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()
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2003

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:
, 2003. - 432. ISBN 5-94836-015-6
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-,
,
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Digitaltechnik
Lehr- und Obungsbuch ffir
Elektrotechniker und Informatiker
2., durdigesehene Auflage
Mit 147 Abblldungen und 86 TabeUeu
Herausgegeben von Otto Mlldenbei:ger

vie)^

2001 Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn


Verlagsgesellschaft mbH,
Braunschweig/Wiesbaden
Der Verlag Vieweg ist ein Untemehmen
der Fachverlagsgruppe Bertelsmann Springer
2003,
,
-,

ISBN 5-94836-015-6
ISBN 3-528-13861-0 (.)


1.

2.

2.1.
2.2.
2.3.

2.3.1.
2.3.2.
2.3.3.
2.3.4.
( , two's complement)
2.3.5.

2.3.6.
2.3.7.
2.3.8.
2.4.
2.5.
2.6.
2.7. -
2.8. -
2.9.
3.


3.1.
3.2.
3.3.
3.4.
3.5.
3.6.
3.7.




(KDNF)
(KKNF)..
KKNF KDNF

16
19
19
20
22
22
23
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
30
31
32
32

34
34
36
38
40
41
42
44

3.8.
3.9.
3.9.1.
3.9.2.
3.9.3. (G)
3.9.4. (V)
3.9.5. EXOR (N)
3.9.6. (Z)
3.9.7. (X)
3.10.
4.

4.1.
4.2.
4.3. ,

4.4.
4.4.1. (open collector) ...
4.4.2.
4.5.
5.

5.1.
5.1.1.
5.1.2. NAND NOR
5.1.3.
5.1.4.
5.1.5.
5.2.
5.2.1.
5.3. -
5.4. (I^L)
5.5.

5.6.

45
46
46
47
47
48
49
49
49
50
52
53
54
56
58
60
61
62
64
64
66
67
68
69
69
71
72
73
74
76
78

.
.

79

.1.

79

.2.

.2.1. ....
.2.2.
.2.3.
..

.3.1.

.3.2.
.3.3.
.4.

.4.1.
.4.2. -

.4.3.

.4.4.
.5. ..
.5.1.

.5.2.
.5.3.
.6. ...
.6.1.
.6.2. CMOS

.6.3.

.7.
.7.1.
.7.2. -
,

.8.
6.

6.1. -
6.1.1. KDNF

79
81
84
93
105
106
114
116
118
119
121
128
130
132
133
136
145
149
150
153
157
161
161

165
172
173
173
173


6.1.2.
6.1.3.

KKNF
177
- ;\ 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

178
6.1.4.
178
6.2. --
180
6.3.
184
6.3.1. / - . 185
6.3.2. /
-
186
6.4.
187
6.4.1.
187
6.4.2. ... 189
6.4.3.
190
6.5.
190
7.

193
7.1.
194
7.2.
194
7.3.
196
7.4.
198
7.5.
201
7.5.1. 5-
201
7.5.2. JRS-Tpnrrep
201
7.5.3. 1?-
204
7.5.4. D-

205
7.5.5.
210
7.5.6. J--
211
7.5.7. -
212
7.5.8.
213
7.5.9.
213
7.6.
216
8.

219
8.1. ( 1)
219
8.1.1.
219
8.1.2.
220
8.1.3.

221
8.1.4. 222

8.1.5.



8.2. ( 2)
8.2.1.
8.2.2.
8.2.3.
8.2.4. ^

8.2.5.
8.2.6.
8.2.7.
8.3.
9.

9.1.
9.1.1.
9.2.
9.2.1. -
7442
9.2.2.
9.2.3.
9.3.
9.4.
10.

10.1.
10.1.1. 8
10.1.2. 6
10.1.3.
10.1.4.
10.2.
10.2.1. 4-
10.2.2. 6 ...
10.2.3. 4-
74191
10.3.
1 1 .

11.1.

222
225
225
225
226
226
227
228
229
231
234
234
235
238
239
240
241
243
244
247
247
247
248
249
250
251
252
254
256
257
258
259


11.1.1. 74194
11.2.
11.2.1. ,
11.2.2.
11.3.
12.

12.1.
12.2.
12.3. (ripple-carry-adder) ..
12.4.
12.4.1.

12.4.2.
12.5. -
(,)
12.5.1.
12.6.
12.6.1. 2-
12.6.2.
12.7.
13.

13.1.
13.2. ROM
13.3. PROM
13.4. EPROM
13.5. EEPROM
13.6. EAROM
13.7. NOVRAM
13.8. RAM
13.8.1. RAM
13.8.2. RAM
13.9. RAM
13.10. DRAM
13.11.
13.11.1. FIFO
13.12.
13.13.
13.14.

261
262
264
266
268
269
269
269
270
271
274
275
276
280
283
284
286
286
288
289
289
291
292
294
295
295
296
296
297
301
306
307
307
308
309
309

13.14.1.
13.14.2.
13.14.3.
13.15.

311
312
314
315

14.

318

14.1. ASIC
14.2. (PLD)
14.2.1.
14.3. ROM, EPROM, EEPROM
14.4. PLA
14.5. PAL
14.6. GAL
14.7. PLD
14.7.1.
14.8. (FPGA)..
14.8.1. FPGA
14.8.2. (CLB)
14.8.3. -
14.8.4.
14.8.5. FPGA
14.9. EPLD
14.9.1. EPLD:CY7C343
14.10. Gate-Arrays
14.10.1. ..
14.11. ASIC
14.12. ASIC ....
14.13.

319
322
323
324
326
332
334
337
339
339
340
342
342
343
344
345
345
345
346
350
351
351

15.

353

15.1.
15.2. -
15.3.
15.3.1.
15.3.2.
15.4.
15.5.
15.6.

353
354
355
355
357
358
360
362

16.
,

16.1.
16.2. 8085
16.3.
16.4.
16.5. 8255
16.6.
16.6.1. (OF)
16.6.2. (MR, memory read)
16.6.3. (MW, memory write)
16.6.4.
16.7. (interrupt)
16.8.
16.9.
16.10.
16.10.1. Register
16.10.2. Register Indirect
16.10.3. Immediate
16.10.4. Direct
16.11.
16.12.
16.13. (carry
flag)
16.14.
16.15.
16.15.1.
16.16. ,
16.17.
16.18.
16.19.
16.19.1. 8255
16.19.2.
16.20.

363
363
366
369
370
371
372
374
375
376
377
378
380
380
381
381
382
383
383
384
386
387
387
387
388
389
392
394
397
. 397
398
400

401

.1.

401

405

427

428


.
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F . . 1-1
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( )
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Uq.
.

^4

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Ua

01

10

11

1 0

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d)

. 1.1. .
a) t
b)
c)
.
d)
01, 10 11.

F.
Us
Uq 4-
00,


.
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.
.
1, 2 3 01, 10, 11.

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1.
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:
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2.1.
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2.1. .

b
i

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_ ..

1^

1 1

g
h

q
r

- - -

- -

2.

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,
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(word).
,
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, N'^ .
N"^ ,
. N^ ,
.
,
[8].

2.2.
,
. ,
1 ,

, .
,
.
.
, { {0,1}.
. z

, :
ZB = Cn-lCn-2'"CiCo,C-iC-2-"C-m-\-2C-m+lC-m

(2.1)


. ,
, 2 \
ZIQ:

^--^

+ -22^-2 + . . . + ci2i 4- 20 + c_i2-^ + . . . + _ ^ 2 - ^


(2.2)

2.2,
10110,001^,
(binary).
:
g{z2) = 1 2 4 2 4 1 2^+ 1 2 4 2^+ 2"^ + 1 2 - 4 1 2"^ =
-2rio = 22,375io
( ) ,
;
. (2.2)
,
.

.
.
22,375io ;
:
.

2 ,
0.
22:2:

1
11 :2 = 5
5 2= 2
2 2 == 1
1 2= 0

0
1
1
0
1

iS

S 3

^
t^
f4

5tr

W
tr

22
101102.

.
2.
,
.
, .
0,375 2--= 0,75
+0
0,75 2-.= 0,5
+1
0,5- 2- = 0 +1

2.
, 0.
.

.
.
0,375io 0,0112.

10110,0112-

2.3.


.
,
. , ,
, .
.
.
, .

.
2.3.1.


, .
,
an Cn-i (. 2.2) Sn

. :

01111110
^00110101
-10110011
1 1 1 1 1 0 0
,
8
8 , .

2.3.
2.2. ,
-\- 5
^

-1

Sn

2.3.2.
,
, ,

. , 8
, , .
:
01100,010
00110,111
= 1100,110
100 1 1 , 0 0 1
2.3.3.
^ , (hard
ware) ,
. ,
.
( , )
( ).

. ,
(one's complement) 0001 1110.
-^. ,
- :
. + - 2^ - 1

(2.3)

24

2.
, 8- :
10110011 + 01001100 = 11111111 - 2 ^ - 1

(2.3),
^ :
-. = 2^ - 1 -

(2.4)

2.3.4.
( , two's complement)
2 -^
1:
2 = ---1
(2.5)
, (2.4) :
2 ^

(2.6)

, ,
. ,
^ -\ .
J\A^ 10101100:
2 - - + 1 = 01010011 + 1 - 01010100
4- ,
. 2.1, .

7/),
8^). ,
,
, .
:
^ ^^ ^

\^' * )

. 2.1 , ,
, ,
, ,

2.3.
.
, ,
, ,
, .
1000^ (8/)). ,

0. , 0. ,

0000^, -i-Oo
1111^, 0/^.
1111

0000
_ - # - - _ 0001
0010
2

1100 1 ^

1001

1000

0111

. 2 . 1 . 4- 4- .

2.3.5.


,
(2.6)
:
-

= -

+ 2-2 = --{-2-{2''-)

(2.9)

= + 2-2''

(2.10)

2'^?
73 = 4 4- .

2.
7 3
:
,0111
1101

7io
-

-10100
-10000
= 0100

tio

10000^,
(2.10), 0100^.
4- ,
. , ;
4.

. .
2.3.6.


(overflow)
.
.
,
.
, ; 4- .

:
0101
0101

5io
5io

= 1010

-610

, .
3- 4- ,
.
, ; ,
-1- ^ ( ; ^)
4 5 Carry {).
.

2,3.


:
1011
1011

-5io
-5io

-(1)0110

6io

.
Cn-i 3 4,
4 5.

:
1111
1101

-lio
3io

= (1)1100

-4io

c^-i.
,
, . ,
. 2.3, ,
, -
,
.
2.3. -
.

-\-

= 0, C n - l = 0

~ 0, - 1 = 1

= \

--

= 1, - 1 = 1

^^ -L) 1 ^^^ vJ

, ,
= c^i-i, Cn-i2.3.7.
, .

2.
IOD X UD = I I O D :

1010

""ion
1010
1010
10 1

11 1
:
; = (2^ - 1) . {2'' -I)

= 2^"" - 2''"'^ + 1 < ^"" - 1

, -
2 . ,
; 2 2^^ 1.

.

[20],
,
.

.
: ;
-f / .
2.3.8.
,
.
lOi^ : 2> = 5 D :

10

10 1

1 0
0 1 0
1 0

0 0 10
1 0 1

2.4'

29

. :
10,10-101,1 = 1101,110

[20].

2.4.

,
.
. 2.4.
A-F.
,
.
,
.
:
1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1
G

, 0110011001III2 = GCFi^.
2.4. .

0000

1000

0001

1001

0010

10

1010

11

1011

0100

12

1100

0101

13

1101

14

1110

0111

15

1111


,

.
,

30

2.

.
(2.2).

2.5.
,
3 .
7,
0.
:
110 1 0 1 100 0 1 1
, 110101000112 = 65438-

2.6,

,
.
,
.
-
.
lio 2io :
0001

I
0010

0000
^^

1
.
, 0000,
1, 0010.
1 ,
.
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; . . 2.5
4- .
,
, (15D)

2.7, -

.
^ .
2.5. 4- .
()

()

0000

1100

0001

1101

10

1111

0010

11

1110

12

1010

0111

13

1011

0101

14

1001

0100

15

1000

2.7. -

, ,
- .
- (BCD-).
,
4- .
8, 4, 2 1,
8-4-2-1.
- 2, 4, 2, 1 (Aiken-Code).
- (3-ExcessCode) - (BCD-Gray-Code) [5].
2.6. - .
8-4-2-1
0

0000

8-4-2-1

0101

0001

0010

0111

1000

0100

1001

2.

2.8. -
,
- .
ASCII (Ame
rican Standard Code for Information Interchange),
.
2.7. ASCII (, )
ASCII

1 ASCII

00

10

01

1 1^
1 ^2

02
03

13

04

1 1^

05

15

06

16

07

17

08

18

09

19

lA

IB

0D

ID

IE

OF

IF

2.9.
2.1.
:
) 1110,101
) 10011,1101
2.2.
:
) 22,125
) 45,33

2.9.
2.3.
6 . ,
.
) 010101 - 001010
) -010111-011011
2.4. :
) 110101-010101
) 1101110 : 110
2.5. 6.
2.8. ASCII (.2).
ASCII
20

SP

21

22

"

23

1 ASCII

1 ASCII

1 30

1 40

1 ^1

0
1

1 ASCII
@

1 42

33

43

24

#
$

34

44

25

35

45

26

&

36

46

27

37

1 28

38

29

39

49

)
*

2D

3D

54

74

1 55

64
1 65

75

56

1 66

76

47

57

67

58

68

g
h

77

48

78

59

69

79

7A

[
\
]

7B

7C

6D

7D

7E

}
"

6F

7F

DEL

5
5

<

4D

5D

4F

5F

2F

3F

73

q
r

63

70

53

60

Q
R

=
>

1 ASCII
i

1 ^^ 11 52 ^^ 1
^^ 11 72^
'^
1 62

1 32

50

1 ASCII


, ,
, ,
.
.

,
4.

3.1.


. ,
1.
. :
= f (1, 2, ,... )

Xi, {0,1}

(3.1)

- .

1.
,
2'^ .
.
,
X , . 3.1.
,
, ,
1.
. 3.1 = f{x)
, (NOT).
- :
= ^,

(3.2)

3.1.

35

3.1. :


, .

, . 3.1:

1 b

X-

. 3.1. .
?
4,
. 3.2.
. ^ = = 1
, .
^\
= ~iX,
3.2. .

0

= ^

=1

,
,
,

3.

3.2. .

.

,
.
a^i
.
1 X = [a:o,:ri].
4
X,
. 2 , a^i = 1 = , ,
-, 2 = [x^.xi] = [0,1].

, . 3.3.
AND ; OR
.
3.3. .

XI

XI

,
=

Axi

XI

AND,

,
= xoV

xi

XI

>1

OR,


. ,
,
.
y{xi^xo)
(. 3.4).

2^ = 16

3.2.

.
. 3.6.
DIN [43].
3.4. .
XI

2/(0,0)

2/(0,1)

2/(1,0)

2/(1,1)

NAND, NOR,
EXOR ( , )
.
.
,
AND, OR
NOT.
.

NOR, NAND.
.

. , ,
}\ EXOR
AND, OR NOT:
(3.3)

{) ^ xi = (-> ^i) V ( -1 xi)

. 3.5 .
OR,
, .
, ,

( EXOR).
3.5. .
XI

-1^0 ici

^ -"Xi

(-" xi) V { -ixi)

xi

0^

3.

3.6. : ,
(AND, NOT, OR),
.

XI

[ 11 [0
1 |oJ
0 0 0 ]

01

1j

0j

^ 0

y =0

= ^(xo\/
=

xi)

(xo^xi)

= xo
y =

Xo
Xi

>1 0

A-^xi

NOR

^xi

= ->xo Axi

y = ->xo

= (-1^0

/\xi)\/

V(xoA xi)

Xo
Xl

=1

EXOR

= {xo<^ xi)
1

0I

= ^{xo

Axi)

= xo Axi
= {xo

Xo
Xl

y=:{xoAXl)

Xo
Xl

NAND

AND

Axi)\/

V(-ixo xi)
= (xo ^

Xo
Xl

xi)

0]

y = xo

1]

= ->xi

= ^1

= xi W -ixo

__\

A\

T]
1 1 _o]
j j l] 1]
1

= xi

Xo
Xl

2/ = l

>1

OR

3.3.

.
.

3.3.
.
() :
Xi = 1

XQ

xi =

(3.4)
(3.5)

() :
{ xi) /\2 =

XQ

[xi 2)

( V xi) 2 = ^ {1 V 2)

(3.6)
(3.7)

( ):
(xi V 2) = ( xi) V (^ 2)
V (xi 2) = ( V xi) ( V 2)

(3.8)
(3.9)

( ):
( V xi) =

(3.10)

V ( xi) =

(3-11)

:
1 =-

(3.12)

VO = xo

(3.13)

:
-.==0

(3.14)

V ^ x o = 1

(3.15)

-:
XI = ->(-> V - xi)
(3.16)
V xi = -' (-1 -I xi)
(3.17)
.
, ,
AND OR 1.
. ,
, (3.16) (3.17)
. F ' ,

3.
F AND OR 1, ,
F,
, NAND NOR
. , :
{xo^Xl)

(3.18)

/\2 ^ XQA (1;2)

(3.19)

3.4.
(KDNF).

AND, OR NOT.
,
, . 3.7.
.
(KDNF).
3.7. ^ KDNF.
2

XI

XQ

, ,
~ f{x) 1. , ,
f{xi) 1. ^^
^27 ^35 ^5 ^- J\
( , ) ,
J\ 1.
^ :
^ 2 f\^x\ f\X{)
(3.20)
77i5 .
, .

3.5. (KKNF)
,
, ,
1 ,
:
= -> ^2 - ^1 -I
2 = -> 2 rci ->

(3.21)
(3.22)

= -> ^2 a:i
2 /\xi f\-^XQ

(3.23)
(3.24)

,
1.

( ) . 1,
, , 1.

(KDNF).
:
=

(- 2 -1 1 -1 ) V (- 2 1 - ) V

V (-> 2 ^1 ) V {2 -1 a;i ^) V (2 xi - ^)

(.25)

3.5.
(KKNF)
^\
^,
, f{xi) = 0.
. 3.7, xi, 4
xj.
. ,
, xf,
1=2 xiW -^XQ
4 = ^2 XQ

(3.26)
(3.27)

7 = ^2\/ ^

(3.28)

-^XQ

, , 1,
. ,
, . , ^
2 , 1 = = 0.

3.


,
, , , 0.
,
(KKNF), :
= (2 V 1 V -1 ) (-> ^2 V 1 V ) (-:2 V -> ;1 V -1 XQ)

(3.29)

3.6. KKNF
KDNF.
,

.
(parity) /, . 3.8.
, 1 ,
1.
fp{x2^ XI^XQ).
,
1.
,
1 .
. . 3.8
.
3.8.
=
fp{x2^xi,xo).

XI

KDNF. ,
6,

3.6. KKNF KDNF.

5, 3, 0. .
KDNF :
{2 ^1 -1 {^) V {2 -a;i ) V
V (-1 ;2 1 XQ) V (-12 - a:i -> )

(3.30)

4 ,
.

^
^1

^2

Vf\
lb
Vf\

8L

&

>1

&
&

. 3.2. KDNF,
.

KKNF 1, 2,
4, 7. . KKNF
:
= (^2 V XI V -1 ) {2 V -1 ^1 V )
(-12 V 1 V ) (- 2 V -1 a;i V -I )
:

^1

W\

>1
>1

Tm

Tni

(3.31)

&

>1

>1

. 3.3. KKNF,
.

KKNF
. ,
,
1,

3.
, ^
0. KKNF
KDNF .

-, , ,
:

= /(xo,:ri,...,x^,A,V,4+>,0,l,0)

, , .
, :
= {2 -i^o) {2 V -ij;i V^o).
:
-1 = (-1 :2 -1 X i ) V (-13^2 X I - XQ).

KKNF
, KDNF .
:
-^y={-^

2-^ ^Xl

^ ) V (-1 2 XI ^ ) V

V (2 -> X I -1 ) V (2 X i )

KKNF:
= (2 V X I V - ) (2 V -^ X I V )
(-12 V X I V ) (-12 V -1 x i V -1 )

3.7.

KKNF KDNF
.
.

3.8.

45

,
:
{XQ

xi) V ( -I Xi) = (:ri V - ^i) =


== 1
=

, :
{XQ A^i) V { --:!) =

(3.34)

:
( V xi) {XQ V -> xi) XQ

(3.35)

. :

{XQ

-^ xi 2 ) V ( X I ;2 ) V (; x i -> 0^2 ) V

V (-1 ^ 1 2 ) V (-> XI -> 2 )

, , , 1 2, 2
3, 4 5. ,
, ^ :
=

( 2 ) V ( x i 2 ) V ( x i -12 ) V
V (-' X I 2 ) V (-1 X i - 2 )

( 2 ) V ( xi ) V (- xi )
:
= ( 2 ) V ( x i )

.
AND OR.
6.

3.8.
:
/ ( , 2 , ) = (-^ A - n X 2 ) V ( x 2 3) V ( - 1 X 1 A x 2 ) V ( x i )

(3.36)

3.
,
. ,
, .
(3.36) :
/ (, 2, XI, XQ) = ^ XQ-^ 2 V 2 V XQ-^ 0:1X2 V ^10:3

(3.37)

3.9.

,
, DIN 40900.
,

, ,

.
,
.
.
.
.
3.9.1.

,
, (. 3.4).
&, > 1, = 1, 1.
, .
,

,
. 3.4. .

3.9.

, , .

.
. 3.4 ,

.
.

, ^ (
4),
. .
,
. 3.5 .
, . 3.5 .

-

-
-1



. 3.5.
.

3.9.2.


( )
. .
.
, .
.
3.9.3. (G)

G, ,
, . . 3.6
X G1.
XQ 1,

3.

^ 1 , . 2 - i l .
,
XI .
.
. .
^0

"&1
. 3.6. (G).

. 3.7,
^\ .
G1

'&\

G1

&

-
)

. 3.7. (G), , )
; ) .

(. 3.8),
.
'

'l

G1

"2

&
>1

G1

. 3.8. (G) ,
01.

3.9.4. (V)
V^
1, ,
, 1. V^^

3.9.

,

. . 3.9.

'0

VI

>1

'

)
-

VI
1

>1

. 3.9. (V).
3.9.5. EXOR (N).
N^^
,
EXOR. N^ 1,
.
.

N1

=1

. 3.10. EXOR (N).


3.9.6. (Z)
, ^-,
,
(. 3.11).
3.9.7. (X)
, ^,
1, , ,
(. 3.12).
.

3,

Z1

XQ

1U-

XQ

)
XQ.

|G1

XQ

^0

&

\-\

1Z2

-|

)
. 3 . 1 1 . (Z).

:^

XI

1
1/^1 \
->1

= 1, yi .
= 1, 2/1 /2 .

. 3.12. (X).

(, S, R, EN, , )
.

3.10.
3.1. (3.10) (3.11)
.
3.2.
:
= { /\xi f\X2 /\-^ ^) V ( /\xi

/\2 /\ ^) V

V (-1 -I a:i 2 ^) V (-i XQ - rri -2 ^) V

V {{^ -> Xi 2 ) V (: f\^Xi

/\-^2 /\ ^)

3.3. KKNF KDNF


, & , Si SQ
-\- -\- . Si
2, *5 1.
3.4.
,
?

3.10.
) KDNF (3.30).
) KKNF (3.31).
3.5. :
) -16 = -. ( )
) / = > > ,
-1 / = -,

-^-^.


,
. 5
.
,
.
. . 4.1
,
. .4.lb
x{t), Ue{t)^ . 4.1
(^), .
,
:
- .

,
, .
,
.
- 1
.
.
-
.

.

,
,
.

4.1.

.
,
,
. , 1
, ,
3 .
.

.

. ,
, .
)

x{t)^u,{t)

b)

yit)^u^{t)

. 4 . 1 . ) Ue{t)
Ud{t)\ b) x{i)\
) y(t).

4.1.
,
.
H(=High), L(=Low).
1.
.

4'

, ,
1, 0.
. .
4.1. .


. . 4.2.


. ,
.
,

.
, ,
.
^0.

Xti .

&

&

XQ

L
L

UL.

&

XI '

-i9
0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1

.J.
0
1
1

1
1
0
0

1
0
1
0

1
0
1
0

01

. 4.2. : )
; ) ; )
.

4.2.

. , {low)
{high) ( )

4-2.

55

. ttiH {transition time low high) ttiH {transition High - low)


, 10% 90%
.

1 "
0.9

0,1

1.,.,

/"" "1"'
.
I
1

^
\
1

iv

^^

. 4.3. ttiH ttLH-

. 4.4. tpLH ttHL-

low
high tpiH {propagation delay time low - high)
high low ttHL {propa
gation delay high - low)
,
50%
.

:
tp {tpHL +

tpLH)/^

(4.1)

4-

,
.
.
,
, tp.
. fp = 1/.

. 4.5. tp
.

4.3. ,



. ,
,
. . 4.6
.

Ue = Us, UH
UL-
.
, .
,
L.
. 4.7
. ,
.
.
, Ua UaHmin UeLmax VDD ,
^VDD .

4.3. ,
Ue UeLmax-
, .

4
1

Ui

t4

. 4.6.
.

Ue

1 t>

. 4.7.

. 4.8
Ua Ue ,
, :
,
{high), ,
.

,
.
.

4-

, ,
.
,
,

.
Ue^

High
aHmin

^eLmax

Low

ov
Ua

Ue

P . 4.8.
.

. 4.8
. {high)
UjiH {low) UnL

:
{high):

{low):

^ ^^ ^

^ eHmin
~

, (
)
. ,
, .

4.4.
,
. ,

4^4'

. . 4.9
. = ,
X = L,

. 4.9. .
X = . = L,

,
^

(. 4.10). , ,
.

. 4.10. .

X = ^ ,
, , , L. ; = L,
VDD-, , , .
, , ,
totem pole ( ).

, .

^ -
-- -- .

4-

4.4.1.

(open collector)


, ,
. 4.11. RQ
Vcc-
. ;
.

. 4.11.
, .

( = 1)
. , ^ Xi
Xi 1^
, (=High).
4.2.
(. 4.11)
.

XI

XI

XI

wired-or wired-and (
). ^ -

4.4'
, ,
. . 4.12.
, ;
. 4.11, .

, .

& <>

(
2

&

&

= (,

. 4.12.
.

4.4.2.

,

, . ,
,
, . .
. ; ,
, {three-state^ , TS).
,
(enable) ,
() .
. 4.13 ,

; enable ( ; ) .
,
. ^ ;
1 , , 1,
- ,
1, enable .
.

4-

Enl

. 4 . 1 3 . . :
(enable) . :
.

. 4.14
, ,
.
; "^1 = 1 .
.
. ,
.
\

1^

lEnl

Xso

Xal

1
lEnl

Xsi

Enl

^2

^2

. 4.14. 5,
.

4.5.
4.1.
) .
)
, .

4.5.

&

- ^

--,

&

>1

i ' /

_
-^

&

4.2.


. 4.2.


. ,
.

,
. ,
. 4.6
Us 1; .
.
];
.

5.1.

- ( =
--).
() ; , ,
. . 5.1
, - - - . -
N- -
.

Uth^ (th thresh
old, ). Uth N-MOn , -
.
, N-MOH
- Ugs ,
Uth' - Ugs, , Uth, , ,
, .

5.L

65

5.1. N- - .

k I

NMOS

hi

UDS

VGS^

-UDS

6 S

'J

UDS

UcGS
UDS

6S

N- ,
- .
, ,
. 5.1.
, Ugs^NMOS) = Ue Ugs(PMOS) = Ue- VDD-
Uth VDD ,
, ,
. ,
/ = N-MOn , -
. Ua = VBD- , Ue VBD
- N- ,
/ = .
. 4.10.
.
, . ,
}\ - NAND (-) NOR ().
Ua f{Uc)- . 5.2,
- ,
.

5.

QVDD
UGS(PMOS)

PMOS

i ID(PMOS)

ID(NMOS)

Ue

Ua

NMOS

H-i

UGS(NMOS)

. 5.1. -.

.
Vnn=\SB

. 5.2. -
5 15 .
5.1.1.

[fan-out)
,
, . ,
.
-
(, 50) ,
.
, -
, fan-out, 50.
.

5.

5.1.2. NAND NOR


-
N-MOn --
. ,
NAND NOR (. 5.3). NOR, . 5.3,
L ,
^ ,
, - ,
- . , NAND
L , .
- , -
.
VDD

I4

VDD

1-1

XQ

>-

. 5.3. -: NOR, NAND.

- . 5.4.
:
1.
.
^ ,
, 1; .
^ ,
.
2.
(
.

68

5.
3. ,
.
4. ,
,
.

. 5.4. - - (HEF4001).

5.1.3.

. 5.5
{transmission gate).
. , 4,
,
Ti 2. S i/,
2 , Ti L.
Ti 2 ,
. ,
(low) Ti 2
. -
- .
, , ,
-

5,1.

TS.
[12].

XI

1
S

. 5.5. - .

1,
, ,
1, , 1
1.
5.1.4.

-
, , ,

. . 5.6.
5.1.5.


( ), VDD ,
.
(latch-up)
. -
.
.
- ,
, .

5.
- , -,
,
.
,

. ,
.

^DD

10 ^ En1
1
d

1
0

~\
1
0
-

EN1

IV

. 5.6. . ) )
)


, .
(fan-out)
,
.
, -, .

,
. ,
,
.

5.2.

5.2.

- () (. 5.7).

Ti .
(if),
,
. 2 (. 5.7),
L. ,
,
Ti 1.

.
L, Ti
( ).
-
, 2 .
.
,
,
- .

.
- S.
'- .

)
" ,

1 1

0 J

0
0
1

0
1
0
1

1
1
1

. 5.7. ) - - (74S00); )
; ) .

5.
- {TS) . 5.8,
^
().
^

0
0
1
1
d

-^

^}

X]

0
1
0
1
d

En
1
1
1
1
0

1
1
1
1
0
hoch-

ohmig 1

XI

b)
:^

&
1 V|

^1

En

ENl

)
)
. 5.8. a) - tri-state (NAND);
b) ; )
1-.

L,
.
Ti,
. 2 ,
2 , ^ .
^ ,
.
i7,
.
-.
5.2.1.


.
. -
,
. 5.2.
, -
10 . -

5.3. -

- 10,
,
.
(fan-out)
(drive-factor)
(load-factor).
5.2,
-.

16

1,

0,4

0,04

- :
Vcc = 5
(-)
:
UoLmax

= , 4

UoHmin

= 2, 4

UiLmax == , 8

,

()
.

5.3. -
- (ECLy emitter-coupled logic)
,
(. 5.9).
.

xi .
xi L, Ti 2 ,

5.

. , , xi , Ti
2 , . ^ .
, -.
,
.

0V

>1

~-

-^

)
. 5.9. -- ELC: ) ; )
.

ELC-:
ELC

, ,
;

;

.

5.4. (PL)
(I^L)
,
.
. 5.10 . Ti
IQ .
(), 2,

5.4' ()

75

. 1 2 (L).
(L), IQ
, ().
\ 2

99

\ 2

|,,......,

. 5.10. ) I^L-; )

I^L
, 1 .
. . 5.11 -
, I^L .
.
^

tl

2 -

. 5 . 1 1 . -, I L .

5.

5.5.

,
.
,
. 5.12.
Ron Roff-, , .
, ,
Ci.

Ron

'Ua
Roff J B G

a) -

b)

Roff
'Ua

URon

Ci

. 5.12. ) -; ) ; )
.

Ci
, Cos .

.
,
Ron
,
.
.
,
, ^
L:
Ua = VDD(l-e-'/''-^^)
(5.1)
^ L:
Ua = -''^-^'

(5.2)


:
^5 ^ RonCi

(5.3)

5.5.

,
.
(5.1) (5.2)
/ ,
{VOD/ROU ~^ Roff)^ :

:
-
, ,
W ( ).
- ,
,
.
-
.
-
.

. 5.13. .

. 5.13
^
. - - , , ,
- (GaAs).

5.
(high-electron-mobility transistor ). ,
(5.4)
.
-,
GaAs-.

5.6.
5.1.
) -- .
) -- .
5.2.
. 5.8,
.
5.3. , = /(1,)
,
.






. I.
,
, ^ .
- .
. ,
, ,
.

.

, .

,
.

,
-
.

.2.


.

. ,
.



,
,
^\ ,
,
.
,
.
,
, ;
( )
.

.
.
, ^\
, ],
,
:
-
;
-
;
- ];
.

,
.
.
,
, ,
, ; .
.
J\RR
^\
. ,
.

.

.2.


.

, .


.
, ,

.
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
.
, ()
.
.



. .
,
.
.2.1.


,
.

,
,
.
.
,
:
, ,
. ,
.


:?1
, ^\
. ,
.
.
.
,
.
, ,
.

.
,
,
. ,
,
.

, .
J\
, , :
.
.

.

.

.
,
,
.
.

,
, .

-
, -

.2.
.

. ,
,

, ,
.
.
,
.
,
.
,

.
,
.

, . .2.1.

.

. ,
,
.
: ,
.
,
, , .
.


.
.
1
.

. ,
.




. .4.
.
, .6,
,
, , .
, ;
( III
), .
, ,
;.
.6.


.
,

. ;
];,
. ,

. .2.1.
.

,
.
.
.2.2.


. . .2.2

,
. to ti
, ,
tio ^oi
.
. -

.2.
,
, .

.
.
-

III
^

II

. . 2 . 1 . .

,
^\

.



.

.

. -

,
.
J\RR

.

. . 2 . 2 . .

^^, ^
,
:
W}^ = , 5 {W^p + W^^ + W^~' + < - i ) ,

(.2.1)

W^p , 1
,
f/i;
^ , /;
pyj~^ , ,
, ;
W^~^ , 1,
, .
W^^^ 1,
^
(
) C/i

.2.
:
t^i-W7T^.

(.2.2)

( )

,
.
W}^^
,
( ).


.
^
,
.

.
.
-
.

. ^^Qjji VF^^
ti ^2
, .

W^^
W^^ -

, ,
.
W^^ W^^

C/i /,
. ,
,
-
.



P{t) :
= ^ .

(.2.3)



(.2.1) :
^10

Wl, = 0,5 PUt)dt + j Pl\t)dt+


\
^

h
^1+^10+^0

j
^1+^10

"

rr.

(.2.4)

PL{t)dt+ I P^Ht)dt
^1+^10+^0

: P^^ (t)
;
^ (^)
1;
^ (^) ;
( 1.
^^ ^^
,
V^a .
^^ ^^

.

,
. .2.2. (.2.4)

,
.
,
t /

W^ = W^p-f-t.

(.2.5)

.2.

. .2.3
, .
,

.

,
.

, /^
lOOOOf

1000 +
peorropi

0+

+ 4004
8008

^ i ^ 26

'^

/ ^ ^ 3 8 6

^^^^

Pentium

8080 8085
70

'80

70

'00

. .2.3. .


, .


.
.
, .
, -,
, ,
:
W

I^R.

(.2.6)


,
,
. .2.1.
^ .
,
,
(, ,
..). .
. .

.
/ , , ,
().
( 10^ 10^^ ), , ,

, .
, '^ = 1
(10~^ 10~^^) , ,
, Nli
N = 10^ (10~^ 10^) .
-
.
,
, ,
.
-
.
, ,


, .
-


.
.
, .

-

.2.
, .

.

,
(
, ;

).

(;)
.
; , ;

VFo?
:
^ - ,
: ; ;
.

^ ,
, . WQ
(
,
..) .
( )
,
;
, ,
, :
WQ const.

.
.
;
,

, ]; .


^
N

=1

Q ,
t\
W^ - ;
fi - .

,
.

. .
,
. , ,

.

.

, ,
,
.
, ,

, ,
.
,
:
N

=1

v = 1^
v 0.
,
, v -^ 0.

.

.2.
.2.3.


, ,
, .
,
,
,
.

.

.

.
,
. ; ,
;
, . .2.4.

.

,
, ;
.

]; () ,
/ .
;
.



.
, -

94

:
=

dh
dU,

-..| |-..|

| 1 |. 0.1

AlAsGal

r-J Si I |5 | I]
IsiGe I
|AsGa|

. . 2 . 4 .
.



. -

.2,
.

.

,

, .

,

1; .
, ; ,
,

.
]; :

/ , /
.

, ,
];

. ;
, , ;.
.

.

;
.
;,
. ; ,

.
.


,
.
, ,
()
, .
,
.
,
,
.
- .

, .
,
.
,
:

,.

/ ,
, / ().

.
.
, ,

. ( ~ , -
)
, ,

, .

: - ,
(
, - ).
.

- (-). --

,2.
:
.

,
,
.
j ^ ^
.

-

-.
.
.

- ().
:
.
,
, ,
().
. .2.5 .2.6.

. I >0

--

N+


UB3=0

--

Us3=0

>0 / -

. . 2 . 5 . .

,
- ,
.
()
.
. .2.6.



,
, ,
.
. ,

, , (. .2.5
.2.6).
.
.
1; ( ) .

, ]; ~- . ,
.

..
N-

>0

-UcH

i ^

^=0

N-

/~0
,

r^^i

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=0
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( ) . ,
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.
(. .6).
,
, .



.
;
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.
.

,
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).

, ,
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-

.

-

.
, ,
,
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-
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. .2.7.
. .2.1.

( ,
).
,
.
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,
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.

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; 300 .

,

,
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,
,

250

180

4-5

3-4

- , 50 - 100 3 6 - 7 2
, /
/,

130

100

70

2-3

1,5-2

< 1,5

26-52

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15-30

10

70

93

121

120

,
TiSi2
CoSi2 40 ,
5 .

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S3N4. ,
, 5 10^^ 1 10^^ ~^.
,
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]; ^\ 0,1
1,5-2. ; tox L
;
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.
,
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10 70- 0,06 1;
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130
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.
-

.

.
,
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.

.

102
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. -
.

10 .

,
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]\ - :
(LOCOS), (STI)
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. . 2 . 8 . .

-, . .2.8,
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390 , 190 .
4, 7 ,
300 . , ^ -,


. ,
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.


.
,
.
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.
-

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N+

Si02

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40 ,
(
4, 11 18).
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3 -. 100
-
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80 .
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,
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.
-

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104

100
,
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.

(> 10^^ ~^) .

.


.

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) .


50 .
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. . 2 . 1 0 . - .

DELTA
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, .
.
.
.
. .2.11.
.

..

,
{Surrounding Gate Transistor, SGT),

.

. .2.11. - .

.
.

- .
. .2.12
,
.

1 ., -
0,4-0,5 .
.

..

, 1

.

106

,
.

^^^
1

[] 1

^^ ^

^^1

""'!

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si*

N+

-10 (100)

:
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. 2.12. .





10^
.
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, . .3.1.
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7777,

. . 3 . 1 . .

.,


,
()
1 2. Uo
,
1, 2 (
).

[/1,>

, .
/,> , ,
. . .3.2
R2 2,
Ri 1.

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Edd
2

R2

RvT

RvTl

Ri

. .3.2. ) )
.

HI 2


-- -- .


.

08
.
/ C/i
. ,

Rymi Rym2 , ,
.
,

. ,

.
,
,
^ = [/1 / = Edd


.
.

,
.
,
MOS .

CMOS
(
). ,
,
.
.
10^

CMOS
, .


.
10^
, CMOS

..

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,
- .
(. . .3.3)
.
CMOS
^.

_^
| |

1 ^

. .3.3. (), () ()
CMOS-.


CMOS
,
. -


.
. -

I 10
,

,
CMOS.

.
, CMOS

. ,
,
.
.3.1.
Si, SOI, Si/Ge
1

GaAs, GaAlAs/GaAs

n-MOS n-MES n-MOD n-DJS


n-MOS n-MES n-JFET n-p-n
4
2
1
3
6
7
8

X
?

1 ^

P-MOS CMOS
2

P-MES

P-JFET

--

P-MOS

6 <1 P-MES
7

P-MOD

P-DJS

CMES
CJFET
CBL
CMOS
GaAS
CMES
CMOD
CDJS
?


. .3.1. (. .3.1)
,
, . .3.1,
CMOS .

,
1 2.
( 1 )
,
. J\

- .

,3.
1-8 -
.
: n-MOS, n-JFET, n-MES, n-p-n
n-MOS, n-MES n-MOD
.
- .
. .3.1 1.1 8.8
,
1 2
, . .3.1.

,
, .

CMOS (. . .3.3)
, CMOS-
(CMOS-like) : CMOS-
, JFET

- ; CBL-
; CMOD- ; CDJS
.
. Edd

Edd

Edd

i<
.

.
' Kj"" \

,^

NM ES

/7

. .3.4. CMOS-Like : ) - CJFET; ) - CMES;


) - CBL; ) - CDJS;
CMOS-like

, . .3.4.
-

12
, . .3.1.
,

.

, , ,

. CMOSlike -
. , CJFET
^,
.
JFET
. SOI (
) JFET ,
CMOS
, .
SOI CJFET
. .3.5.

Si02

4=

in+ ip-

Si-

. . 3 . 5 . SOI CJFET: ) ; ) .

CJFET
CMOS
. JFET-
, MOS
. -

..

,

. ;
( 3 ). . .3.6.
CJFET ,
JFET , , SIT- (
). ; CJFET ,
;
,,
,

.
.

+
+

Edd

+
+

/,
)
Edd

. .3.6. SIT-: -
; - .

. ..7
SOI CJFET ,
,
.
,
.

I 14
.3.2.


, .3.1.

Si02

. . 3 . 7 . SOI CJFET
.


, - MOS
Idd^ ( ^ . .2.2)
3.2.,
, i?2
- .
, :
01
^dd

Edd ' Idd

(.3.1)

^^ ^~^
1.
^10 Edd
:
ho = (2 - 3)i?2

(.3.2)

,
Wc^ :
1
Wc = ^ Eja
2*

(.3.3)

..

:
,
, :
^01

-1=

P|\t)dt^Eu^^^^CEl,

(.3.4)

^01

,
- i?2
, :
W''-'-Wc = \cH-Ela

(.3.5)

,
-
.
, 1,
( ti)
Rymi - MOS-
i?2 -
. i?2 <^ Rymi ,
, Edd-
, ,
, Rymi
1 (1-2) .

:
N

1 = .11-

(.3.6)

: N
, .
- MOS , - MOS

Ri - MOS .
, (.3.3)
Ri
.

I 16
. .3.2 . ,

Ri <S Rym2'
- MOS .
.3.3.

,
,
. J\RR ,
(1;)
:

, ];
.
;
:
= --

(.3.8)

/ ;
.
. , ,
1
. ,
,
, .

, :
. = 1 ' Edd-

(-3.9)

,
UsAt) =

-t

(.3.10)

1 :

/3 = /3nWn = PpWp^ Vt = Vtn = \Vtp\


.

..
,
:
= ^ [Edd

2Vt)

3^

^^
: -
.
:

Lym

(.3.12)

Is - ,
, ^ ^- Is
(1 -f 5) 10-12--2 ( t - 25 ).
1

.
:

<

{ - Vt)

(.3.13)

,
; 1 -\^, tcx
, D , .
.

.
, ,

. ,
NMOS
.
, (.3.7),
,

.
,
. ,
.


, , . J\RR
^ 1. , ,
(~ 10-^ 100)
. ^ > 0.
(.3.8), ; ,
;
(. 5.5, . 5.13)
, ;
> , , ;
, {N = 10^-10^)
-
.
()
.
1;
.

.



, [/

.
Uo
,

(. .4.1). R ^ K
RH
. Uo -^ R^^J^/RH -^ 0.
1
RH ,
; 1 RBX-
,
, .
1 = 0.

(MOS-) -

.4' I 19
(- )
.
_ _

EDI

EDD

RH

.U-0"

EDD

QRH

^U'T

^U-1"

\ ] . j=C.

a)

6)

B)

. . 4 . 1 . - .

,
, .
,
.

1.1

1.2

1.3
|

2.1

nMOS

. . 4 . 2 . .

.4.1.

20

, . .4.2.

,
.
( 1.1 1.2)

.
. .4.3.


.

-
.

. . 4 . 3 .
.

,

(, , .),

.
. .4.3
. . .4.1

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,
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( ),


. ,
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. .4.4.
.

.4.2.
-

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,
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.
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1.1).
. .4.5.
,
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- .

-.

122
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1.1

1.2

S|

2.7

2.4

2.2

i-

< ^

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JBbix
^

^ ^ .

1_)

3.1

3.2

3.4

3.5 9^"

Bxh

4.2

4.3

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4.4

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pEn

4.7

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3.8

PE"

'+0

jBb
Rv

4.1

3.7

oH
Bx

OE

Bx

,

,
,
. ,
.
,
, ,
.


. UQ

/? ^i Ui
,
!7- , . .4.5, EOD

.

.4-

123

, , ,
E]jB i?H5 :

EDD-{n'l6+ll)'Rn>Uu
EDD

- IK ' RH < UQI

/? ^ '^^^ ; /^
.

EDD

<1

RH
QK+ +

...+ )

1^

1^
2

. .4.5. -
.

-, . .4.5,
.
Ui

Uo = UK3H- C/Q?

, .
,
,
.
,
,
.


(1-2) / .
( , ,
..) .
-
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,
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,
:
A[/-^drf-Ft-^o.

. . 4 . 6 .
: ) - ; ) -
; ) - ;

,

,
Vt.
[/i = EDD Vt-

. > E^D + ?
/ = EDJ).

.

.

.4'

,
,
/.
,
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, ,
.

, ;
,

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. .4.7),)).

.

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- - . ( 2.7, 2.8
3.7, 3.8 . .4.1). ,

(, SOI),
, ,
, .
,
, (DCFL),
- -
-
. DCFL
- ,
, - .

:

Ul^ =
Ul^ =

En-{nl',+l',)Rn>Ui,
En-Rn{ll+nll)<U^,

/ , / , -

126

Uju = Ui, =^ / Usu = UQ^ UCU = Ui


; Ic', Ic ,
Usu = Uo^ Ucu = Ui .

AU = RnilL, - ^ - / * II).
.
, AU >
,
.

I |4^

vdd

"1

. . 4 . 7 .
(. .4.6 ): ) ; )
.

, ,
f/o C/i. Ui
, ..

Usu-

U^^^j^ .

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,
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,
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: C/Q Rnlc^
.
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-- -,
,
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, ,

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-- .
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-
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.


.
- -

128
, -
. . .4.8
-.
/
,
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C/i,
;
, ;
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( . .4.8
).
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.
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,
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/ , /^
, R^ .
,


. .4.1.

.
, ; .
( 2.4, 3.3,
4.5).
,
--
.
.4.3.

;
-

.

.4- 129
.

.
> t-DD

mlo|

mnc

mi ^

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TJ
21 ^

210-

1 1 ^

lic-

<

1 - ^

3
. . 4 . 8 .
. (DCFL)


, , .

,
,
.
,
,
.

130
.


()
.
,
-,
, .
.4.4.

,
,
DCFL.

, .

:
P = PZ + Pd + Pyrn.

(.4.1)


:
PZ = vPcO + {l-ri)Pci

{.4.2)

] ,
;
; Pel
;
,
, - DCFL ,
, . ,

.
- DCFL ,
, ,
,
. ,
1.
, ,

.4-
.
,
- . ,
,
. ,
,
, .


.
^(\)
(.4.1) :
dE
Pd{t) = ^ =

i{t) . Vdd,

(.4.3)

dE , 1;

.
:
., ,
^ dVout
/ . , 4
{t) = ^ ,
(.4.4)
(.4.3) (.4.4) ^\ ,
, :

-^1 = [p{t)dt
J
0

= Vdd [i{t)dt
J
0

VI
= Vdd fCndVout =
J
0

,^ _ ,
.4.5

Vdd-Cn'{Vi-Vo).

1 Vi Vdd-i ^
VQ 0. J\^^SL D C F L / < 0,7 .

:
= a o ^ i VM {Vi - Vo) f,

(.4.6)

ao-^i .
, , ;
:
= Vdd lym.
(.4.7)

132
/
.

,
, ^\
1.
, , ,


. [/i

, , , 1;
, TQI,
:
01 = 2 . ^ . ,

(.4.8)

.
i7i ,
,
( )
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, ,
,

{ X ). DCFL
(, ), .

.5.


, ]; , .
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,

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(),
, .
.5.1.


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1

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1 2,
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, 1 1

C/i. 2 2
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. 1 , 2 ,
.

1
1

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. . 5 . 1 .
.

7
1, 1.
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1 /. 1 /
2, , 2,
2. 2 ,
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1

11

1"

. . 5 . 2 .
.


, ,
(. . .5.3).
,

.
. .5.4 . .5.5.

.5.

135

. . 5 . 3 . .


- (), 5.3.
-
.
1 2 .

1
2

2
2

. . 5 . 4 .
.

(. 1.2 1.3
. .5.3)
-.

136

.5.2.

5.4
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-
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.

En

. . 5 . 5 . .

. .5.6
.
1.1
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( 3-4
),
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137

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2.1

>

3.1

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1.2

2.2

7"

3.2

EDD

EDD*""

1.3

2.3

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TZ

3.3

EDD

. .5.6. .


, ,
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-

1;
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138
,


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().
. .5.7.
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. .5.7
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N+

N -

. .5.7. -.


. -

140


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143

; J\RK
.

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.

. .5.10
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).

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ain

(.5.1)

/ ; ^ - - -;
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144
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(.5.2)

1-1

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7;w

:;w

/d

1-1

[7

!,,!,.?

. . 5 . 1 0 . .


:
^
/
t^i
(.5.3)
-1

=
: /, C/i 1, R^
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. .5.11.


,
,
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.5.3.


/ , J\
.
.

146
f7o
,

:
f/o = Oils' { exp

EpD

Rk.

(.5.4)

Is - ---
, Rk ---,
---.
1
9

2
9

/777

^^"^

LD K..:J^:..:.^

+ ^

LU

. . 5 . 1 1 . - .

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, :
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, ^ Ui

^^ = - ^
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, -~ -
, ..)

,
,
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1
-^ cm

_
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-'


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/>
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.

148
,
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(10"'^ -10~^) .
.

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(, ) .
f7i
(
)
. /
, , .
, ,
.
.
-, (-
) ^
. -,
,
.

.6.
,
,
.


, . .6.1.
,
,
, , .
,
, .
Eoj;o f

Vc(t)

I(t)
=^->.

^V
"ol

"t

a)

6)

. . 6 . 1 . : )
; )
.

t =
,
:
t

Vc{t) = ^ j I{Q)dQc^^m-t,

(.6.1)

I{t) t.
}\ :

=CV,{t)
t
, R
:
1

Waucc. = RJ l4e)dQ

~ 2 Rf{T)T

= ^ -

E^jj.

(.6.2)

152

,
Eooit)
RC ,
> ,

(.6.3)


:
.

UR

. . 6 . 2 .
: )
; )
( > RC).

. .6.2 ,

,
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.
-, ,
.
.
-,
RC .

.6.

.

.

( ) , .
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.

CMOS
.
, J\
,
.

. . 6 . 3 . :
) ; )
; ) .

. .6.3 - CMOS-
,
.
. , ,
- MOS-
/
, 5 ^ * '- -



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-\-E(id /< = E^D
..6.). ..6.3 6)
/,
. .

: -
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(1 ).
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EDD , ,
.

.
t/o.

.
(. .6.4). ]

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. ,
- ( 1)-
(. . .6.4)).
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, , ,
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. -

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, (
)
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-
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.
, ,
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.
.

EoD-
.
+.

UBXI

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3)1X1

IjBXi

UBblXi

[jBXn

iCh

C H I

-E.

UBbiXn

-E.

)
+ En

+ Eni.

. . 6 . 4 . a) ; )
.



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; .
.

{ ), . .6.5.


- ( = 1,2,... ,)
,
( 1 , 2 , . . . ,) .
- .
,

.
.
. ,
( + 1), ,
, .

, ^
,
(. . .6.5).
^^

"V

BbiXi

)
. . 6 . 5 . : ) ; ) .

.6.
.6.3.




{N)
.
Ejjo/N.

,
, .
,
Wc-,
.
,

.
^
.
.

,
. , ,

, ,
.
.6.6 ,

-
Eni -]^, 2 = ^, EnN = En

1,2 . . . , /^.

-, - MOS .
. ,

Eni. At,

,
. .
- ^ -

158
-jf"- N
Enii 2^ 5 EN At N
^.

:
W,m = qU = Cn

En
N

2N

2 " ' 7V2-

(.6.4)

VK^,
N , :
W' = N.Wcrn =

\Cn-^.

(-6.5)

(.6.5) (.6.4) ,
CMOS
N .
(.6.5) N -^ W^ > , ..
. .6.6 , ,
/1.
)

1^

. . 6 . 6 . : )
; ) .

/
. {N I)

^ j^ ^ --)
. , , :
/^q = Cn- ' En,

(.6.6)

.6.
1; , ,
,
AWP = \Cn-(^^^

(.6.7)

{N 2)
,
(.6.7), {N 2) . ,
At
, ,
^. ,
(.6.7), ,
.
, ,

, :
W = Cn-^.

(.6.8)

,
. .6.7,
, , ,
. ,

. . .6.7.
,
Eni^ 2^ 5 EN (. .6.6)
Cm ^ '^, Ti, . . . , ,
-
, , . .6.8,
Cji , :

, N ,

(Ti, 2, . . . , ) .
:
Ti = Ri-Ci,

(.6.10)

RiViCi .
:
^''.

(.6.11)

160

==

. . 6 . 7 . ,

.

. . 6 . 8 . .

Ri
,
.
Ci ,
. ; Nonm^ :
^^ .

(.6.12)

4,

m = 3, ,
.
:
^

1
2iV

N-1

-^ +
=1

(.6.13)

,
, :
W = W' + WP={j^+

2N'm-^

] CnEl

(.6.14)

^ ('6.12)
, ^
:

- ^ /4
^.
^ "" 2 V

(.6.15)

. 7.
. , ,
.

. .

.

.7.




. ,

.
.

, .
,
, .

, .


. ;
, ,
.
,

.
- {^ 0,4 ),
.
,
.
.7.1.


: ,
.

62


.
,

.
, (--
)
. --
, ^
, Eg.
.
( ...)
-- (. .7.1 )).
. .7.1 ),
/^,
.
)
hv

qv.

hv

- ^

IJRL

. . 7 . 1 . -- ()

(). (i?L- ).

(.7.1)
-/

Js = Is/S = qn

(-7.2)

: S , Ig , NA
. No
, , Dn
, Dp
, , .
- . .7.2.
-
, ,
.
R^ 80%
/ Vxx {1 , Vxx
).

. .7.2. - --: 1
; 2 .

(.7.1) ,
RL =

(.7.3)

\is

, II
Ig
= IV = IsV ("^/^^ - l ) -

hV

(.7.4)



-^ m ^ ^ ^L

Vxx - (^ In ( 1 + ) - ^

II

(Em/q),
(.7.5)

Vxx - v^T In 1 + )

-^T

(.7.6)

Em ,

.
Ig ^ Si 300
10~^^/^.


:

1 = ^

= ^J^^^^ = / , (/) '^-/^^1 /

(.7.7)

30%
Eg = 1,35, ,
^^^^.

,
Eg, ,
1 2
.

, ,
( )
( ).


, 1353 /^, 925/^
( ), 691 /^
( 60 ).
^

.
844/^ ( 1000 ).

.
, -- ( ), ,
.

.

>^

\ i .

)
. .7.3.

: )
^ , ) , ) ; ) - .

.7.2. -
,

. .7.3
.
^
--- ,
. ,
. ,
, ,
.
- .
, ,
, -- (-
- , - - ).
-
-,
-.
,
.
-.
-, -

166
-. ,
-, -
. ,

,
.
,
, ,
. --
, -.
, --
.
^ . . .7.3 )
. .7.4.


j9-- 1 -
---.


,
( +
).
.
. .7.4, -- 2,

. -
.
-

--,
, ,
.
--,
.

.
, ,
( 3, -

.
+ ).
:
, .
.

(. . .7.4)
. -
- .
. .7.5.
.
^ (
).

'

"

. . 7 . 4 . ^-eea: 1
1-; 2 ; 3 .

.
(. .7.3 ))
, --,
(. .7.6 )).
-
.

-.

-,

. -

168

,
.
.

(+)
+

^ '

"^

'

. . 7 . 5 . .

; -
; --
. ,
,
; J9-n-epexoo.
, ,
,
.

]; . ,
1; -- -
(. .7.6)) ], ,
Jp
JG

= JGO exp

UGS
mcpj^

- 1 JF,

(.7.8)

JG , JGO -,
UGS ~ ; -,
{ = 1 . . . 2).
- ]; - (. .7.6)
.
. .7.6 , -

. 1.

169

,

-'^Fmin JDO =

>^

(.7.9)

JD\UGS=0'

J
)

. .7.6. : ) ;
) --; ) .


, .

.
-
,
--
.

.
(. .7.7)).
, ,
-.
, , , .
.
, 2 ; -

:
2eeQ(pk
ND

(.7.10)

qa"^
q , s -

170
, ,
NAND

(.7.11)

4" V

ijf^

ili\

"

. . 7 . 7 . - : )
, ) .

TV/), (.7.10), (.7.11)


1
10^^ ~^ 10^^ ~^,
4,5 -.
--

,
. ,
-
-
^ = % + /.
(.7.12)
- ,
--
Vn

()

Lp

dx =

(aSj)
a + L-p^ '

(.7.13)

]; , Xj
--, Lp .
(.7.12) (.7.13),
Lp
.

, -
(. .5.2).

.
. .7.3 )
.
)

[]
_jcr-

-fp] -

"

[] D
)

SlO

^ I I

'^ I

Si02

S1

sio

SiO;

. . 7 . 8 . -:
) , ) - (1-1),
) - (2-2).

^

,
. .7.8.
SOL
:
f/ > ,

(-7.14)

[/ - , V^
- .

-

172
, ,
.

.

.
(.7.14)
-.

-
:
,
;
;
,
,
.

^\ .

.8.
1958 . ,
.
.


. .
,
.

, -
,
.

6

,
,
.
. ,

.
KDNF- ,
KKNF
(KNF).

6.1.
-
6.1.1. KDNF
^
.
.
. 6.1.
6 . 1 .

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

XI

0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

XI

0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1

,
, ,
. -

174 6.
- (V-). . 6.1 KV-
, ,
, - .
,
.
=1

" 0100

^3=1

1100 1000

'"

12

13

15

11

! 2

14

10

)
0001 0101 1101 1001

0111 1111 1011


^1=1

=1

) *=1
,=1

0010

1110 1010

=1

^2=1

. 6 . 1 . - 4 : )
; ) .

KDNF
.
:

1
1

\ {

. 6.2. - ,
. 6.1.

,
,

6.1. -
( (3.34)):
{ :ri) V (; ^ xi) =

(6.1)


1.
1, 2, 4, 8 .. .
, .
,
. , 4
, (
).
, . ,

.
X,

__
1
2 - ^

1 1

LiJ

~^j

> XQ

X, <

1
2

. 6.3. - . 6.1

1 :
/i = ~'^1^2
,
. , - / , .
(DNF)
(product term).

1 5. .
;

6.
,
:
2: I2 = ^2^
3: / = -i 3:1X2X3
4: /4 =

-^x^^xix^

5: /5 = -^-^2
^\
,
^\ /5.
, .
:
- , ,
. ,
1,
.
DNF.
- 4:
( )
,
. .
- PR\

.

DNF.
, :

PK =

{hJ2jb)

= 0

PR =

{h,h}



, . ,

6.1. -

177

,
4:
f {XS,X2,XI,XQ)

= ;-^1;2 V xo:z^2^3 \/-12 V -1X0-^X2

(6.2)

, 3:
f {xs,X2,xi,xo)

= xo-'rz:iX2 V XQX2XS -^XQ-^XIXS V ->-':2

(6.3)

6.1.2. KKNF

KKNF . .
.
1

N,
2 \

\^
3,^
Xi

) '

liJ
\\1

1
0

J]

1^

-*'

10

1 0 1^

^ ^

. 6.4. - . 6.1.

, DNF,
0. . 6.4

(KNF).
,
, 1:
1: 1\ = ^ ^2 ^
2: /2 = -> : V ;2
3: 1^ = -^ -^2 xz
4: 1^ = -^^ -^2 ^
5: /5 = V -> ^i V -^2

178 6.
, :

= 0


/*
(6.4)
= ( V -I 2 V xs) (-> V 2) (-> 1 V -12 V ) (^ V -11 V -12)
KNF

:
f {xs,X2,Xi,Xo)

(6.5)
{ V ^ :2 V ) (-^ V 2) (^ V -^ V xs) (: V ^ ^i V -12)
6.1.3. - 2, 3, 4, 5, 6


.
- ,
.

2 1

. 6.5. - 2 3 .

6.1.4. .
.
.
d (don't care). don't care

6,1, -

179

^ .
(. 6.8) ,
.

12

24

28

20

16

13

25

29

21

17

15

11

27

31

23

19

14

10

26

30

22

18

-^0

. 6.6. - 5 .
^4

Xs

1 ^' 8

*2

2"4~ 16

48

56

40

32

25

17

49

57

41

33

27

19

51

59

43

35

10

26

18

50

58

42

34

14

30

22

54

62

46

38

15

31

23

55

63

47

39

13

29

21

53

61

45

37

! 4

12

28

20

52

60

44

36

<

. 6.7. - .

> *!

80

6.

1 ^

1 1

. 6.8. .


d, ,
. d
1.
2

1
2;^

~^ 1

~1
^

^
0

. 6.9. , . 6.7.

:
/ ( , 2 , 1 , ) = -^2

XI

(6.6)

don't care ( d = 0)
:
f {,2,1,)

= Xo-^Xi^X2

V -^X()Xi-^X2

N/^0^:1X2

(6.7)

, don't care
.

6.2. -^
,
, --.

6.2. --
,
(3.34):
{XQ

(6.8)

xi) V (; ^ xi) = XQ.

,
. 1,

(-).
:
;-13723^0

: 10-1

,
. 6.1.
(. 6.2),
1-. :
(
) .
6.2. 1-
.

XI

10

12

13

15

. 6.3
, .
(6.8). ,
, (-).
,
.
1 ,
xi. ,
, . 6.2 (
, , 1 ,

6.
. 6.2 ).
,
(
).
6.3. 1- ( 1).

XI

0,2

0,8

2,10

8,10

8,12

5,13

12,13

13,15

. 6.4 .

, . 6.3. ,
.

, , , .
,
- .
.
, :
8, 12
5, 13
12, 13
13, 15
, 2, 8, 10
6.4. 1-
(2- ); 3- (1 ).

XI

0, 2, 8, 10

0, 8, 2, 10

, ,

6.2.

--


.
, .
, . ,
, .
, ,

.
. , 2 10
, 2, 8, 10,
DNF. , 2, 8 10
, , .
6.5.

8, 12

10 12 13 15

5, 13

12, 13

13, 15

X
X

0, 2, 8, 10 X

5, 1313, 15
, 5 15. 5, 3 15 (0).
6.6.
, (8).

5, 13

10 12 13 15

(8)

8, 12

12, 13

13, 15
0, 2, 8, 10 (8) (8)

(8
(8
(8 (8

(8) (8

,
,
,
.

184

6.

. , ^ 12
8, 12 12, 13.
6.7. .

8, 12

^1-^

5, 13

a:2~'a:ia:o

12, 13

2-'1

13, 15

2,20

0, 2, 8, 10

-^2^

, 12, 13 :
/(,2,;1,;) ^ X2-^xiX() V XSX2XQ \/ x^X2-'Xi V -1X2-'^

(6.9)

, 8, 12:
f {xs,X2,Xi,Xo)

= X2-^XiX{)

V 320 X^^XI-^XQ

V - 1 ^ 2 ^

(6.10)

,
-.

6.3.
, KDNF
KKNF DNF KNF,

. ,
,

.
, ,
:
-
, , NOR NAND;
- ,

;
- ;

6.3. 185
- ,
.

.
&
&

>1

&
&

Xi

2 -iX2

1X3

&

&
1

<)
(

Xi

1^

<
2 -iX2

1X3

&

rUzz: &

<

<>
<

'

<
1

Xi

2 -2

. 6.10. ) DNF; )
; ) .

6.3.1. / -

. 6.10 ,
DNF, ,
-.

186 6.
(. 6.10 ).
-
-, ,
- (. 6.10 ).

L!=

<
>

--2

>1

-^

<1

<
1

-nJC2

&

11

>1

>1

>1
b)

iXs

>1
1

^J

<
(

>

<
1

-^

^3 ~-^

>1

>1
)

. 6 . 1 1 . ) KNF; )
; ) .

6.3.2. /
-
/
, -,
. . 6.11 ,
- (. 6.11 )

6.4' 187
(. 6.11 ) ,
-.

6.4.

6.4.1.

, .
, ,
.
. , ,

. .
. 6.12 , :
(6.11)

= :1 Vx2-^rro
2
4

>

&
'

to
>1

XI

&

. 6.12. .

to-
,
- .
X{^{t\ yi{t)^ 2{^) y{t)
. 6.13. y{t)
^^ -
. .
- (. 6.14)
,
.

188

6.

, 1;2-
:
(6.12)

\^ V 2-' ^0 V \2

J?o(t)A

yi{t)A

*^xh\

2(0

. 6.13. :
, . 6.12 {\ 2 1).

^
0

0
J

1 J

. 6.14. - ,
. 6.12; (
).

, DNF ,
,
, .
(6.11) \2 = 1.
,
.

6.4-

6.4.2.

, , ,
,
1.
, (. 6.15).

1 -
Xi {

ox

1 1

(2b
2

. 6.15. ,
.
.

(,3:^2,^1,^0) = (1,0,1,0) (;,:^2,^1,;) =


= (1,1,1,1) ,

. ,
1, ( 1 . 6.15).
^2, ( 2).

y(t)
2
t
. 6.16. ,
. 6.16,
.

90

6.
6.4.3.

( 4

. 6.17. ().

6.5.
6.1. /(;,^27^1^^)
(. 6.8).
) ;
)
KDNF / ;
) ,

;
) / ;
) KDNF --.
6.2.
.
don4 care. f{x/^^x^^X2^xi^X{))
{^: MSB, XQ: L S B ) :
mo, m2, m4, mr, mie, m2i, m24, ^25, ^28,
:
M l , M9, M i l , M i 3 , Mi5, M18, Mi9, M26, M27, 30, M31.

6.5.
) .
)
. don4 care
.
6.8.

XI

fix3,X2^Xl^Xo)

6.3.
(: MSB, XQ: L S B ) :
fl{xs,X2,Xi,Xo)

=,

7714, ^

/ 3 ( ^ 3 , ^ 2 , ^ 1 , ^ 0 ) = ^ 3 , r7l5,77lj, m n ,

mi5.

) DNF,
.
) ,

, .
) .

6.
6.4. ,
.
(, , -) to.
) = /(,^2?^^)) -.
) - ,
.
) ,
.

,
, , ,
.
SN1. .

, ^,
. .
,
Zi.

-N

+1

SN1

"

Y^

. 7 . 1 . : ,
X Z,
m m -h 1.

J\AR
. ,

,
.

m m + 1.
^,
.
,

.
.

7.

7.1.
.
SN1,
, .
,
SN2 (. 7.2):
(Moore's Automaton)
Z ^
(Mealy's Automaton), ,
SN2
Z ^ , ,
.

SN1

SN2

-1

SN1

i>

SN2

fiix^

z^'

]/LA

b)

. 7.2. ) ; ) .

7.2. .
- (NOR).

(. 7.3). 5 i?,
, (set) (reset).
Qi, Q,
Q2
Q.
, .

1.2.

(-0
ei(0
. 7.3. NOR (
).

,
.
1. S = 1, R = 0.
NOR- Q2 = 0.
NOR- ,
Qi = 1. .
. 7.1,
.
2. , 5 = , i? = 1,
Qi =
Q2 = 1- .
3. , 5 = , = ,

.
Qi == 1,
1 Q2 = 0.
Qi = 1,
0.
.
, Q2 = 1^
, Qi = Q2 = I.
. 7.1 ,
{Q^ = Q^^^). . 7.1
,
Q Q + 1.
4. S = 1 R = 1.
0.
, .

96

7.

7.1.
/25-.

Q"^

Q"^-^^

-Q"^

Q"^+i

-iQ"^+i

Q"'

0
1

7.3. .

/ i /2 (. . 7.2) SN1
SN2. . 7.4
ti.

Z\

>1

+\

2\

. 7.4. ) (-
^^-).


SN1
i t , D , ZJ-^

z^+^ = ^ (- ( 5 V z ^ ) V ) = -^RS V

-^Rz^

(7.1)

SN2^
SNl^
-:
(7.2)
Q"2

. (5 V z"^) = ^S-^zf

(7.3)

l.S.

. 7.1.
,
, (. 7.2).
7.2.
-.
^1
^1

0
1

-5-

5-

VI

-5/

-^S-^R

S-^R

SR

-n5i?

01

00

00

01

10

10

10

10

5 ?2

Z'^'^ .

. ,
Q'^ Q'^^,

.
Z'^ = Z'^^^.
.
i? = ,
S 1 Z'^^^ = 1.

. 7.5. ,
Z]^~^ , .
. ^^ ,
, .
.
, , , Z ^ =
Zf^ 1 i? = , 5 = 1, ,
Zj^ = , R = S = I; Z^^ = 1
R S,
^/01
RS/00

-^5/00

- > ^ -

R/IO

. 7.5. ; ZJ^,
QiQ2-

7.


, 7.2,
.

7.4.
, ];,
. ;
. - ,
, NOR-
(. 7.6).

<J

tl

=:^<

>1 ^

or

Q'

7?
i\

Z2

Z2

>1

<3

^
/1

Z\

. 7.6. (^-S-NOR-xpHrrep),
ti t2.

, ,
. . 7.6
:
(7.4)
(7.5)
:
(7.6)
(7.7)
KV-.
Zj^"^ , Z^^ i?,
5, Z]^, Z'2' (. 7.3). .
, Z]^"^^ Z p Z^"^^ Z'^',
.
.
^
, ,

.
. .
.

1; .
7.3. iiTF-
.
'-\-1 1I ^-\-\

-/-5

-^RS

RS

R^S

00

01

(00)

10

00

00

00
00

00
00

00

00

01
11
10

. 7.3
. . ,
i? = 1, 5 = 1
^2^771 _ QQ g . 7.3

^m+i^m+i ^ QQ R = 0^ S = 0.
, ,
.
Z'2'Z'i^ 00 ,

,
. Z^"^^Z]^~^^ = 11. , ,
, .
:
1. (t\ < ^2)7
Z^~^^Z]^~^^ = 01.
2. ^1 > ^2,
3. ti = t2^ Z^^ Z^'^ = 1 1 .
.
, Z^'^^Z^'^^ = 00,
.
, ,
.
race, ,
,
. ,
RS = 11 RS = 00,

7.

,
.
. 7.7 .
11 ( Z'2'Z'^ 00) RS = 00
.
, iiS'-NOR-Tpnrrepe
. , 11.

tiXi
=/2

h<t2

)
. 7.7. ) /?5'-0-
RS = 11 ( Z^Z"^ = 00) RS = 00,
.
) .

. 7.7 b
. , 00
.
RS = 11,
00
. ,
.
10, S = 0.
.
SR = 10,
00 01, 00.
, , :
1. R = S = 1 jR^-NOR-Tpnrrepa
.
2. ; RS = 11
RS = 00, . 7.7

7.5,
: 00 11,
10 01.
, .
,
RS 00.
3. ,
.
SN1 ,
.
4. ,
, ,
.

7.5.
,
.
, .
(flip-flop, FF),
. .
7.5.1. ^-
^- NAND- NOR-. '- NAND-
.
^ 5- ,
R S
.
'-, ,
,
, .
7.5.2. ^-
RS- ^-
(RS-latch) (. 7.9).
NAND-,
.
^- 7.9.

gm+i ^^ (^ (5) [RC) )) = sc^b (RC) =


=sc "^ \/--""
'

202

7.

,
, S = 1
Q^ = 1 -uR = 1, -^ = 1.
.

ri"
"
1
0

1 1

0
0
1
1

-^' 1

" -.R

^1

"
1

-"
0

"

0
0
1
1

0
1

1
0

0^

^0^ \

g^i

11
0

1 "

-^' 1

+1

. 7.8. ^'- NOR- NAND-. :


, ,
.

. 7.9 ,
. , ,
S R ,
= 0.
.
.
. 7.10 ^-.
, ,
1,
.
, -

7.5.

203

. . 7.10

.
.

S IS

CI

R IR

b)

a)

[s R
11 ^ 00
0
1

Id

1
1
d

e^' -e^' 1

1
1
1
1
0

or1

--or
0

c)

1 1
e" 1 -ng" 1

. 7.9. 725- , ) ; )
; ) .

|
t

^t

1 ' ' '

in

.
t

|
t

Q\

->

-\
toLH

. 7.10.

^DHL

^DLH

tpHL


7?5-; .

7.5.3.

7.

1?-

, , 5-,
,
. D- (. 7.11).
/^- ^^-
, {D) , D = S -^R.
.
, (7.8) D =
= S = -^R. :
Q +1 _ DC V - C Q ^

(7.9)

)- , = 1
, =
.

"

^ .

-^' 1

hj"

1
1
0

0
1

1 1
0 1
-ng" 1

"1

"

. 7 . 1 1 . D-. ) , ) , )
.

. 7.12
D-. ,
D- .
D-
(D delay).
.
, -

7.5.

205

tpLH

tpHL

hlM

. 7.12.
D-.

,
D-, High (..
) ^^ (. 7.13).
,

.
(setup) tg (hold) th-
,
.
tk-
.
7.5.4.

D-

,
D-,

, D- .


,
.
. ,
.
J\KK

206

7.

^^

'.
tK
. 7.13. (setup) is
ih-, iw t^


. 7.14. D-, - 7474.
.
.

. 7.14. D-
(7474). .

1,5.
R 1. -^S 1.

.
. 7.14 :
' { ( - (;^+^- [Dz^])))
^m+1 _

= - V z'^-^D V z'^^z^

(7.10)

. ( - {Dz^) Cz"^) = ^ z^D V z^

(7.11)

' ( ^ r - {^2"^?)) = - ^ r V z^z^

(7.12)

,

. :
(7.13)

Q = zT

7.4.
D- 7474 Z^""^^ , Z^+^ , Z^-^\
ryra lym
Z/i Z^2

fym
^3

-C-nJD

^CD

CD

C^D

000

111

111

001

111

111

010

111

111

on
on
on

on

111

111

on
on
on
Con)

101
101

no
no

100

100

no

Cm)

no
no
Cno)

010

100

111

Cm)

Cm)

on

101

Cm)
Cm) Cm)

Ha (7.10)-(7.12)
(. 7.4).
,
6 .
000 001
. - .
.
, . 7.15,
D-.
001 000 ,
. , = , -

208

7.

:
: Q = z^ = 1

zfzlj^zf

= 111

: Q = z^^ =

. 7.15. D- 7474.

. .

, ,
= 0.
110.
:
1. D = 1, 010
D 011. D
, ,
. ,
D
.
111. ,
Q = ZJ^, 1.
.
.
2. D = , 100.
0. D ,
D.
110.
.
, 111
.

1.5.
, , 1-4, ,
,
1.
D (. 7.16).

/
D

-^^

1 ^

V
. 7.16. D-.

7.16 ,
(
tgu
^),
.
,
D-, .
,
, . ,
,
.
, D-.

h- Q

^^Q
. 7.17. D-
7474 .

7.

7.5.
D- 7474
( ).
|D

gm + l

-5

t
t

g"^

Qrn

-i?

D-
(. 7.5)
. (. 7.17)
.
7.5.5.

, D-
,
,
. ,
,

. ,
, D-
. ,
(clock-skew),
,
.
, ,
,


,

(. 7.19). master-slave. , D-
D-

7.5. 21 I
,
, .

. 7.18. D-.

D-

ID
>1

>1

b--^Q

>

b)

. 7.19. D- : ) ; )
.

7.5.6. J-K-TpMrrep
JK- RS- mas
ter-slave Q -iQ
R S
:
S = CJ-^Q"^

(7.14)

R = CKQ"^

(7.15)

,
. R
S 1,
Q = 1 -iQ = 1.
JK-
RS-
(7.14) (7.15):
gm+i ^sy-^RQ"^

(7.16)

7.

(7.17)
Q"^+i = CJQ"^ V -KQ"* V -CQ

&

J
1

&

(7.18)

'

1 ^

>

:>n

'~

. 7.20. JK-.


, . 7.21.

1
1
1
1
0

J
0
0
1
1
d

0
1
0
1
d

Qm
0
1

-"
2"

~1

- 1

^Q

. 7 . 2 1 . ) ; ) JK-.

, JK- RS-master-slave-, J 1.
J = = 1^
.
JK-.
7.5.7. -.
- (. 7.22) JK-,
, JK-: = J = \,
- toggle-flip-flop.

l.b.
7.5.8.
D-
74175. 4
D-,
.
R.

0
0

6^' 1

-Q

gm

C-|>C1

&"

1 1j j

Jo

-ig" 1

a)

.Q

b)

. 7.22. a) )
-.

CLK
>1
-1 - NR
D,

ID

-.
Q2

D,
D,
. 7.23. 74175, 4 D-
.

7.5.9. .
. 7.6 . ,
. , , , D-
.
. 7.6
.

214

7.

nCLR
CLK

1 ^

<J

D,

ID

'>

>1

R
ID

-&
Q2

/N^
-^>1
1

ID

D,
-

>4

\
<J

>1
D

R
ID

<J

/^>1
L.
R

. 7.24. 74175, 4 D- .

. 7.7

.

.
RS-.

.
, , .
.

-

7,5.

215

.
.
7.6. .

S
RS

IS
1
1R

IS
- 1
1R

ID
1

ID
- 1

JK 1

IS
>1
1R

~1

ID
>1

-1

IT
- 1

>1
1

~1

-1
~1 0

IS

1R

-1 1

ID
>1
-

-1

- 1
1

IT
>1

- >1
1

IT
>1
-

~1 01

~1



.



,
.
.
,
. , -

7.
.
,
7.5.4 D-,
-.
7.7. .

-/~^_7
W

7.6.
7.1.
.
.
)
.
) .
) ?
, .
) .
(

&

~11

1
>1

'

i ^

1
&

>
>1

1 J

&

zo

7.6.

217

7.2.
, Q.
,
1,

. , ,
.
)
. ^ 3 . ()
= I . =
() .
) ^ .
,
. ,
, .
) , .
7.3. ,
7.12, D-.
7.4.
D- . .

1^XI
D

1 -

'ixi
1

ixi
1

'!

KLH

1
-2


-- (
).
:
) , ,
,
.
) , .
, ,
.

218

1,

) ()
().
) .
) .
.

( , ,
, )
,
, CLK.

-N
-]

SN1

F^

CLKi

SN2
^

. 8 . 1 . (Mealy) CLK.

,

.
. ,
(races) ,
.

8.1. ( I)
.
8.1.1.
()
, -

8.

().
JK-.
. ^ =
4 ,
. 8.1.
^ = 1
1.
, 1.
{'^
) .
8.1. ()
Ml, 2, (^ = 0).
1
Ml

8.1.2.

0/110

1/000

. 8.2.
(: ^/Mi 2 ).

,
1. ^ = .

"^. "^ = 1,

8.L

1)

1 "^ 1.
000.
:
1. (Mealy),

^ .
^ 1,
4
1.
2. 1
. "^ = 1.
8.1.3.


^
3 (. 8.3).
4 , JK-.

SN1

fi(r^
^0,

1 4

q 1|
CLK.

Jx
1 <|-

1|

SN2

. 8.3. .

8.

, JK-, 4
.
. ,

.
. , ,

.
JK-
Zi^ . 8.2.
-
.
8.2. .

Zl

Z2

^ SN1
SN2.
.
8.1.4.


, . 8.2.
,
.
, m m 4-1,
. (. 8.3) Mi,
2 ,
z
,rr
^ , ^ ^ z!^

n+l

^m+l

ZQ

8.1.5.

^ JK-, J i , i^i, J2 2 -

8. ( 1)
J ^
z'^
z'^'^^.
8.3.

^1

^0

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

^1

0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0

^0

1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

Ml

1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0

1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

, , z'^ = ,
J = .
= I =
. z'^ = 0.
,
.
8.4. JK-
.
0^

0
0
1
1

^ + 1

0
1
0
1

. 8.4 KB-,
. 8.3 .
JK-,
SN1, -. (. 8.5):

Jo = ^'^-

(8.1)

Jl = -.r'^z^

(8.2)

= r"^ z'P =-^ (-^-^) = -Jo


Ki=r'^y
^z^ = - br'^z^) = - Jl

(8.3)
(8.4)

224

8.

8.5. KB- JK-


.

JiKi

JoKo

JiKi

JoKo

MiMiMi

1 Od

Id

Od

Od

111

Id

do

Od

dl

! oil

1 dO

dl

dl

dl

010

1 dl

Od

dl

Od

110

MiMzMj

000 1
000

000 1
000 1

'zo

'z\

KB- ,
SN2:

Ml = ^"*--z^
2 = -"*
= -r^'-zj" = Jo

(8.5)
(8.6)
(8.7)

&
/^

&

zo

-iZo

dr

CI <f K.
IK

A^

CLK.
Jx

-iZi

dr

IJ
CI < Ks

IK

Hdi

. 8.4. .

, JQ .
-. -

8.2. ( 2) 225
Ki = - Ji

8.2. ( 2)
8.2.1.
,
- --.
. D- . 8.5.
. D-, ^
D-.
, SN2
.
, CLK.

SN1

D:

ID

ID

-iZz

Di


-^1

zo
CLK

Zo

D.

ID

-iZo

. 8.5. .

8.2.2.


,
J\RR

8.

. . 8.6,
. 4 8 .

. 8.6. (
^, ^, ^').

8.2.3.

(. 8.6)
. 4 ,
.
. ,
, -
,
. .
8.6.
.

^0

8.2.4.

^ + 1

^ + 1
^0

,
D-,
KB-. ,
D- , D-,
: Di = z^'^ . (d).
. 8.7 :
D2 _ m+l _

^z'P^z^ V

^2 ""^

(8.8)

8.2. ( 2)
(8.9)

Di = 2^"+^ =
^m+1 Zi Z2

Do

Z2

Di^zi"

02= "

(8.10)

d
.

4^

Zo

V . . _

^.

>

Z\

22

Do-=zo"

zo

0 j

. 8.7. KB- D.

8.2.5.



000, 011, 101 111. (. 8.7)
.
8.7.
.
^

^2"

^1

ZQ

^2

m+l
^0

^1

228

8.

8.2.6.

(. 8.8),
, , ,
. 2 .

. 8.8.
.

, -
don't KB- (. 8.7)
. 001, 010, 100
.
&
&"
>1

&"

/~^
-^2

L,

ID

I D^

1<

"^

{/\)

'"

<

ID 1

^'

1<

\^

/~
-^0

^
^

CLK
. 8.9.

ID
1<

Do

8.2. ( 2)
, ,
,
. ,
,
. , ,
don't care.
8.2.7.

, (. 8.10) ,

.
.
\/\

W+-1

SN1

V/U

CLK'
. 8.10.


, CLK (. 8.11).
tkHt
.
(clock skew)
, .
D-,
.

,
tkrit .
. 8.11 z'^.
.
. "^
, .

SN1.
.

8.

CLK
FF

^WK

^
j

2'"

X'"

^\\

1
h

*-min
^

i
i

ti>0

t2>0

. 8.11. .

,
tmin .
tmin (
). .

.
.
tmax .
.
,
tmin
. tmax 5
,
2:^+1 (. 8.11).

. ;
,
; .

8.3. 231
z'^^^
.
^1 0.
^1 "= tmin '^krit >

(8.11)



tmin-

,
.

.

.
,
,
.
:
^2 = twK

- tmax >

(8-12)

,

SN1 SN2.

SN1.
SN1,
, z^^^.
,
,
'^ z'^ (. 8.12).

8.3.
8.1. ,
, , D. R{= reset)
V (= Vprvarts, forvard, ) :
R = 0 V = I , , , D, , ;

8.
= V == D, , , , DC;
R = 1 V.
) .
) .
) D - .
J \ l
-||

SN1
HJ

CLK.

SN2

"
. 8.12.

8.2. 8.1
, JK-:
) RS-;
) D-.
.
8.3. ,
,
1,5 .
.
1,5 ,
, , .
] ,
50 1 .


, .
, JI^JIK
(1,1)
.
;.

8.3. 233

^
{XI^XQ)
00

50

01

10

5 = 1 ,
.
. = 1 50

)
.
) .

:
.

.

9.1.
,
.
() .

--{1}
h
&

HI>-^

&

&

&l-i

&

&

&

xo (}{}>-

>i

Xa~
--ny

X\
X7~

MUX
EN

^1 G 02)

/o- 0
/ l -

hhhhhh-

. 9 . 1 . 8:1- 74151 .

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

9,1.
. 9.1 74151.
8:1,
8 li
. -
(transmission gates),
^2, ::1, XQ /^ .


-I JE ( enable, ). ,
-iE = 1. -1 ? = .
:
XQIQ V -> 2-^ XIXQII

V 2 XIXQI^

X2-^Xi-^Xol4

V - X2Xi-^Xol2

V 21-^1

V ->

X2XiXoh\/

X2XiX()l7)

(9.1)
. 9.1 8:1-
74151 MUX.
U(G) Xi .
XQ 2 2'
9.1. 8:1- 74151 {
G {0,1})

I?

/i

/o

Xi

0
0
0

9.1.1.


. .
, . 9.2.
8:1.

9.
8:1 ,
.
.

1 ^^h

1
XQ

1
Xi

]M

a)

b)

. 9.2. a) - , ;
) .


/^,
. .
,
. , :2, ^
KB-
2- . . 9.2 ,
.
:
2^, 2 2^, xi 2^.

. -
1, 0.
1.
, 1, ,
1.
, . 9.2 b , Ii
-1 , / 1 ,
XQ.

9.1.


16:1.
1.

8:1.

- --

. 9.3. ,
. 9.2.

li,

1
1
Xl

h j

1
1

Xo

XI {

a)

X2

b)

. 9.4. a) - ,
; ) .

4:1
,

9.
DNF ( KNF),
. . 9.4.
0:2,
.
4:1-,
(. 9.5).
XI ,
.
MUX

-,-dEN

^^

41 b
. 9.5. ,
. 9.4.

9.2.
,
, 1, ,
, 2.
.
, 9.6, .

. 9.6.

:
, , -
;

9,2. 239
;
. , .
^ ,
.

(lb

bI

xi

4
5

[]>

&

X3\l}

HIb

%
9

. 9.7. 7442
-

9.2.1. -
7442
. 9.7
7442. - 1 10.
1 10 , ,
, , , 1.
4 10 .
1
0.
.

=Mi

0,1,..., 9

(9.2)

,
:
= MQ = -^2 -'XiW = -^ {-^xsX2Xi-^)

(9.3)

9.

7442
, .
BCD/DEC, -
. - (BCD)
.
j\jisi .
9.2. 7442 -

0
1
2

2/8

XI

XQ

1 0
1 1

1 0

1 0

1 0

0
0

0
1

1 0

10

1 0

1 0

11

1 0

1 1

12

13

14

15

9.2.2.

,
1 , .
,
. ,
.

- .
(. 9.8).
2, xi ; . .
7.

9.2.

(. 9,2). , xs
, ;25 ^i XQ
1.
,
8- .
BCD/DEC

\
2

4
5
Hi

6
1

Xi

. 9.8. .


,
. . 9.9.

7.
li
.
.
(time division multiple access, TDMA,
).
9.2.3.

,
1 , .

? 2^ 1 2^ xi XQ. . 9.5.

, 74138,
3 8 .
,

9.

.
.
BCD/DEC
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8 9 -

MUX

7
/
/i

h
h
/4
/5
/

Ii

'3^2

2
Xi
XQ

. 9.9.
.
9.3. ^/, 2, yi,

3^1

?/1

2/0

,
,
. DNF,
KNF.
, ,
:
, ^\
1, NAND- (. 9.10).
74138
NAND ODER,
DNF.

9.3.

BIN/OCT
0

--
f\

p.

_____

r^

...

11

^2

5 J
6 ^
7

""

4 > - "

-/W6

& II

JPr

'

>'l

'

. 9.10. DNF
BIN/OCT
--/
,
/2

^0 1

Xi - | 2

/4
/5
-/

&

&

&

&

. 9.11. KNF .

KNF . , ,
, ,
- (. 9.11), KNF
.

9.3.


(trans-

9.

mission-gates).
,
. . 9.12.

, , .
BIN/OCT
7
6

\ 5
^

\
1

1
S1

1
S6

1
S5

1
54

so-i

1
53

1
S2

1
51

1
50

. 9.12. (
) (
)

9.4.
9.1. /(a2,ai,ao)7
(. 9.13),
. !{ Xi.
9.2.
Fo(ai, 2, ) Fi(ai, 2, )
. . 9.4

9.4'

ai

0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

MUX
EN

/
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1

lo
h
h

f>-- ^y

0
1
2
3

. 9.13.

a) 74138 (. . 241)
.
9.4.
2

Fo

Fi

)
74153,
2
4:1. 74153
.

74153
XQ

\ -

MUX
EN
0
/| 1
h 2
h 3

^ 1 - < :

/in

- ^ 7 ^

/~
/l

EN
0
1

h2
h 3

246

9.

9.3.

.
9.5. ^/2, 2/i,

210

2/2 2/1

2 XI

2 1

000

000

100

110

001

001

101

111

010

011

110

101

011

010

111

100


, , ,
.
.

10.1.

, .

.
.

.
10.1.1. 8
8 JK-
, . 10.1.
J- - JK- 1.

.
.

. 10.1. 8, JK-
.

10.


, . 10.2. 111
000.
8, 8
.
L

I
&

1 .

. 10.2. 8,
. 10.1.

.
. 10.2,
.
10.1.2. 6
6
8. , JK-
R.
,
6(100).

Qi Q2 (. 10.3). 6
110.
. 10.4,
. , ,
.

10.1.

249

. 10.3. , JK-

^*

Qo i i


11

2
/

.. i

Qi i i

fc_

. 10.4. 6,
. 10.3

10.1.3.


,
Qi , -^Qi (. 10.5).
JK-
, ,
. 10.6.

, .
.

10.

10.1.4.


, ,
tpd . . 10.7
,

. ,
.

^1

. 10.5. 8, JK-

^1 4

Qo 1 i

.,

1 1

11

1 1

Qi i i

'

. 10.6. 8,
. 10.5


100 .
.
fmax ,
tpd^
(10.1).
.
/ = ^

(10.1)

10.2. 251
.
.

.
^1 4

Qo

000 ' 001

010 011

^^QI

101

110 111

. 10.7. . 10.1
8, .

10.2.

D,=Qr'
ID

."
U

^,""

>1

ID

So"

t>ci

CLK

. 10.8.

,
8 . . 10.8
D-. RS- JK-.
-

10.

.
.

8 .
.
10.2.1. 4-
.
4- ,
JK-.
^ 1111 0000.
(. 10.1).
10.1. 4-
.
\/^ Q-+1 Q^+1
V3 42 41 40

"^' Qo^'.

! 0

L^m /^ +1 gm + 1
QT'^' Qo^^'
\! 42 41 40

11

1 0

11

1 0

1 1

1 0

1 0

1 1 0

1 1

1
0

1 1 0

1 1 0

1 1 1 0

1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 0


JK-.
. 8.4,

. KB- (. 10.9),
JiKi.
JK-
:
(10.2)
Ji Ki Q^

(10.3)
(10.4)

Jz = K^ = Qlo^QTQT

(10.5)

10.2. 253

J2K2

Qi"

."
fod' Od

dO

dO

Od

Od

dO

dO

Od

Id

dl

dO

Od

Od

dO

dO

r b d dO

do

Od

Od

dO

dO

Od

Id

dl

dl

Id

Od

dO

dO

Od

\Qo'

Qr I

02"

Qi"
JiKi

JQ^O

or

Qi"

Qr \

[Qo"

rod

Od

Od

Od

rTd~

Id

Id

Id

Id

Id

Id

Id

dl

dl

dl

Id j

dl

dl

dl

dl

dl

dl

dl

Id 1

do

dO

dO

do

Id

Id

Id

Id

Qr I

\QO^

Qi"

62"

. 10.9. KB- JK-

, ,
KB-.
, ,
,
1.
4 .
:

4 =

QfQ^QTQ'i

(10.6)

. 10.10

10.

Q^

Qi

&l

<i>ci

<j>Cl

JlK

&

P-

&

JlK

IK
|R

IK
|R

HlJ
-<|>C1

-JR

RST^
CLK^

. 10.10. 4-

10.2.2. 6

6 . 6 ,
,
. D-.
(. 10.2). 6
. , 100,
1.

KB- D-:
10.2.
6 .

QT

QT

Q^
0

Q-+1

Qr+'

Q^S"^'

10.2. 255
D-:
(10.7)

D2 = Q r ^ = QT-Qo

(10.8)
(10.9)

Q2
1

Q<r

1
d

Do=Qo'

D,=Q'

^"

QT

1
1

" 1 1

d
.

fio"

<i

1
1

<i
^

er

er

. 10.11. KB- D-
6

^ D\ don't care
1, don't care
0.
010.
KB-
= ^Q'S^^QTQ?

(10.10)

. 10.12.
, . 10.13,
,
.

"

Do,
ID
|-|>1

^^}
&
-.Q"

^.

Di

^1

62"

ID

."

ID
>1

^Qi"

& *

CLK.
. 10.12.

256

10.
. 10.13.
6,

10.2.3. 4-
74191

74191
CTRDIV16
D/^U
CLK

G1
M2[Down] 2(CT=0)Z6
M3[UP] 3(CT=15)Z6
1,2-/1,3+

tr

MAX/MIN

nRCO

^LOAD .

xo

C5

5D

^'^'^

Qo

[1]

^1

[2]

X2

[3]

^3

[4]

Qi

23

. 10.14. 4-
74191

4-
(forward-backword counter).
. . 10.14.
CTRDIV16 (counter dividing by 16) ,
16. -^CTEN (counter enable)
. D/^
.

10.3.

CLK .
1, 2 1, 3-h. ,
^CTEN ( GI) .
( ),
2 ^
DI-. ,
-^RCO , G4.
MAX/MIN
( 3) ( 2). ,
. MAX/MIN
1, ,
== 0.

= 15. MAX/MIN ,
, Z- (Z6) MAX/MIN,
CLK = (- G4) CTEN
(- 04). 6, 1, 4
-^RCO^ Z
G. , -^RCO ,
MAX/MIN .
(:,^2,^^) = 1000,
7 1111.
^ = 0. ->LOAD^
1000 .
,
16,
16 -iRCO.

10.3.
10.1. ,
000, 111, 110, 101, 100, 011, 000 ..
10.2. , = 1
000, 001,
010, 011, 100, 000. F =
. 3 D-.
10.3.
74191, .

11

,

(bucket-brigade). , , D- JK-. . 11.1
JK-. ,
,
.
02

Qi

J\
Ess

>C1
/^
IK
Kx
CLK

(1

Ji

Q3

/
IJ
>C1
IK

JA

>C1
IK

Q4

IJ
>C1
IK
KA

As

!p -

. 1 1 . 1 . JK-.


Es Ag.
Qi,
:
gm+l ^ ^
gm+1 ^ gm ^

-Qr

(11)
< i < 4

(11.2)
(11.3)


(CPU)
. ^[^
- -
. ,
(first-in first-out, FIFO, ).

11.1.
:

11.1.

,
,
(clock skew).
, ,
.
,
.
-
.
,
D- (. 11.2).
D- to.
Es

Dx

\QxJ>i

IFi
IJJ

As

>C1

p("

tA

. 11.2. D-
.

. 11.3 (^ = 0)
. ,
.
. 11.3 b
^-

260

11.

W2
1 ,
, .

CLK

/?>

W1

"V

W1

__

.
|^^2

. 11.3 . ,
. 11.2, (fo = 0).

to Q^
, Q\
.
.

D.

"V

CLK

\_

"V

f
Wl

f
_

X^^Ki
QxPi

W2

Qi

^ ^ ^
W2 _
\^K2

W2
\ ^ K 2

...

. 11.3 b . ,
. 11.2, (^ = 0).

,
. -

11.1.

.
I 1.1.1. 74194
4- . 11.4
74194.

, S'o Si (. 11.1).

.
74194

SRG4

3
R
1>4

CLK
ESR

1,4D
3,4D

QA

3,4D

QB

3,4D

V-Qc

3,4D
2,4D

ESL

-QD

. 11.4. 4-
74194.
11.1. 74194.

So 5i
1

1
0

0
0

CLK

EsR

EsL

QA

QB

Qc

QD

QA

QB

QC

QA

QB

QC

Qc

QD

t
t

QB

QB

Qc

QD

QA

QB

Qc

QD

, 5 ,
, D. So = 1 Si = 1

11.

3.
. , 5 , ,
D, ESL ( ) ESR ( )
.
2, 2
ESL-
QA QB-,
.
ESR

ESL

So-\\b
>1
S^-^\p

&

&
CLK-A I

1
>l

8c

&

&

&

>1

&

U.^ l t >

&

&

&

&

1
>1

Clear-\ 1
ID
t>Cl

ID
1>C1

ID
{>C1
MR

Si?

ID

1>1
P-

Qc

t>
QD

. 11.5. 4-
74194.

I 1.2.


. . 11.6
.
:

g-+i=/(Q-Qr,Qr)
QT' = QT
QT^ = QT

(11.4)
(11-5)
(11.6)

11.2.


f{QT^Q2^^QT)-
.
. 11.4
, . 11.6.
D-
. + 1 D-
, . Q^^
Q2^ D- 2 3.

m^Qi^.Qn

CLK
. 11.6. .
11.2.
. 11.6.

QT^'

Q-+^

QT"-'

/(0,0,0)

/(0,0,1)

/(0,1,0)

QT

Q^
0

\QT

/(0,1,1)

1 1

/(1,0,0)

/(1,0,1)

/(1,1,0)

/(1,1,1)

, ,
: 000, 100, 101, 001, 000 ..
As
000100010001. ,
4. , -

11.


, , ,
.
4.

. , . 11.3,
, .
11.3. :
000, 100, 010, 001, 000.

QT Q"^ Qr Qr^' Q?^'

Q7^'

/iTF-
/ ( Q f , Qf, Qf).
M+l

Qt

fiQT,QT,Q?) = -^QT-Qf^Q:

(11.7)

I 1.2.1. ,

( ).
. . 11.7
JK-.
, ,

.

CLK
. 11.7. , JK-.

11.2.

= Ki = f{QT,QT,QT,QT)

= ^Q?

(11.8)

Ji = Ki =
, Ji =^ Ki = 1 .
. ,
, ,
.
.
.
11.4. ,
. 11.7.

QT Q? Qf QT QT^' QT^' QT"-' QT'^'l \QT Q? Qf Qr QT^^ (5^+1


0

1 0

1 1 0

1 0

Q3-+1

Qr^'
1

1 0

1 1 1 0

1 0

1 1 1 1

1 1 0

1 1 1

o i l

1 1

1 0

1 0


, . 11.8.

. 11.8. ,
. 11.7. QT, Q?, Qf, Qf.

11.

I 1.2.2.


,
,
.
.

.


( , exclusive NOR).
. 11.9 ^\ = 7.
=1

ev

Q2
ID
1>1

ID
h>Cl

ID

ID

4>1

Qy"
L_

ID

ID

>1

J>C1

ID

CLK
. 11.9.
.


As
.
,
.
-. .
,
-, :
= 2^ - 1

(11.9)



, 0. ,
-

11.2.

.
, , 1
, 0.
.
.
.
. 11.5
= 8.

, , 0.
,
.
11.5.
(-
, X ).

3
7

15
31
63
127
255

. 11.10
= 3.
.
=1

0"
ID
>1

ID
t>Cl

0"
ID
t>Cl

A.

CLK
. 11.10.
= 3.

11.
Ag ,
: 1 1 1 0 0 10.
,
1 1 1 .

I 1.3.
11.1. D,
:
0 1 0 0 1 1 ..
D- ?
11.2. ,
.
,
.
11.3.
, JK- 2 D-.
) Es = f{QT^Q^->Q^) -^^
.
)
.
) .

CLK

12

12.1.
3
. ,
, .
,
.
^
Fi (carty) +
Fi = -^ -^ Xiyi V -^ CiXi-^ V - ^i"^ yi V CiXiyi = Xi yi iW Ci

(12.1)

Ci+1 = V Ci {Xi V yi)

(12.2)


, tp^ t^^ = 3tp.
: t^ 2tp.
S
,

CI

Xi

. __

i;

F.

. 12.1. ,
(12.1) (12.2).

12.2.
, ,
,
(full adder)
. .
,
X. .
, -
- ,
t^ = .

270

12.

. 12.2. m .
- .

12.3.
(ripple-carry-adder)

- ,
(. 12.3).

xi

. 12.3. 4

-
? Ci ,
. ,
Cm :

ZiJlhL'p

(12.3)

{tu -^ bergang = )
, , ,
(most significant bit (MSB)).
,

12.4-
( 1) ^
Fm-i- MSB Fm-i
:
t s = (2 (m - 1) + 3) tp = (2m + 1) tp

(12.4)

.
( ),
3tp. ,
8-
2^"^ = 131072 (8 + 8 + 1() = 17).

.

12.4.

(carry-lookahead adder). ,
, ^
. ,
.
(12.2)
:
1 = { V ) == ^0 V

(12.5)

^0

2 = xiyi Vci {xi V yi) = giW cipi = gi\/ gopi V copopi


91

(12.6)

Pi

C3 = 22 VC2 {X2 V 2) = ^2 V C2P2 =

=92 V giP2 V gopiP2 V copopiP2

(12.7)

C4 = VC3 (X3 V ) = ^3 V =
93

= V 2 V giP2P3 V 12 coPoPiP2P3^

(12.8)

12.
:
9i =
=

(12.9)
(12.10)

gi 1 , +i
.
1 (
(12.9)). (car
ry generate). pi
, , Ci = 1^ pi 1,
1 ( (12.10)). Pi
(carry propagate). . 12.4
. ,
^ npi.
12, 5 12,7 -^CQ -i .
,
Fi. , :
=gi^Pi

(12.11)

(12.1):
Fi = Xi^Xi^Ci

= Qi i\>pi^Ci

(12.12)

-iF^,
^.
^ F i -^<+>^-^

(12.13)

, . 12.4
,
. ,
-iP -iG,
(12.8) (74 , Fi
4 , :
tE = 4tp

(12.14)

-^ ^G :
tp = tg = 3tp

(12.15)

12.4'

273

>1
\=^

^3

&

-./^

&-

^3

.
'

-1

^~1

-lOI

pi

ts
is

g2

>1

2 .

5*2

"1

^1

^2

-|2|

>1

^1
XI

51

.^1

-iC^l

>1

&
>1

go
.

so

=1

.Fo

-iCO

. 12.4. -^d
(carrylook-ahead).

(hardware) ,
- ,
(12.5)-(12.8) ( 4).
Ngi

^. = '
=0

(12.16)

274

12.

^ Ne
Ne = m

(12.17)

. 12.5. , . 12.4.

12.4.1.


,
4-
.
16- ,
4-
(CLA).
4- i ( = 1 . . . 4)
-iPi -iG^
CLA-.
12.5-12.8.
4, Cg .
74182.
4 - Go V - - ( - G o - P o V -c^Go)

(12.18)

8 = Gi V 41 = Gi V GoPi V coPoPi =
- - {- G i - Pi V - G o - GiPo V - cn-- G o - Gi)

(12.19)

12.4- 275
12 = 2 V CsP2 = G2 V G1P2 V G0P1P2 V 0012 =
= -n(-nG2-P2 V ^ G i - G 2 - P i V

V - G o - G i - G 2 - Po V - Cn- G o - G i - G2)

(12.20)

C16 = G3 + C12P3 =
= G3 + G2F3 + G1P2P3 + GQP1F2P3+C0 P0P1P2P2
G

(12.21)

-1P = -^ Po V - Pi V ^ P2 V -1P3

(12.22)

-I G = -1G3 P3 V -> G2~i G3-iP2 V -Gi-" G2~' G3->PiV


V-G0-G1-G2-G3

(12.23)

74182 Gie ,
-iG ( ) ( ),
(
(12.21)) Gie . 12.6
, 74182. ^ G^
Geppyc, ,
. 12.4.
74182 . 12.7.
16
4 - (, ALU)
. 12.4, 74182.
. 12.8.
12.4.2.

. 12.1 3
. ,
CLA- .

12.1. /tp.
4

16

64

12

48

192

33

129

CLA-

12

276

12.

47
^&
~

1 1 1

[>T

i 1

-/'
-^3

4^p

144

\\\

-/>,/^

1 W^j

1~
{-

1
1 |_i

L
L

IT1

~L_
1J

>1

iX

"" 2

i
iT

T JX

J T

,
/^

-.]

.
/^

>1

-.Go

[T]J
. 12.6. 7418.

12.5. -
(1,)
- (., arithmetic logic unit=ALU)

. ,
j\RR . ,

, , , -
.

12.5. -

CPG

CI

-iGo | CGO
1
nG,ClCG 1
2
-.G
G2_dCG2
-dCP3
-,dCG2

-.

C G t > - ^^G

COl
02

. 12.7.
74182.

4- 74181.
, 4- S',
.
.
ALU 74181
, . 12.4.
pi gi [ [
:
= - {^\/

Siyi)

Pi = -" (<S3-^ Xi-^ Vi V 52"^ Xiyi)

(12.24)
(12.25)

S = (1,0,0,1) p[ = pi VL g[ g.
. 12.9.
pi ^^, . 12.4.
ALU 74181 . 12.10. ,

(EXOR) (12.13).
tf.
= 9i^Pi

= ^ {ss^Xi-^yiW

S2^Xiyi\/

-81\/ -^SQXi^yi)

(12.26)

S
, .
? ,
-> .
,
0.
(12.5)-(12.7)

12.

CI (0.15)
(0... 15X^0

-.G

CI
<1CP0
-qcGO
qcpi
qcGi
qCP2

CI (..5)
(0. 15)0

-,G

dCG2

CPG
cpb

-.P
-?

n,>1

Cl6

CGf>

coo
CO I
C02

10
II

CI (.^

-iP
-iG

(0...15)CGp

. 12.8. CLA ( )
16 , 4- CLA.

12.5. - 279
^ UQ [/3- = /^
Ct:
= -^ )
ui = -^ {- ' V - ')

(12.27)
(12.28)

^2 = - ( - [ V - '^[ V - MpJjp'iCo)

(12.29)

= - ( - ^^ V - ['2 V - M^()p'op'i V - Mp'oPiP2Co)

(12.30)

&
&
-iV/

&
&

>1

g-'

S2
S3

. 12.9. 16 .

= ( )
(12.5)-(12.7). = 1
Ui = l.
. 12-4, ->{
(EXOR)
:
-^Fi=UiMti

(12.31)


(12.8):
-. = V 52 V 9'iP'2P'3 V 9oP'lP'2P3

(12.32)

-- - = PoP'iP2P3
4 = G Pop[p2p'sCQ

(12.33)
(12.34)

280

12.

12.5.1.
:
: S =
= (1, 0,0,1). :
[ = ^ {-.\/

-^) = = Qi

(12.35)

- = -1 (- ^ ) = Xi\/yi=pi

(12.36)

U = 9z<^Pi

(12.37)

= , :
= -^

(12.38)

= -- {)

(12.39)

U2^^

(12.40)

{gi V gopi V popico)

^3 ^ ^ {92 V giP2 V gopopi V P0P1P2C0)

(12.41)

Ui = ", , ,
:
^Fi = Ui^ti

= ^Cii\^Xii\>yi

= -^ {CiZ )

(12.42)

(subtraction)
: = ( 0 , 1 , 1 , 0 ) 5 .
[ [:
- = ^ (- V yi) = -^

(12.43)

'. = ^{-^

(12.44)

) =\/-^

, (12.35) (12.36)
. == 1,
1, (
) .
.
(negation)
iS = (0,0,0,0) = 1.
(12.26):
= ^ {Xiyi V -^) = ^ Xi

(12.45)

= 1, /^ = 1,
(12.31) ^:
^Fi = UiM>ti = ^ti = -- {-^Xi)

(12.46)

12.5. -

281

^1
>1

-n^~rfib

8L

&
-^-

-1
W3
&^

\2

gxCS
-

4-{1>

>1

IS

>\ w^1

-1X2"

-1

-11

-Ki>

-ni^2

U2 r-L

^
}

>1

^ ' ^

X^Y

1^^
-1

-:

=1

i/i

-/^1

>1!

-!}^

>1

^0

-^0

-So
}

^2
^3

/[1>

~/

282

12.

74181

ALU
^0

(0...15)CP

-31

1
jCi

"^2

Cm"

(0...15X:G

6(P=Q)^
(0...15)CO

-J'
-.G
X=Y

[1]
[2]
Cn+4

[4]

- dp"
[8]
. 12.11. ALU 74181.

(disjunction)
S = (1,0,1,1)- ^ 3 = 1.
(12.26):
t^ = -. (-. Xi^ ) =Xi\/

(12.47)

= 1, 7^ = 1,
(12.31) Xi yf.
^Fi = UiM>ti = ^ti = -^{xiV yt)

(12.48)

(conjunction)
S = (1,1,1,0) = 1.
(12.26):
= - - ( - Xi-^ yi V V Xi^ ) = - {- XiM -^) = ^

(12.49)

= 1, /^ = 1,
(12.31) Xi yf.
xFi=Ui<Wti

= ^ti

= ^ ()

(12.50)

32 ,
. . 12.2
,
ALU 74181.

12.6.
12.2. ALU 74181.

51

So

Fi
= 1

= 0

S3

S2

-i(xy)

() - 1

1
1

-> V

(-, ) - 1

-1

- (^ V ?/)

X -\- ( -^)

-"

-\- { -> )

-1

= 0

= 1

- \

- (^ )
X V -/

- - 1

-\- { )

4>

->
-\-
(x-iy) +

0
-^(-^)-\-1
}- { -> ) -{-1
-
V -It/ + 1
-\-()-\-1
+ 2/ + 1

() (x^y)-\-{xyy)

+ l\

-\-

X+X

X -h X -}- 1

-\- X

-\- X -{-1

-> -\- X

x~iy -\- X + 1

+1

,
74182
. .

12.6.
,
, , . ,
, , .
, ,
, , ,

.
.

12.
12.6.1. 2-
^\.
2- ,
{ = ) > < .
(. 12.3).
:
< = ^ xiyi V ^ V ^ V ^
> = ^ 1 ^ 1 V "- ^^ xiXQ-^ yi

(12.51)
(12.52)

^^^ ,
1 , 0:
-^ V

' -^<?/~' -^

^=2/

(12.53)

}\
. . 12.12
.
12.3. 2- .
1

2/0

X=

<

X>

12.6.

285

^0

Xl

1
1b
1

1
&

&

&

&

>1

&

>1

>1

<

>

. 12.12. 2- .

r^

^0

X,

^2

\^

jc<y

<
^3^ =
> >

^
\^Q

P<Q
P=Q
P>Q

. 12.13. 4- 7485.

&

12.

12.6.2.
. 12.13 4-
7485, ^^^ (; = ), ^ >
X < . ,
,
.
12-
, . 12.14.
,
1,
0.
; . ,
.
.
.

4.

8.

XI .

5.

2.

7 .

\\ _

^
\^
\\

P=Q
P>Q

\
2

. 12.14. 12- 7485.

12.7.
12.1. 74181
4- ?
12.2. 74181
= 1 5 = 0110.
12.3.
.
16 .
4, 5 7
1-, 2- 3- ().

12.7. 287
.
,
tp (
2tp).
^0...3

MUX
0...2
Cl

1
h - ^4...

|1 S S

iQ
..

'

- /

4.

CI S 2

IQ

col
Cl

^,CI

7
9...15 -ir

1 -J|1

&

>1

MUX
G
1

I ^

&

>1

13

.
1;
. :

.
,
,
. ,
CD-ROM . .

, .
, .
FIFO (first in, first
out). ,
.

( )
,
.
.
,
.


, .



. .

.

IS.l.


.
.

().

13.1.
.

.
. :

,
.

; ,
. , 1;
; ^ (chip select, CS).

, ;
. ; - ];
(read-write, RD-W).

.
, ,
, tristate (
).
output enable (, ),
.

13.2. ROM
ROM ,. read only memory (
, , ).
ROM ,
.
.
.

13.
ROM- , .
1, 4, 8 16 .
ROM, ,
(. 13.1).
. ,
1 .
(word line),
(data line).
. ? 2
^ .
(word line) ^
2 .
.

,
. 8 x 8 .

BIN/OCT

,.

~^

I IIIIII I

1234567

BIN/OCT
1

A-i As
. 13.1. ROM 8 x 8 .

ROM 4 x 4
. 13.2. 16 -
.
( High), .

, , ,
,
.

13.3. PROM
^ -
. ;
.
^ -
, ;
, ,
, L.
VDD-
,
.
, ^\
, .
ROM 1 8
. 13.3.
{^CS) {-^).
-iCS ROM,
ROM. ->0
L, .
ROM
. .

. 8
,
. tristate
( ).

13.3. PROM
PROM ROM, ,
. PROM
,
.
. 13.2.
PROM ; (fusible link).
. 13.4. ,
,
. , ^
; .
.

292

13.

.
.
OTP-ROM ( one time programmable),
ROM .
PROM ROM (. 13.3).

^
DX

IJ 1

'DD

1 1

1 1
n
IJ

DX

h ^

h ^
&

Q
EN

. 13.2. ROM 4 x 4 .

13.4. EPROM
EPROM erasable programmable ROM,
, . EPROM
ROM PROM

.

13.4-

EPROM

ROM lKx8
Ai.

AV

AV

Ai.

AV

A,.
As.
Ae.

1023

-Q2

AV
AV

Ai.
A%.
A9.

nC5

-Qo

AV
AV

-q&

AV

lEN

. 13.3. ROM IK x 8.


(. 13.5).
- ,

. .

.

Ul

^ +

. 13.4. PROM.


- -
.
. L
,
.
, , ]; .

13.

.
;
.


.
.
,
.
20 , ,
, .
.

.
'^

Si02

Up

MOSFET


. 13.5. , .

,
.
EPROM ROM (. 13.3).

13.5. EEPROM
EEPROM
, (electrically erasable programmable
ROM).
.
EPROM,
. -

13.6. EAROM
.
,
, ;
. .
EEPROM flashEEPROM ( EEPROM).
, .
ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM
,
PROM EPROM,
ROM PROM.
EEPROM
ROM (. 13.3).

13.6. EAROM
EAROM ,
(electrically alterable ROM). EAROM
EEPROM.
EAROM EEPROM.
,
:
EEP
ROM,
EAPROM
EEPROM, flash-EEPROM,
, .
EAROM ,
.

13.7. NOVRAM
NOVRAM (not volatile RAM)
RAM (random access memory).
( random access memory)
- ,
.
EEPROM.
RAM

13.
EEPROM. RAM,
,
EEPROM, .
13.1. .

ROM (read only memory)

PROM (
ROM)

ROM,
PROM (OTPROM)

EPROM (erasable ROM)

(20
),

EEPROM (electrically
erasable ROM)
flash-EEPROM


(20-100 )

EAPROM (electrically
alterable ROM)

,
(20-100 )

NOVRAM
(nonvolatile RAM)

,
(100 )

13.8. RAM
RAM random access memory (
, ). ,

. RAM
RAM (DRAM). RAM
.

, .
13.8.1. RAM
RAM . 13.6. . .
.
.
, DL,
. , 4 .

13.8.

RAM

L.
. L ,
DL. ];
. .


DL


-.DL

. 13.6. RAM, -.

J\RR
. .
13.8.2. RAM
RAM.
2 8 , 2 .
. 13.7.
-^CS (chip select, ),
-^ ,
. -^CS = ^
.
,
tristate ( ),
]; ->0 .
11
AQ-AIQ, RD/-^WR
, RDf-^WR = L .

13.

,
As

Ai

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

Ai

RAM 28

2047

_
\ _
-^OEAQX
-CSA G2
2C3 [WRITE]
1,2 EN[READ]
Do

A,Z4

V4
^>
Ds
De
D,
. 13.7. RAM 2 x 8 .

(. 13.8)
.

RD/^WR

= .

,
-^CS ,
^. RAM
.

:
tjic read cycle time.

. ,
.
1 address access time.
,
, ,
.

13.8. RAM

299

tco ^ = L
.
too , ;
, -^ .
tRC

!
j

in ,

..
1

-,5

/
t

tco
'^

^
~ \
i
i

! ho

>

RDI-.WR
t

\ ?

\
i
t

. 13.8. RAM.

. 13.9 .
-^ = ; (
, )
.
RD/-WR
= L ^CS = L. :
1. (early write).
RDj-^WR = L,
-^CS.
. 13.9.
2. (late write).
-iC5 = L,

300

13.
RD/-^WR = L.
RDj-^WR = L -^CS = L .
twc

1
(

nCS

(AS

tAH

(fv

-^OE

RDI^WR

( /-<-

. 13.9. RAM (early write, ).


:
iwc write cycle time.
.
IDS (setup time).
toH (hold time) D-.

.
tAS (address time set).
IAH (address hold time).

13.9. RAM
IAS ,
-iCS'- tw
.
1 ,
-^CS.
^ RAM.

13.9. RAM
DRAM ( RAM)
,
.
DRAM .
DRAM . 13.10.
.
.
, L
.
,
().

11



. 13.10. RAM.

RAM ,
.
, ,
.
; .

, ,
.

13.
TMS416400. DARM
4 4 .
64 .

, .
(. 13.11) TMS416400
10 12.
^RAS (row
address strobe, ), ^CAS (column address strobe,
).
4 .

4h

DQo

D(2^

>

I I I I I 1 I II

-JUS

-^CAS

. 13.11.
(TMS416400).

DRAM

4 4

TMS416400 . 13.12.
, -^RAS (
20) AQ
( 21).

. 13.13.
,
-^RAS. ,
-^CAS.

13.9. RAM

20 (721. ->WR 1
t^^,
. -^CAS ( 21)
-^RAS = ( 23 24) -^ =
( 25).
.
RAM4194Kx4
20D10/21 DO \

iV-

TMS416400

) 4194303

Ai -

\\\--

20D19/21D9
20D20
20D21
/
24[PWRDOWN]
G23[REFRESH ROW]
'-d> C20[ROW]

-,CAS- G24
1-Cf>C21 [COLUMN]
&

23,2ID
G25

-DQo

ZL

A,22D
V26

t> 23C22
24,25EN

JI
A,Z26-f

. 13.12. TSM416400.

, ,
, .
(. page mode),

.
->RAS = 0.
-

13.
^CAS.
TSM416400 ,
-^RAS ,

-yRAS ( hold time).
page mode (
). -^CAS^
. ^\
enhanced page mode tcAC
1-

(^- (

!,
I'

he
^RAS

UA

.CAS

-.

.WR

. 13.13. TSM416400.

,
-^RAS. ,
-^CAS.

13.9. RAM

305

, 23
-^RAS L. ,
-^CAS -^WR L,
. . 13.14 ,
-WR L
-^CAS . early write.
,
-^CAS (setup time) tus
(hold time) ^
.

DC

^RAS

-.CAS

. 13.14. (early write) TSM416400.

-^WR^
late write.

64 (
),
.
. J\RK -

13.
4096
, ^ .
TSM416400
:
(refresh) RAS
^CAS .
,
->CAS -^ L. ,
,
.
,
. ^RAS
.
(hidden refresh).

. ^CAS
L. ,

. -^RAS
L .
.
CAS RAS {AS before RAS).
-^^
->RAS.
.

, .
-^CAS
L ->RAS L .

,
.

13.10. DRAM
DRAM ^
,
DRAM,
RAM.

13.11.

13.11.
,
.
,
. FIFO (first
in first out).
,
, , ,

. , ,
.
LIFI (last in first out),
(stack).
LIFO FIFO.
13.1 . FIFO
FIFO 64 (SN74ACT2226,
Texas Instruments).
,
RAM
(. 13.15). RAM,
.
.
. ,
. ^
. ,
.
FIFO (. 13.16) RAM
, .
,
{RdClk WrClk)^
. D ,
WrEn = 1 (write enable),
(input-ready flag) InRdy = 1, WrClk
. .
RdEn = 1, OutRdy = 1
RdClk , Q
.
, RAM
, .

13.

,
,
. , 1 ,
.
, .
1.
,
, -. flag
() {F/F).
HF.

DL2
DL,

^DL 1
-DL2

. 13.15. RAM- .

-1RST (reset)
, .
FIFO . 13.17.

13.12.

. , :
1. . ,

.

13.13. 309
2. ROM
.
3. -
.
D.

RdEn.
RdClk.

-.RST.

WrClk WrEn-

]
"
"

Reset

""

1
2
Dual- Port
SRAM
64 1
61
62
63
Q

- InRdy

OutRdy

F/E

HF
. 13.16. FIFO- SN74ACT2226.

13.13.
, ,
8 ,
4 . ,
. 13.18. (
) .
3-
,
]\ 4- 7- .

13.14.
, ,
.

13.

^\ 8 8 .
4
2 X 8 .
16 .
8 . 2 8 11
--

FIFO 64 1
^RSTQ RESET
WrEn

INRDY

InRdy

WRTEN

OUTRDY
>WRTCLK ALMOST FULL/EMPTY
RDEN
HALF FULL
>RDCLK

WrClk
RdEn
RdClk

OutRdy
F/E
HF

1^

. 1 3 . 1 7 . F I F O - SN74ACT2226.

11 -

RAM 24

RAM 24

.^_
/

2047

lO;

G1
AV^
G2
D
r Q 1C3[WR]
1,2EN[RD]
DQc

2047

A,3DH-

,-

Gl
AV^
C|G2
D
r Q 1C3[WR]
1,2EN[RD]
DQs

DQ.

DQy

8-
.CS

nOE
RbW
. 1 3 . 1 8 . 8

,
, -

13.14'

311

-^^
,
RAM ROM.
13.14.1.


.
, 4
, ->5
(. 13.19).
^.
Ai^
;
, , IFFFY {
) .
(. 13.19) . 13.2.

. ,
.
( ),
- .
IFFFH = 4 X 2048 1, 8 .
13.2. ,
. 13.19.
.

()

(
)
0 0 0 0

15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

(ROM)

(RAM)

3
(RAM)
4
(RAM)

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 0
1

1 8
1

1 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1


, 14.

3 12 13.

RAM2KX8

-N /

00

2047 AV

nCS
-

~^^^" G1

R/-.W

Do\
A,3D

G2
1 [WRITE]
1,2EN[READ]

RAM 2Kx8

-N
10/

2047

DX

1C3 [WRITE]

"131,2EN[READ]

nCS
EN
1
2

Qo

A,3D

dG2

//-1^.

AV

RAM 2Kx8

Vlio/

2047

AV

aN
W

-.cs
rO Gl
^^OE

A,3D

G2

hr~m

^-^^ 1C[WTE]

Do\

1,2EN[READ]

>\
ROM 2Kx8
Hi

-N 1 0 /

2047

AV

Adressbus

a N

re^

EN

Datenbus
. 1 3 . 1 9 . 8 .

13,14.2.


. , . 13.20
. ,
,

13.14-

313

^13 Ai5 .
, , don't care.
RAM 28

^
10/

2047 AV

Qo

-Qi
5
^ G1
A,3D
G2
IC3 [WRITE]
1,2N[READ]

RAM 28

- /

.CS
A,3D
^UE G1
02
R/^W,
1C3[WRITE]
1,2EN[READ]

DX

2
1
.

2047 AV
Do\

-v^

RAM2Kx8

-H
^Aiof

2047 AV

Qo

iCS

~=^Fr G l

A,3D

G2

RZ-^W

R/~.W. 1C3 [WRITE]


1,2EN[READ]

ROM 2Kx8
10/

2047 AV

nCS

Qo

^T

-^^^EN

. 13.20. 8 .

, . 13.3,
8 , 3
don't care.

13.
15 = 14 = = 0.
.
13.3. ,
. 13.20.
.

(
)
0 0 0 0

15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
d

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

(ROM)

1 1 1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

(RAM)

1 1 1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 0

3
(RAM)
4

1 8

(RAM)

1 ()

1 1 1 1 1

1 0

1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1

13.14.3.
.
Ai^
CS . , ,
, . 13.21
GS.
.
5
2 X 8 = 16,
5 .
.
. 13.4 ,
. ,
,
, .

15 = 0.
. , 7800

.
,
.

13.15.

315

RAM 28
lO;

^10

1/414

2047 AV

Gl

R/~.W

/)o

A,3D

qG2

"^

1C3 [WRITE]
t3 1,2EN[READ]
RAM 2Kx8

Hi/

Qo

2047 AV

^10

Ul3

i)o
cs
Gl
A,3D -.OE
R/-^W < 1 G 2
"^
J<\ 1C3[WRITE]
I 1,2EN[READ]

RAM 2Kx8
lO/

^10

Ul2

R/-^W

2047 AV

C^
nO

Gl
G2
R/-^JV
t-q 1C3[WMTE]
^ l,2EN[READ]
ROM 28

^0

0^^.
Qo
1/11 / 2047 AV
CS

& EN

. 13.21. 8 .

13.15.
1 3 . 1 . 16-
8- . ,

3 16

13.

, ROM 4
RAM 2 , 2 8 .
1. .
.
2. .
?
3. , ,
,
.
?
13.4. , . 13.21
.
.

1
(ROM)

()

(
)
0 8 0 0

15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
d

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1 1 1

1 0

1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

(RAM)

1 1 1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 0

1 1 1 1

(RAM)

1 1 1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

(RAM)

1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1

13.2.
8
8 . ,
, , 2 , 4
8 .
.
) .
?
) .
13.3. ,
16 .

13,15.
, ,
- Si - CS2 CSs) .
) .
) /\
,
?
) ?
10

11

'

>

-^CSi

>1

& ~1

<

&

!?

(
(

&

<
>

'

>1

1
1

&

>1

&

-,CS2

-^CSi

14


.
,
.
,
.
.


, , ( =
= printed circuit board)
(SSI = small scale integration)
(MSI == medium scale integration).
.
,
. ,
.
.
. -

.

(softuare)

.
,
.

(harduare)

.

-!' ASIC
ASIC application specific integrat
ed curcuit). ,
( )
.
ASIC (
) J\AR
, ,
^\
.

14.1. ASIC
ASIC.
ASIC .
{programmable
logic
devices, PLD)
(. 14.1)
ASIC.
,
.
- -
, .

(PLD)

ASIC

15DDLD-,

. 1 4 . 1 . ASIC

ASIC
ASIC,
. ASIC

.
,

14'
,

.
ASIC , ASIC^
. ,
, ASIC.
{gate arrays) ASIC
.
ASIC .
ASIC ,
.
.
.
.
. -
.
.
, .
. 14.2 ,
,
,
. ;
.
ASIC.
, , .

ASIC.
,
.
;
:
.
ASIC .
. ,
ASIC
, ASIC
.
,
, ..

14'1- ASIC
.
.
.
.
14.1. ASIC .
ASIC
.
ASIC

ASIC

ASIC

/,

PLA,
PAL,
PROM,
EPROM,
FPGA

(segof
gates)

ASIC

,
,
ASIC .
ASIC . ASIC
:
, ASIC
, ,
.

14-
.

.
ASIC ,
. ,
, .
ASIC ,
, ;
.
14.2.
ASIC.

ASIC

ASIC

14.2. (PLD)
(PLD)
,
.
,
.

14-2. (PLD)

. ,
, , PLD
.

. PLD J\A^
, .
,
.

, .
.

programmable logic devices (PLD).

PLD ,

.

14.2.1.
:
(fuse link),

.
(anti fuse),

.
1- RAM-; .
EPROM-: ,

.
-: ,
.
PLD - -.
PLD:
PLA
PAL

- -;
-,
-;

324

GAL
EEPROM
FPGA, LCA
CPLD, EPLD

, PLA,
;
-,
-;

;

, ,
.

PLD -
-, , ,
(. 14.2).

^0

Xi

Xl

^
V^

1^
1^IP*

1 ^

Xl

- t

= -^o^ixi

()
. 1 4 . 2 . - P L D .

14.3. ROM, EPROM, EEPROM


ROM, EPROM, EEPROM ..,
. , ,
ROM 16x2

. 16 ROM

U.S. ROM, EPROM, EEPROM

325

.
. ROM,
, . ,
.
ROM :
.
.

( ).
, .
.
ROM ,
: -,
, - (. 14.3).

1 11

LLJ

^1

'> .
IIP

-
()

'

^2

U
1 1 Y

| & II& II& II& II& {|& II& | <S

>1
>1

-
()
. 14.3. ROM 8 x 4 (32 ) - .

14-

14.4. PLA
. 14.4,
PLA (programmable logic array) -. PLA
DNF, (product term)
-,
-.
2^.
.

^0 -
1

-
()

"1

1 -

&

1&

&

>1

fo

>1

f.

>1
>1
-
()

. 14.4. PLA.

, . 14.4,
.

, ^
.
tri-state ( ).
,
.

. PLA
.

144' PLA

327



.

.
PL (EXOR),
. 14.5, .
,
, 1,
. ,
,
.
-

41
^1

]
1
1

&

&

&

&

&

&

>1

>1
-

=1

=1

&
EN

*-<

-^

4EN

. 14.5. PLA EXOR tristate.

, PLA . 14.5
tri-state.
PLA, (enable)
,
. -

14'
tri-state,
. -.
PL .
PL . 14.7 , , ,
(;) (complement array).

, ,
.
, ,
]; - (BCD)
,
.
; ; . 14.6.

g 1

I I I

I _ _
I J L

. 14.6. 10
7- .

9 10
. .
.
,
( 10 15),
, ; .
. 14.8 ; PLA, ;
; (). PL
(sequencer).
:
PQ^ Pi 2.
-.
/-> ,

enable, , tri-state-,
preset ( ) D.

144' PLA

329

,

. (complement array)
,
.

^0

TFi

Vf,1

* - *

*-^

v^

^^-*

1 \>

"

* - *

>ci
7

ff
& & & & & & & & & & & &


^^

*-~*

*-*

^^-*

>1
>1
>1
>1
>1

>1

>1
>1

1
-

f
g

. 14.7. PL ,
( ).

, , . 14.8 PLA,
5,
= XQ = Q ^
X = = 1 .
. 14.3.

(. 14.4) , RS- .
KV- (. 14.9).
KV- ( -)
, ,
. ,
, -

330

14-

(? - -2) ( 0 , 0 , 0 ) .

"-

* - *

* - *

* - *


*~*

41}^

^-
-*

>1

>1

*-^

>1
>1
>1

-)^

>1
^1

* - *

CLK/^-

IvkPo

IS
t>ci
IR

HEN

IS
t>ci
IR

EN

IS
i>ci
IR
S

EN

kPi

kP2

&
&

. 14.8. PLA (
, sequencer),
5.

14.3.
5.
= 0

?"

pm + l
^2

-\-1
^2

-{-1

= 1
pm+l
^1

pm + l
^0

14.4' PLA 331


14.4. RS-
5.
= 0
:^

RiSi

R2S2

RoSo

R2S2

01

01

01

10

Od

01
10

do
do
do

do

10

do

do
do
do

01

10

10

dO

dO

b
Po

do

dO

(5

dO

dO

RQSO

do
do

do
10

10

01

Od

10

01

01

T
5

do

dO 2 )1

j,y

(op

dO

5
1

do

RQSO

Od

RiSi

RiS,

R2S2

dO

Xo = I

Od

fb\\

Px

dO

P,

10

10

do

d
'\

P,

. 14.9. - RS-.

- :
(14.1)
1

So = ^PQ^PIP2X
V

V --'- V -^PQ^PI^X
'

2
V

'

"

Rl = ^PoPi^P2Xy
^

(14.3)

PoPi^P2^X
'

'

'

(14.4)

Si = ^PQ --PI 2 V PQ ^ f i ^ A -^
2

2 = -Po-^-P2a;V-nPo-jPi^2-a;
^^

(14.2)

V -

'

"^

(14.5)

'

52 = 0 1 - 2 - V - P o - P i - P 2 a ;

(14.6)

, 1 8
8 - -, . 14.2.
8 -
.
,
.
- 10 - 1 R-
RS- . -
(14.1) (14.6).
P/-iE ,
.
, 1.
XQ

Xi

>1

io

>1

>1

. 14.10. PAL 3 , 3 4
.

14.5. PAL
PAL (Programmable Array Logic,
), . 14.10,
PLD). -. ( . 14.10 )
.
PAL
, PLA. -

14^5. PAL

333

pa PAL
, PLA.
. - j ^

12

16

20

24

28

31

>1

EN
Vi

^1

EN!

78

224
256

vlPr

X\6

EN
VIPf

Xl5

480
^3

512

^1

736
4

VJ>
^1

EN,
V

__5
X\4

992

1024

>1

EN
V!

4
Xi2

1248

1280

>1

EN
VIPr

_^

Xu

1504
XI

1536

&
>l

EN

>1

EN

VlPr xn

xs
1792

vl
2016

X, - l [ l >

^lU

. 14.11. PAL 16 L 8.

. 14.11 PAL 188


(EXOR-gate).
Tristate ( )

-
(product terma).
,
PAL .
PAL

(product term steering).
, ,
, .
PAL :
PAL 16 R 8

R
Ra
S




(product term steering)

, (high)
L
, L (low)
V

X
EXOR
EXOR

XPR EXOR

(complement output)

14.6. GAL
GAL (generic array logic, )
PAL,
PAL (OLMC, output logic macro
cell).
, .
GAL EECMOS,
- (EEPROM).

.. GAL 335

11 1
CLK

16

12

20

24

28

=
i=
8
2
9

111 ~]

II

II

111 1

J V r T' r~T-^*

OLMC
19

'^

_Hi
V

LH E N

16

;1

17

_Ji 1

1111
' 1 M11{{
1 II 1
i l 11111
1 II ^

1
hL

-17C b p - | 6

OLMC
17

M rr^^

^J1

2^1

L
-IENI

OLMC

1 11I 1 11 1 1111 ( I I I

2
5
^?,

40

?_fT>
-HM 1

^j

4-1- \-\-i-\ 1

M T I H I H I I I M H T H

_fn-

1
1
48

-^ "

'

II

49

1 Tlrl

J-
[-
1

g
56
JTg

57 1

Till

III

M i l II II i 1 II

'

CJ

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

hs
m
m

444+4444444H-44-Hm

'
1 ^
1 Ml

T i 11

Nil MM Nil l i l l

L
-[EN > t y *

OLMC

1^

'

-iV

L-IbN]

Ji
^-L-'

J V Ch^<

OLMC

4V

L-IENI

J V

OLMC

-dM i
^V^

V5

4V

-^M

TITJ
11 I I I
M l

41

VT

n^T
V

WH441
1~
^

2'[

J V

OLMC
18

hL
-[EN

OLMC
^1
^

1
"Vi

,
J ^

^J

'fio
-lO/i"

. 14.12. GAL 16V8.


.
( 2000 ) . GAL
,
. ,
GAL ,
(PLD). GAL 16V8 -

14'
. 14.12. GAL 16V8 8
(OLMC). OLMC
8 . xi
CLK^
(output enable) .
14.5. SYN, 1{).

OLMC


(
)

(
)

SYN

1{)

/
tri-state

,
/
tri-state

,
/
tri-state

tristate, ;


;

OLMC 12-14
17-18.

;

;

8

;

OLMC.


;
7

^
.
CLK
( );



;
7

14-7. PLD
OLMC . 14.13. OLMC
, OMLC 15 16
. OLMC
, -.
. 14.13, 16 ,
32 -.
CLK . . ^ 0

MUX
ACJ(n)-[

& PHG

MUX
AClin).
ACQ. 1> \
1 .
I I
2

>1
-

XOR{n)

=1

MUX
.
1{^

53

EN
V

i>ci
ID
MUX
7

-ACI(m)
^ACl{n)
ACO
h-0

OLL
OLMS

. 14.13. OLMC Nn, GAL 16V8, OLMC iVm OLMC, GAL 16V8,
XOR{n), SYN, ACO ). SYN ACO
OLMC, XOR{n) 1{) ^
OLMC. XOR{n) . XOR{n)
LOW.

14.7. PLD
PLD-
, J E D E C (Joint Electronic Devices
Engineering Council). Ha . 14.14 ,

-
GAL 16V8. ,
, *L.
32 , GAL 16V8
32 32 -,
. 14.12. 1 ,
, , .
*L0000
*L0032
*L0064
*L0096
*L0128

1111110110111101110111111111111
1111010111111011111011110111111
1111111111010101111110101101111
1110111101111111110111111111111
1111111110111110111111111011111

. 14.14. JEDEC-, PLD GAL


16V8.

JEDEC-, GAL 16V8,


:
0000-2047
2048-2055
2056-2119
2120-2127
2128-2191
2192
2193


.
()- ^1^ OLMC 12-19.
: 64 ^
.
()- ^1, OLMC 12-19.

63.
SYN-6VIT.
-.

]\ GAL

( 2 = 16,8). 6 ( 18,
3- 7-)
SCLK ( 8) ,
SDIN ( 9),
GAL, .
,
. .
GAL 10 .
.

14-8. (FPGA)
14.7.1.

()
, ,
.
. GAL
16V8 ,
. 15 PRLD
( 11).
DCLK ( 1)
SDIN ( 9)
.
SDOUT ( 12) .
,
.

14.8.
(FPGA)
(FPGA, field program
mable gate arrays)
, .
PLD,
.
FPGA :
FP
GA .
- ,
.

,
.
.
FPGA ,
.

,
.

340

.

.
FPGA .
.
,
.

1 Block

1 ^^" 11
Block

- 1 1 - 11 - 11 loBlock

Block

Block

1 lo-

Block

Block

1 Block

'SMN fff^jSM^

1 Block

! (
(ill

1 J,
1
11 " 1'^ L l i
(11111

|_

^ ^ S M "

i l l ]TTjT|
" 1
-.LJL5

[1

Block

1 Block

11 1
: L B [

1 -

^LU

|_
I
1 ] 1 1 jnMI
j 11 jnin^
^
S M E 1 | S r v f l = ^
[

mil ^ \jf

11

.IHIII

10- 1
Block

CLL

IHIU

II h1
IHIII
^ ^ S M

10- 1

JCLE^1

Block

-
- 1

^ S M

Block

Block

Block

~1 II ii

[TBI

SM[zr= ^ ^ S N f e

1
lO- 1

^ S M

^Lli

If

CLi

1 JJIlii

. 1 1 1 IHIII.
8 [~[ 1 1 S M ^
1 j
1 1 1 1 1
1 ^ r> 11 1
1
-^ >

"1

... /^

1 -

10Block

\==f\= 8 1

Block

- 1
Block

10- 1 1 I
Block

Bl

0- II - 11 ^^'

Block

Block

10- 1
Block

. 14.15.

14.8.1. FPGA
FPGA
,
PL ( ). -

14'S. (FPGA)
,
RAM, .
RAM ROM.
FPGA , ,
.
FPGA ,
Xilinx
. logic cell arrays ( ).
Data In .

MUX
10
ID

j>Cl

^0

Xi

PLD

yi

MUX
iO

EN.

ID
j>Cl

ENCLK.
CLK
DIRRST-

>1

INHIBIT.
Global
RST'

, 14.16. (CLB) FPGA


Xilinx.

FPGA 3 ,
:

(CLB, configurable logic blocks). CLB
PAL
. CLE
FPGA.
input/output
(lO-blocks). , , tri-

14'
state . -
FPGA .

, CLB -.
CLE.
14.8.2. (CLB)
CLB . ,
FPGA. , , 3090,
, 12 12 == 144 CLE. CLB
5 , ,
,
. D-
.
Data In.

(direct reset) DIR DST^ CLK
(enable) ENCLK.

. D- (
)
.
14.8.3. -
-
( -). , 3090 166
-. -
, :
(- ),
(pull-up resistor).
.
.
.
tristate. .

14-8.

(FPGA)

14.8.4.

FPGA
. nFPGA ^\
.

(PIP, programmable
interconnect points). CLB -
, .

OTE

1
]

MUX

EN

1 '

OUT ,

=1

ID
t>Cl
R

Dir IN
Reg. IN

ID

CI 4

TTL
CMOS

lO-PAD

Global
RSTCLKlCLK2-

-
-

. 1 4 . 1 7 . .

:
CLB 5 5
.
(general purpose interconnect).

344

(direct
interconnection).

.
14.8.5. FPGA

FPGA :
, ,
, , VHDL
(VLSI hardware description language) ABEL.
FPGA Xilinx
, XNF-.
.

, , .
(net list)
.
XNF-
CLB (implementation, -).
.
(place and route).
, ,
..
LCA- (line control array).
.
LCA- ,
. FPGA ,

.
FPGA 12 420 .
FPGA
( , daisy chain).
, FPGA

FPGA.
FPGA.

.9. EPLD

14.9. EPLD
EPLD (
erasable programmable logic device), CPLD,
-.
^ .
14.9.1. EPLD:CY7C343
EPLD CY7C343, Cypress,
, -EPROM.
44-,
2,5 .
, 100 . EPLD
. 14.18.
EPTD ,

. 28 ,
-, 8 .
4 , 16 .
PL (
). ,
.
-. .

14.10. Gate-Arrays
Gate-arrays
(ASIC's),
(.. mas
ter-slaves, ).

. gate-arrays,
25000 . ,
, -.
Gate-arrays :



:
channeled gat -arrays,
( )

'
sea-of gates, (
).
Input
Input

1>

1
2
3
4
5
6

lO-Ports

7-16

Input/
CLK

^
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49

-CZ]
-d]
lO-Ports

-CZ]
-d

57-64

EZh

lO-Ports

EZh
[IZh
[ZD-

CZh

17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

38
37
36
35
34
33

4ZD
4ZD

-ZZ] lO-Ports

-zz:

-CZ

39-48

25-32

. 1 4 . 1 8 . E P L D C Y 7 C 3 4 3 Cypress.

14.10.1.

Gate-arrays (. 14.19)
, .
^ . gate-arrays
.
- . , .

.

. , -

.. Gate-Arrays 347
.
, , - (NAND)
.
1 8 .

.

1/-

. 14.19. .
-

\\ \ 0

^1

' 1

1 []

1 01
^1
0 f 1 011 []
^1
1
\\ 0 1 0 1 []
1 0 ^1| 011] []
1

'

n-

'

I
[] [
nj
[nj 1 n]
n]
1

'

rl
Fl
rl
Iml d

[gj J

~i

0
0
0
0
0

. 14.20. (gate array).


.

348

.
.

(, --)
. ,
,
().
-

-
^
\

[~1 ^

[~

. 14.21. ,
. 14.20.
-

. \/11,

: - ,
a:i, :2 .

. 14.22
, NAND- . -

14-10. Gate-Arrays
, ,
, . .
,
.
2 .
,
.

, .
, ,
(, process controle module),
, , .
,
.
'DD

1 1

Xi

. 14.23. : --
, a:i, 2 .

ASIC

. , ,
, , ,
. (gate
arrays) ,
,
, , ( ,
SSI), ( , MSI)
(, LSI).
, -

350

14-

,
() .

14.1 I. ASIC
ASIC ,
(gate-arrays).
:
,
;
;
;

( );
: ROM RAM,
;
;
() .
ASIC ;
:
, gate-arrays,
;
,
gate-arrays, ASIC

30000 ;

;
, gate-arrays.
ASIC
.
, gate-arrays.
.

14-12. ASIC 35

14.12. ASIC

ASIC
.
.
,
.

14.13.
14.1.
(PL) /,
/1^/2-
PLA.
/ (, 6, , d) = ady

^a^bcd

/1 (, , , d) -^ab V -^cd-^abcd V -^bcd


/2 (, b,c,d) ^^{{

-^){-^ d) (- V V ^d))

>

11

1>
1>

i 1

i 1

| & il& II& II & {|& 1

>1

fo

>1

fl
12

14.2. PLA
2 / / i .
.
/ (, 6, , d) = ^a-^b-^c^d V ab-^c-^d V a-^b-^c-^d V -^ab-^cdM
V -^a-^bcd V -^abcd
/1 (a, 6, c, 6?) = ^a^b-^c^d V ab-^cd V -^a-^bcd V -^abc-^ d

^352

>1

^
>1

fl

15

15.1.
,
,
.

. ;

.

.

, .
. 15.1.
Si ,
. , ,
12 -
. Zi
.

s.

Z.

iz

. 1 5 . 1 . .

, ,
, -

15.
.
, , .
, , - (ALU)
.

.
, .

. ,
.

15.2. -
-,
,

. -
.
, -
, .
, ,
,
.
. ,
, .

(, PASCAL).
- . 15.2.
.
,
, .
, , ,
(RD) (WR) .

.
- :


, .
, .

15.3.

^ .
.
J\
.
.

- ,
. ,
. RAM,
.
ROM. ,
.

, ,
, .
, ,
.
.
(RAM ROM),
, , .
,

.
. ,
,
.

15.3.
15.3.1.


. -
j\RK -
.
. , ,
, ..
(DSP, digital signal processor). , , ^\

356

15,

, (FFT,
fast Faurier transformation).

. 15.2. -. , , .

- . 15.3.
.
(accumulator). .

.
.
- .
- ,
, ,
(carry). - ^
.

^\ ,
.

15.3.

357

CLK

I
I

ID

ID

>2\

P^^G2

G2

. 15.3. - .

,
,

.
15.3.2.

.
, .
:
tri-state
,
, .

.
,
,
Enable

15.
.
,
. ]; ;
Enable (];) disable (1;) ; , ;
. ; ,
,
,
.
, ,
.
; ,
, ,
, ,
.

15.4.
]; .
. ,
. ^\
RISC (reduced instruction set computers,
).
;
,
.
, J\ .

. 15.4. ROM
, ROM

, ;
, . ,
,
.
256 .
ROM ROM
, ,
; :

15.4'
ROM
;

1;

. ,
. -,

.
( )

256x1 OBit

mmmmJf

%,

'

lKx32Bit


32Bit

MUX
8:1

()

. 1 5 . 4 . .


. ,
,

.

15.

15.5.


. ,
, .
.
:

, -
, ,
;
, .
, , ^
,
();
(jump)
. ,
.
, . 15.5
, .

1 ,
= (, ^ 2 , ^ 1 , ^) .
13 ,
,
, . 15.5
, . 15.1.
15.1. ,
. 15.5.

52

Si

So

AL

^ .
, J\ , , , S
= (5,52,51,5) = ( 1 1 0 1 ) = 0.

15.5.

= I 1^
(accumulator)
.
AL = 1 ALU
, 1 i (, ^ 2 , AI^AQ)
.
= (, 2, Ai, AQ)
, ,
.

. 15.5. ,
. 15.2.

;
0011 d = :
0000010011000
0000001010011
1101010100000

15.

= ^
= I
. 0011 .
{S = (5, ^2, S^i, So) = (HOI)
== 0) { = I).
, {Ai = 1).
15.2. .

S2

5i

So

AL

IM

A2

Al

Ao


. ,

.
,
,
.
.

15.6.
15.1.
?
15.2. , ,
. 15.5, ^ \ VL 1^ = 1 ?
J\RR ?

16
,

16.1.

8085 Intel [19, 22]. 8085
8- , ,
8 . 16 ,
64 .
8 .
8085 5 .
.
3 6 .
.
, . 16.1 :
()


, 15. 8 . ; (accumulator) ;
.
-
- .
8 ; 6 :


Z
S
S
Z

D5

D4

D3

D2

Di

Do
CY

(sign-flag), 7
.
(zero-flag) ,
0.

16. ,

(auxiliary-carry-flag),
3.
- .
(parity-flag) ,
.
(carry-flag)
. , ,
8 . ,
0.
(overflow-flag)

2.3.6.


(,), (D,E), (H,L),
8 . 1; (
, ), (, ).

,
. ,
,
2 . ;
,
(- ; )
.

,
. .

; ;
; ,
, ;
.

;
/\ ,
.

16.1. 365

-^NTA
INTR

RST6.5

f^T5.5

TRAP
SID

1 RST7.5 1

1 11 i


(interrupt-driven)

(8)


/
(serial lO-control)

SOD

>

(8)

(8)

D(8)

(8)

(8)

8)


(16)

(16)

^zzni

/
DMA

CLK

I t
^^^

^ ^

\-.RD-^WR

I
JQ^^Q

(8)

W i I t
ALE

So

S^

IO/-^M\

HLDA^

I
rjTj^


/
(8)

RESET
^s'Ais
ADo'ADj
OUT ^^^"^^ \

. 1 6 . 1 . 8085 ( ) .
8 .



,
(, I/O).
-
- ,
,
(, I/O) . ,
. 8
, 8 .

16. ,

8085 5
.
, ,
.
I / O
( /)
8085
, . SOD Se
rial Output Data ( ),
(Serial Input Data).

16.2. 8085
8085 40 (. 16.2):
Xi, 2
.
CLK(OUT) 8085
.
RESET IN

.
L (low),
.
0000 .
RESET OUT .
TRAP
RST7.5
RST6.5

RST5.5
INTR
-INTA
interrupt acknowledge ( ),
.
SOD/SID
.
ADQ-ADJ
tri-state.

.
As-Ai5
tri-state .
ALE
ALE (address latch enable,
)
, A D Q - A D J ( ).

16.2. 8085
ALE



(latch).
HOLD
HOLD ( )
. HOLD

,
(DMA-controller, direct memory access controller,
)
.
HLDA
, HOLD.
READY

, (ready) .

.
READY 3
VccSi/So
, (.
).
-^RD^ -^WR -^RD L (low),

.

-/^-. L (low) -WR
,
.
10/-^
/-:
, .
8085 8
, . 8
.

. 8085 (
ALE) ^ .

,
.
ALE.

16. ,

RESET
SOD
SID
TRAP
RST7.5
RST6.5
RST5.5
INTR
-^NTA
ADo
ADx
ADi
AD3
ADA

ADs
ADi
ADe

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

jl5
16
17
18
19
20

40
39 1
38
37!

HOLD
HLDA
CLK(OUT)
36 1 -JIESETIN
35 j
READY
34
IO/~M

33
32
31
30

8085 29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21

Si

^WR
ALE
So
Al5
Al4

An
An
An
A\o
A9

As

. 16.2. 8085A.
16.1. ^ S*!.

Si

So

HLT

(1-)

8085 :
1. R E S E T .
2. :
.
3. Interrupt.

(interrupt-routine).
4. HOLD HTL.
,
DMA-controller (direct memory access controller) -

16.3. 369
.
.
5. READY
, .

^ (8)

Do
. 16.3. .

16.3.

.
, , .
13.
. .
:
1. (memory mapped,
). 16 .
10/-^ = 0.
. ,
, ,
, .
, ,
,
.
,
(MOV, MVI, LDA, STA, . . . . ).
2. (
/, lO-mapped).

16. ,
( ) 8
10/-^ = 1. , IN OUT.
8 . 8085
8-
(address latch) .
,
(memory-mapping, ):
^
.

(memory-mapping):
. ,
, ,
Ai^.
32 .
,
16- .

16.4.

.
. ,
. , ,
,
. ,
, .
.
. ,
.
. 16.4 , ,
, . i
8 .
. Di
tri-state.
tri-state,
.

16.5.

8255


. .
. -^WR = ,
. tri-state-
enable (),
.

CLK'

^fflJ

E/Ai

Cl<h

fm

[73^^

&

ID
-.WR'

|C1

m^^

. 16.4. .
i .

= 0.
, ; ,
. -ii?D =
.
;.
, , ,
, ,
, ,
. ,
;, , .

16.5.
8255

8255.

16. ,
, , 8 .
Ai ^
.
, , .
,
,
.
,.,,

...

7...0


(8 )

.CS-xWR-^RD .

RESET

D,...Do

. 16.5. 8255.

DQ D^ ,
,
-^CS. ^ , Bj ^
, , ,
. .
Ai
. 16.2.

16.6.

. -

16.6.

, .

. (PC, program counter)
, .
16.2.

,
, , .
STA 0F12H.
(accumulator)
0F12H. STA
; ,
store accumulator.

, ,
.
.
16.3. ,
STA DF12H.
3 .


STA

0F12H

32

OF 12

0010

0001 0010 0000 1111



. (OF,
operation code fetch).
. ,
,
. , ; ,
.
1.
( OF ).

16. ,

; .
(MR, memory read). ^
.
1. ; ,
; MR-, .
;
, .
(MW, memory write).
16.6.1. (OF)

,
4 . ,

, ,
. OF- STA 0F12H
. 16.6.

CLK

/-

10/=, si=i,so4i
\r\. spezifi lert

|(
ADo'AD-j

i PCL O U T ) ( ~ D^^mji-...

ALE
-,)

I/
-

\_

. 16.6.
STA 0F12H.

1

. /^ ^ , 5i = 1, ^ = , INTA = 0.
.
,
ALE
.

16.6.
2
-^RD
L (low). ,
1. ,
, .

. -^RD
(high). OF-,
.
1.
4
. ,
,
DCX.
16.6.2. (MR, memory read)

(MR, memory read)


,
(wait state) ^. Tyj
, READY READY ,
; ;
. ,
, READY^ ,
. . 16.7.
1
;
.
. ALE
.
1.
2
->RD
L (low). ,
1. , ;
, ; . READY
(high).
3
-iRD
(high). MR-

376

16. ,

READY L (low),
T^j , READYne
(high), ,
.
MR

MR

CLK
\

/-, S1-1,SO

AD^'AD-j
ALE

B^K9B^

Jr\

|(

IO/M="0, S1^LS040

IDC

L
xA-A,OU|HPZE

FN

r~\

READY

. 16.7. .
.

16.6.3. ( M W , memory write)

. 16.8 memory-write,
, .
1
.
,
.
2
, ->WR
L (low).

(high)
READY, . ^WR
, READY ;
(wait state).

16.6.

377

-write (
/), 10/-^ = 0.
MW

MW

T2

r1\-j~i

CLK
/-

T,

IO/M4.S1=0.S0-

IO/M=f S1=0.S0'

DC

ADo-AD-j' )[A.-A. \

n-n^irr

- - , ( D - D , (PUT

r~\

ALE

J
-nWR

READY

. 16.8. memory-write
(wait state).
lO-write.

16.6.4.

STA IB02H, 3
:

1001

32

STA

1002

02

1003

Id

];
: .
. 16.9 ,
STA, (02)
(IB).
1, 1001 1003. 4-
102 ;
.

378

16. ,

OF

Zvklus

Takt

- _ 1

)[

10

-ALh \ 01

\-{

32

IN

ALE

^
11

MR

}2

IB

) ^ 02

IN

:^
oLrr

; IB

IN

1 10

1 10
^ 02

MW

.J

\vvK

. 16.9. STA IB02H ( : 4).

16.7.
(interrupt)

. , ,
, - ,
,
. (in
terrupt line) ,
(ISR,
interrupt-service-routine),
. .
interrupt High- ()
.
,
interrupt .
. .

(stau).
(ISR) . -

16.7. (interrupt)
. ISR
RET
.
16.4. 8085.

0024

002

56.5

55.5

0034

TRAP

57.5

:
: EI (enable in
terrupt, ) DI (disable in
terrupt, ) ,
TRAP, (mascable inter
rupt, ). ,
, -.

(reset), DI (disable interrupt).
: SIM (set inter
rupt mask, )
.

, , .

(ISR),
. 16.4 .
INTR
, .

.
INTR-INTA.
reset (
).
0000.

16. ,

16.8.
,
( )
. ,
.
source code ( ),
object code (
).
. .

. [42].

, .
^\ .


"source code"


STA F 7 3 4 H


"object code"


0010

1 1 1 1 0111

0100

. 1 6 . 1 0 . .

16.9.
8085.
,
.
:
addr
data
data 16
byte
port
, 1, 2

16-
8-
16-
-
8-
, , , D, , , L

16.10.

rh, rl
PC
SP
()
(( ))

( , )
(; ), DE ( D), HL ( )
()
16- . PCL
PC
16-
,
,
,

16.10.
. J\^R
,
.
8085 Regis
ter (), Register Indirect ( ), Di
rect ( ), Immediate ().
,
.
16.10.1. Register

,
.
MOV.
move ( ).
MOV , ,
. .
MOV .
16.5. Register. = ,
Z = , = .

1 , 2

(1) ^ (2)

SPHL

(SP) ^

(H)(L)

XCHG

() ^

(D), (L) ^

PCHL

() ^ (), (PCL) ^ (L)

MOV

()

SPHL MOV HL to SP ( HL SP);


, HL- .

16. ,

XCHG Exchange Hand L with D and E (


H L D E ).
PCHL Move and L to PC ( L PC).
.
,
HL.
16.10.2. Register Indirect

Register Indirect
, ,
.
.
16.6. Register Indirect.
= , Z = , = .

MOV

((H)(L)) ^ ()

MOV

() ^

LDAX

(, D)

() ^ (())

STAX

(, D)

(()) ^ ()

16

XTHL

((H)(L))

(L) ^ ((SP)), ()

((SP)+1)

MOV , , L ,
. ,
(memory).

: MOV ,.
, HL, .
LDAX Load accumulator indirect (indexed) (
,
). , ,
.
DE.
STAX store accumulator indirect (indexed) (
, , ),
BD DE.
XTHL exchange stack with and L (
L).
HL. L
, ,

16.10.

1. ;
.
16.10.3. Immediate

2. MVI , 8 FH
8 FH. 2 .
2- , ;
, . Immediate Register In
direct MVI M,data. 2
, HL.
16.7. Immediate. = ,
Z = , = .

MVI

, data

() ^ (byte 2)

MVI

, data

((H)(L)) - (byte 2)

LXI

, datal6

(rh) ^ (byte 3), (rl) f- (byte 2)

16.10.4. Direct

2 3 Direct
, .
LHLD addr Load and L direct. HL
. 5
OF, MR ( ),
MR ( ), MR (
), MR ( ).
, 2 .
SHLD addr Store and L direct, L,
.
IN p o r t Input (). ,
port ,
; . Port 8-
.
(memory-mapped) 3 : OF, MR, MW.
OUT p o r t Output, .
;
, port.
IN OUT lOj-iM = 1.
. 16.8 IO|-iM = 0.

16. ,

16.8. Direct. = ,
Z , = .

LDA

addr

(A) ^ ((byte 3)(byte 2))

13

STA

addr

((byte 3)(byte 2)) ^ (A)

13

16

16

(L)<-((byte3)(byte2)),
LHLD

addr
(H) ^ ((byte 3)(byte 2)+l)

SHLD

addr

((byte 3)(byte 2)) 4- (L),


((byte 3)(byte 2)+l) ^ (H)

IN

port

(A) ^ (data)

10

OUT

port

(data) ^ (A)

10

16.1 I.
,
-.
, ,
X. 1 ,
, .

, Register, Register indi
rect Immediate. ,
- (carry-bit).
Register indi
rect , carry-bit (ADC )
(ADD ):
ADD
: () - ((H)(L))
ADC
: () <- ((H)(L)) + ()
CPI () -Byte 2
.
, :
MVI , OFH
CPI OFFH

, - :
S = , Z = , = 1, = , = 1.
OFH.
J\RA , J\ , J\
. . ,

16.11. 385

. . 16.9. carry-bit ( )
,
.
16.9. 8- .

INR

() ^ () + 1

INR

((H)(L))4-((H)(L)) + 1

10

DCR

() ^ () - 1

DCR

((H)(L))^((H)(L))-1

10

^
(. 16.10). ,
DAD add register pair to H and L
Carry-bit .
- .
16.10. 16-
Register.

z s z

DAD

( ( H ) ( L ) ) ^ ( H ) ( L ) + (rh)(rl)

10

INX

(rh)(rl) ^ (rh)(rl) + l

DCX

i-p

(rli)(rl) ^ (rh)(rl) - 1

J\jiK -
, -
(. 16.11). -
(
9) , 6 .
16.11.
.

S Z

DAA

386

16. ,

DAA :
1) 4
, 9, = 1,
6.
2) 4
, 9, = 1, 4
6.
,
- .

- (BCD):
00101000

28io

+00110111

37io

01011111

l l l l 2 > 9 ,
IIO2 =

+00000110

01100101

65 10

:
MVI , 28
OOIOIOOOBCD 28io

ADI 37
O O I I O I U B D C 37IO , () == 5FH
DAA

() = OHOOIOIBCD

16.12.
.
AND, OR EXCLUSIVE OR. ,
.
.
. J\A^
.

. ,
4 .
Z. }\ AND immediate
( ).

16.13. (carry flag) 387

16.13.
(carry flag)
CMC (complement carry,
) STC (set carry, )
(carry flag).

16.14.
, carry-bit
, .
.

"1

16.15.

, .
(jump)
. JMP ,
PCHL, . , JNZ, JZ,

388

16. ,

JNC, JC . . ,
. , ,
. 16.12. .
16.12. .

,

(PC) ^

(byte3)(byte2)

10

>3

2/3

7/10

JMP

addr

JNZ

addr

JZ

addr

JNC

addr

CY-0

JC

addr

CY = 1

JPO

addr

JPE

addr

JP

addr

S = 0

JM

addr

S = 1

Z = 0

Z = 1

I (PC) ^ (byte3)(byte2)

P = 0
P = 1

16.15.1.


, LXI MOV.
.
JMP

LXI ,
HL
MOV V,

....
;
,
. ,
( ). ,
, 1000.
1007 .

1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007

07
10
21

77

JMP
Adress Low-Byte
Adress High-Byte
LXI
Operand Low-Byte
Operand H i g h - B y t e
MOV M,A.
S p r u n g z i e l ( A d r e s s e 1007)

16.16.

.
.
.

(label) LOOP,
ANA

JNZ

LOOP

; ,
;

LOOP

16.16,
CALL ().
CALL :
1. CALL

,
.
1 ,
.
(SP)-2.
2. 2.
, ,
,
.
CALL
(top of stack = TOS).
3. ,
.
.
RET (return)
:
L ,
, .

16. ,
1
PC (PC = program counter = instruction counter =
= ).
2. 2.
16.13. .

CALL

addr

,

((SP) - 1) ^ ()

18

((SP) - 2) ^ ()
(SP) 4- (SP) - 2
(PC) ^ (byte3)(byte2)

CNZ
CZ

addr

CNC

addr

addr

addr

addr

addr

addr

addr

1 RET

Z=0 \
Z=l
((SP) - 1) ^ () CY = 0
1 ((SP) - 2) ^ (PCL) C Y = 1
>3 2/5 9/18
I (SP) ^ (SP) - 2
P =0
(PC) ^ (byte3)(byte2) P = 1
S=0
S =l
J
/

1 3
(PCL) ^ ((SP))
10
N

() <- ((SP) + 1)
(SP) -S- (SP) + 2

RNZ
RZ

RNC

(PCL) ^ ((SP))
1 () ^ ((SP) + 1)
1 (SP) ^ (SP) + 2

RC
RPO
RPE

RP
RM
RST
G {0..7}

J
((SP) - 1) ^ ()
((SP) - 2) ^ (PCL)
(SP) ^ (SP) - 2
(PC) ^ X 8

Z =0
Z =1
CY = 0
CY=:1
1/3 6/12
P =0
P =l
S=0
S= l )
1 3

12

.
,
.

16.16.
RST (restart, )
PC .

8.
, J\. RST = 112
0000000000011000.

PUSH POP
( )
,
. PUSH PSW POP PSW
( - = proces
sor status word, PSW, ). XTHL
HL TOS (top of sta, ).

HL
LXI ,
DAD SP

.
, RAMH-1.
1,
.
LXISP.
16.14. .
,

i-p

((SP) - 1) ^ (rh)

12

(rp SP)

((SP) - 2) ^ (rl)
1

12

10

10

PUSH

(SP) ^ (SP) - 2
PUSH

PSW

((SP) - 1) ^ (A)
((SP) - 2) ^ (?????????)
(SP) ^ (SP) - 2

POP

(rl) <- ((SP))

rp
(rp SP)

(rh) ^ ((SP) + 1)

PSW

(???????????) 4r- ( ( S P ) )

(SP) <r- (SP) + 2


POP

(A) ^ ((SP) + 1)
(SP) ^ (SP) + 2

16. ,
. 16.15 ,
. ,
.
,
.
16.15. .
.

31 01 18

LXI

SP, 1801H

1000

1003

01 OF

LXI

B, OFECH

1006

11 D1 80

LXI

H, ICFEH

1009

21 FE 1

LXI

H, ICFEH

CD 00 12

CALL

UTPR

1200

05

PUSH

UTPR

1201

D5

PUSH

1202

PUSH

1203

F5

PUSH

PSW

()

120F

Fl

POP

PSW

1210

El

POP

HL

1211

Dl

POP

1212

01

PGP

1213

C9

RET

. 16.16
. 16.15. ,
- 08.

16.17.
HLT (half, )
.
RESET TRAP.
,
(halt).

16.17.
NOP operation (, ).
(place holder) ,
, .
EI ( ) DI ( )
-. - ,
.
16.16. ,

. 16.15. ,
(TOS = top of staca)

17F7

08

17F8

PSW (A)

1 17F9

FE

17FA

17FB

D1

E
D

PSW (FLAG)

17FC

80

17FD

17FE

OF

17FF

OF

PCL

1800

10

PCH

1801

FE

<-TOS PC = 1204

<TOS 1

RIM (read interrupt mask,


) SIM (set interrupt mask,
) .
,
.
(SIM):
Dj

Di

Da

D2

Di

Do

SOD

SOE

R7.5

MSE

M7.5

M6.5

M5.5

RST5.5

RST6.5

RST7.5

J\
3 1

394

16. ,

4:

(reset) RST7.5
(87.5-
, , .
87.5-
4 ).

5:

6,7: SOD.

(RIM):
D-,

Db

Di

D2

Di

Do

SID

17.5

16.5

15.5

IE

7.5

6.5

M5.5

1: ^\ RST5.5 (
)
2: ^ RST6.5 ( =
)
3: INTE- (1 = )
4

15.5

16.5

17.5

16.18.
.
(., LDA 09FEH)
(source-code)
^
(source code) (object code).
; ,
, ];
. , ORG 1000
, ; 1000.

16.18.
, ; . ; (source code)
, :
1. 1;
. ,
.
.
,
(
) .
,
. :
OR G addr
2. , ,
. ^. END.
3.
name, .
8- .

DB

Data

8-

DW

Data 16

16-
.

DS

4. ,
.
5.
.
6. (macros, )
.
(pass).
.
.
; ,
^[^ .

16. ,
16.17. .

.
( code)

EQU

OAIH

PRT

EQU

OIH

ORG

lOOOH

A, Kl

1000

1002

10

JMP

MK

; 1

1005

ADl

Kl

;
VAR1

1007

32 00 13

STA

VARl

100

D3 01

OUT

PRT

; VAR2

01 13

LDA

VAR2

ORG

1300H

VAR1

DS

VAR2

DB

IFEH

1300
1301

FE

; 1 VAR
;

ORG, EQU,
DS, DB.
ORG ,
( 1000) (
1000).
.
.
1000.
.
EQU 1 PRT.
,
.
.
DS
. VAR1
1300. VAR1
, ,
Direct (, LDA addr. STA addr.).
DB, DS,
.

16.19.
DB .
1301 FE.
.
.

16.19.
16.19.1. 8255

8255
. , CLow CHigh

.

. 16.11. 8255 (
).

,
, . 16.11. ,
0004 007.
. 16.11 = ^ i = 1.
0007. . 16.18.
16.18. 8255.
. 16.11.

0004

0005

0007h

398

16. ,

^ ;
:
1>7

Db

Db

Di

Di

D2

Di

Do

CL

- ,
; CL = CLow, = CHigh.

.
16.19.
8255.

.
( code)

ORG

lOOOH

' 1000

90

MVI

A, 90H

1002

70

OUT

07H

1004

04

IN

04H

; ,

1006

05

OUT END

05H

; ,

;
;
,

16.19.2.


, , . ,
.
, . 16.20,
1F88H. XTHL
PC . INXH JMP,
HL
.
. INXH
,
.
.

8085
, [18] [16].

16.19. 399
16.20.
[16, 18].

1 1000
1 1003
1006

( code)

CD 00 12

ORG

lOOOH

09 10

CALL

PROG

88 IF

JMP

LIST

; (skip)

DW

1F88H

1008
LIST

1 1200

1201

1 1202
1 1203

D5
F5

1204

23

INX

;
12050MXJMP

1 1205

23

INX

__

1206

23

INX

1207

MOV

E, M

1208

23

INX

1209

MOV

D, M

PROG

XTHL

; PC HL

; PC ("
")

PUSH

; DE

PUSH

PSW

; PSW

PUSH

; ,

;

; ,


; 1
; 1

1210

F1

PGP

PSW

; PSW
(" ")

1211

D1

POP

; DE

1212

POP

1213 1214

XTHL RET END

; PC
; HL PC,

16. ,

16.20.
16.1.
) ,
8085.
)
8085.
) ?
) .
) CALL RET
.
16.2. , 1;
. ,
DE HL.
^\ ?
,
2 ?
16.3. ,
{ < 255)
.
. HL
;
DE .
16.4. ,
1; .
; ,
; .

.
. I.

1 -^
1 ^^
=

EXOR-

2+1

^
<\

1
1

X/Y
MUX
DMUX DX

P-Q
CPG
7

1
,

carry-lock-ahead-generator (
)

ALU

SRGm

CTRm

, 2^

CTRDIVm
RCTRm

m
2^

ROM

(read-only-memory)

RAM

FIFO

first-in-first out (
)

402

,
, :

( 0
1)

.^d_

, L,

, L, N2

1
2
3

>-

8
9

, L, N1

6
7

( 0
1)

^^
- >

>


:

:

10
11

^
12

13

;;i:

14

:::

A.l. 403

.
.

-^h

---
^

---

tri-state
EN

J, , R, S, D,
</

-^


:
,
, N^ = 1

:}

0 .
.

=15

,
,

=15
"1"

?,

:::

.
164

EN

,
tri-state

(enable)

82
38,39


(mode)

(negation)

29

(reset)

80

(set)

80

30

29 1

27

135

28


2.1.
)
(1110, ) = l2l2l202l2-02~^+l2-^ = 14,625io
)
9(10011,11012) = l - 2 4 l - 2 4 l - 2 + l - 2 - 4 l - 2 - 2 + l-2-^ = 19,8125io
2.2.
)
33 : 2 = 16

16:2 = 8

8:2 = 4

4:2 = 2

2:2 = 1
1:2 = 0
0,125-2

= 0,25
0,25-2

0,5

+0

0,5-2

^ ^ ^

t^ fH

1
+0

+1

33,125io = 100001,0012)
45 : 2 = 2

2 2 : 2 = 11

11 : 2 = 5

5:2 = 2
2:2 = 1
1:2 = 0

406

0,33 2 - 0,66

+0

0,66-2-0,32

+1

0,32-2 = 0,64

+0

0,64-2 = 0,28 + 1
.
45,33io ^ 101101,01012.
2.3.
) 001010 110110

(1)

1 0

1 0

21io
-

1110

^ , .
) 010111 101001,
011011 100101.
1

-23io

-27io

(1)

14io

5 = = 1, .
2.4.
) 110101 010101 - 010001011001
) 1101110 : 110 = 10010, .
2.5. : 000, 001, 011, 010, 110, 100.
3.1.
.

407
3.11

3.10
Xl

0
0
1
1

XQ
0
1
0
1

V \

;(; Va;i)XQ

0
1
1
1

0
1
0
1

\ XQ XQ

0
1
0
1

0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1

f\X\

V ( ^Xl)

XQ

0
1
0
1

0
0
0
1

0
1

3.2.
= { ^1 2 -I ) V { f\xi /\2 f\ ) V (- -1 Xl 2 )
V (^ ; - XI - 2 ) V ( -1 Xl 2 ) V
V ( - Xl -12 ) =
=

( Xl 2) V (- -I Xl ) V ( -< x i ) =

== ( Xl 2) V (-1 Xl )


.
3.3.

0
0

0
0
1

1
1

0
1

0
0

0
0

0
1

0
1

0
1

S\
SQ

KDNF ( ) SQ:
So = ( - ' - > 6 ) \ / ( - ' - 1 ) \ / ( - | 6 - 1 ) \ / ( )
KDNF ( ) Si:
si = (-. 6 ) V ( - 6 ) V ( 6 -^ ) V ( 6 )
KKNF ( ) SQ:
so = {a\/b\/

) (\/ ^b\/ ) A{a\/b\/

^) {^\/

^bVc)

408

K K N F ( ) si:
51 = ( V V ) ( V b V ^ ) ( V -- V ) (- V 6 V )
3.4.
51 = (6 ) V ( ) V ( ) oder si = { Ab) W { ) {b )
5,
, 2 .
3 . 5 .
) a f ^ - i b = a b V - i a - ' b = -ia<->->b = -' { ^ b)
Q'jf = ai-)^b^c=>-^f
= ^{a^b)^c
=
-^a^b^c
:

3.6.
)
1 = 1;2^ V ^a;2^3
= 12; V ->;2^^1 V -"^2^3 ( )
= xixs V -^X2Xs ( 1 2 3.34)
= xs {xi V -"^2) ( )
)
2 = -^Xi^X2^Xs\/

-^12 12

1-^2-^ ^ V ^ia;2~' ^3 V -> ^1X2-" =


= -12-' V ;2 V 2^ xs ( 1 4, 2 3, 5 6)
= -1^2-'3^3 X2XS 2~> ( )
= -1^3 V :2 ( 1 4, 2 3, 5 6)
)
= -'a:i:r2-^^3 V -1 (^1^2) xi^X2-'Xs
-yXiX2-^x^y

-^1-^2 xi^X2-^X2,\/

^xi-^X2XsX4,
^1^2^4^

(-)

= ^XiX2-^X^ V -11-1;2 V Xi-^X2^X^


( 4 - 2 )
= -^XiX2^Xs V -1X1-1X2 V Xi-iX2-'X3 V -1X1-1X2-1X3 V -iXi-iX2-'X3
( )
= -1 xi-i V -1 xi-i 2 V -12-1 ( 1 4, 3 6)

409
)
4 = ^ (-> (^ x i ^ ;2-^ ) - (- a:i V -1 ^2^))
= - 1-< 2-' ^4 V -> ^1 V 2 V -1 (-)
= -":! V -'2 V -'^ ( )
)
4 = ^ (-112^ V ^ (rri V 2 V )) {xi V ^ :2)

= -I (->xiX2-'X3 V-'1-'2-') (xi V-'2) (-)


= -1 (-'Xi-') (xi V -1X2) ( 3.34)
= {xi V ) [xi V -'2) > (-)
= xi ^-^2 ( )
4.1.
^) "" (ab)y-^cd\/a->bd = ->\/-

^bV-^cd

(7

>!

/,

(?

':
,

&

4.2.

NAND

NOR

XI

XI

1 5.1.
NOR

NAND

'--

410

5.2.
)

En

\-

5.3. :
5 = -I (rro^i);

= -15 V -1 ->xi = ^:^! V - XQ-^ a;i = ^ ^1

6.1.
)

) : 1) xoa:^2~^^i; 2) :^2^; 3) xiX2Xs'-) 4) -1^0^1:1:2;


5) ^^^
) : 1, 4, 5.
: 2,3.
: 0


) : / = a;o^2~'^i V-ia;o^i3;2V:ria;o^3
) --

XI

V
V

13

14

13

15

V
V

XI

5,13

6,14
11,15

13,15

14,15

1
1

,
:
5
5,13

11

6,14
11,15
13,15
14,15

13

14

15

0
(8)

(8)
0

0
X

X
X

1, 5,13; 6,14 11,5


.
: / = :;2~'^1 V
6,2.
) :
-^ XsX2

-1 1;4 -> XQ-^ 4

412

[ ^

"^

d 1~"- - = . _ ^

1 0

1 ^

1 11 ^

X, J

71 1 ^^
V

v_

1 -/' V
0'"1

0 1 d 1 ^

-TO

6)
= {-^xiW -^ Xi) (-1 xs V 4) (- V xi V 4)

1 0

r'd^

...

1_
d

! 0

|fr-"""1"_-__ "~0^\

i 0
'v

d
V,

} xo

6.3.
)
X3

X3

Tl

[Ti
-

r* r

"2

"Xo

LLJ

xr

Ji

X2

:
/ i = -^XQ-^xi-^xs \/ -^12-^;
/2 = ^ 12-1 ^ V -1 :2^ :/ = :;:2^ V - j;o^i
) / i /2, /2 /, ,
.

413
) 7 17
XI

>1

XI ^^

&

2--

>1
&

>1

&
| '

6.4.
) = {)2^ V X i - i V -1 -- Xi^

2^

'

I &

LJ

6
, ^

"

>1

^^^

"^

4" 1 :>

) (hazard) <^.
7.1.
) :

^+1 _ ^Cz^WC^z"^

z^^ ZQ"

po mn
.

l l 01
11 10

"

loo 10 1


) :

)
:
^m+l
z^^'
= -.Cz^V

Cz"^ = ~.Cz^V

^m+l __

= ^Cz^yC^z'^

z^z"^

^C^z^yz^^z'^

r) :

, m . m , , ,
'. 1 . . 1 ;-. . , . 1 . . .

. , . ^
t

^
_1

1 _ J

_l

1 .II ^ .

,
, 01,
11, 10, 00. Zi Z2
.
7.2.
) (. )
, Z^ZQ^ 00
, .
ZQ^ .
,
01 10
, 1. 11
.

-,

)
Zi

ZQ

11 00 ool
11 01 01
11 01 10
1
11 1 10 10 1

"
zo

'{

11
11


-.
, .
:
^m+l

-^)
{^Cyz^)bCy-^z^yE)^-^{C^z^yC-^Ez'P)

7.3.

416

8.1
)

\V-.R

RV

-^RV

+1 m-f 1
^1
^0

00

01

11

10

00

10

00

00

01

01

00

00

00

11

11

01

00

00

10

10

11

00

00

00

m+l

V- RW

m+l

V- i?V z'l^V^ R

=: ^1

^0

8.2.
RS- .
^m

ym-\-l

8-5
.
.

SxRx

S(yRo

5,,

SQRQ

Od

10

Od

Od

10

do

Od

01

do

01

01

01

01

Od

01

Od

Z), Do D, Do

yzo

\"o

yzo"

417

RS-,
SN, -:
So = JQ = -^ ^-^ Z^\

Ri=Ki=r'^\/

Si Ji =

^Q

1/

--br^z^)

, SQ^ ^ i , i?o, ^ i
J K - . 1)- :
Do = Jo =

^T'^-^Z^ 1 '

D i ^ h ^

, /^-
. -.
^\ (SN2) .
9 . 1 . ,
2^ 2 2^.
.

10
0

1
0

0
1

1
1

0
1

2
3

MUX
EN
f
\ 0
0 1
, 2
1 3

P e n i e n n e 9.2.
a) .
\

Fo

1 1

1
0

1
1

1
0

1
0

1
0

0
1

1
0

2-4 1 J

MUX
EN

0
1
-.
-1^3
2
1~ 3

Fo

- ^ 2 1^ EN
-.
0
-.
1
-.
2

F,

6) :
BIN/OCX

BIN/OCX

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

1
1

I 2
ai 1 4

ai

6
7

&

&

&

&

Fo

Fi

Fo

Fi

10.1.
&

1
' >1
1 1

gi

'

/^

>1
1

1
/^ > 1

'

R
^

R
,

419
10.2.

:
V = 1
Z2

Zl

V = 0

^0

^ + 1

^ + 1

+1
^0

^ + 1
^2

^1

^0

- ^[^
D-:
D\=zx

^2=Z2"

z\ J

zo

zr

Z2

Z2

Do=zo

/77+1

Zo

Zl

:
Do = z^^^ = {z^-^ V) V (^1^- z^) V ( F - z^-^ z^)

ZQ

Di

+l
- {z^^ V) V {z^-^ z'^V) V {z'^'z^-^ V) V {z"^^ z^^V)
^z m
1

D2 = z:m+1

^z^-^V)y{z'Pz^V)

(-

11.1.
.
Q'^.
.
Q'^ (52^, Q'^
.
Q^^^^ ^2^^^ Q^~^^.
111 000 .
QT

QT

QT

QT^'

Q-+^

g-+i

- ^
.

Qi"

d
1

1
d

Di^Q^-^Qr^-^Qs^Qi

J&
J>i
&

Qr\

D,=Qi'

HID

an
HID

PbJ

CLK

HID

J>ci

-t>ci
p-^\

1 1

421
12.1. 74181
, .
5 = (, 1, 1, 0), = CQ = 1.
, 4 =
X :
^
>
X

4 1, =: 1

4 = 1, xz=:y =^

<

4 = 0, = = 0

12.2. 5 = = 1
(12.26):
= -^bXiyiV

-^) = " (^44> ).

= 1, 1 .
(12.31) :

13.1.
) .

:

(Hex)

15 14 13 12

11 10 9 8

7 6 5 4

3 2 10

0000

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

(4)

OFFF

0 0 0 0

1111

1111

0 0 0 0|
1 1 1 l{

1000

0 0 0 1

0 '

0 0 0 0

"~]

(2)

17FF

0 0 0 1

0{1 1 1

1111

1800

0 0 0 1

1 1 1 l{
1 [0 0"0" ~~~~ "^"!

(2)

1FFF

0 0 0 1

1 il 1 1

2000

0 0 1 |" 0 0 0 0

1 1 1 ll
1111
0 0 0 0 ~0""0]

3FFF

0 0 ill

1111

1 (8)

1111

1 1 1 ll
....

~i \

) ,
, .



, . 13. ];
.
,
. .
) 16
8 2 . ^
8 4
. -
-. ;
:
DX

,,
4,.
^12

1
2
4

4,

4,

' * 14
4

1 1
>1

--CS

EN

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

&
-^rs(4)
-^CS(3)
-.CS(2)
-^CS(l)

^15

13.2.
) ^
^2-
^ Aj (.
.).
) . ( ,
!).

()

08

1 0

(2 )

09

1 0

1 0

(4 )

1 3

0
0

()

20

(8 )

27

1 0

0
1 1

1 1 1

423

RAM 8x8
,
Aj

2)

>

G1
/- G2

A,3D

1C3[WRITE]
" 1,2EN[READ]

N-

RAM 4x8

-N

AV

AV

Gl
A,3DH~W^JV4 G2

1C3 [WRITE]
1,2EN[READ]

->-

13

RAM 2x8
Qo

^T

AV

-.cs

, - { >

Gl
A,3D
~W=JV4 G2
1C3 [WRITE]
1,2EN[READ]

"13

-^

N-

-
A
^7

R/-.W

14.1. 3
-. ,
, 5
. - :
/.

^ \

'
~

(fyd

424

^<

ZL

zJ

N1

&
5 :
\ = ci-^d, 2 = ad-^c, Ps = adc, P4 = -^a-^b^cd, P5 = -^ab-^cd.
_
1 p

In
L_r

1 P

1 ~ <
L_P

r\\i DG rjji G[]4

^ <

1 ^11
l>il

fi

f2

fo

14.2. / ,
4
. J\RA /1 :
/(, , c,d) = ^a-^b-^c-^dV a-^c-^dW ^ abd V -1 acd,
/1 (a, 6, , d) -1 a- b-^c-^dV ab-^ cdV ^a-^ bed V -^ 6-< d

III
1I 1l 1 l \E.
\E.
1 1 1
I I &
[
1T1

T T

1*

>1

i^i


15.1.
Z0, Z0, Z1, Z1, Z2, Z2, Z0, Z1, Z0.
16.1.

. ,
, .
, !) .
.

^ (.. ).
16.2.
AL = 1, / = 1, tri-state, ;
, .
.

, .
17.1.
MOV ,
() ^ ((H)(L)
LDAXD

() <- ((D)(E))

MOV ,

((H)(L) ^ ()

MOV ,

() ^ ()

((D)(E)) f- ()
STAXD
2 :
32 0 , 5 = 16 .

17.2. , , 6 1000
1200.

LOOP

MVI

LXI

, lOOOH

LXI

D, 1200H

MOV

A,M

() ^ ((H)(L))

STAX

((D)(E)) ^ ()

INX

(D)(E) ^

INX

(H)(L) ^ (H)(L)+1

(D)(E)+1

426


; () ^ ()-1

DCR

JNZ

LOOP

17.3. Quer
]; :
QUER:

ANF:

PUSH

MVI , 08

MVI ,

RAR

(LSB)

JNC

, =0

INRC

1,
carry=1

DCRB

JNC ANF

MOV ,

POP

RET


[1] .. . . ,
2002 .
[2] .., .., ..
: , 1991 .
[3] .. , .. , .. .
, . , 1973 .,
, 1987 .
[4] . . , , ., 2002 .
[5] .. , .. ,
. , 1997 .
[6] . . .
-, , 1983 . .
[7] . . . , 1991 .
[8] . . ; ,
, , 1989 .
[9] .. , .. , .. .
. , 1977 .
[10] .. , .. . -
. , 1976 .
[11] . . , . ,
1973 .
[12] .. . . .: -,
2002 .


2-
7-
ABEL

(addition)





Direct
Immediate
Register Indirect
Register

(accumulator)
ALU ()







Antifuse (

:
125319 , / 594

e-mail: knigi@technosphera.ni
sales@technosphera.ru
: (095) 956 33 46

!

http://www.technosphera.ru
http://www.benran.ru

.

..
.
..
70 X 100/16. .
Computer modem LaTeX.
.. 27. 5000 . . 8505.
1, 65 / ^.

, . , 10 3

,
121099 , ., 6