c(arbon) , . carbo
] ,
(. )
(
3-),
, (4) -

- .
,
,
( , ). , 4-.,
.
1960., . . 1966. . 3-.
(silencer) [. silencer
, . silentum ]
,

- . ., .
.
(silencing) [. silencer
, . silentum ] , , .

. .
(. ; ; ). .
. . 1975.
(site) [. site , ] , , /

; , ..
. . C , -; ;
; ;
- .
(active site) . .
(acceptor site)
. ,
.
(apyrimidinic
site, Ap site) .
, -.
(apurinic site, Ap
site) . , A-.
(hypersensitive site) . ,
.
(donor site) . , .
(replacement
site) . .
(insertion site)
. () .

(chromosomal site of integration)
. .
(multiple cloning site, MCS)
. .
loxP (loxP site) .LoxP-.
(silent site) . .
C
, ATT-
(attachment site, ATT-site) [.
site , ] ,

. ..
15. (TTTTTTATATAA). :

618

Int
( IHF). Int IHF
Xis.
(restriction site)
[. site , ;
. restrictio ]
( 48..),
(., , ),
; .. (. ). .: ,
.
(binding site) [.
site , ]
1) ,

(., ., ); 2),

; 3) ,
(. () ); Fab-
(. ).
(antigen
binding site) . () .

(ribosome binding site, RBS)


. ,
.
(internal ribosomal entry
site, IRES) .
.
(recognition site)
. .

619

(fragile site)
. , .
-
(site-specific recombination) [.
site , ; .
specificus , ; . re- ,
, ,
combinatio ]

,

(. ). .-..


(1530 ..), , .
.,
()
, ( ) 2-
, ,
. ,
, .-..

,
(.).
, .-.. ,
, 2- ,
- I (.).
-
,
- (sitespecific mutagenesis, site-directed
mutagenesis) [. site , ; . specificus , ; . mutatio

. genesis , ]
in vitro
.
(., 13) , , ;
,
. .-..
. 1978. ( 1993.).
(cos sites) .-.

(DNAase hypersensitive
sites) .
.
(salicylic acid)
[. salix ] 2- ,
,
. .. (
). .. ;
,
,
,
,
, .
..
. 1828.
(saltation) [. saltatio
, ]
, ,
,
( -

) ;
.
.
(male, sire, ander) ,
,
, (
).
(self-reproduction, selfing, self-propagation) (. ). .
-, ;
, .
(self-inactivating
retrovirus vector) [. in- , , activus ; . retro- ,
, , virus ; .
vector , ] (. ),
(. ),
U3 , 3'-. , .
,

. ...
.
(self-incompatibility) ., .
, (selfed, self-fertility)
, (. ). . -

620

. Cp. , .
, (self-pollination, homocline
pollination)

(. )
(). .
. .

. . .
(self-pollination line) , (. ); ,
(. , ).
C.. , .
C.. ( ) ,
, , . .. .
(self-organization)
[. organisation ,
-] (. )
; (.).
(self-purification, natural purification) , (. ). . (, -

621

),
() (. ).
(self-regulation) [.
regulare , ]



. . .

(self-replicating element) [. replicatio ; . elementum


, ]
,
, .
(.).
(self-assembling) ( )
- (.,
)
( , . .).
, .
, , , ( ) ; , . . (. )
, , (
, ..). .
-

(., .
).
. .
(self-slicing) [.
splice , ] .
.
, (self-sterility, self-incompatibility) [. sterilis ] 1) ,
. . : , ,
, ; 2)
.
(sanogenesis) [. sanus
. genesis , ]
- ,
. . .. .
(saponins) [. sapo
(saponis) -in(e) ,
]
. . ,
,
;
, .
.
(),
. C. , , , . . . (. -

) (. )
(. . ).
, , , , , .
,
,
.; (. ). . 1819 .,
( )
, .

(saprobiont)
[.
sapros biontos ] (
), ,

, .
, .
. ,
.
, . . ; .

(saprobity)
[.
sapros ]
- (. ), ,
- (. ). .
(. ). . .-

622

. 1927. .
.
(water saprobity) [. sapros ] ;
(. ). , ( ) . . .
(saprogenic
bacteria) [. sapros
genes , ;
. bacterion ] ,
(.
). . .
(sapropel) [. sapros
pelos , ] ,
, . .,
, ,
.
(saprotrophes) [.
sapros trophe , ]
(, , , - ,
.), ()
.
, .
.
.
, ., , . .: .

(saprophytes) [.
sapros phyton ] . .
, (sarcosine)
[. sarx (sarkos)

623

. -in(e) ,
] N-

(CH3NHCH2COOH),
(., ),
. . ; (. ,
4). .
1847 . . ,
.
(sarcolysine) [. sarx
(sarkos) , lysis ,
.-in(e) , ] (. ), ; , , , , , . .
1954. .
.; C. .
(sarcomere) [. sarx
(sarkos) meros ,
]
( )
- , 2,5 ;
.
(satellite DNA)
[. satelles (satellitis) , ] ,

( ) (2200 ..) , .
. (-

)
. , ., .
-,
- -.. C.
. 1961. ,
. . .
(satellite virus)
[. satelles (satellitis) , ; . virus ] , ,
(. -). .,
.. (STNV satellite
tobacco necrosis virus)
- ( TNV
tobacco necrosis virus). .. ,

. ..

-.
.. - - - .
(saturation) [. saturatio
] 1) ; 2)
, , ; 3)

.
-

(SouthWestern blotting) [. south-

western -; .
blotting , ] , ,
.

. -
. , -

(. ). . . 1989 .
-, ----
,
(Southern blotting, Southern blot
hybridization, Southern blot analysis)
[ . ; . blotting
, ] , - , , ( ).
. (. ) 1975. . .
(sucrose) [. sakchar,
. sarkara , , . -ose ,
]
(. ),
. . ,
,

624

. . , ; .
(saccharomyces)[.
sakchar, . sarkara ,
, myces
] , .
20 .
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae),
. .
, .
- .
(balanced
stock) [. balance ; .
linea -
] , ,
,
; , .,
.

(overdominance) [. dominare , ] ,

.

(DNase hypersensitive sites)
[. site , ]
(.),
I
(. , );
, ,

( ).

625

(overexpression)
[. expressio ]


,

,

.
(free radicals)
[. radicalis ] (,
), . ..

, .
.. , .
. .,
.. . ..
. (NO), NO-, ,
( ).
- , , ,
NO-. ..


. ., ..
(. ).
..
, . ,
, -

. ..
. .. . (. ).
. .

(oxygen free radical, reactive


oxygen species, singlet oxygen) [.
radicalis ] , , ; . ...
,
., , (. ).
... , (., -
). ... ,
,
(. ). ... .
E Q (). . .
(reading
frame shift) .
.
(containment) -
.
, -

., ,

, .
(segetal plants)
[. segetalis ] , .. . .. ,
.
(segmental
aneusomy) [. segmentum ;
. an . , eu , soma ] ,


.
(segmentation) [.
segmentum ] 1)

, ; 2) ; 3)
,
. . () .
() (banding patterns of chromosomes) [. segmentum ]

, . -
G-.
,

626

.
, (segregational sterility) [. segregatio ; . sterilis ]
(), ,
,

..
(segregational
load) [. segregatio ]
,
. .: .
,
,

(segregation)
[.
segregatio ] 1) (. )
(.
). .
, .; 2).
, ,
; . .
(sedative compounds) [. sedativus ] , ;
, .

. .. , -

627

. (, ..)
(Valeriane
officinalis)
(Valerianaceae), (Leonurus)
(Labiatae) .
.. , . , ,
,
.
().
(sedimentation) [.
sedimentum ]

( , , )

(., ) (., ).
(sequencing) [.
sequence , .
sequentia , ] 1) . .
: 1976 .
. . ()
1977. . () (
1980.); 2). ( )
,
(., ).
(sequencing
gel) [. sequence , . sequentia , ; .

gelare ] ,
, - ,
;
(. ).
C (sequestrants) [.
sequestrum , ] (. ), (.,
, , ) (., ). ., . (. , ), .
., , , ,
, . (., ,
). . , .
,
e
,
. (
, ).
(sequestration) [.
sequestratio , ] 1) , , ; 2)
. . -

.
, .

.
(sequon) [. sequ(ence),
. sequentia ,
]

() ,
() N-.
. -,
, (. ). .
. 1974.
(secretases) [. secretio
] ,
-
,
. . , 4042
, , .
(secretome) [. secret(io)
-om(a) , , ] , . .
,
. ., . Plasmodium falciparum
300400 .
(secretory
lysosomes) [. secretio ; . lysis ,
soma ] (. ),
,

628

. ..
,
.. ; . ..
, . . , .

T .
.. . ..
.
(secretory
component) [. secretio ; . componens ] ,
5 -
8 . , ..
. . .
(secretion) [. secretio ] ( )
.
. ( )
. (
); ( ), ( ) . (
).
. . .

, , -

629

., .
(sexduction) [. sex(us)
ductio ]

(, ) (, ). . (F),
.

() (sectorial chimera) [.
sector , -; .
Chimaira ,
,
]
( ,
),
(., ..).
. .
(selective medium)
[. selectio , ]


. ..
,

() . .. , (), () (),
,
. ..
(. ), (.
), (.) .
SELEX (selective evolution of ligands
by exponential enrichment) .-

in vitro, in vitro,
.
()
(selective silencing) [. selectio
, ] 1) , (.); 2) ,
- ; 3)



.
(selective
advantage) [. selectio , ] , ,

(. (1)).
..
bar Drosophila pulanogaster.
(selective
mating, preferential mating) [.
selectio , ] ,

.
(selectable
markers) [. selectio , ;
. marquer ] 1) ,
;
2),
(.), (.,
) ,

. .. ,
-

. ..
,
,
, -6- , - . ..
, ., (. ) .
. .
(selective
variant) [. selectio , ; . variante, . varians
(variantis) ] ,
,
() , .

(. ) . . ..
(. (2)).
(selective plating)
[. selectio , ] 1) ,
, ,
; 2)
- .
(selectins) [. selectio
, -in(e) , ] (. , ) , (.)
. , 2+,

630

. . .: L-.,
,
; E-.
,
,
; P-. . . (-.)
1987. ..
(selection differential) [. selectio , ; . differentia ]
;
(, , ) , . ..
(
, , , ..) () ( , ,
..).
(selection) [. selectio
, ] 1), ,

.-. , ; . (.);
2) .-. ,
. . . . , ,

631

.
(adaptive selection) . .
(diversifying selection) . .
( ) (dominant marker
selection) [. selectio , ; . dominans ,
; . marquer ] (.)
, ,
,
(.
). .,
neor

(.),
. . .
in vitro, in vitro,
(in vitro selection, in vitro
evolution, selective evolution of
ligands by exponential enrichment,
SELEX) [. selectio , ; . in vitro ] ,
,
- (10121015 ), (. )
(. ),


( , ,
, )
.

, : )
-; )
)
. ,
-.
1990. ., . ..
(cell selection)
. .
(negative selection) . .
(positive selection) . .

-
selection)
(positive-negative
.- .
(recurrent
selection) . () , .
(synthetical
selection) . .
(phenotypic selection) . , .
(nitre, saltpetre) [. sal
nitrum ]
( .), -
( .)
( .). . 3 NH4NO3
(- .). . ,
(. ); . . - . -

(. ); . ,

[KNO3, Ba(NO3)], (KNO3) .
,
(agriculture, agricultural sector)
, .-. ,

, , , .

(semantide)
[.
smantique, . semantikos
] ,
,
(,
), . (),
() () .
. . . . .
1965.
(protein family)
. .

(semelparity)
[.
semel pario ,
] , .
. , , ,
. .
.
(semigamy) [. semi-
, , , . gamos ]

.
(grass bacillus, hay
bacillus) -

632

(Bacillus subtilis, Vibrio


subtilis),
,
, , ; (. ). (. () ),
.
( ).
C (sensibilization) [.
sensibilis ] 1)
(. ). . (
), ,
,
.; 2)


(, , ).
(separation) [. separatio , ]
,
;
. .
( ), ( ),
( ,
..) ( ) . .
, ,

,
.
(serial analysis of gene
expression, SAGE) [. series ;
. analysis , -

633

; . genos , ; . expressio ] - , . ....: )


() (1014 ..),

, ) (
),
. 14 .., ,
414 ,
, . . 1999.
, (serine, Ser) [.
sericum -in(e) , ]
---
[HOCH2CH(NH2)COOH],

. , .
( 40%)
. . (, ,
, );
. ,
. .
,
(, ),
. , .,
. -

(. ) .
. C.
, , , , , . .
. 1865.

,
(sulfur bacteria, sulfobacteria)
[. sira -; .
bacterion ] .
, .

(sulfobacteria)
. , .
(serologic
reaction) [. serum
. logos , ; . re-
,
, actio ]
-,
,
(, (. ), ); .

(serotherapy)
[.
serum . therapeia
] , (.
) .

() (), ,
(. . ).
.

-, ( ) ( ). -

(
), ,
; , , , , , , (

) . .
. ( , ) -
. ,
-, ,
, , , ..
(serotype) [. ser(um) . typ(os) ]

(, ..),
(.). C. ,
. . ,
, .
(serotonin) [. ser(um)
, . ton(os) , .-in(e) , ]
(.
), , (
, ),
. , .

634

1940- . . . .:
5-.

(certificate)
[.
sertifico ] 1),
(., . - ,
. ..).; 2),
, ,
.
(, , .).
,

(sesquidiploid, hemiolodiploid) [.
sesqui , . diploos
eidos ]
, , ;
,

. ., ,
, . N. glutinosa N. tabacum. . . .
(sesquidiploidy)
. , .
(sesquiterpenes) [.
sesqui terpen(tine) ] , ,
1524 1532, (, , ); , . .

(.,

635

, , ),
(.,
(15183) ). . , (, ),


.
(seston) [. sestos on ]
(),
().
(sialic acids) [.
sialon ] , (.
). ..
, , ,

. , ,
,
, (), .
, .. -
.
, .., ..
-.. . ..
. ,
, , . ,
.

(sibs) [. sibs , ]
( );
. (.).
(sibship) [. sibs ,
]
.
,
(poly-adenlation signal, polyadenylation site [.
signum ; . poly ,
. adenine , . aden
.-in(e) , ] ( AAAAA), -
3'-
1020 . ,
3'-
1416 ( ) 200 ( ) (.).
, ..
- , .
. .

,
(signal sequence,
signal peptide) [. signum ]
(1550 ), N- - ,


(.). .. ,
: N- ,

,
-
, -1, -3 (. -1,-3). ..
, , ;
, .. , . ..


(., ). .. . 1999.

(signal regulatory proteins, SIRPs)
[. signum ; . regulare
, ]
,

, ;
.
, ..., ,
.
(paired receptors).
(signaling pathway)
[. signum ] ,
-
-
.
,
, , .
-

636

,
. ( ),
.
(
( ), ,
- , , ,

,
).
(sideration) [. sideration, . sideratio ]

.-. ,
(). .
- ( , , , , , , , .), , ,
.
-
( , , , ..),
,
,
, ,
,
. , ,
.
,

637

. . . XIX.
(siderophages) [.
sideros phagos ] ..
(siderophores) [.
sideros phoros ]
, ,
( ). . , ,
.
. (., )
.
. ; , , , . . (. ),
Aerobacter aerogenes, , Pseudomonas,
M. tuberculosis, Rhodococcus rhodochrous
.. .: .
(strength of the medicinal
product)
, ,

.
(silicagel) [. silex
gelare , ]
(),
10 100
( -

). .

Si--Si
,

. -. . SiO4. ,
. , -, . .
, , (). . . , .,
. . .
. .
(5800 2/)
, , . .
, . .
, ,
( ), (., Pt, V2O5), , , ..
(silicones) [. silex (silicis) ] , , . C. , ;
, , , .
, (ensiling) [. siros
]

,
.
,
.
,

Lactobacillus,
. ;
11,5 .
(symbiosis) [. symbiosis
] ,

, . ., . , - ,
, ,
,

. .
, .,
. . . 1879.
. . .
(symbiont) [. symbion
] (.).
(symbiotic) [. symbiosis ] , ,
,
. .
(. ) (.).
(symbiotic
genes) [. syn bios
(biotikos) ; . genos ,

638

] ,
(. )
-;
( ) .
(symbiotic) [.
syn bios (biotikos)
] ,
, ,
.
. .
(sympatric
species) [. syn patris
] , , . . (.).
(sympatric populations) [. syn
patris ; . populatio ] ,
,
, . . .

(sympatric speciation) [. syn
patris ]
(
), ; .. , ().
(sympatry) [. syn
patris ] (.. ,

) (, );
. ( -

639

). . .
(symplast) [. syn plasts , ]
,
(., , , .). . .

(synanthropic organisms) [. syn


anthropos ] ( ),
.
..
, (.,
, , );
(., ,
). .. .
, (synapsis, syndesis)
[. synapsis , ]

(., ),
. . . 1895. .: .
(synbiotics) [. syn
bios (biotikos) ]
,
(. )
(.).
(syngamy) [. syn gamos ] .
(syngenote) [. syn
genos , ] , -


(. (1)), . .

(. ). . . , .
. 1950 .
(syngonic, syngenotic)
[. syn gone ]
, ()
.
(syngraft) [. syn
. graft , ]
(.),

.
(syndesis, synapsis) . , .
(syndecan) [. syndein
. -an(e) , ] 33 , , (. ).
.
, .
(.)
(.) .
. , . . , ,
,
. . . . 1989.
(synergism) [. synergia , ]
1) - -

; 2) / (). ., .
, , .
, . (
) . . (2).
(prussic acid)
(HCN), , .
.. ,
, , ,
,
. , , , ; .
(syncarion, synkarion)
[. syn karyon ]
1) , ; 2)
,
;
3)
, (. ); 4) .
() (synonymous substitution)
. () ().
(synthesis) [. synthesis , , ]
1) , -

640


; , ; 2) .
(DNAsynthesizer)
.-.
(synteny) [. syn tainia , ] ()
(.,

). , ,
. . . .
. 1971.
,
.
(syntenic loci)
[. syn tainia ,
; . locus ] (),
(
), ,
. .. ,

. . 1971.
. .
(synthetic
selection) [. synthetikos ; . selectio ,
] (.),
, .-. .
..
-

641

; . .. (. ) .
.. -. .
.. ...
(synthetic polydeoxyribonucleotide) [. synthetikos ; . poly ,
. des-, . de- ,
, , , -, .
oxys , . ribo(se) , .
arabinose , . nucleus
. eidos ] , - -.
.. . (
1968.)

(synthetic polyribonucleotide) [.
synthetikos ;
. poly , . ribo(se) , .
arabinose , . nucleus
. eidos ] , - -.
(synchronous
culture, synchronic culture) [.
synchronismos

, . syn
chronos ; . cultus , ] ,
();

.. .
(synchronous
divisions) [. syn
chronos ]
()
; .,
(.
).
(syncytium) [. syn kytos , ]
,

,
. . ,
., . .
, (.).
(synexpression group) [. syn
. expressio ]
,
, . ..
1999. . .
.
c (orphandrug)
, ,

-

.
.. (), - ,

3 . 2007. ..
1,5 .
() (complement cascade) [. systema , , ; . complementum ]

(. )
, -.

(mating
system, breeding system) [.
systema , , ] ( ), .
(.),
(. ), . ..; ..
. . .
(scan, scanning) [.
scan ] 1)
, -
(., . );
2) ,

,
;
.
(scanning electron microscopy, SEM) [. scan ; . elektron , ;
. mikros scopeo , , ]

, . ...
, ,
, . .:
.
(scarificator) [.
scarifico , ]
; 2).-.

642


,
(. ) .
(scarification) [.
scarifico , ]
1)
,
;
(., , .) -, ; 2) (. (2)).
- (scaffold-technology) [. scaffold , , . techne , logos ] - (., ., ) (. ).

(readthrough)
: 1)

(. )
; 2) (. -, , ) . . .
(sclerification) [.
skleros . facio ]
() (. -

643

). . .
. , , .

(scleroproteins)
[. skleros , protos .-in(e) , ]
,
,
, (., , , , .). C. ,
. .
.
(sclerophytes) [.
skleros phyton ] ()
(., ,
, .).

(rate-limiting enzyme) [.
limes (limitis) , ; .
fermentum ] (.),
, . ., .. .

(enzymatic reaction rate) [. fermentum ; . re- ,

,
actio ]
(/), -

. ,
, ... (); 1 , 1 1 .
(E)
, 1
1 (1 E = 16,7 ).
: ,
(pH), ,
,

.
(breeding, crossing)
,
,
, ,
() ( ., . .). . . .,
. (. ) (. , ). : () . (), . ( . , ; . , ; . ) . .
; ; ; .
(test
crossing, test cross) . ,
, -.

C (assortative mating) .
.
(inbreeding) ., .
(intraspecific cross) .
.
(intrageneric cross) .
.
(back
cross) . ,
.
(diallelic
crossing) . () .
(dihybrid
crossing) . .
(individual mating) .
.
(congruent crossing) .
.

(mass
mating) . .
(interspecific cross) . () .
(monohybrid cross) .
.
(recurrent backcrossing) . .
(incongruent crossing) . .
(selective
mating, preferential mating)
. .

(stabilizing cross) . .

644

(threefactor crossing) .
.

(screening)
[.
screening , ] ,
(, , , , . .) ;
. ., .

, (> 10000)
( )
. . ; ; .
(gene
library screening) [. screening
, ; . biblion
theke ; .
genos , ]
(. ;
)
(),
(. (2)).

(high throughput screening,


HTS) .
.
(screening by immunological assay)
. .
in vitro (in vitro screening)
[. screening , ; . in vitro , ] , -

645

( ,
.),
, .
in silico (in silico screening)
[. screening , ;
. in silico . , ]


.
. .:
.
-
(receptor-binding screening) .
- .
(expression
screening) . .
(invisible lethal) [.
letalis ]
, ( ) ; ..

(latentiated
drug) ,
, , ,
. ..
. 1962. .:
.
(weak promoter,
low-level promoter) [. promovere
] , ; ..

.
(blind passage)
[. passage ]


, ,
.
(slicer) [. slicer ]
,
, - (. ) (., Ago2, Piwi
.).
()
(fusogenic agent) [. fusio ; . agens (agentis) ] - , .
.. :
( ),
(, , .), (, ). .,
() -
. N- ..,


-.

(.. , );
()
,
.
. .
(fusion
biopharmaceuticals) [. bios
; . pharmakeutike ] ,
() , -

:
;
;
. . , , ; .
(fusion protein)
. , ,
.
C (fusion gene) . , ,
.
C (gene fusion) [.
genos , , ]
(. , , ).
(cell fusion)
,

, .
.. (.,
),
( .)
(. () ).
.. , .,

(. ).
(protoplast
fusion) [. protos
plastos , ] (. () ) ,

(.)
( ); ..

(. ()
).

646

(genome- complexity) [. genos , . -om(a) , , ] , ,


; ..
( ..).

(random
mutagenesis) [. mutatio . genesis ,
] ,
()

. . .
(contiguous genes)
[. genos , ]
, . .: . . .
(mortality)
( ),
()
( 100, 1000
. .);
.
.

(promiscuous
DNA) , ( ) ,
.,
; . ,

-

647

(., -3).
(mixed infection) [. inficere , ] ; ..

.
(mixed culture)
[. cultus , ] , . .,
.. .
(blending
inheritance) ,
.
(mixed pollination) ,
;
.
() () (nonsynonymous
substitution) [. synonymos ]
,
; -
. . () ().
(sense codon)
[. code , ]
,
.
(compatibility) - -

.
., ,
. . ; ;
.
(compatibility of biopreparations) [.
bios . praeparatus ] (. ,
) , . .,
.
(plasmid
compatibility) [. plasma
, ]

.
,
.


/.
(compatible
drugs) , ,

.
(maturation) , ,
. . .
in vitro (in vitro maturation,
IVM) [. in vitro ]
-

,
in vitro
(. in vitro);
, .
(compound) ,
.
(decreasing
species)

(.
).
(solvation) [. solvere
]
(, ) ;
( ) .
. ( ),
- , , ..
,
. .
.
(solvent) [. solvens (solventis) ] . , .
(solubilization) [.
solubilis ]
-
.
() (somaclonal variability, somaclonal variation) [.
soma clon ,
] -

648

, ,
. .. ;
-

,
, (. )
.
() (somaclonal variations (variants)) [. soma clon , ; . variatio ; . variante, . varians
(variantis) ]
; (
, , ).
(somaclones) [. soma
clon , ] , .
() (somatic hybridi-zation,
parasexual hybridization) [. soma
(somatos) ; . hybrida ] ,

, . (. ). .. .
. .
(somatic cell)
[. soma (somatos) ]
() ,
.. .

649

(somatic mutation) [. soma (somatos) ;


. mutatio ] (.),
(. )
, , .. . ..
, :
(.);

(
); ..

, , .
.., - , - .
.. ,
..
. ..

. ..
, .

(somatic cell
hybrid) [. soma (somatos) ;
. hybrida ] 1)
() . .. (. ). ..


() , , , .
.. , () ,
. .. (.).
1965 . . (..
); 2),
() .

1972 .
. . . .
(somatic
embryogenesis) [. soma (somatos) ; . embryon genesis , ] ()
.
(somatogamy) .
, .
(somatostatin) [.
soma (somatos) . statum
] (. ), . .
, SST-14 ( 14 )

N-
SST-28 ( 28 ). .

,

(. , ), -,
. .
. ., 1972.
, (somatotropic hormone,
somatotropin) [. soma (somatos)
tropos , ;
. hormao ,
] , ;
191
(. ). .. , , ; , . ,
.
.. .
. 1944 . .
. . : .
(sonoporation) [.
sonare poros , ] ()
,
, .
(.).
-

650

. .
. . 1986.
C (coprecipitation) .
, .
(copolymer) ..
(coupling) ,
; -.
(concomitant) , (., . ).
(sorbents) [. sorbens
(sorbentis) ] ,
,
.
., ( ).

(. )
(.) (.). . (. ),

. . , , , , . .
-
,
.
(sorbite) [. sorbum ] ,
,

. D- .

, ,
. (
) : , -

651

. D-.
, . .
. . , , . .: , .
(sorbose) [. sorb(um) . -ose , ]
. .
; , . .
(c.
).
(sorbtion) [. sorbe ]
-
. . ; .
, (weed)
, ,
. . , .
(cultivar) [. sorte, . sors
(sortis) , ]
-
,
,
. .
, . . , -

,
. C.: ) . . , ; ,
;
) .- .,
, (), ,
. , , .
. .,

,
. (F1), ,

; ) .
. .
, .
, (fluorescence-activated
cell sorting, FACS) [. sorte
, ; . fluor
-escent , ] , (,
. .)
,
. -,

.

,
(magnetic bead cell sorting, MACS)
[. sorte , ; .
magnetis, Magnetis lithos, . ,
. ]
()
,

(). .
C ()
(chromosome sorting) [. sorte
, ; . chroma ,
soma ]
, (. )
; 90%,
,
, ..
- ..; ..
. .
, ; , .
, (base composition) .
(composite gene) [.
genos , ] ,

.
ex situ (ex situ conservation)
[. ex situ ]
-

652

in vivo,
( , ..), in vitro (.) (, , ) ().
in situ (in situ conservation)
[. in situ ]
(. ) , , , .
(base pairing) (-, -, -) .
(marker rescue)
[. marquer ] ,
- ,

, ( ). .. , .,
.
(plasmid rescue)
[. plasma ,
] 1)
, ( ) ori- E.
coli. .. E. coli , ,

653

; 2) ,
,

.
(embryo rescue)
[. embryon ] ,
,
(),
.
, (spacer,
spacer DNA) [. spacer ,
] 1) , (., . ); 2) , (.,
) (. ); 3)
.
(internal transcribed spacer,
ITS) . .

(intergenic
spacer, IGS) . .
(spacer DNA)
., .
(mutation spectrum)
[. spectrum ; .
mutatio ]
,
.

(spectrins) [. spectrum
]
, ( . 20% ).
.
( ), ,
, 100 . .

200 ,
,

. - ,
.
. . . .
.
.
41

. .

,
(.). . (., -). . (.). . . .
1970.
(spectrophotometry) [. spectrum , .
phos (photos) metreo ]

; , -

.
.
.
.
;
. , .

(spermatogenesis)
[. sperma genesis ]

(. , ),
,
. .: .
, (spermatozoon, spermium) [. sperma
, zoon eidos
]
. 1)
. .,
, .
; 2) ().
(spillover) [. spillover
] , , ( , ); , . .

.
-
( Ni) . -

654


, . C. ,
.,
. C.
1969. ..
(coil, helix) [. spira , ] , () , .
-. , . , .
-- (helix-loophelix, helix-turn-helix) [. spira , ]
() -
,
, .
, .
(splicing) [. splice
, ]
,
,
. 1). : () - ( ) , ( ), , , .

(. ; ). -
; (. -

655

, ). 5'-
(. ) , ,
3'- ;
. ; . 1978. . .
( 1994 .); 2).
: ,

;
- , (); 3). :
-
(. )
(. ) . .


. .
. . 1990.
.
(abortive
splicing) . .
(splicing
mutation) [. splice ,
; . mutatio ] ,
(.) . .. , -.

(spliced leader RNA) [. splice
, ; . leader
, ] , 5'- , -

, -
(. -). 1984. . .
.
, (spliceosome) [. splice , . soma ] , , ( in vitro, in
vivo) (.) . . (.
, ),
.
(spoligotyping)
[. sp(acer) , ,
oligo(nucleotide) ,
. oligos , . typos , , ] , DR (. direct
repeat ),
36 .., ()
34 41 .. (.,
(1)). (. , ), , , , .
()
. . . 1996.
(spontaneous
mutation) [. spontaneus , ; . mutatio
] ,
; .

(spontaneous transformation) [. spontaneus , ; . transformatio ]


(. ),
, . ..
1962. ,
(,
) , ,

. .. (
20 ) .
(spontaneous
mutagenesis) [. spontaneus , ; . mutatio
. genesis , ]
, . .
.

(sporadic) [.
sporadikos , ] (.,
).
(sporophyte) [. spora
, phyton ]
; () ,
; . . . (.), .
(sporocides) [. spora
, . caedere -

656

] ,
(., , .).
(bacterial
spores) . .
(comparative molecular
field analysis, CoMFA) [.
analysis , ;
. moles -ula .
]
(. ),

, , , , - .
. ,
, ,
, , ,
.. .
(abiotic environment) . .
(biotic environment) . .
(conditional medium) . .
(habitat, biotic environment) , , . . .
; .

(nutrient
medi-um) . .
(supplemented
medium) ,
,

657

, ; ..
(.),
..
, (animal componentfree
medium, ACF medium) [. componens ] , , ,
;
.
, 50 (median
lethal dose, LD50) [. letalis ; . dosis ]
(, , .) , ,
, , .
. ., , (,
, , , ,
), .
.. (10
)
.
( 10, 3, 1,52),

( 6 10).
-

4. :
lg 50 = lg DN 6(ZLi-0,5), DN
(); 6
( 1;
0,477; 0,3; 0,176); Li
, ;
ZLi Li
. .. . 1927.
, 50 (median effective dose, D50) [. effectivus ; . dosis
]
(, . .),
50% (, ). ., ..
, (
, ,
.). ..
, 50 (. , 50).
(average
heterozygosity) [. heteros zygotos ] ,

(, ); .. ,
,
().
, 50
(median infective dose, ID50) [.

inficere , ; .
dosis ] (, ) , 50% - (, ,
). ...
(,
, , , , ) 56 510
. ... .
. , 50;
, 50.
(environmental
mutagen) [. mutatio
. genes , ]
(
), ; .. , , .., .
(affinity) .,
.
(shelf-life) ,
, .
(stabilizers) [.
stabilis ] ,

( , .)
- . ., . , -,
- .
. . -

658

(.
).

(stabilizing cross) [. stabilis


]


. .. . 1904.
(stabilizing
selection) [. stabilis ] ,

,
,
. . .
- (stable nucleic
acid-lipid-particles, SNALPs) [.
stabilis ; . lipos
] 120 , ;
, .

(stage-specific promotor) [.
stadion , , . specificus , ; . promovere ] (.),

. ., .. ,
. .
.
, (resting
stage, resting phase) [. stadion
, , ] -

659

. .. . ..
.
,
(breeding stock, breedstock)
(
- , , ,
),
; ..
, ,
.
, (senescence)
, . .
. .
(
, , ) ( ). , .
- , , ,
.
(start codon)
. ,
.
(stationary
culture) [. stationarius ; . cultus ,
] ,
,
-

(c.
).
(stationary
growth phase) [. stationarius ; . phasis ]
(. ()
). ...
, , . ...
( , )
, (. ). . .
(steady
state) [. stationarius ] , ,
.
(station) [. statio ,
] ,

(, , .),
. .
. . ,

, . ., .
.
(stem cell) , . ..
( ,
,
)
( -


), .
..
. 1908. . ; ; .
C (blastomere-like stem cells)
.
.
(hematopoietic stem cell, haematopoietic stem cell, HSC) . .
(induced pluripotent stem cells, iPSC) . .

(mesenchimal stem cells) . .

(regional stem cells) . .
(fetal
stem cells) . .

(embryonic stem cells) . .
(stem structure) ,

; .
(. , ).
-
(base-stacking) [. stacking ]
; .

660

.-.. ,

.

(stacked
genes) [. Stellage
;
. genos , ]
,

(. , ). C.. ,
.. .
(stenobiont) [. stenos biontos ]
,

-
; . (. ).
(stenotherm) [. stenos
. therme ] , ; .
(. , ) (.).
(sterilization) [. sterilis ] 1) , , : )
160180 ( ), 0,5 1,5
120 ( )
-; )
, . , (. ); ) ; 2)-

661

(. (1))

(.).
(filter
sterilization) [. sterilis ; . filtrum ]
,

. . , ; .
(sterility) [. sterilis
] 1) . .
, ,

.,
.
. (),
(),
-
. .
(),
, (. (2)).
. (. , ) ;


.
., - (. );
-

. ; 2)
. ,
. .
( ),
, -

(. (1)).
(zygotic sterility) . .
, (sterins, sterols)
[. stereos ] ,
(. ),
(, )
;
.
. . ( ), (
), ( )
. . ,
(. ), ; -,
, , , .
.
(. ). . D.
. . 1928.
(steroid hormones) [. stereos eidos
; . hormao , ] ( , D),

. ..
(.) , , ,
. ..
. ..

,
-. ..: , , , , ( ).

.
.. . ..,
,
.
(steroids) [. stereos
eidos ]
( 20000) ( )
,

. . (. , ), D (c.,
D), (.
), (. ), ,
(.) .
. , D, . 100 .
, ,
. . .
. 1936.

662

(sterols) ., .
(stilbenes) [. stilbo
, ]
(.), ,
6-2-6; , , , . . (., , ). .
, . ,
, ,
(
).
(stolon) [. stolo (stolonis)
]
,
( , . ..).
-, , (stop codon,
terminator) [. stop . code , ]
,
() . .-.: (amber),
(opal) (ochre).

. .: , -.
(stratification) [.
stratum , facio ] 1) , , . .
, , -

663

.
, , ,
25 . C. ; .,
120130 ,
3040 , 90100 .
,
.
; 2)
()
, , , ; 3)

.
(streptavidin) [ .
Strept(omyces) avidin(ii)
] 60 , Streptomyces avidinii, (. ),

in situ
. . .
. 1964. . .
(streptococcus) [.
streptos kokkos ]
2 , Streptococcaceae,
; (. , ). .
( ,

.) (
, .).
(stress proteins)
, .
(strychnine) [ . Strychn(os) ,
-in(e) , ]
(c. ),
(.),
Strychnos.
.

,
. .
. . ,
. 1818. . .;
. 1946 .
., 1954. .
.
(stroma) [. stroma , ] ,
; , .

(stromal stem cells) . .
(structural
homology) [. structura , ; homologia , ] ; () , .

(structural gene)
[. structura , ;
. genos , ]
, ,
, (.).
(amendment)
[. structura , ] ,
(., , ,
.).
(staggered
cuts, staggered breakages) ( 2 )
, . .. , ., (. , , ).
(subvital
mutation) [. sub- ,
, -, vita ;
. mutatio ]
(. ),

50% ( 100%) .
(subvital) [. sub-
, -, -,
vita ] , .
(subgenomic
promoter) [. sub- ,
, -, . genos
, , .
-om(a) , , ; .
promovere ]
(.),

.

664

(subgenes) [. sub- ,
-, -, .
genos , ]
1) ,
. .,
(Zea mays) , . ; ., ,
, ;
2) , .
(subdioecy) [.
sub- , -, ]
.
(subcloning) [.
sub- , -, -,
. clon , ] . .
,
. .
.
C (subclones) [. sub- ,
-, -, .
clon , ] ,
(. ).
(subcultivation)
[. sub- ,
-,
-, cultus ,
]
(. )
.

665

(subculture) [. sub-
, -, -,
cultus , ] ,

(.).
(sublethal genes)
[. sub- ,
-,
-, letalis ;
. genos , ]
,
50% .
(sublimant) [. sublimatus , ] (. ).

(sublimation)
[.
sublimare ] ,
. . .
, , .

(submetacentric chromosome) [.
sub- , -, , . meta , .
entrum , ; .
chroma , soma
] ,
;
.
. (1964.) ..
1,43,0.
(subtraits) [. sub-
, -, -]

,
. .,


. ,
.
. . 1936 .
.
. .
(substance) [. substantia ]
: (.,
), (., , , , , ,
, .), (., ,
, , ,
,
.), (.,
, , ).
(substrate) [. substratum
, ] 1)
, , ,
. .
, . , .
, . () (), . , , ; ,
. ;
2),
(., . ).
- (anchorage-dependent
cells)
[.
substratum , ]
,
( ). -

, .
. (1).

(substrate level phosphorylation)


[. substratum , ; . phos phoros
] ( , . ,
)
( )
a-
( a-
). .. ,
, ()
. . ; .

(subtiligase)
[.
subti(lis) ; ligo
] (. ), (. (2)).
. .
(.) . . 1994.
(subtilisin) [ . (Bacillus)
subtilis -in(e) , ]
(., ), , , N- . .
N-
.

666

C.: Carlsberg BPN


. Nvo;
. 70%.
Bacillus subtilis . .
,

. . (., ., ). . Carlsberg, Bacillus licheniformis,
1947 . . .
.: .
(substrain) [. sub-
,
-, -, .
Stamm , ] (),
(. )

.
(subunits) [ sub-
, -, -]
,
,
.
(subunit
vaccine) [. sub- , , -; . vaccinus
] (.), ,
,
in vitro
(. () ).
, 32P (32P
suicide) [. sui caedere
]
32.

667

, - (suicide vector) [. sui


caedere ; . vector
, ] 1) (. ,
),
,
; -, , , ; 2) , - , - ,
.

() .
, (suicide gene) [. sui
caedere ; . genos ,
] , .
.. , (.)
. .
.
(suicide substrate) [. sui caedere
; . substratum ,
]
(. (2)) , .
.. , , .
(.).
(succulents) [. succulentus ]
(.),
,

. .
,

.
(successive
division) [. successio , ] ,
; .. ,
.
(succession) [. successio
, ] .
. (
) ( ,
). .:
, ,
();
.-. ,
. (). .
(
,
, ,
),
(,
. .), ( , ,
, , ,
). . . 1860.
. .

(sulphanilamides)
[. sulphur , . hyle , . am(monia) , .
sal ammoniacus , eidos ]
( ),
() .
.
. .. , . .
. ,
., . 1939.
(sulfate) [. sulphur
] (-SO4),

.
,
(sulfation, sulfonation) [.
sulphur ] (SO3H) . , . (
SO2X ), (). .

, , . (2)nS2.
: H2SO4, SO3
(, , , .),
, SOCl2 . C. -

668

. . - , ,
, , .
C
(sulfitation)
[.
sulphur ] , , SO2, H2SO3,
() NaHSO3. 0,10,2% ( )

,
.
(sumoylation) [.
s(mall) u(biquitin-related) mo(difier)
- ] ,
, - , SUMO,

(. ). .
, , ., , (. ),
(. ) . . . .
1997.
(superantigens) [.
super , , anti
. gens , ]
(. ), ,
, (. ),
- ( 20%,
0,01%). .
, , . ,
().

669

(supervisor) [. supervisor ] 1) ;
, ;
2) ( ),
.
(supervital
mutation) [. super ,
vita ; . mutatio ] (. ),
. . .
(supergene) [. super
, . genos , ]
, ,
, ; (. )
(. ). . . . 1950.
(superinfection) [.
super , inficere , ] , : 1) ; 2) .

(supercapsid)
[.
super , . capsa
, ] ,
(. )
; . .

(superlinker)
[.
super , . link
, ] (.
(1)), ( ) (. ,
, ).
(superlinker
vector) [. super , .
link , ; . vector , ] (. ,
), (.).
. (1).
(supermutagens) [.
super , , mutatio . gens , ]
(. ),
550 ,
. , , , , . . .,
. . 1946.
(supernatant) [.
supernatant ] , ,
(., ).
(superovulation) [.
super , ovum ]
(
)
, ,
; .
.

(superoxide
dismutase, SOD) [. super ,
, oxi(genium) , dis-
, ,
, , mutatio ] -

(.), 2 - , ;
,
. . , 2
, 1 , .
. - ; . (., ,
),

. . , . . .
. . 1969. .: .
(supertraits) [.
super , ] () , (. ). ., . , . .;
. . . . 1936.
.
(superproducer) [.
super , producentis
, ] -
(. ),

,


.

670

(superreduction) [.
super , reductio , ]
, ,
(. , ).

(superrepressed state) [. super
, . repressio ]
(.), -
; .. .
(protein superfamily) . .
()
(supercoiled plasmid) [.
super , ; . plasma , ]
(. ) in vivo,
- .

,
in vitro. .
.

(superhelix)
[.
super , spira ,
]
, , ,

. .
; , . . , , . . - (.-

671

). .
. . 1963.
(superfetation) [.
super , . fetus , ]
,
, .
(suppository) [.
suppositorius ]

( ),
.
(, ),

.
(supramolecular chemistry) [. supra-
, , , -, , -, moles
-ula . ; .
hemia ] ,
,
, , ,

() . .. ,
, .. , .
.. 2 : )
,
-

()
) ,
,

(., , , , ).
.. .-. 1978 . ,
,
,
.
(suppression) [. suppressio ] ()
() ,
. .

(. )
, (. ),
( .) . . , ,

, (
) . . , , , ,
.
. 1920. ..-

. . ,
-.
, -
(suppressor gene) [. suppressio
; . genos , ] ,
(. ), . . . . -;
-; -;
, .
. 1932.
(tumor suppressor) . , .
(suppressor
mutation, second site mutation) [.
suppressio ; . mutatio
] (.),
, ; ..
, (
), , ( ). . ; ; -.
-
(suppressor-sensitive mutations)
[. suppressio ; .
mutatio ] ,
amber, ochre opal.
-
(suppressor-sensitive mutant) [.
suppressio ; . mutatio
] ,


(. ). .
- .
(surfactants) [. surf(ace) act(ive) a(gen)ts ] -

672

, ; . . - (85% )

. . ,
- . , .
. .
(suspension
culture) [. suspensio ; . cultus , ] ,
,
,
(, ) . ..
.

. (1000 .) , . ..
,
, , ,
.
(suspension) [. suspensio ] , ,
(.,
). . .

673

(dry biomass) [.
bios . massa , ] ,
1530%
() .
(air bath) ,
50 350; : ,
,
, , .

(spheroplast)
[.
sphaira plastos ] ,
(.,
),

. . ,
,
.

(sphingosine)
[.
sphingo ,
. -in(e) ,
] ,
(. ),
. .
(., ) (. )
(. A, ). ( ). 60 . ( ),
,

,
.
(sphingolipids) [.
sphingo , , .
lipos . eidos ] (. ), ;
().

(. ). , , . ., (-1-),
. . 2 : () ();
, (); (). C. 1947 . . .
. ; , .

(schistic
mutation) [. schistos , ; . mutatio ] (. ),

(. ); , .
(linkage) ( ). . .
(gene linkage) [.
genos , ] -


,
( ..). ..

e ;
.. . . 1906.
(linkage
disequilibrium) ,
(. ),
,

.

(sex-linked inheritance, sex-limited
inheritance) (.) ,
,
.
, ,
, . VIII. ,
, - . . .
(scintillation) [.
scintillatio , ]

, ,
,
.
. .
(crosslinking
agents, crosslinkers) [. agens

674

(agentis) ] 1), () (. )
(.)
.
..
, ,
. ..
,
( )
(

).
,
(
),
.., (., , , - .); 2),

, . (.), ; 3), ; ., , in vivo ; 4) ,
(. ;
; ).
() (serum)
, ;
.
.
-

675

.,
,
(.).
(crude biomass)
[. bios ; . massa ,
] ,
,
7085% . ..
,
. .,
; .. .
. .
(crude drug)
,

, . ,
, .

(feedstock) . .
(edible vaccine)
[. vaccinus ]
(. ),
(.
), ( ) ,
.


, . ., ,
,
. .. .
1992. .: .


() 1) (., T) ; 2)
(. ).
Taq- (Taq polymerase)
. -
Taq,
Taq.
(taxation) [. taxatio
] ,
,

, .
(taxises) [. taxis ]
(
),

(), (), (. ), () .
(taxon) [. taxare ] ,
,

; .
(, , ..) ()
.
(tandem inversion) [. tandem
, . tandem ; .
inversio , ] ,
( 180o)

( )
.
(tandem selection) [. tandem , , .
tandem ; . selectio , ] () ,
, ,

..
,

.
(tandem repeats)
[. tandem , . tandem ] ,
(); .,
(. ).
(tandem promoters) [. tandem , . tandem ;
. promovere ] , () .
., Sinorhizobium meliloti rem , ;
Neurospora crassa
, 1400 ., , 1700 .

677

(tannins) [. tanner
. -in(e) ,
]
c
0,5 5 ,
. . . (, ), . . , ( ,
), , , . ,
;
. . .
. (
18.)
,
. .: , .
(transformation-associated recombination, TAR) . - , .
(tarantul) [. tarantella
(),
] Lycosa,
,
, , . . (. ),
.

.
(, , ,
.). . , .
.
(.).
(gene targeting) [.
targeting , , ,
, . target ; .
genos , ] (. ),
(. )
(. ) . ..
,
(. ),

,
,
.
.
.. 2007 .
., . ..
(targeting
vector) [. targeting , , , , . target
; . vector , ] (.), (., , .)

,
.

(targetrons)
[.
target(ing) , , ,
, . target
. (in)tron
, . inter ]
(. ),

(. ), II (.).

- ( ). () ,

, , ()
( ).
-
. . , , .
. . . 2003.
- (TATA box) .
, -.
(tautomer) [. tautos
meros , ]
, (.).

(tautomerism)
[.
tautos meros
, ] (.),
().
; ( .) (-

678

.).


.
( .).
,
. . ().
(), (),
(, 4) . , .


,
,

. .
. 1885 . .
.
(tautomeric shift)
[. tautos meros
, ] , -

(.,
.. , . .,
-,
- ). .
.

(tachygenesis)
[.
tachys , genesis
]

.
(solid phase
synthesis) [. phasis ;

679

. synthesis , ]
(.) (.) , . .. ,


,

, .

. ..
, .

12% , ( NH2) -.
N-

.
.
..
. 1962 .
(
1984.), (. ,
1964 .) (. , 1973.).
(twintron) [. . (in)
t(ron) w(ithin) intron ] (.),
. T. . . , 1991 . .
b-559.

- (T-DNA, transferred DNA)


[. . t(ransferred) ] Ti- Ri (.Ti-; Ri-)
Agrobacterium, 7 , ;
Agrobacterium
( ) . -
. .- . . 1977.

(texturants)
[.
textura , ] ,
. .,
,
,
, . .
(telegony) [. tele
, gone (goneia) , , ]
,
, .. /
/. .
.
(telergons) [. tele
, ergon , ] ,


(. )
(.; ) . .
, (.), , .. ,

, (. -

). . . 1957.
(thelygeny) [. thelys
genea , ]
( Y-
Z-) .
(telomere) [. telos meros , ]
, , ,
, . .

(. ,
),
3'-, 130210 . . . 1938.
(telomerase) [. telos
meros , ] ,
(. ,
). .
(, 159
,
, 1000 ). . ,
. .
. . 1987.

,
(telomeric
sequence, telomeric repeat) [.
telos meros ,
] -

680

, (. ), ,
; , . . ()n,
1000 .
.. Tetrahymena pyriformis ( 3070
)
. . 1978.
(telophase) [. telos phasis ] , (. )
(. , ),
, (
)
.
(telocentric chromosome) [. tlos
. entrum ; .
chroma , soma
] ,
. ,
.. , ..
(
), -, ; ..
.
(inclusion bodies) ,

; .. .
-

681

.. .
, ,
.
(dark repair)
. ,
.
(melting
temperature) [. temperature , ] ,
50% /
()
. ..
.

260 (. , ).
, (temperature
gradient gel electrophoresis, TGGE)
[. temperature , ; .
gradiens (gradientis) ,
; . gelare , .
elektron , phoresis
, ]
, , .
. , . ....

. . -, .

(temperature-sensitive mutant)
[. temperature -

, ; .
mutatio ]
(), ()
() ; .. E. coli . 1951.
(ghost, empty particle) (. , ), ,
.
(theobromin) [. theos
, broma .-in(e) , ]
3,7-, (. ), (c. ),
(Theobroma cacao).
, ,
. .
- .. 1841.
( . .).
(theophyllin) [. thea
,. phyllon .-in(e)
,

] 1,3-, (. ),
(c. ), (
). ( ,
). (. ), . .
. 1888.
(heat inactivation) [. in- , , activus ] 1)
(. ) -

60. .. , ( , .); 2) , , .
(heat shock) [.
choc , ]
. ..

(. ). .. , .,

(, ) (
2933).
(theranostics) [.
thera(peia) , ,
(diag)nostikos ] ,


. .,


,
-
, . . .
(therapeutic
index) [. therapeia , ,
; . index , ] .
.

682

(therapeutic
cloning)
[.
therapeia , , ; .
clon , ] in vitro
. .. , - . . .
(teratogen) [. teras
(teratos) , gens
, ] ,
(.).
(teratogenesis) [. teras
(teratos) , genesis
, ]

,
, (, ).
(teratogenic) [. teras
(teratos) , genes
, ] , (.).
(malformation, deformity, teratomorph) . ,
.
(teratomas) [. teras
(teratos) , -oma
]

, ;
. . , ()

,

683


(. ) .
,
(terminal
deoxynucleotidyl transferase, TdT)
[. terminalis , ; . des-, . de- , , , , , .
oxys , . nucleus
transfero ] , 3'-- . .. Mg2+
'- '- .
Co2+ 3'- . . 1962. , 1972. in vitro;
(. () ),

(. ).

(terminal)
[.
terminalis , ] , , .
. ( )
- ( ), ( ).
(terminator) [. terminus , ] . , ,
. C. .

(terminator transcription) [. terminus , ; . transcriptio ] , (. ).


(terminator technology) [. terminare ; . techne , logos ] ,

,
(. )
.

(termination)
[.
terminare ] , - ,
,


. . (. ), .

(terminating sequence) [.
terminare ] 1) ,
- ,

, .
.. - , ,
, (48 ..) ;

. -
.. ; 2) (.-, , ) , ,
.
. .
(terminating
codon) . -, , .
(thermoduric) [.
thermo . durus , ] ,
,
.
(thermolabile) [.
thermo . labilis , ]
,
.

(thermolysin)
[.
thermo . lysis , ] , (. ,
), ,
. . (, , , , ,
). . , , , ;
,
. .
(. ). . Bacillus thermoproteolytics.
. Zn2+,
,

684

2+,
. . .
-
(thermostable DNA polymerases)
[. thermo . stabilis
] -
(. -),

( 100); , (.
, ).
.-. 3' 5' () , . .-. Pfu ( Pyrococcus
furiosis) Deep Vent ( Pyrococcus
species GB-D); ..-. Taq (. Taq, Taq-)
.

(thermostable)
[. thermo . stabilis
] ,
.

(thermotolerant
microorganisms)
[. thermo . tolerantia
; . mikros
. organismus , ] ,
. ..
,

; (., ).

685

,
(thermophilic microthermophils)
[.
organisms,
therme phileo ; . mikros .
organismus , ] , 45
(
). .. (, , ) .
4 ..: )
, 10
5560, 3540; ,


; ) ..,
50 65,
(20);
, ; ) ..,

70 40
(Bacillus acidocaldarius, Synechococcus
lividus, Methanobacterium
thermoautotrophicum,
Thermoplasma
acidophilum .); ; ) .., :
80105, 60 ,
110 ( Thermoproteus, Pyrococcus,
Pyrodictium .). , , 110; Pyrodictium occultum,

82 110 105. .., , ,


.
(., ) (., ). , , , (, , ).
.. , (.,
Taq-, ,
).
(therophytes) [. theros
phyton ] ,
(, ) (., , , , .).
(terpenes) [. terpentine
] (. ),
(C5H8) . . , . (1016);
(1524, ., );
(2032, . );
(3048, . ,
); (
). . () (, ) . . (
, , ),
, . .
, . , . (, ,

.), , ( ), ,
, , .
(tradescantia micronucleus test,
Trad-MCN) [. test , ; . mikros . nucleus ; Tradescantia , ]

, Tradescantia paludosa ( ) . . . 1978.
6-
(6-thioguanine resistance test) [.
test , ; .
theion , . huanu
. -in(e) ,
] . ,
6- ( )
(HPRT). ,
HPRT ( 6-
, ).
- (test cross) [. test , ; . cross
] .
, , -.
- (test line) [. test , ; . linea
- ]
, -

686

. .-.
- (. ,
, ). . .
- (test strain) [. test
,
;
.
Stamm , ] , . .-. , , .; ( .
., .).
(Ames test) .
.
(testosterone) [. testiculus (testis) , stereos ] ,
(),

; (. ).
(.),
,
, . , .
.
(. ) . .
0,50,6 /100 ,
0,12 /100 ;
-

687

15 . .
,
.
. . . . .,
. . .
. 1935. ( 1939.).
, (tetravalent, quadrivalent) [. tetra . valentia ]
,
(., ).
(tetrad) [. tetras (tetrados)
] 1) ,
(); 2) ,
. (, , )
(, ) ,
. (.
).
(tetrad analysis)
[. tetras (tetrados) ;
. analysis , ] ,

(.) , -

(., );
, ,
(.,
) (, ,
). ( ).
(tetraploid) [. tetra
, ploos idos
] ,
() (4n). .,

.
(tetrasomic) [. tetra
soma ] ,


(2n+2). . .
(tetracyclines) [.
tetra , kykios ,
. -in(e) ,
]
(. ),
Actinomyces ( Actinomyces Streptomyces), , . .
. 30S-
-. . ,
. (. () ) , .,

,

. . () 1945.
Streptoroyces
aureofaciens. (Actinomyces
rimosus, A. aureofaciens .) . (, ).
(tetroses) [. tetr(a) . -ose , ]
4 , . , .
(technical microbiology) [. technike , techne , logos ; . mikros
, bios ]
,
.

(recombinant DNA technology) [.
technike , techne , logos ;
. re- , , ,
combinatio ] (. )
(. () ).
, 1 (thiamine,
vitamin B1) [. thi(on)
. amin(o) NH2,
ammonia , . sal
ammoniacus , ] , . . , ;
.

688

. . ,

, . . : (), () ().
( . (. , ))

: , 2-, . .
,
, , . -
,
. . , , -
. ,
. .
. (
1929.). . ( ,
) . 1912., . .
1936.
(thiamine pyrophosphate) [. thi(on) , .
amin(o) NH2, ammonia
, . sal ammoniacus
, , . pyr ,
. phos phoros ]
(,
); (., 1)
(. , )
, -

689

, . .: , .
(thymidylate synthase) [. thymus synthesis ] ,
()
().
(thymidine) [. thymus
-in(e) ,
] , (. , )
(.); . .
.
, (thymidine
triphosphate, TTP) [. thymus , -in(e) ,
, .
tri , phos phoros ] , (. , ), (. ) . , . . , 5 (. ).
, (thymine, ) [. thymus
-in(e) ,
] , 5-.
.
;
.
. (. ), 2 .
. 5--

. .
, ( ) . 1893. (
1910.).
(thymine dimer)
[. thymus
-in(e) ,
; . di- ,
, ,
meros , ] , , .
..
(. ).
(tyndallization) [
. ]
() (27 ), ( , ..). 1877. .. .: . . (1), .

(thiobacteria)

. , .
(thionyl, sulfinyl) [.
thion hyle ]
(=SO) ,
,
. ,
(., ).
(thionins) [. theion
.-in(e) , ] ( 5 ), 6 8 ;
(-

). . ,
Phoradendron liga. . , , , . .
.
,
(thionic bacteria, thiobacteria) [.
thion ; bacterion ]
, . , .
.
, , .
,

H2S. . ,
(., ),
, , ,
..
(.) .. Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.

. ..
, , , , ,

. .. H2S


. . . .
(1887 .). .:
, .

690

(phylum) [. typos ,
, ]
; .
(mating type) [.
typos , , ]
() ,
( ); ,
..,
, ( )
( ).
(typing) [. typos
, , ]
(.), , , ..
Ti-, (Ti-plasmid, tumor
inducing plasmid) [. t(umor)
i(nducing) . plasma , ]
(. )
Agrobacterium tumefaciens, -
(. -)
,
( ).
- , (Tra),
(Ori V)
(Vir). Ti-., -
( ),

24
25..
Agrobacterium tumefaciens (-

691

, , ),
Ti-. Ti-.
(. , ). ()
Ti-. -. i-.
- . . . 1974 .
(thyroliberin) [.
thyreo(s) , . liber(alis) -in(e) , ] (. ) , (. , ),

(. )
. .
.
.

-.

.
, . N-

( ), C- .
. .

.
.
( ,
- .)
. .
( ). -

.,
, .
. .
. 1968.
.: --,
--.
-- (thyrotropin-releasing factor, TRF) .
.
,
(thyrotropic hormone, thyrotropin)
[. thyreoeides
tropos , ; .
hormao , ] , , , ( ) , ( ). ..
,

.
. 1915.
. .:
, .
, (tyrosine, Tyr) [.
tyros .-in(e) , ] -()--
[HOC6H4CH2CH(NH2)COOH],
(.); . . (
).
.
, -

; (, ). . . .
.
1846.
(thyroxine) [. thyr(eos)
, oxy(s) ,
. -in(e) , ] 2--3-[4(4--3,5-)-3,5 , . .

, .
(. , ) , , . . . . 3,3',5-.
. ( ); .
. .
. . .
.
(. ,
) (.). .
(, ,
). .,

, , ., .
.

692

. 1915 . ( 1950.).
(titre of bacteriophage) [. titre , ; . bacterion
phagos ]
, (. ,
).
(titre of virus) [.
titre , ; . virus ]
,

( ), . , ,

, ,

, (

,
,
). ,
.
.., . , . , ., , .
(titre of serum)
[. titre , ] -

693

(. ), (.), ,
,
; .
(titration) [. titre
, ]
1) ,
,

; 2) (. );
3)
(. ).
,
(tissue culture) [. cultus , ] ,
,
()
in vitro ,
,
,
(.,
).
.. 1907 . . ,
.
, ,
(histoincompatibility, parasterility)
, , .
(histocompatibility) . , .
(tissue proteases) ..
(tissue-specific promoter) [. specificus , ;

. promovere ] , . ., ..
- ,

. .
.
, (tocopherol,
vitamin ) [. tkos , , phro , .
ol(eum) ]
., ,

, , .
, ( ). 8
, (-, -, - . .).
-T. 20-. XX., 1936. , 1938. . .
(toxigene) [. toxi(kon)
gen(s) . ]
, , .
- ,
,
. . ,
. ,
., , ,
.
. , .
(recombinant toxin) .
.

(toxins) [. tox(ikon)
. -in(e) , ] , .
. , .
(., ). .
( ) ( ). . : (.,
) ,
(., . ) , .-
(., .)

, . (., , ) .
(toxobity) [. toxikon
] , . -, -
, , ,
.
, , (. ) ,
. .
.
(tolerance
index, TI) [. tolerantia ;
. index , ]

- . . .
(tolerance) [. tolerantia ] 1) -

694


(. ) . .
1953. .; 2) (., ),
. .

(
VI ); 3)
- .
. .

(thin layer chromatography) [.


chroma (chromatos) ,
grapho , ] (. ), ,

(, , . .),
. . ,
, ,
. . ( )

, , , -

695

. .
, ,
.

, , . , . .
.
.. . ..
, :
, , , , , , .. ..
(
), , , , . .. .. 1938.
(topcross) [. topcross
] 1)
- (. ,
) (., );
2)

-
(., ).

(topodeme) [. topos , . deme ]


(. ),
.

(topoisomer)
[.
topos , , iso mros , ] ,
. .,
: ,
, . ,
(. ), , , ,
(.).

(topoisomerases)
[. topos , , iso
mros , ] , , (. )
,

(. ). . : . I ,
- (. ; ); . II . .
, .
, , . .

. 1971 ., . 1978 .
(topomerization) [.
topos , mros
, ] (.), , - ( )
. ,
,
.
. -
. .
: , , . .
. , . . 1971.
(totipotent cell)
[. totus , potentia
] , , (., ,
.). ..

.
(totipotency) [.
totus , potentia
] , (.
). .
.
,

,
(., , -

696

(.
)). . ;
.
() (point
mutation) [. mutatio ] , ,
.
(transient
transfection) [. transitus , ; . trans ,
, inficere , ] . ,
.
(transient
expression) [. transitus ,
; . expressio ] () ,

(. (2)) -. , , ,

-

. ..

,
.
(transition) [. transitus
, ] ,
( )
( ).
. . 1959. .
.
(allosteric transition) . .

(tranquillizer)
[. tranquilliser ]

697

,
, , , , .
.: .
(transaminases)
. , .
, (transamination) [. trans
, . amino
NH2, ammonia , .
. sal ammoniacus ,
]
(-NH2) ,
,
.
NH2-
(. , ) (., ). B6 , NH2-.
. (.)
. . 1937. .. ...

(transversion)
[.
transverto , ]
, (
, ) (,
). . .
. . 1959 .
(transgene) [. trans(ferre)
. gen(os) , ] (), -

(. ,
)
(. ; ).
(transgenesis) ., .
, (transgenic line, transgenic
population) [. trans(ferre) . gen(os) , ; . linea - ]
(. ; ),
(.)
.
(transgenic
animal) [. trans(ferre) . gen(os) , ] ,
(. ).
..
(. , ). ..,

(., , , ; , , .),
,
(, , , , ), . , .. .., ,
. .. ()

. . 1980., -

.-. .. 1985.
.. . . 1981.
(transgenic
plant) [. trans(ferre)
. gen(os) , ]
, (.). .. (. ,
). .. (. , ). ( )
,
(.
). ..,
(.,
, , , , ), (,
, , , , .), .
., , , - ( ). , 2 . , , . .. , ,
, ( 23 ) . -

698

, .. ..
,
.
.. (
) 1983. ; .. ( ) 1986 .
.. ( ),

. .
.

(transgenic foods) [. trans(ferre)
. gen(os) , ] , ,
(. ; ). ... ()
1993 . (,
Monsanto).
, ...
, (transgenesis)
[. trans(ferre) .
gnesis ] ()
(, ,
) () ( ),

, . .
: -

699

, (. ), (. ), , (. ), .
.
, , . , . .
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
- Ti- (. , ).

(. ) .
,
(. ). .
. .
(. ).
.

,
, .
(trans-geterogenote) [. trans , , .
heteros genos , ] (. ),

(.), (.).
(trans-heterozygote) [. trans , , .
heteros zygotos ] (.
, ) , .
(transgressive segregation) [. transgressio ; . segregatio ] (. , , ) F2 ,

. . .
(transgression) [.
transgressio ]
( )
. . ,
-
(. ). . .
-
(trans-acting)
[. trans , ] , ( ), . .,
.-. (. )
, .
(trans-determination) [. trans ,
determinatio , ] ,

(. ).
., , ,
.
(trans-differentiation) [. trans , differentia ] (. )
/ . ., in vitro . .
(transduction) [.
transductio ] 1) ()
,
,
-.
. ; , .
.:
(
), (
, ) . (. ). . . .
1952 . . ;
2), (.,

,

700

( ) ).
(abortive
transduction) .
.
(nonspecific transduction) . (, )
.
(transcapsidation)
[. trans , capsa
] , , ,

,
() ; . .
. . .
(transcript) [. transcriptio ] ,
- (. ) . .: ()
(, ),
(), (), () .
(transcriptome) [.
transcript(io) .
-om(a) , , ]
(.).
(transcriptomics)
[. transcriptio
. omics c, , , ; ] ,
(. ) .
(transcripton) .
, .

701

(transcription unit) . , .
-
(transcription-based amplification system,
TAS) [. transcriptio ; . amplificatio , ; . systema , , ] , (. , ).
: ) ,
, - -
( 7-) )
.
....
4050 108
109 .
.
. 1989.
(transcriptional anti-terminator)
[. transcriptio ;
. anti . terminare
] , - .
(transcription vector) . , .

(transcriptional gene silencing,


TGS) [. transcriptio ; . silencer ; .
genos , ]

,
() .
..., ,
. .,
. . .
(transcription) [.
transcriptio ] ,

- -; , .
.
. (
2006 .). . .
(abortive
transcription) .
.
in vitro (in vitro
transcription, cell-free transcription)
[. transcriptio ; .
in vitro ]
;
.i.v. - .
(illegitimate transcription) .
.

(translocator)

., .
(translocation) [.
trans , locatio ]
,

. . . 1917. .
.
(translocation
of gene) [. trans ,
locatio ; . genos
, ]
,
.
. .
, (translocon, translocator) [. trans
, locatio ] ,



(.). .
(. , ). . .
. 1986.
(translation) [. translatio ] , ,

(.).
. , ,
, , . .
;
(.).
in vitro (in vitro translation, cell-free translation) [.
translatio ; . in vitro
]
-

702


( , ,
.). .i.v. ,
in vitro .i.v., ,
.
, (hybrid released translation) [.
translatio ; . hybrida
] ,

, ; ,
, , , in vitro.
. , .
,
(hybrid arrested translation) [.
translatio ; . hybrida
] , ,
(.) . . , .
(transmethylation) [. trans ,
. methyle CH3, .
methy , ]
. .
(3),
. (. , );

, .
, , ,

703

. .: .
(transpeptidation) [. trans , , .
peptos ,
eidos ]
NH2- ,
,
. , .,
. 50S
.
(. ) .
NH2-

D- . .
- ; .
(transpiration) [.
trans , spiratio ]
.
(transplantat, graft)
[. transplantare ]
, (. ).
.: ( ), (, , . .), . (
,
, , - ), ( , ,
. , ), -

(
, .
, ).
(graftversus-host) [. transplantare ]
- -


. ..., , ., ,
,
. . ... . 1957. .
.

(transplantation immunity) [.
transplantare ; .
immunis ,
-] , , ,
(. ); ..
.

.. - ,

. ..
,
. .
.

(transplantation,
grafting) [. transplantare ] ,
(, . )
,

. .: - (.), - (.,
), - (. ) - (. -

() ) ., .
(. ), . (. , ), () . (. , ) . .
,
.
. ( ) , .
XX. (, , ,
, , .), () . . ;
.
(heteroplastic transplantation)
. , .
(heterotopic transplantation) . , .
(hybrid
graft) . .

() (xenoplastic (xenogenetic) transplantation) . () .
(orthotropic transplantation) . .

704

(animal embryo transplantation)


[. transplantare ;
. embryon ]
() (). . .
(nuclear
transplantation) .
.
(transplastomic plants) [. trans ,
, . plasts ,
. -om(a) , ,
] ,
(. )
(. , ).

. . 1988 .

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
(transposase) [. transpositio ] ,
(.), , . .
, ,
,
,

. .

-.
- ,
.., -
.
, .
3'-OH- -

705

5'-P- ,
5'-P- 3'-OH- . .

(. , ). . Tn3
Mu
,
, ..
(. ).
(transposition) [.
transpositio ] ,
(.
(, ) , , ).
.: ., . . . , ( ) . . (. ).

,
(-),
, ,
-
,
.
, .
- ,
,
( -
).
( ) - (cut-and-paste

transposition) [. transpositio ] (.) ,


(. ) () .
(transposon, Tn) [.
transpositio ]
1 20 . ..,

. . ,
. , (.), .
. (. ).
,
.
.

, ,

, .

,
, ,
. .
10% . , ,
, .
2 , : 1)
, IS-,
1. .. -

,
(. , , IS-); 2) 3 20 . .., , (. ), . . . ;

. . 40- .
.- ( 1983 .).
. .
-,
- (trans arrangement, trans
configuration) [. trans , , . configuratio ]
.
.-. 1941 . . . .
-.
, (cotranslational transfer)
. .
, (transfer
RNA, tRNA) [. transportare , ] (7090 .),

.
.
3'- (-3') ,
.
, ,
. (-

706

) . 1965. ( 1968.).
- (trans-splicing) [.
trans , . splice
, ] (. ),

. .-. (. , )
5'-
3'- ,
, , . .-.
, . -
- - . .-.
(), , , ,
. .-. , (.)

,
.

.-. . .-. ,
- , . .-. -
. . 1986.
(transfectant) [.
trans , (in)ficere
, ] ,
(. (2)).

707

(transfection)
[.
trans , (in)ficere
, ] 1)

; 2) ( , , , , .). .
(. ()
) .
(. (2)),
., , (
). . , ;
.
(abortive
transfection) .
, .
(ballistic transfection, microprojectile
bombarment) .
.

(transferases)
[.
transfero ] ,

() ().

. , , ,
. .,

( ). , ., , 2() (. ). .
,
.
(. ). , ., . ( )
, ,
.
(transformant) [.
transformatio ]
,

(. (2)). 1928. ., , .
- , (transformation-associated recombination,
TAR) [. trans-formatio ; associatio , ; re- ,
, ,
combinatio ]
(. ). , , in
vivo


, .

( )
.

(transformation)
[. transformatio ]
1)

,
,

( ,
.) (. ); 2) ()
. . -
,
,
- (., ). . , . ,
, (),

( ).

: ,
, ( ), ,
, . . .
. 1928 . . . 1944 .
. , . .
,


.
T.
. (.-

708

(2)). . , .

(agrobacterial transformation)
. , .
(spontaneous transformation) . .
(transformed cells) [. transformatio ] ,
,
(.).

(transphosphorylation) [. trans ,
, . phos phoros ] , ;

.C.:
.

(transcession)
[.
trans , cedo (cessum)
, ]

.
(trehalose) [ .
Trehala (manna) . -ose , ]
,
, , , , , , . . .
,

709

. . ,
. . .
. .

. . 6- ,
(. ).
. 1832.
( ,
), Trehala
manna (
). .: , .
(tracer) [. tracer
; ] 1) ( ),


; 2)
(), (. ).

(thremmatology)
[. thremma (thremmat)
logos ]
.
(threose) [
erythrose, . erythros ] , , ,
- (-
. ).
,

(threonine,
Thr)
[. threose ,
. -in(e) , ] ---

[CH3CH(OH)
CH(NH2)COOH], (. ; );
( ), (., )
. . , ,
. . . . . . , 1925. . X. .
(tertiary
structure of protein) [. structura
, ] , ,

( , ). ...

. . 1959. ( 1962.). .
; ;
.

quantitative
(three-dimensional
structure-activity
relationship,
3D-QSAR)
, .
(tridimensional
culture, three-dimensional culture)
[. cultus , ] , ,
,

(., ). ..
. ., ..
, ;
,

.
..
, . ..



(.,
).
(threefactor crossing) [. tres (tria)
. factor , ]
, ,

;

.
(triazines) [. tri- , , . , zoos
. -in(e) ,
] , .
. (-.) , , , ,
.
(trivaccinum) [. tri-
, , .
vaccinus -ine ,
] , -

710

, .

.
(trihybrid) [. tri-
, ,
hybrida ] , (.) (., .- , ,
).
,
(tricarboxylic acid cycle,
Kerbs cycle) [. tri- ,
, . carbo
(carbonis) ; . kyklos
] - , ;
, 2
2. ,

, ,

( )
.
., ... 38
(., ).
... . . 1937.

(triosephosphates)
[. tri ,
, . -ose , ,
. phos phoros ] , .
(trioses) [. tri ,
, . -ose

711

, ] (., , ). . CO2 . .
. . (. )
.
(trypan blue)
[. trypano(soma)
, .
trypanon sma ]
,
. ,
; . 1904.
.
.. .
(triplex) [. triplex ] 1) ,
; 2)
,
;
,
; 3) (. , )
, (.
).
(triplet) [. tripler , . triploos ]
., , .

(triploid) [. triploos
eidos ]
() (3n). , .
.
.
(trypsin) [. trypsis , .-in(e)
,

] ,
, (. )
. .
( ), , . . .
1867. ..
(trypsinization
of tissue) [. trypsis , . -in(e) , ]

,
(.).
(trypsinogen) [.
trypsis , ,
. -in(e) ,
, gen(s) , ] () (.),
. . N-o


(.).

, (tryptophan, Trp)
[. tryp(sis) , phainein , ]
, (.; );
(.,
, )
(.
) (. ). .
(, , ). .
. . . . 1901 . ( 1929 .
.).
(trisomic) [. tri- , , soma
] , (2n+1). .
. 1922.
(triterpenoids) [.
tri- ,
, . terpentine
. eidos ] ,
(.), (., ,
, ). . ,
,
,
.
.
(tritium water) [.
tritium, . tritos ]
,
(.);

. . .
(tritium, 3) [. tritium,
. tritos ] -

712

3, ; , ., , .
(triticale) [. triti(cum)
(se)cale ]
, -
56- 42- (. , ). . (, ), , ,
. . . 1933.
-100 (Triton X-100) [.] , ; , .
,
;
, .
, Q (trichosanthin, compound Q) [ . Trichosanthes (kirilowi) -in(e) , ] (. ) ,
,
-

(. - ).
. - (.).
28S . .

, , -

713

. .
Trichosanthes
kirilowi . . 1975.
(transfer RNA, tRNA)
. , .
(ternary complex)
[. complexus ] ,
(,
)
. .,
..,
-, ;
..,
, -
, . ..
(., .., ).
(thrombin) [. thromb(os)
.-in(e) , ] ,
( ),
, (
). . ; . . , , , , .
. 1 . ,
37 1
30 1 0,1%

15 . . ,
(c. ) .
. . 1872 .,
. 1910.
.: , -.
(tropism) [. tropos , ] 1)

,
-
(., , . ); 2) (
.) (, .). .
(tropism of viruses)
[. tropos , ;
. virus ] ,
- ,
(); .. , ,
.
. .
(trophics) [. trophe
, ] ,
. ., .
-

.
(trophic chain) [.
trophe , ] .
, ,
.
(trophic level)
[. trophe , ] -

,
. ..: ) ; )
( ); )
() ; ) , , ; ) .
(tubular) [. tubulus
] , .

(tunnel
microscope) [. tunnel () ; .
mikros scopeo ,
, ] ,
(
, .

),

.
, ,
0,1 .
1
. .. ( ,
10-2 ) (
),
, , (, , , ) .
.. . . 1981. (
1986.).

714

(blunt end, flush end)



,
. .. (., SacI), S1
- I. . .

(turbidostat)
[.
turbid(us) . stat(ikos)
]

(. ), ,

. . . . .
(turbulent
flow) [. turbulentus ] ,

. .. , , , ,
,
, () . ,

, ,
. .. (. )
(. ) ,
. . .

715

(turgor) [. turgor ,
] , . .
,
( ) ..
- (T phages) [. phagos ]
E. coli; ,
-;
-. 2
(2, 4)
(1, 3, 5, 7).
-. -

() , -. .
(heavy water, hard
water, D2) ,

(. );
- .
.: . .
.
(heavy isotope) [.
isos topos ]
, , . .,
.. (2H =
D) (3 = T).


(U) (. , )
.
(ubiquists) [. ubique
] , (., ,
, , ).
(ubiquitin) [. ubique
-in(e) , ] (76 )
( ) ,

( ),
(. ) .
, ., , (. ).
,
, (. ), .
, .,
. . 70- .
XX . .
. . 1980 .
(ubiquitination)
[. ubique -in(e)
,

]

(. ). .
- -

.

, ,
. .
, (. ). .
. 1979 . ( 2004. .
.).
, Q (ubiquinones, coenzymes Q) [. ubique
. kina
] , 5--2,3, 6-
; (
6 10) (C5H8).
.
(. ) ; (. , ).

.-(610), .-10. .
( . . ), , .
. 1958. ., .
(carbohydrates) , -

717

, ,
(CH2O)n;
(. ) (.;
, ).
. .
(, , .).
. ,
. .
,
,
() . . ( ) ( ).
. , (.). . . .
(. ) (. , ), . ,
(. ), .
.
. 1844.
(carbon
nanotubes, CNTs) [. nanos ]

,

()
. ..
(. ). .. .. ,

..
. .. : ,
, , ,
, , . .,
..,
,
,
.
.. . . 1952. 1991 . .
,
...
(fertilizers, agrochemicals) , . . ( )
( , . ,
). ., ., . ( , , --

.), .;
. (
,

).
., , (, , .),
( ., .);
, .
( , ). . ( , . ) , . ., (N, P, , Ca, Mg, S), (., , - .);
(Fe, Mn, Cu, Mo, Zn) ( .,
. ..); . - .

. (, ), (., NH3).
,
(recognition site) . .
(acetic acid) [.
oksos ]

(CH3COOH),
( ,
.). , , , , , ..
.. (. , );

718

,
, . .. . .
Acetobacterium woodi Clostridium
aceticum.
(acetic bacteria) [. oksos ; .
bakterion ] (., ), Gluconobacter
Acetobacter. .. - . .,
( ),
. .. ,
, ,
, , ; .
,
. ,
.

(ultramicroscopy) [. ultra- , , , , . mikros


skopeo , ]

. , ,

. ,
, . . P. .

719

(1903.),
.
(ultrafiltration)
[. ultra- ,
, , ,
filtrum ] , c
(
, ). . ,

. . ,
, . .
,
. ;

. .,
()
(),
,
,
( , .). ()
.
()
, , , . . . ,

,
. . . . .
, (ultraviolet light, UV) [. ultra- ,

,
, , viola ] e
100 400 , .
..
(. ) (., .. (., )
() ). .. , . - .
(ultracentrifuge,
supercentrifuge) [. ultra- ,

,
, , centrum
, fuga ,
]
(.), ,
100000 /

700000 g. (. ). ( 5103g) . 1923 . (
1926.).
(ultracentrifugation) [. ultra- ,
, ,
, centrum ,
fuga , ]
100 (, -

, .)
(. ). .

, ,
. . (-)
. , .. ,
, . ,
, ,
;
. . , , .
.
(
)
. ,
,
, . , , . , ,
,
,
. . -

720

, ,
.
. ;
,
. 7105g .

(middle repetitious DNA)
, (
100 . ..), 101000 ;

(., ,
), ,
(. (,
) ,
, ) .
(temperate phage)
[. phagos ] (. , ),
(. )
, ..
(. ), .
(. );
..
-.
(univalents) [. unus
valentis ] ,
(., ). .
. .
(. , -

721

), (.).
(universal donor) [. universalis , ; . donor ] 1- (
0 0);

.
(universal
primer) [. universalis , ; . primer ] (.(1)), , . ..
(. , )
(, , .).
..
(. )
..
(universal
recipient) [. universalis ,
; . recipiens , ]
4- (
0);

(0 1- ;
2- ; 3- ).

()
(unique
DNA sequences, non-repetitious DNA
sequences) [. unicus ] ,
,

( );
.. . ( -

, ) ..
,
..
.
(unipotency) [.
unus (uni) potentia ]
. .,
.
. . .
in vitro (in vitro packaging)
[. in vitro ]
()
; , .
. -
, .

(packaging cell line) [. packen
, , ;
. linea -
] ,
() , . ... ,
.
, (uracil, U) [. ur(on)
. ace(tum) ] , 2,4-. .
(
). .
:
,
. . :
-6-
, ,

. 1900.
.
(urease) [. uron ]
(. , ),
(., )
. . . (., ), , (.). . . , (., 1926.).
(urethan) [. ur(on)
aith(er) ]
;
, (
). ,
,
. ; . ,
.
(. , 1822 .).
(uridine) [. ur(on)
.-in(e) ,
] ,

(.) (.).
,
, . .
.
, (uridine triphosphate, UTP) [. ur(on) ,
. -in(e) ,
, . tri , phos
phoros ] -

722

, (. , ), (. )
.
,
. . . (. , )
4 NH2 (. ,
) 5.
(urobacteria) [.
uron bacterion ]
(. ,
), , (. , )
(.).
. . , , .
Bacillus pasteurii,
Sporosarcina ureae .
(survival
rate) ,

.
(population doubling level) . .
, () (malformation, deformity, teratomorph) [.
teras (teratos) ,
morphe , , ] (
) (

) . . , ,
; .
()
. . -

723

, (
), ( )
. . , ,
.; .
. . .- ,
1822.
(uronic acids)
[. uron ]
,
,

.
..
(., D- ,
D- ). .. ; D-
,
(, ). D-
. D- . D-
L- , L-
D- . .
(intensifying
screen) [. ecran ] , ,
. ..

, . ..

- --
(. -, -, --;
-,
-, --).
in situ (in situ conditions) [. in
situ ] ,
(. )
, ,
. . in situ.
(sustainable utilization)

,

,

.
(antibiotic resistance) [. anti
bios (biotikos) ]
(. ),
. ., 90%

(.). . .
(kanamycin resistance, Kanr) [ .

(Streptomyces)
kanamyc(eticus)

-in(e) ,
]
(E. coli .) (. ), (. () ); , ,
(.) (. ). .
.
() (established cell lines)
[. stabilis ; . linea
- ]
, in vitro.
,

.
(waste recovery)
[. utilis ]

724

, . ..
( .-. )

(.). ..
.
,
(ribosome
binding site, RBS) [. ribo(se)
, .
arabinose . soma
] ,
- (. ), ,
. .
.


.
, .
(defective phage)
. .
(lambda phage)
. .
13 (M13 phage) [. phagos
] (. , ),
7000 ., 2700 , .
(.),
. .
M13
(. () )

.
(temperate phage)
. .
, (phages, bacteriophages) [. phagos ] ,
( ) . .

Dellovibrios,
, . .

,
2 . . P1,
P2, P4, (. ), Mu1, N4, X174, X80, R17, T1-T7(E. coli);

P22 (Salmonella typhimurium, Corynebacterium diphteriaea), SP82, 29 (Bacillus subtilis). 13 (c. 13). . (.
) (.
). .

, , , . .
(, , ). . ( , , ) . ,
. . . 1915., .
.' 1917.
(phagmid) [. phag(os)
. (plas)mid, .
plasma , ] , ,
.



.
(phagovar) [. phago(s)
. var(ians) ] () , -



(. , ).
(phage infection)
[. phagos ; .
inficere , ]

(., ).
.. , (,
, .).

( ),

.
,
(phage conversion, prophage-mediated conversion)
[. phagos ; .
conversio ]
. .,

;
, . . .
(phage display)
[. phagos ; .
display ] (13, f1,
fd) (. , ) , (. () )
,
, -

726

.
, N- -
()
.
- (., ). .. , .,
,
. ..
, (. ) (.), .
.. . 1985 . .
.
(phage immunity) [. phagos ;
. immunis , -] (. ) (. ,
) (. ).

(phagodiagnosis)
[. phagos ; .
diagnostikos ] , (. ,
) .

;
( ),

. . , ,
, ,
.

727

(phagoprophylaxis) [. phagos ;
. prophylaktikos ]



(. , ) .
, ,
.
.
(phagosome) [. phagos
soma ] , .
(.) .
(phagotherapy) [.
phagos therapeia
, , ]
(., ) .
. ,


.
,
(phagotyping, lysotyping) [. phagos typos , , ]
(. , ). (.) , ,
,

. . .
. 1938.
(phagocytic
reactions) [. phagos kytos , ;
. re- ,
, actio ] ,
(. ) . ..
(, , , , , ). :
)
() , (.); )
() ; )
()
1 ; ) ,
.
(phagocytosis) [. phagos kytos ,
] ,

(. )
- (. ). .
;

, .
-

, ,
, , . . .
1882.
(phagocytes) [. phagos kytos ,
] ,
(. )
, . 2 .: , , , .
. . ,
(
) (. ).
(FAD) . , .
(reproductive
phase) [. phasis ]

, ;
( .) .. ( ..), .., .. .
(phase of
growth declining) [. phasis ]


, -

728

. ... (. () ),
,
, , , ,
, ,
,
. . .
(resting phase) [. phasis ] . ,
.
(phase of
growth acceleration) [. phasis
] , , . ...

(. - ) (. ()
). . .
(phaseolin) [ .
Phaseol(us) (vulgaris) -in(e) , ] ( 50% ), , 10 . , .,
()
(. ., 1983.).
(phasmid) [. pha(gos)
. (pla)smid, .
plasma , ] , (. ,

729

) (. ). .
, . . : .

.

att- (. C , ATT-). . E. coli
, .
-

(phase contrast microscope) [.


phasis ; . contraste ; . mikros
scopeo , , ] , () ;

,
(
).
(phase specificity) [. phasis .
specificus , ] -
() .
(growth phases) [. phasis ] . ..: - (.- ), (.
),
(. () ),
(. )
(.
).

(factor) [. factor -

, ] 1)
, - , ; 2) , - (., .,

;
).
, (bioaccumulation factor, BAF) [. factor , ; .
bios . accumulatio , ] .
, , , .
, ,
,
(bioconcentration factor, BCF, bioaccumulation factor, BAF) [. factor , ; .
bios . concentratio
, ] (, .) , (., ,
).
(initiation factor)
[. factor , ; . injicere , ] , .
..: ..
, ..
.
(clotting
factor) [. factor , ] ,
, .
... (., , -

, , .).
(termination factor) [. factor , ; . terminare ] ,

(. )
(. ). , - ;

( I, II III).

, ..
eRF1 eRF3.
(resistance factor) .R-, .
(elongation factor) [. factor , ; . elongation ,
, . elongare ] , ()
(.).
, . .,
.. eEF1A,
EF-Tu. .. (., ) , - .
(growth factors) [.
factor , ]
1) , ,
; ,
, , , , ,

730

, . ..
,
. ..
, , , . . ..

. ,
, ..

(,
, , ,
); 2)
, ,
, , . .. .. , .. ,
.., .. , .. , . ..
-. ..

.
(transcription factors) [. factor ,
; . transcriptio ]
, , - .
..: ) , -

731

; )
,
,

) (.),
..,

.
(facultative anaerobes) [. facultatif,
. facultas (facultatis) ,
; . an , er
bios ] ,
() () . ..

( ),

( ). .. (, , , ), , , ,
.
.
..
. , .
(facultative parasites) [. facultatif, .
facultas (facultatis) , ; . parasitos ] , . . (.).

(facultative) [.
facultatif, . facultas (facultatis)
, ] ,
. ., . () ,
: . (. )
, . . .
(facultative nucleotide of codon) [. facultatif, . facultas
(facultatis) , ; . nucleus .
eidos ; . code ,
] ,
. . () ().

(pharmacogenetics) [. pharmakon
genetikos ,
]
,
,
. . 1959.
..
(pharmacodynamics) [. pharmakon
dynamikos ,
] , : , , -

. .
: ?. . .
(pharmacokinetics) [. pharmakon kinetikos ]
, ,
: , ,
, , . . : ?. .


,


( )
.
, , , (
ADME, .). . . 1913.
. M.

, . .
. . 1953 . .
.
(pharmacopoeia) [.
pharmakopolia, pharmakon poleo ] , , , ,

732

, , , .
(pharmacophore) [.
pharmakon phoros ] , . .

, , .
(pharmacophoric descriptors) [. pharmakon phoros ;
. description ]
(. ), , , , , .
(pharmafood) . .
(fauna) [. Fauna , ] 1)
, ;
: , ;
2) .
(PDT) , .
(Feulgen reaction)
[ . ; . re- ,

733

, actio ] , ,
( );
. .. 1924. ..
, (phenylalanine, Phe) [. phenyle, .
phainein , , .
al(dehyde) -in(e) , ]
---
[C6H5CH2CH(NH2)COOH], .
( ), ,
;
( ) ,
.
( . 1934 )
. ,

. ,
.

. . . .
1881.
(phenylethylamines) ..
(phenodeviants) [.
phaino , . deviatio ] , ( )
( )
(., ); , .
(phenodeme) [. phaino
, . dem(e)
]

(),
(),
,
.

(phenoindex)
[.
phaino , .
index ]

.

(phenocopy)
[.
phaino , .
opia ] ()
()
; , . .
, , . , .,

.
.
. ,
, .
, ,
. . . 1935. . .
(phenol coefficient) [. phaino , . ol(eum) ; .
coefficiens ] ,
, , (.),

. , .
(phenols) [. phaino , ol(eum)
] - ,
(.,
, , ,
, , , , , , , , , , , --). .
;
,
, .
. , .
. . ,
. ., . ,
, ,

. -
(., ) .

(0,1%) , , , .
(phenon) [. phino ,
on ]
,

734

( , -)
.
. .
. 1943.
(phenotype) [. phino
, typos , , ]
,

(. )
. . :
., .
. .
. 1903.
(phenotypic flexibility) [. phino , typos , , ; . plastikos
, ]
(.) ,
(. )
.


(phenotypic segregation) [. phino , typos ,
, ; . segregation ] (. ) ; .. (. ,
, ).
(phenotypic suppression) [. phino , typos , , ; . suppressio
] (.), ,

735

. (.); .. , ., E. coli
,
, , , .
(phenotypic expression) [. phino , typos , , ; . expressio
]
- (. ). , .. , -
.
(phenotypic
lag) [. phino , typos , , ; . lag , ] (. ). ., .. pep4
. . , () .
, (phenotypic selection)
[. phino ,
typos , , ;
. selectio , ]
(. ),
( ) (. ), ()
.
(phenotypic mixing) [. phino , typos ,
, ] , (.) (.),

. , .., ,
.
.. (. ).
, (enzyme) [. fermentum ; . en- ,
,
zyme , ] ,
,
; . .

. . : 1)
, , ; 2)
, .
. 6 : 1-
(. ), 2- (.), 3- (., ),
4- (. ), 5- (. ) 6- ( ).
,
. .
: ,
, . . . , .,
, (. , )
, -

,
. .
. . ,
L- D- (
) (.) . ., L- D-,
L-. .
, 2 L-
L-.
. , .
,
.
. ,
, , . .
(. )
. .

(. ),
(. ) (c.
). . .-. ,
. , -

736


, , , . . () 1814. .
. ( ) . . . 1960. , 1969 . P.

. ( ) . . 1965. . 3,5 . . .
. -
XVII .,
. 1876.
(adaptive enzyme) . () .
(allosteric
enzyme) . .
(heterotrophic enzyme) .
.
(hybrid enzyme) . .
(homosteric enzyme) .
.
(homotropic
enzyme) . .
(coupled enzyme, immobilized enzyme)
. .
(inducible
enzyme) . () .
(constitutive enzyme) .
.

737

(rate-limiting enzyme)
. - .
(permissible
enzyme) . .
(holoenzyme)
. , ,
.
(regulatory
enzyme) . .
(repressible enzyme) .
.
-
enzyme)

(rate-limiting
. - .
(fermentative catalysis, enzymatic catalysis) [. fermentum ; .
katalysis ] ,
(. , ). . .
(enzyme
electrode) [. fermentum ;
. electron , hodos , ]
(.),
(. , ) .
.. , , .
..:
(
) ( ).
(fermentation) [. fermentum ]


(.),
(., ) (. ). .

(.) , . .
(. , ).
. (.). .
1929 . .
- ..
(adsorption fermentation, extractive fermentation) . .
(continuous fermentation) .
.
(periodic fermentation) . .
(fermenter) [. fermentum ] . ,
.
(enzymatic
adaptation) [. fermentum ; . adapto ] - (. , )
, (, ). . .

, , (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA) [. fermentum ; . immunis , -


sorbeo ; . analysis
, ] -

(c. ), (.
) .
(. ): ,
, , ;
,
,
.
, , .

.
(enzyme preparation) [. fermentum ;
. praeparatus ]
,
,
, (., ). ..
, . ,

Bacillus subtilis

. .. , .,

Aspergillus niger,
.

.
-

738

.. . . ..
. .. (.,
, )

(., , , .).
(fermentolysat) [.
fermentum . lysis
, , ]

,
;
(. ( ), , )
(. , ). . , .

-
(DNA-relaxing enzymes) ., -
.
(hydrolytic enzymes) . , .
(proteolytic enzymes) . .
(restriction
enzymes) . , , .
(cellulolytic enzymes) . , .
(excision
enzymes) . .
(pheromones) [. phero
. moneo ]

739

,
(., , .). .
(primer) (releaser).
,
. .
(. ). .
. . 1959 . . (. ,
1961.). .: .
(ferritin) [. ferrum . -in(e) , ]
750 , .
, . .
(fertility factor) [. fertilis , ; . factor
, ] ,
(. ). .. ( ), ( ).
, .. , Hfr
(. high frequency of recombination
). .. F- (. F, ),
, .

(fertility) [. fertilis
, ]

( ), ;
.
, . . (
, , . .), .
,
. .
1549 , . . ; , .

(differential fertility) . .
(fetal
stem cells) [. fetus ] ,

( 5 12 )
; (),
.
...: ,

-, . ...

(., - ).
(fibrills) [. fibrilla,
. fibra ] 1) ,

. , , ,

: , ,
. ,
;
. , . , ,
. ,
.
(fibrin) [. fibra
-in(e) ,
] ,



- . . ,

.
(fibrinolysis) [. fibra
, -in(e) , , . lysis , , ]
() ,
(. ). , ., .
. .
1893 . . .
(fibroin) [. fibra
-in(e) ,
]
, . .

.
(fibronectin) [. fibra , nectere

740

-in(e) ,
] ( 250 )

; , : .
, (, , , ). . , (.
) . . . . 1976.
. . .
.
, (feeder,
feeder cells) [. feed ,
] ( ) , ,
,
(. ) ,

; . ., .
,
,

, .
.: .
(feeder cells)
., .
, (physiologically active

741

substance, PAS) [. physis logos , ; .


activus ] ,
, . . , .
(physiological mutant) [. physis . logos , ;
. mutans (mutantis) ,
] ,
-
(., ..).
(physiological solution) [. physis logos ] .
, .
(physical map)
[. physis ; . charta
, ] (
),
.
(physical
mapping) [. physis ; .
charta , ]
( , , ); .. . ..
(. ). .
; .
(phycobilins) [.
phykos , . bilis
-in(e) ,
]
(-

,
), (., ), .

. . 85%, 5%, 45%.
. 20% ( ). .
; .
,
.
(ficoll) [.] . .
400
(, , ).
(phycomycetes) [.
phykos myces
] , ,
. ,
. . ,

,
.
. , - ;
.
.
(fixative, fixer) [. fixus
, ] ,
-


; .
(, ), ,
; . ( ,
.).
(fixation) [. fixus , ] , ,
(. ),
. .
.
(fixation
of micropreparate) [. fixus , ; . mikros . praeparatus ]
() ,
,
. ..

; ;
;
. ..
(. )
; , , (
), , , ( 75
, 25 5 ). .. .

.

742

(carbon fixation) [. fixus , ] , ,



. ..
,
(. ).
(filaggrin) [. fil(amentum) ,
, aggr(egatare)
-in(e) ,
] , (.), . .
. . , .
(. ). .
, . . (FLG)
().
( )
(

.
).
. . . 1978.
(filaments) [. filamentum ,
] . .,
, ,

. . F-.

743

,
(filler DNA) [. fill ]
,
( , , .
,
. .)
; .

.
, (phylloquinone, vitamin K) [. phyllon
. kina ] ,
2--1,4-,
.

( 1 7).
., ( 1
2), .
. ,
-
(. -) . .
(
.
). .
,
,
- . .
. . 1929. ( 1943. .),
1935. -

( . koagulations vitamin). . 1939.
.

. .: .
, (phylogenetic tree, cladogram)
[. phyle , , genetikos , ] ()
, ;
..

().

(phylogenetic footprinting) [.
phyle , , genetikos
, ; . footprint , ] in silico, - (.)
,
(., ).
, (phylogeny,
phylogenesis) [. phyle ,
, geneia , ] ;
. ( )
; . .
1866.
(filter) [. filtrum ]
( ),

.
, (filtration) [. filtrum ] 1) , (-

) , ()
(. ). .
;
; (., ) ; ; , . ; .
, . .

(., .), (.),

. .



. .
, ; 2)



, . .
(. ) (.,
).
(filter bioreactor) [. filtrum ; .
bios , . re- ,
,
actio ] ,
,

744

, .
..
(fimbriae) [ . fimbria
] , , . . ,
; ,

,
. .
, , , . (),
. .
(. )

, .. .
(.)
.
,
(fingerprinting) [. finger print , ,
] ,
,
, , . .

;
. (. ). . ,
-, -

745


(.-).
(phytoalexins) [.
phyto(n) , alexo , .-in(e) ,
]
, (. ),
(., , ). . . . .
(phytoviruses) [.
phyto(n) . virus
] - ,
. . . , .
, (phytohemagglutinin, phytohaemagglutinin)
[. phyto(n) , haima
, . agglutinatio
-in(e) ,
]
Phaseolus vulgaris,


; .
(
G2 )
. . . 1960. . .
(phytohormones) [.
phyto(n) hormao , ] , ,
;
, . 5 .:

, ,
(),
().

(phytoimmunity)
[. phyto(n) .
immunis ,
-] ,
,

. .
,
,
.


(.).

(phytomass)
[.
phyto(n) . massa
, ]
, -

; . , (.).

(phytoncides)
[.
phyton . caedere
]
, ,
.

; . . , , , , . . , . . . 1928. . .

(phytoremediation)
[. phyto(n) ] ; .
(Eichhornia crassipes)
(, ,
.).
(phytopathogenic
microbes)
[.
phyto(n) , pathos genes , ; . mikros bios
] , ;
300 ..,
, , .
(phytomanufacturing) [. phyto(n) ]

.

(phytoregulators)
[. phyto(n) .
regulare , ]
,
,
,
(., , , , , ).
.,
., .
(phytotron) [. phyto(n)
thronos ]
. .
, , . . .

.
. .

(phytochrome)
[.
phyto(n) chroma ,

746

]
,
: . Pr - (600
680 ) , . Pf-r

(700760 ) .
.
Pf-r,
.
(Fischer reagent)
[ . ; . re- , , agens
(agentis) ]
I2 SO2 , I2 .
58.
..
. I2 . I2 , I-, SO2,
. ..
H2O ( 5x10-6%)
, , , , .
.. . 1935 .
. .
,

(flavin adenine dinucleotide, FAD)


[. flavus , . aden , .-in(e) , , . di- ,
, , .
nucleus . eidos ]
-5'-, () -

747

-,
; (., B2).
, (flavin
mononucleotide, FMN) [. flavus
,-in(e) , , . monos ,
, . nucleus
. eidos ] , 5'-
(. , 2), (. ). .
(. ,
).
, (flavonoids, bioflavonoids) [. flavus
. eidos ] , 15 ,
. . (
6000) (, ), (, , , )
(, ).
. , ,
, . . .
( -2, -3 -4)
. . . , , ,
,
,
(. , ), -,
-, - -
(. ,
), - . . , ,

, , ,
. , .,
,
, . , , , ; . . () (). .
. . 1936.
(flagellin) [. flagell(atus)
-in(e) ,
] , . . 2040 , ; .
. .

.
. .
(flambing, flaming)
[. flamber , ] ;
, .
, (flanking regions, flanking sequences)
[. flank , , ]
( ) ,
( , )
,
- ; 5'- 3'-

.. (.3'- 5'- ).
3'- (5')- (3'(5')-flanking regions) [. flank
, , ] ,
3'- 5'- , . .
, .
-
(flash
nanoprecipitation) [. flash
, . nanos . praecipitatio
, ]
(. ). .-.
.
,
,
,
, . . , (). , .

. , .
, -

748


.
, ,
.
- (flashphotolysis)
. , .
(flocculating yeasts) [. flocculi , ] ,
(., Zymomonas
mobilis). , ..
. .. (dusty).

(flocculants)
[.
flocculi , ] ,

,

. .
, . . .
(.)
.
.
. . .
-

11041,5107.
(). . , . . .

749

(., , )
( , ) (., , , ) .
.,
(c. )
; . , . .
, , , , ; , ,
,

, , , , .

(flocculation)
[.
flocculi , ] 1) , c (.),
.
. . , ;
2) ,
.



.
, (floxed gene,
floxed sequences) [. f(lanked)
lox(P)

1; genos ,
] (
),

lox (. LoxP-).
..
Cre 1, loxP-.
(flora) (. Flora , , . flos (floris) )
- (., ) (.,
). .
.
(florigen) [. flos (floris)
. gens , ]
, , ,
. , .
1936. ..
(flotation) [. flottation,
flotter
] ()
(),
. .


, . .
; , .,

. ,
.
.
,

-
, , , ,
. . . ,
. .
(,
.). . , . ,
,
.
(floema) [. phloios ,
] ,
( , , , .).
(fluctuation) [. fluctuatio , ] 1) , (
); 2) ; ,
(, ).
(fluctuation
test) [. fluctuatio , ; . test ] , ,
.

,
. .. , . .. .
. 1943. E. coli: -

750

(. (1)) ,
1 ( Tonr),
.
(fluorescein) [. fluor
-escent , ] , ,

. .
, () .
,
(fluorscein isothiocyanate, FITC)
[. fluor -escent , ;
. iso , theion
kyanos ] , ,
,
.
in situ
(fluorescence in situ hybridization,
FISH) [. fluor -escent
, ;
. hybrida ; . in situ
, ]
in situ (.
in situ),
,
(., ).
()
(fluorescence microscopy) [. fluor -escent
, ;
. mikros scopeo , , ]
( , ), -,
, . . -

751


;
() ..
. (.
, ).
, (fluorescent probe)
[. fluor -escent , ;
. probatio ]
(), , . .. ;
,
. ..
.
(. () ).
(fluorescent proteins) [. fluor
-escent ,
] , (, .),
(, , , ) . , .., . . .
(fluorescence immunoassay, FIA) [.
fluor -escent ,
; .
immunis ,
-; . analysis , ] -

, , (. , ).
(fluorescence) [.
fluor -escent ,
] ,
(t ~ 10-810-9 ) .
,
, . . .
, , (. ).
. in situ; () . .
() CaF2,
.
(indirect
fluorescence) . .
(fluorophore) . , .
, (fluorochrome, fluorophore) [. fluor , . chroma ,
] ,
,
()
.
. /

. , 5-
6-
-

. . (. () ),
(. in situ) . .
33258,
DAPI, , 3,
.
., - , -
,
. , -.,
, , . (., ., ).
(fodrins) [. fodros . -in(e) , ] (. ). . . . 1981.
(foldamers) [. fold
. meros ,
]
(. ). .

- , .
. .
. 1997.
(folding) [. fold ] ;
. ,
, . ,
, ,

752

, . . ,
-
(. ),

, . .

.
. , .
, 9 (folic acid, vitamin B9) [. folium
] ( ), , ,
.
..
, . , ;
. ..
, . ..
,
, , . ..,


,

, .

, ..
. .. -

753

,
. 1931.;
1941.
. . .: ,
, .
(follicle) [. folliculus ] , (., .
; ,

,

).

(follicle-stimulating hormone)
[. folliculus stimulus
. , , ; . hormao , ] ..
(follitropin) [. folli(culus) . tropos , ]
(. ,
), , ,

, , ,
(. ). .: .

(phonoreceptors)
[. phone . receptor
] , , .
(formalin) [. formica
-in(e) ,
]

(. ) ( 40%
); .
(
210%),
; .
.
(formaldehyde) [.
formica ] , ; y
,

,
. .
.
(formamide) [. form(ica) .
amide , . . sal
ammoniacus , ] , NH2- , . . .
,
N- (formyl methionine, N-formyl
methionine) [. form(ica) , . hyle , . methyle CH3,
. methy , , theion
.-in(e) ,
] , (. ). .
( ),
. . . . 1964.
(fossilization) [. fosilis ]
.

(phosphate) [. phos
phoros ] ,
;
. . 4 :
H2PO4- H3PO4 ( )
PO43- HPO42- ( ).
, . (, .). . (., ),
.
(phosphatase) [. phos
phoros ]
(. , ),
. ., (., ), , ., , . .
;
, , . .
. .

. . , Lactobacillus
sp., Proteus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Salmonella sp. . . . , ,
.
(phosphodegron) [.
phos , phoros

754

. degrader ; ] ,
-, .
(phosphodiester bond) [. phos ,
pho(ros) , di- ,
, ,
aither ]
3'-
5'-
.
(phospholipases) [.
phos , phoros lipos ] ; (., ).
, (phospholipids) [. phos , phoros , lipos eidos ]
(.),
. , ,
. .
, . ,
6070% . ; .
. .
, ; .
,

(phosphoproteins) [. phos ,
phoros , protos
. -in(e) ,
]
, ,

755

.
. , , , ,
, .;
. . . , ,
. ., .
, 53,
RB1 .
(phosphorylases) [.
phos phoros ]
(.), ( )
(). .
, , .
, , , ,
. , (.). . . 1947.
(phosphorylation)
[. phos phoros ]
, . . ., . (
) (.), (. ), -
:
, , , ,
.

, .
,
. ., (., ) ,
(. ;
). .
.
(. () )
. 4
() ( -
5' ). . .
. 1992.

(oxidative phosphorylation)
. .
(substrate level phosphorylation) .
.
(phosphorolysis) [.
phos , phoros lysis ]
(.)
:

(-PO3-2).
(photoaptamer) [.
phos (photos) , . aptus
. meros ,
] (. ),
(. )
(., ). . , - -

.
(photobacteria)
. , , .
,
(photodynamic therapy, PDT) [.
phos (photos) dynamikos , ; . therapeia , , ] ,
, ( )
. ..
(). , .
,
.
,
.
.
.. .
1897. .. . 1903. .. 1950.,
.
(photolysis) [. phos
(photos) lysis ] . -

756


. (. )
.

(photonic activation of disulfide bridges) [. phos (photos)
; . activus ; .
di- , ,
, . sulphur ] ,
;

- . ; , , . .
. .

(photoperiodism)
[. phos (photos) .
periodos , ] (
)
(), .. ( ) ( ) ; , , , (, , ..).
(photoreactivation)
[. phos (photos) , . re-
, , activus ] (320500) ,
-. .
, ,

757

(. ),

.
. , -.
. 1949. ., . . .
. . .
. .

(photoreceptors)
[. phos (photos) .
receptor ] ,
. . (

).
. (., ).
(photosynthesis) [. phos
(photos) synthesis , ]

; . .

, ,
(
). -
,

H2O,
CO2. : , . ,

-

.
,
, (., ) .

, (. ).

( - )
.
3-,
(. 3-).

4-: ,
- (. 4). . .
.
. 1877 .
.. . () .

(photosynthetic efficiency) [. phos
(photos) synthesis , ; . effectivus ] ,
(.) .
()
(phototrophic bacteria,
photosynthetic bacteria) [. phos

(photos) trophe , ; . bacterion ] ,


.

(), (). .
..
, , . .. ( ) . .. : 1) ,
; 2)
,
; 3)
, , (. ,
). , ,
a . , , (,
) . , b, .

g

.
.. . . .., ,
, . ..
,
. -

758

,
..
(phototrophes) [. phos
(photos) trophe , ] ,
(. , ) .
,
, . .
-
(. () ). .
,
; ,
.
,
, .

. , ,
. , .
.
. .

(), ().
(photophosphorylation) [. phos (photos)
phoros ] (. ,
) , (. ). .: .

759

. . . ; .
(photofootprinting) [. phos (photos) .
footprint , ]
(. ),
-
- . , , . . .
1984.
,
(fragile site) [. fragile ,
. frangere , ;
. site , ]
, , , - , . , .
(. )
() -, .
(Klenow fragment) . .
(phragmoplast) [.
fragmentum ,
. plasts , ] ,


,
.

(fractionation)
[. fractionner , .

fractio ]
(), . .
.
(cell fractionation) [. fractionner , . fractio ]
(, , .) (.,
).
(freemartin) [?]
.
. , ,
. . . XVIII.
(fructose) [. fructus
. -ose , ] , . . ,
,
.
.: , .
(fluoridation) [.
phthoros , ]
1)
; 2)
.

(fluoroquinolones)
[. phthoros ,
. kina ] (. )
,

(. ). .
3-- , 6 ,
4 , 7 .
- . 7.
. -
, -.
. ., ,
Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
(fusidin) [ . Fusid(ium) (coccineum)
-in(e) , ]
,
Fusidium coccineum. (. );
, , , , , .

.
, ,
. , .
(fusobacteria) [.
fusio ; . bakterin
]
(., )
Bacteroidaceae.
( 16 ) ,
.
;

760

.
. . , ,
, , , , , , , . , ,
, . .
-
, , ,
- .
(fusogenic protein) [. fusio .
genes , ] , , . (. ), GP2
, F- .
(fusogenic agent)
. () .
(fuchsin) [. Fuchsin ] , .
., ,
.,
,
. .
. ., ,
; , . .
(., );

.
(fullerenes) [
.] , ;
( , , , -

761

). C
. 60 (,
, )
20 12 , , .
, . 70,
, .,
(., )
. .

, .
( ,
. ,
,
,
, H, .). .
, ,
, , . .,
- . .
1985. ., .
.
( 1996.). .
, . . ., .
(fumigation) [. fumigatio , ] (.),
, .

, ,
.
(fungicides) [. fungus
caedere ] ,
;
(. ).
.
, ,
.. .
(, , , ..).
. , (

,
,
..
.), , ( ,

,
).
(functional
food) ..
(furanosides) [. furfur . eidos ]
(. ) , (.).
(furanoses) [. furfur . -ose , ]
,
. D-. . f, .
Ribf -.
(furfurol) [. furfur ol(eum) ] 2-, -

, , ( , .).
,
,
, . ; . (. )
(. ). (, )
- ,
(, ..).
. .
1832.
. . .
1845., .
(footprinting) [.
footprint , ]
,
. .

: . . -

762

:
I, S1 . .
() (,
KMnO4, Fe-EDTA),
. . .
. 1978. . .
F-, (F-factor)
[. f(actor) , ] (.) . coli,
,
(
), . F-.
( ), ( ).
,

,
(. (1)). F-. (. ). 1953. . .
. .


(chalones) ., .
(charons) [. Charon ,
] ,
(. () ), , .

(chelating
agent) [. chele ; .
agens (agentis) ]
, , . ..
: ,
(., -COOH, -, -SO3H);

(., R2CO, R3PO, R3N). .. (), . X.. , . ,
B12 Fe2+-, Mg2+-
2+- .
X..
(., ),
.
M. 1920.
(helper) [. help ] -,
, . ,

.
-, , ;
(.
() ) . (.
, -) (.-).
, (helper plasmid) [.
help ; . plasma
,
] ,
, . .. . ,
.. Ti- (. ). ,
,
Agrobacterium tumefaciens .

(chemoautotroph)
[. chemeia , . autos
trophe , ] (. , ), ,
-

(.). . ,
(),
() . , ,
, ( .), ( .).

(chemoattractants) [. chemeia .
attractio ]
,

X. (. ). X. , 567, - , , , , , . X. , ,
,

. X.
1%

, 0,4% ,
,
, -, . , (.),
.
(chemovar) [. chemeia
. var(ians) ]
,

-
.

(chemokines)
[.
chemo(attractive) (cyto)kines , .

764

chemeia . attractio ; . kytos ,


, kineo ,
. -in(e) ,
] (520), (. ),
, , -
. 4 .:
(, )
,
() ,
. -.
. .

. -.

-, -. , . . .
(chemosynthesis) [.
chemeia synthesis , ] ,
(.
) ,
.
., ;


. . .. 1887. . . . .
(chemosyntheti bacteria) [. chemeia synthesis -

765

, ; . bakterion ] ,
(. ). ..

,
. .. (, , .) 2
, ; ..
2. .. . -: (. )
(. ),
(. ) , (. )
; .
(chemostat) [. chemeia
statikos ] , ,

; .
.

X. ,
( ). .

() (.),

.

(chemotaxis)
[.
chemeia taxis ] ,
(. ).
.
.
(chemotrophs) [.
chemeia trophe , ] , , . 2
X.:
(. ),
(., , ) (.),
; .

.
(chiasma) [. chiasma ] (), (., )
. .

. ,
.
.
(chylomicron) [. chylos mikron ] (

1 ),
(, , ), (.). .
. . ;
,

.
(chimera, chimaera) [. Chimaira , ,
] ,
,
,
; (. , ).
. . ,
. . , ., ,

, (. ),
,
,

, .
. (. () ), (. ), (. ) .
. . (1907 .)
, .
. ; ; .

766

(aggrgation
chimera) . .
(dichlamydic
chimara) . .
(injection chimera) . .
(mericlinal
chimera) . .
(periclinal
chimera) . .
(radiation chimera) . .
() (sectorial chimera)
. () .
(chimeric DNA) [.
Chimaira ,
,
] ,
(. () ) in vitro

. .
.
(chimera animal)
[. Chimaira , ,
] , .
(. ; )
1984 . .. ; 1985 .
32-
()
- ; .. -. ..
.
,
, .

767

.. , , ., , .
. .
(himeric antibodies) [. Chimaira
, , ; . anti
]
(.),
. ., .. ,
Fc-
Fc- ,

. . .
(chimeric protein)
. , .
(himeric vector) . .
(chimeric virus)
. .
(chimeric gene)
. , ;
. .

(chemotherapeutic drugs) [.
chemeia . therapeia
, , ] ,
; . , .. .. (., )
(., , ).
(chemotherapeutic index) [. chemeia therapeia ,
, ; . index ,

] ,

() 50% ( 50%) (, ) , .
..
3. (
), X.., . .,
.. ,

.
(chemical mismatch
cleavage, CMC) [. chemeia ] , , . , ,

.

.

. -, , , . , .
(chemistry) [: .
Chemia ,
chemeia ] ,

(), (), , . ..-

(1871 .), ...


. .
.
(chymosin) [. chymos
.-in(e) , ]
(., ), , ;
. .
( )
. X. ( , .
) , - . X. . X.
( ,
). ( ). .: ,
.
(chymotripsin) [.
chymos , thrypsis
.-in(e) ,
] (. ,
), ,
();

,
. .
, . ( ) ,
-

768

(.) X.
4

1415
147148. X. .
X. .
X.
( ), .
, , .
(quinine) [. kina
.-in(e) ,
]
(. ),
, .
. , , , .
. (Cinchona
succirubra) 1816. ., .
. . .
1820., .
. . 1944.
(quinones) [. kina
] ,
,
. ,
, 9,10- .
X.
(., K1 3, . , ),
, , (. ).

769

X.
(1,4-),

() ().

(chionophile)
[.
chion philia ]
. .

(, , , ,
),
(,
.),


0. -.
, ,
, - .,

.
(chiral compound) [. cheir ] ,
( ). .. , , , ,
(.) .

.. . ; .
(chirality) [. cheir
]
;
, . . ,

(. ). , ., , , ,

. .
1884. ., 1956.,
.
, . .
( 1975. . 1975.). . ; .
(chitin) [. chit(on)
. -in(e) , ] (. , ),
N-D-,

-1,4 . . ()
N--D -N-D-
. X.
. . , .
, . -; , ;
. .
(, ,
) . . 1821. . . .
(.). . -

. 1823 . . . ,
(
1965.). . .
(chitosan) [. chiton .-an(e) , ] (. , ), N-
(.). . ,
. X.
, , ..,

, (, , , ), , ( ,
-, , . -),
, . N-
. ; .
,
; . . . .- 1894.

(chloramphenicol) [. chlor(os) , .
am(monia) , . . sal
ammoniacus ,
. pheny(le), . phainein
, ]

770

(. ), , ;
Streptomyces venezuelae. . 70S , 80S ; .
( ). .
(
, , , , , ,
.).
(chlorosis) [. chloros ] , (.). .
, , .
(chloroplast
DNA) [. chloros
plastos , ] , (. ),

,
(.).
(chloroplasts) [.
chloros plastos , ] , ,
() , (. ),
(. ). (. )
,
(-, -,
, , -), . . -

771

10 70
.,
. .
(chlorophyll) [. chloros phyllon ]
, , ; ,
, , (. ). . . ( 1915.). .
1817. . ..
, - (Hogness
box, TATA box) [ . ; . box , ]
(. ), (. , ) (/)(/), ( -25 -30). .. , ; (. ) .
.
-.
(host) 1), (., ,
); 2),
; 3),

.
- (agriculturally important species) ,

; . . ,

,

.
(cholesterol) [. chole
, stereos .
-in(e) , ]
(., ),
,
.
,
. .
. . ;
. .

( .
. 1964.). .
. , eoaa , . ., , , , .
(. )
.
.
1927 . . .
1985 .
. . , .

, 4 (choline, vitaminB4) [. chole


. -in(e) , ]
, -,
4; ,
,
. X.
( , ),
, . X.
,

. X. - , . .
(. ),
. X. 20%- (, )
.
(holoenzyme) . , , .
, (homing)
[. homing ] 1)

(), ,
; . ( , .); 2) () ; 3). .
(intron homing) [.
homing ;
. intron
, . inter ] ,
,

772


;
() ;
.. .
1989.
(homing receptors) [. homing ; . receptor ] ,
-,
, . .,

-, . -
.., - (CLA)
CCR4,
-.
(chondriome) [. chondri-(on) , .
-om(a) , , ] ()
(. , ).
(embryo storage)
[. embryon ]

. . .
(chromatid) [. chroma
(chromatos) , eidos
] , () .
(. )
.,
. , -

773

, . (). .
,
.
(chromatin) [. chroma
(chromatos) , .
-in(e) , ] , . . , (. ) ;
. . . 1880 . .
(chromatin
diminution) [. chroma (chromatos) , .-in(e) , ; .
diminutio , ]
(
) , . , . ..
. 1887.

(chromatography)
[. chroma (chromatos) ,
grapho , ]
-
,

,
, . .
.
: ., . ,
., .,
. .
. XX.
..

--

(gas chromatography) . .
(liquid
chromatography) .
.
(high pressure liquid
chromatography, HPLC) . , .
-
(immunoaffinity chromatography)
. - .
(ion chromatography) . .
(ion
exchange chromatography) .
.
(capillary chromatography) . .
(column
chromatography) .
.
(ligand-exchange chromatography)
. .
(precipitation chromatography) . .
(thin
layer chromatography) . .
-- (chromato-mass-spectrometry)
[.
chroma (chromatos) , ;
. massa , ; . spectrum , . metron ]
. .
,

(. ) -

(.
-,
).

, , .
.-.-., -
- ,
.
.-.-.
1950- .,
, -
-, 60-.
-

- .
, .
.-.-. ( 10-610-9 )
-. (10-1210-15 )
.-.-. -,
.
(chromatofocusing) [. chroma (chromatos)
, . focus ] , (. ),
, . . , , , . - .
(chromogen) [. chroma
, gens , ] 1) -

774

; 2),
.
(chromogenic
substrate) [. chroma , genes , ; . substratum ,
] ,
. ;
.
(chromodomain) [.
chr(omatin) o(rganization) mo(difier)

. dominium ] (. (2)),

(), (.).
. 1 (heterochromatin protein),
(. ).

H3 , 3
, C3- .

.
. . . 1991. . .
(chromonemes) [.
chroma , nema
] , (.)

.

775

(chromoplasts) [.
chroma , plastos , ] , ,
(. ),
; ,
.
,

(chromoproteins) [. chroma
, , protos
. -in(e) ,
] , ,

, . (, ), ( .). .

,

. ()
,

( ). (. ), , ,
.

(chromosome)
[.
chroma , soma
]
()
( ), , . .
,
, (. ).

. (.)
(., ). . () , . ,
, . 1933 .
. . 1888.
(X-chromosome) [.
chroma , soma
] (XX);
.. .
..
(.,
X-).
Y (Y-chromosome) [.
chroma , soma
]
(Y); . X.Y. ,
. .Y.
:
. . X.Y. ( XYY) .
(heterotropic chromosome) . .
(ring chromosome) . .
(monokinetic chromosome) . -

, .
(monocentric chromosome) . , .
(polycentric chromosome) . .

(submetacentric chromosome) .
.
(telocentric chromosome) . .
(alien chromosome) . .
(chromosome aberrations) [. chroma
, soma ; .
aberratio ]
(, , , ), , , ..
G1 .
..
.
(chromosome
mutation) [. chroma , soma ; . mutatio ] (. ), (. ),
, , .
(chromosome
set, chromosome complement, chromotype) [. chroma , soma ]
,

; -

776


, .
..:
. ., ..
46 , 23 .

(chromosomal site of integration)
[. chroma , soma
; . site , ; . integratio , , integer ] , () .
...
.
- (chromosome-specific library)
[. chroma , soma
; . specificus , ; . biblion
theke ] (. ), , , (.,
. ). ... () ,

, (.,
),

.
(Hoogsteen base pairing) [
. ] ,
- .
... , 3 4

777


6 7, 1 6,
- .
,
, 0,88,
1,08
, , - . ,

, ... , ... -

(. ) , -
- (. ). -
(- ),
()
...
. , 1963 .
.


(C) (., )
.
- (C-reactive protein) [. re- , , actio
] , - . -.. .
,

. -..
. 2.
- (CAAT box) [. box
, ] (

), 75 .. ( 75)
,
. .
, -.
(cellobiase) [. cellula
bi , ] (. , ), (. ) ;
. Aspergillis
niger.
(cellobiose) [. cellula
, bi ,
.-ose ,

] ,
, - ;
(.).
(cellulases) . , .
(cellulose) [. cellula
. -ose , ] , ,
, 2000
4000 -D-. . 2 :
(. ,
) (.). . , , , ,
.
, (cellulolytic enzymes, cellulases) [. cellula .
lytikos , ; . fermentum ]
, 1,4--
(.) . .. , : ,

779

.
..: , ,
, . ..
(-, .) , -
;

(
-
).
.. , (.), .
..
, .
.. , , . .. , , , ,

.

(cellulosoma)
[.
cellula . soma
] ,
14 (. , ), ; (.,
Clostridium thennocellum).

(coenobium) [. koinobios ] 1)
,

(, , , )
; 2) ,
4 .
(cenocyte) [. kainos kytos , ]
1) , , ; 2) , ,
.
(centrifuge) [. centrum , fuga , ] (, ..)
,
, .
. (), . . .
(centrifugation)
[. centrum ,
fuga , ]

100 . ( ,