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2014 GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON TEACHING AND LEARNING WITH TECHNOLOGY (CTLT 2014) CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS JULY 09
2014 GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON TEACHING AND LEARNING WITH TECHNOLOGY (CTLT 2014) CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS JULY 09

2014 GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON TEACHING AND LEARNING WITH TECHNOLOGY (CTLT 2014) CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS

JULY 09 - 10, 2014 SINGAPORE

HOSTED BY

ASIA PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL ACADEMY

WHOLLY OWNED SUBSIDIARY OF

AVENTIS SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT

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Copyright ©APIA Publications Global Conference On Teaching And Learning With Technology Conference Proceedings ISBN: 978-981-07-9920-5 Publisher: Asia Pacific International Academy July 2014

The authors of individual papers are responsible for technical, content, and linguistic correctness.

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APIA Asia Pacific International Academy.

Aventis School of Management is a Leading Graduate School dedicated to the development of professionals and business leaders. Aventis is a member of the European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD), European Council for Business Education (ECBE), Executive MBA Council and United Nations (UN) Global Compact partnership. Through our close collaboration with professional bodies including the Chartered Institute of Marketing (CIM UK); American Association for Financial Management (AAFM), Aventis qualifications are industry driven and recognised by professional bodies internationally.

Asia Pacific International Academy (APIA), a subsidiary of Aventis School of Management, was found in 2010 with the purpose of promoting academic research and intellectual development of researchers, academicians and professionals from various institutions and across different countries in the Asia-Pacific region and beyond through academic conferences and executive training.

We strive to organise the best academic conferences in the Asia-Pacific region and beyond. On behalf of all APIA conference executives, I sincerely thank you for your participation and look forward to seeing you at our conference.

Have a great day!

participation and look forward to seeing you at our conference. Have a great day! Tan Lee

Tan Lee Ming Conference Secretariat

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CTLT ADVISORY BOARD

Prof. Dan Levin, Ph.D, Wharton Business School, University of Pennsylvania, Director (Academic Affairs) Graduate Programs Aventis School of Management

Dr. Lorraine Pe Symaco, Director of the Centre for Research in International and Comparative Education (CRICE) at the University of Malaya, Malaysia

Dr. Josh McCarthy, The University of South Australia

Dr. Mohd Asri Mohd Noor, Sultan Idris Education University, Malaysia

Dr. Anne Geniets, University of Oxford, United Kingdom

Dr. Tee Meng Yew, University of Malaya, Malaysia

Dr Kumar Laxman, The University of Auckland, New Zealand

Dr Leong Kwan Eu, University of Malaya, Malaysia

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CTLT OFFICERS

Samuel Teo General Manager Aventis School of Management, Singapore E-mail: samuel@aventis.edu.sg

Tan Lee Ming Conference Manager Asia Pacific International Academy, Singapore E-mail: leeming@aventisglobal.edu.sg

Tan Hwee Li Conference Officer Asia Pacific International Academy, Singapore E-mail: academic@aventis.edu.sg

Jay Goh Conference Marketing Executive Asia Pacific International Academy, Singapore Email: jay@aventisglobal.edu.sg

Table of Contents

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Using a Collaborative Learning Knowledge Management System to Enhance the Effective Learning of Thai Students Krittawaya Thongkoo (Thailand)

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Multicultural Learning Partnerships In The Café: Integrating International Students Into First Year University In Australia Using The Collaborative Application For Education Josh McCarthy(Australia)

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Rude or Polite: Do Personality And Emotion In An Artificial Pedagogical Agent Affect Task Performance? Samantha Tan & Paul Howard-Jones (United Kingdom)

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A Conceptual Framework for Cloud-based Service in E-learning Systems

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Porntida Kaewkamol (Thailand)

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Changing C Programming Teaching A Successful Case Study Ming Yang, Songhua Yang, Xiaofang Wang & Yufang Zhao (China)

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Factors for Enhancing the Level of Satisfaction among Students in an Electronic Learning System: A Conceptual Framework for a Computer Programming Course Kannika Daungcharone (Thailand)

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Cooperative Learning Principles Enhance Online Interaction George Jacobs and Peter Seow (Singapore)

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LISSA A Game To Learn CPR And AED Use Imma Boada, Juan Manuel García-González, Antonio Rodríguez- Benítez , Mateu Sbert (Spain) & Voravika Wattanasoontorn (Thailand)

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Digital Divide: Its Challenges On Technology-Based Learning And Achievement In Secondary School Mathematics. Godwin Okeke (United States)

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The Flipped Workshop: Inverting the Teaching and Learning Environment for Problem Solving Using Educational Robotics Ngit Chan Lye, Andrew Chiou, Kok Wai Wong (Australia)

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Causal Factors Related to the Potential Success of Web-Based Training

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for the Professional Development of Teachers

Nathathai Sangsuk, Sunchai Pattanasith, James E. Gall (Thailand)

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USING A COLLABORATIVE LEARNING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM TO ENHANCE THE EFFECTIVE LEARNING OF THAI STUDENTS

Krittawaya Thongkoo

Chiang Mai University, Thailand

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ABSTRACT

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This study was undertaken with the goal of developing a Collaborative Learning Knowledge Management System (CLKMS) for enhancing the effective training of Thai students. The structural design model for collaborative learning system has been developed in order to support the collaborative learning activities in virtual environment. Collaborative Learning occurs when students and instructors work together to create knowledge for pedagogy that has a focus on the creation of shared meaning and process, resulting in the richness of knowledge and it can be expanded even more. The methodology of this study consists of three processes which are data collection, analysis and implementation. Initially, a set of questionnaire was given to a sample group including a hundred of the second- year students from Modern Management and Information Technology program at Chiang Mai University (CMU), Chiang Mai, Thailand. The students were selected to be respondents during the data collection process. The derived results from the questionnaires will reveal the students’ interests, learning styles as well as their learning preferences for the online system development. The prototype design is subsequently being constructed, using the Web-based technology which includes MySQL, PHP and Apache web server. The expected result is the appropriate system that can facilitate online communication and collaboration from many different locations so as to encourage distance learning education.

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INTRODUCTION Although the learning of Thai students’ problems is complex, teachers want students to learn to explain patterns and processes in the natural world and to be able to make predictions about system behaviors. Collaborative learning can be described as coordinated, synchronous activity that is the result of a continued attempt to construct and maintain a shared conception of a problem. There are many techniques for improving teaching and learning in classroom. The one technique that helps students analyze the problem is using concept map. Concept mapping is a diagram tool to represent the relationship between the meanings of concepts, and it also shows that the text label in the diagram can associate with another concept as well. Concept mapping as a means for students to learn new information which has been widely recommended and accepted in science, mathematics and educational psychology. Furthermore, a concept map is also an effective and efficient tool that can be used to evaluate student learning because a concept map reflects the students’ internal semantic networks with regard to the knowledge they perceive, accumulate and comprehend. Therefore, the teacher can estimate the students’ learning by evaluating the content and structure of a concept map they have constructed. The goal of this study was to compare two sections of a structural analysis and design course - one that was dominated by lecture and one that used the constructivist model. The need for the development of a knowledge management system using concept maps for structural analysis and design was apparent. The first step was to characterize the problems that students are typically asked to solve. In this study, a framework was designed for the analysis of individual learning performance and cooperative behavior on knowledge accumulation and organization using collaborative learning. The Collaborative Learning Knowledge Management System (CLKMS) was then developed to empirically evaluate and confirm the effectiveness of the proposed framework. The CLKMS maintains current and historical versions of collaborative learning, and it also records the discussion/cooperation history of the collaborative learning developing process.

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Finally, in the present study, proposals are made as to how teachers can apply the best practices in structural analysis and design education research.

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LITERATURE REVIEW

For supporting this paper there are many theories and researches to explain and

promote this concept. There are four related topics, including the collaborative learning,

the e-Learning, the concept mapping and knowledge management.

Collaborative learning

The common goal of collaborative learning requires working together. Collaborative

learning has been called by various names, for example, cooperative learning, collective

learning, collaborative learning or learning communities but all of these have an

incorporate group work. However, collaboration is not only co-operation but

collaboration evokes the whole of learning process including students teaching another

one and also the teacher teaching the students.

Moreover, the students must have responsibility for the other one's learning as well as

their own and reaching the goal of collaborative learning that students have helped each

other for learning. However, the meaning of cooperative learning is to facilitate the

accomplishment of a goal through people working together in groups.

Unavoidably, that cooperation learning and collaboration learning seem to overlap, but

from the cooperative learning model, the teacher will control most of activity in the

classroom, even though the students are working in groups. On the other hand, the aim of

collaborative learning is to get the students to take almost full responsibility for working

and building knowledge together, changing and evolving together and also improving

together.

e-Learning

E-Learning allows learners to access a source of knowledge from anywhere and at anytime via the internet technology along with the utilization of electronic devices, i.e., internet, television, video-conferencing. It can also provide advices from specialists and training materials. Although E-learning has a variety in its definitions, it generally involves in an on-line learning experience. More importantly, it can be regarded as a shift in education and training.

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E-Learning can be associated with Knowledge Management resource as it contributes to many blended learning methods. Self-paced web-based training, virtual classroom, simulation and peer-to-peer mentoring are some of the examples in these methods. Hence, the effective E-learning system should not only present information but should also consist of connectivity, advice, support, demonstration and practice to sustain learning process.

E-learning

Knowledge

Management

Learning

Technology

Education

Information

Training

Figure 1 Structure of e-Learning.

Concept mapping Concept Map (Novak, 2006) can be regarded as a Road Map since it illustrates the idea in a two-dimensional form. In addition, it is not only a diagram tool to represent the relationship between the meanings of concepts, but it also shows that the text label in the diagram can associate with another concept as well.

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Concept Map can be created in different styles, for instance, spider chart, organization chart, flow diagram, etc. However, the appropriate format of a concept map for the learning and teaching circumstance should be in Hierarchical organization form as the concepts can be placed within plain and specific positions in the diagram.

There are some advantages of using Concept Map in teaching process. One of these is the students can logically develop and manage their presentations. Generally, concept mapping proposes students a guide to think and present in systematic and logical way. In some cases, they can utilize concept mapping to do a presentation note.

Knowledge Management The term knowledge management can be referred to several meanings. It is generally a discipline that promotes an integrated approach for identifying, managing and sharing all of an enterprise’s information, including database, document, policies and procedures as well as unarticulated expertise and experience of individual workers (Morey et al., 2001). Knowledge management is an emerging discipline with many ideas yet to be tested, many issues yet to be resolved and much learning yet to be discovered (Jay, 1999).

issues yet to be resolved and much learning yet to be discovered (Jay, 1999). Figure 2

Figure 2 Knowledge management process.

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Data Collection

METHODOLOGY

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Initially, a set of questionnaire was given to a sample group including a hundred of the second-year students from Modern Management and Information Technology program in Chiang Mai University (CMU), Chiang Mai, Thailand to inspect the students’ interest, learning styles and preferences in learning structural analysis and design subject. The study analysis result from the questionnaires will reveal whether there are needs for the development of the online system for learning and sharing knowledge of the system analysis course.

System Analysis & Design The Collaborative Learning Knowledge Management System or CLKMS was developed by adopting the concept of collaborative learning using concept map technique. There are three main stakeholders designed for the system which are the administrator, lecturer and student. First step, the lecturer will prepare the general topic of the concept map and considers the related ideas. Then, the lecturer will select appropriate words for the topic that support the main ideas of system analysis and draw these words and connect to the main topic with a line referring to the relationship. Furthermore, the lecturer will repeat all processes in the subtopics until students understand the concept of system analysis.

For student phase, students will prepare the general topic of the structural analysis and design curriculum and brainstorm to design the words that are related to the topic. Besides, the selected words from each brainstorming sessions are ranked which will support the main ideas of structural analysis and design. In additional, the students will compare group similarities and differences; a separate map is created for each of the groups. The final concept map demonstrates the importance of the items according to the rankings. Finally, the concept map is presents the information which identifies into themes. The answers are graded by the lecturers and can be downloaded by the entire collaborative class.

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For the system design of the CLKMS, the system requirements comprise of two parts that are the functional requirements and non-functional requirements. Both conditions are represented using the use case diagram. Finally, the physical design of CLKMS is being constructed using the Web-based technology which includes MySQL, PHP and Apache web server.

technology which includes MySQL, PHP and Apache web server. Figure 3 Interfaces of CLKMS application CONCLUSION

Figure 3 Interfaces of CLKMS application

CONCLUSION CLKMS is being developed using the web-based technologies such as MySQL, PHP and Apache to support the teaching and learning of the structural analysis and design course with the objective to provide supporting virtual learning aids to the students, thus promoting active learning in a virtual learning environment. The collaborative learning has been proven effective in enhancing students’ learning performances and individual self-learning. The interactions among and between the students are visible and can be directly tracked and also evaluated by the lecturers. However, the collaborative learning system concerns complex issues and challenging tasks in order to create a virtual environment that suits every student.

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Abel, M., & Freeze, M

Evaluation

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REFERENCES of concept mapping in an associate degree nursing

program. Journal of Nursing Education, 45, 356364, 2006.

Chen, C. C., & Shaw, R. S. Online synchronous vs Asynchronous software training

through the behavioral modeling approach: A longitudinal field experiment.

International Journal of Distance Education Technologies, 4(4), 88102, 2006.

Jay Liebowitz. Knowledge Management Handbook. CRC Press LLC, 1999.

Joseph D. Novak. The Theory Underlying Concept Maps and How to Construct Them.

Technical Report IHMC CmapTools 2006-01, Florida Institute for Human and

Machine Cognition, 2006.

Morey D, Maybury M, Thuraisingham B (eds). Knowledge Management. MIT Press:

Cambridge, MA, 2001.

Nickell, G. S., & Pinto, J. N

The computer attitude scale. Computers in Human

Behavior, 2(4), 301306, 1986.

Susan E. Cooperstein and Elizabeth Kocevar-Weidinger. Beyond active learning: a

constructivist approach to learning. Reference Services Review, Emerald Group

Publishing Limited, Volume 32, 2004.

Von Glasersfeld, E. A constructivist approach to teaching. In L. P. Steffe & J. Gale

(Eds.), Constructivism in education (pp. 3-15). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence

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MULTICULTURAL LEARNING PARTNERSHIPS IN THE CAFÉ:

INTEGRATING INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS INTO FIRST YEAR UNIVERSITY IN AUSTRALIA USING THE COLLABORATIVE APPLICATION FOR EDUCATION

Dr Josh McCarthy University of South Australia, Australia

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ABSTRACT This paper reports on using the Café: the Collaborative Application for Education as an online learning environment within the Facebook framework, for integrating international students into first year university in Australia. Facebook, the most popular social networking site in the world, affords learning qualities not commonly found within traditional online learning environments, such as learning management systems. Facebook’s intuitive interface, immense popularity and social focus make it an excellent host for an engaging and interactive online community, particularly for commencing students, who are new to university culture, and international students, who are potentially isolated within a large cohort. The Cafe, a new e-learning application, has been designed and developed not only to take advantage of Facebook’s popularity and social qualities, but also to provide institutions with a dedicated e-learning environment that meets the needs of modern-day tertiary students and teaching staff. During two separate courses in 2013, 91 first year students, including 24 international students, from the University of South Australia participated within the e-learning environment in combination with traditional face-to-face classes. Students were required to submit work-in- progress imagery related to assignments, and provide critiques to their peers. The evaluation process of the e-learning application involved pre and post semester surveys providing participating students with the opportunity to critically reflect on the experience during the year. The findings of the study are discussed in light of the growing use of social media within learning and teaching in tertiary education, and the importance of providing first year students, particularly international students, with multiple means of communication with staff and peers.

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Introduction In 2007 a national study was conducted by Sawir, Marginson, Deumert, Nyland and Ramia (2008), analyzing the university experience of international students in Australia. The study highlighted various issues confronting international students studying in Australia. Sawir et al. note that international students plunge suddenly upon arrival at their chosen institutions into a challenging new study setting, with up to 65% experiencing ‘relational deficit’ and isolation at a time when in need of greatest support. Their loneliness is often acute, separated as they are from Australian students by language and cultural barriers, and from students sharing a common culture by dint of the fact that so many of them are strangers in a strange land. They no longer belong to the world they left behind, but in first year, do not yet belong to the world they have entered. The immense popularity of web 2.0 technologies however, offers potential solutions to such learning problems. The virtual environment and accessibility of SNSs, such as Facebook, YouTube and Flickr, are highly effective for developing ‘preliminary’ relationships between local and international students as they negate key loneliness triggers such as language barriers and social inhibitions. Students can communicate at their own pace and contemplate discussion and responses, rather than being ‘put on the spot’ in the physical classroom. Loneliness is most likely to occur within situations such as a lengthy absence from home or the loss of a significant other (Sawir et al, 2008), two situations students face when they study abroad. The literature on loneliness indicates personality and a loss of social networks as influencing factors, however there are many other factors that can contribute to a student’s isolation. Weiss (1973) distinguishes ‘personal loneliness’ and ‘social loneliness’. According to Weiss, personal loneliness can be seen as the loss or lack of a truly intimate tie such as that with a parent, child or lover, and is characterized by anxiety and apprehension. International students experience personal loneliness because of the sudden loss of contact with their families. Personal loneliness can often be resolved by the instalment of an ‘attachment’ relationship such as a boyfriend or girlfriend. Students experience social loneliness because of the sudden loss of existing social and academic networks, and is characterized by boredom and a sense of exclusion.

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Social loneliness can be resolved through immersion into an existing or newly formed social network, as Weiss (1973) notes:

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Social networks provide a pool of others among whom one can find companions for an evening’s conversation or for some portion of the daily round. Social isolation removes these gratifications; it directly impoverishes life. Osterman (2000), states that being accepted, included or welcomed leads to positive emotions such as happiness, elation, commitment and calm; however being rejected, excluded or ignored leads to often intense negative feelings of anxiety, depression, grief, jealousy and loneliness. People who are very prone to loneliness are often shy, introverted, and less willing to take social risks (Hojat 1982; Stokes, 1985), and as such international students, simultaneously experiencing a new culture, environment and other learning hurdles, are most at risk. Language competence is a key factor. For students just arrived in the country this is a huge barrier, and it is crucial for universities to explore means of tackling such issues. Being able to respond to a question online, in a written manner, over a period of time, rather than verbally on the spot in the classroom, is of great benefit to commencing international students. It should also be acknowledged that international students are coming from many different cultures and backgrounds, and as such may not have many, if any, peers from their own country. Indeed some international students find themselves isolated within an already distanced group (McCarthy, 2012). Triggers for loneliness and feelings of isolation are common within both commencing and continuing international students and the results can be devastating. The experience of loneliness can trigger a withdrawal from social relationships in an effort to contain the pain, reinforcing and exacerbating social isolation. Cultural factors are often responsible for triggering loneliness and can affect international students in two distinct ways. Firstly students often miss their own cultural and linguistic setting, and being placed in an unfamiliar environment can be completely overwhelming. Secondly, while many students may find themselves in cross-cultural relationships, they are often at a lower level of empathy than same-culture relationships. More specifically, international students are disappointed by the underdevelopment of relationships with local students, and can be affected by weak institutional relationships, including the exchange in classrooms with peers, and student-teacher connections (Sawir et al, 2008).

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One remedy, for loneliness within international students, is integration into an existing or newly formed social network. This enables students to interact with peers and engage with their learning. The two variables that correlate most significantly with loneliness are density and quality. Denser networks enhance a sense of belonging and reduce loneliness. The larger the network, the higher the chances of students finding like- minded peers with whom to interact. Similarly, if the network contains students of similar interests, relational goals and age brackets, the quality of the network is increased. At a first year level it is crucial to promote connections with both peers and academic staff, and to do so through fostering an environment in which students participate actively and develop a sense of belonging in both small and large group settings (Krause, 2006). Opportunities to ask questions and contribute to group discussion are particularly conducive to engagement. Organizing peer learning and study groups that extend interactions beyond classroom walls and using online resources, such as forums, social networking tools, wikis and blogs, all lead to student engagement. The goal is to build student independence and support networks as part of an integrated academic and social transition experience. From an international student perspective, developing a sense of belonging in the academic community is critical in supporting the adjustment to university culture in Australia, more specifically, building cross-cultural connections with local students (McCarthy, 2009). Good networks help students to feel supported and more in control (Sarason, Sarason, Gurang, 1997), and friends, both local and foreign, are the most preferred source of help for international students (Baloglu, 2000). As many commencing international students lack any close friends, it is crucial to initiate connections with their peers immediately, to foster collaborative learning and a sense of belonging in the academic community.

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Online learning environments in Facebook Facebook is predominantly known as a hub of social networking activity; however it is quickly being recognised as a reputable and popular e-learning platform (Bosch, 2009; McCarthy, 2012). Since 2008, Facebook has been successfully implemented as an online learning environment within tertiary education case studies around the world (Irwin, Ball, Desbrow and Leveritt, 2012; Kenney, Kumar and Hart, 2013; Kurtz, 2013; McCarthy, 2009, 2010, 2012, 2013a; Rambe, 2012; Ritter and Delen, 2013; Shih, 2011). A key factor behind this revolution is Facebook’s immense popularity. Facebook is a familiar tool, and often a part of students’ daily lives (Duffy, 2011; McCarthy, 2012, 2013a, 2013b). At the time of this writing Facebook has 1.31 billion monthly active users (www.statisticsbrain.com/facebook-statistics/). Furthermore students can access the site using a range of devices from anywhere in the world. It is also free to use, ensuring students can connect with anyone, including global peers and industry leaders, at any time. This accessibility is often perceived by students as a significant benefit as it can allow increased communication with staff and peers, greater access to course material, connections to industry, and access to collaborative learning partners (Irwin et al, 2012; McCarthy, 2012, 2013a; Bosch, 2009). While Facebook has the potential to promote collaborative learning and student interaction, traditional university online learning environments, such as learning management systems (LMSs), negate such action through their closed-system format (Wang, Woo, Quek, Yang and Liu, 2012). Students must be enrolled within the specific course in order to access the learning environment, and while this structure is well suited to housing course material, such as lecture notes and tutorials; and managing course related issues, such as assignment submissions, extension requests and course evaluations, it does not accommodate the beneficial academic and social qualities found in Facebook (Deng and Tavares, 2013; McCarthy, 2013a). Students cannot use their LMS to interact with their global peers, or receive feedback from industry mentors, as these potential partners are not authorised to access it (McCarthy, 2010). LMSs often lack social connectivity and the personal profile spaces which today’s students are familiar with (Mazman and Usluel, 2010). In contrast, students see Facebook as a self-regulated space for individual expression and

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collaborative learning (Rambe, 2012), and a more conducive environment for communication with staff and peers (Wang et al, 2012). The primary benefits of Facebook as a learning tool arise from its ability to enable participants, both students and staff, to share information, knowledge, and artefacts within a community (McCarthy, 2012). The ability to post content and receive feedback from a wide range of collaborators stands as one of the primary educational benefits of the site (Duffy, 2011; Richardson, 2006; McCarthy, 2013a). There are however considerable deficiencies, both pedagogical and technical, within learning environments in Facebook, which need to be addressed. Online learning environments within Facebook are commonly created using the ‘group’, ‘page’, or event’ applications, or a combination of the three. These applications have not been designed or created specifically to use for e-learning; they have been created to facilitate interaction between social networks, and to act as marketing tools for institutions, businesses and celebrities (McCarthy, 2013a). Furthermore, Facebook developers have consistently reshaped these applications in terms of their functionality and design, resulting in a complete lack of control over the look and operation of any potential learning environment within the site (McCarthy, 2013a). This lack of continuity and control highlights the need for a dedicated e-learning application within the social networking site (SNS). Facebook’s popularity, social qualities and intuitive interface make it the perfect host site for online learning, while its open accessibility ensures it has the capacity to host national and international collaborative learning partnerships. However the inconsistent functionality and poor design of its in-built tools negatively affects the overall quality of the learning environment, and as a result can weaken the student experience (McCarthy, 2012, 2013b). Analysis of previous case studies using Facebook as a learning environment has also indicated that there needs to be a separation between students’ social and academic activities. Often, when students submit work, such as comments, images or videos, to an academic forum in Facebook, these posts will appear on their friends’ regular news feed, in turn prompting social commentary from users outside of the student cohort (McCarthy, 2013a). This is a significant problem in using Facebook as an educational tool, as it can impact on a student’s willingness to

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participate and as a result, can impact on their performance within the learning environment (Wang et al, 2012; McCarthy, 2012).

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Since 2007 many other SNSs have been formally and informally utilised within tertiary education, including image-host sites Flickr and DeviantArt, video-hosting sites YouTube and Vimeo, microblogging site Twitter, and visual discovery tools Pinterest and Clipix. Flickr is an image hosting website which allows users to share photographs, and host images that they embed in other SNSs. Accessibility to Flickr has improved with the advent of an application that can be used on smart devices. While Flickr is an excellent site for storing and displaying image-based content it lacks the social qualities of Facebook as well as the structure of groups and forums. YouTube is a video sharing website in which users can upload, view, rate and comment on videos. Registered users can access and analyse data regarding uploads, including number of views, peaks and valleys of view times, as well as generic user demographics. Like Flickr, YouTube can be accessed via phone or tablet through a standalone application, ensuring high availability to content. The ability to embed videos in other sites, as well as the rank and comment features, provides a strong basis for peer-to-peer learning. Pinterest is a SNS which allows users to collate media and categorise content based on specific interests. The site allows users to store images, links and videos and sort them on different pinboards.

Research Aims While the afore mentioned SNSs provide opportunities for e-learning, none provide a complete online learning environment, and there is a clear need for an e- learning application that takes advantage of the popularity and social qualities of Facebook, as well as the content sharing qualities of Flickr, YouTube, Vimeo and Pinterest. This application should be structured and designed specifically for e-learning; it should incorporate the interactive and community-minded aspects of other successful SNSs; it should negate the ‘closed-system’ format of LMSs; and it should allow participants to separate their academic and social activities should they wish. In response to these factors, as well as the pedagogical concerns of the design of standard Facebookpages, events and groups, and the continuing lack of control over their operation, a custom Facebook application - the Café: the collaborative application for education has been designed, developed and pilot tested. This paper reports on the pilot

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testing of the Café used as an e-learning environment for two student cohorts from the University of South Australia in Australia in 2013.

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The principle aim of this paper was to assess the Café’s effectiveness for providing international students with an online environment within which to interact with peers and further their understanding of course material.

The Café ‘The Café’ can be accessed through both Facebook and its dedicated website www.thecafeapp.com/app, and can be used on a range of devices. The Café allows a user to establish an online learning environment in the form of a ‘forum’ and invite participants to join. A forum can be both open and closed format, at the discretion of the forum manager, enabling the creation of both private and public forums. The forum manager can also change this setting at any stage, allowing open access or closed access to forums at different times. Within the forum there are four key areas: the ‘pinboard’, ‘galleries’, ‘Q and A’, and ‘MyCafe’. The pinboard acts as the home page for the forum. On the pinboard participants are able to pin images, videos, comments and links, relevant to the forum. All image, video and link-based posts contain imagery to create a more visually engaging online space, while a ‘live-feed’ tracks all submissions within the entire forum in real time. The galleries allow the forum manager to establish virtual gallery spaces - content pages for student submissions. Forum managers can outline the details of a gallery, such as opening and closing times, and content descriptions. Participants can then submit content, be it image, video, text or link-based. Once content is submitted to a gallery, participants can comment on, ‘like’ or add the submission to their personal space within the forum in ‘myCafe’. The ‘Q and A’ page acts as a discussion board for the forum, and provides participants with the opportunity to ask questions and provide responses. The final section within the application is ‘myCafe’. This acts as the participants’ personal space within the Café. Participants are able to collate all of their submissions within the forum. They are also able to collate, and organise into categories, submissions from other participants within the forum, as well as submissions they comment on. This supports the student by a) facilitating personal reflection on their work; and b) helping them to prepare for exams. It also allows the student to develop an online collection of precedents and examples to enhance their broader knowledge of the topics delivered within a course. Lastly it makes assessing the

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student’s performance, interaction and engagement within the online learning environment much easier for associated staff by collating all of their submissions in one place.

The pilot studies In 2013, 91 students from two first year courses in the Bachelor of Media Arts program at the University of South Australia participated in the pilot studies. In the first lecture of the semester, students were introduced to the e-learning environment in the Café, and shown how to access, install and use the application. Following this introduction, students were given the opportunity to take part in an anonymous pre- semester survey, hosted via Survey Monkey, to determine their expectations of the learning experience ahead. The survey included three broad types of measures:

demographic data; students’ attitudes towards online learning environments in Facebook; and students’ attitudes towards in class and online participation. In total 70 students participated in the survey, a response rate of 77%. The breakdown of student demographics within the cohort is outlined in Table 1. Table 1.The breakdown of student demographics within the two cohorts.

Demographic

Local Students

International

All respondents

Students

Number of

55

15

70

respondents

Gender

Male

30

8

38

Female

25

7

32

Age

17-18

7

2

9

19-24

32

13

45

25-34

9

0

9

35+

7

0

7

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The survey contained statements towards online learning environments in Facebook and questions related to online and in class interaction with peers and teachers. Mean response and broad agreement data are collated in Table 2 and Table 3.

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The data shows that participating international students much prefer to engage in academic exercises online rather than in class, with 93% preferring to critique their classmates’ work online, 85% preferring to engage in academic discussions online, and 73% preferring to ask questions online.

Table 2.Student responses to questions and statements.

 

Local

Internationa

All Students

Students

l Students

Topic

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

Have you used Facebook for any form of online or collaborative learning in the past?

42%

67%

33%

67%

40%

60%

Topic

In

Onlin

In

Onlin

In

Onlin

Class

e

Clas

e

Clas

e

s

s

I prefer asking questions

44%

56%

27%

73%

40%

60%

I prefer critiquing my classmates’ work

18%

82%

7%

93%

16%

84%

Engaging in academic discussions

49%

51%

15%

85%

41%

59%

The participating international students also responded positively towards the idea of using Facebook as host site for an online learning environment. 100% of international students were looking forward to using the Café learning environment prior to the start of the semester, while 80% believed Facebook was an effective host site.

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Table 3.Student responses to questions and statements. The survey used a 5-point Likert scale from 1 (strongly disagree), to 3 (undecided), to 5 (strongly agree); MR = mean response; BA = broad agreement.

 

Local

Internationa

All Students

Students

l Students

Topic

MR

BA

MR

BA

MR

BA

believe Facebook is an effective host site for an online and collaborative learning environment.

I

4.00

73%

4.19

80%

4.05

74%

I

believe academic and personal

3.95

67%

3.95

73%

3.95

68%

activities in Facebook should be

kept separate.

I

am looking forward to using the

4.00

72%

4.50

100%

4.10

75%

Café learning environment within

Facebook this semester.

During the semester students were required to regularly submit work-in-progress imagery related to major assignments, and provide feedback and critiques to their peers. Participation within the Café was worth 15% of the final grade for the course, and students were assessed on three key components: a) the quality of the submitted imagery; b) the descriptions that accompanied the submitted imagery; and c) the quality and consistency of their peer critiques. Figure 1 (left) shows a screen capture from the forum’s pinboard, accessed on 1/10/2013. The screen capture shows a custom banner at the top of the page, created by a student as part of a design competition within the course, under which is the forum navigation. Below that is the live-feed showing forum activity in real time. Posts from participants are stored at the bottom of the page in three columns. Posts move left to right and top to bottom, as new content is submitted. This ensures new content is always at the top of the pinboard.

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Figure 1 (right) depicts a screen capture from a forum gallery. The screen capture shows the gallery profile image and description at the top of the page, followed by thumbnail previews of student submissions. Individual submissions can be viewed in full screen, and can be ‘liked’, commented on, and added to ‘myCafe’.

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Figure 1.Left) a screen capture of the forum pinboard. Right) a screen capture of a forum gallery.

forum pinboard. Right) a screen capture of a forum gallery. Figure 2 (left) shows a screen
forum pinboard. Right) a screen capture of a forum gallery. Figure 2 (left) shows a screen

Figure 2 (left) shows a screen capture from the forum’s Q & A page. The screen capture shows a list of questions asked by participants in reverse chronological order, ensuring

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new questions are at the top of the page. Any participant can provide a response to a question. Figure 2 (right) shows a screen capture from a student’s myCafe page. Content within the ‘myCafe’ page is arranged in three columns: ‘my posts’ – every post made by the participant; ‘commented posts’ – every post which the participant has commented on; and ‘added posts’ – every post which the participant has chosen to ‘add’ to ‘myCafe’.

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Figure 2.Left) a screen capture of the Q & A page. Right) a screen capture of a student’s myCafe page.

page. Right) a screen capture of a student’s myCafe page. The student experience during the two
page. Right) a screen capture of a student’s myCafe page. The student experience during the two

The student experience during the two studies was evaluated through an online, ten-question, post semester survey. The post semester questionnaire addressed the design and functionality of the application; the perceived effectiveness of the learning environment; and the students’ experiences throughout the semester. 70 students participated in the survey, again a response rate of 77%. Participants were given the opportunity to assess the learning experience in the form of likert-scale statements and

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open-ended questions. Mean response and broad agreement statistics, related to the six likert-scale statements are shown in Table 4.

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Table 4.Student responses to questions and statements from the post-semester survey.

 

Local

International

All

Students

Students

Students

Topic

MR

BA

MR

BA

MR

BA

I would like to use the Café as an online learning environment again in future courses.

4.54

93%

4.60

100%

4.55

94%

During the semester the Café promoted interaction with peers.

4.20

91%

4.50

100%

4.28

93%

During the semester I received beneficial feedback through the Café galleries.

4.25

84%

4.45

93%

4.31

85%

Having all of my posts collated in myCafe was beneficial.

4.14

84%

4.20

87%

4.16

85%

During the semester the Café generated rewarding academic discussions.

4.00

78%

4.20

93%

4.04

80%

The ability to collate and categorise other students’ posts in myCafe was beneficial.

4.10

75%

4.10

80%

4.10

76%

The questionnaire outlined student reactions towards the online learning environment in the Cafe.

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85% of all participants indicated they received beneficial feedback from their peers during the semester while 80% noted the learning environment generated rewarding academic discussions. Responses included:

The Cafe is a great environment for promoting student discussion and sharing of ideas and thoughts on other students' work. It was good to hear different perspectives on the work I uploaded and to be able to provide feedback for other students, as well. (Local student). Yes, I received many comments on my work from other students which was really great and helped me in my design work. (International student). I really enjoyed being able to watch everyone’s progress and abilities develop over the time of the course.(International student).

93% of participants indicated the Café promoted interaction with their peers, by providing students with a familiar and accessible online environment:

Without the Café app, there would probably be less natural inclination among the students to discuss each other’s work, but because the Café operates through Facebook, which is an environment that a lot of people are familiar with, I think people felt more comfortable with discussing their thoughts and ideas with each other. (Local student).

Providing students with design activities beyond the course assessment was also instrumental in promoting interaction between peers online:

The banner contest and 50 word comment rule are very peer interactive. There was always something to do or discuss during the semester on the Café. (International student).

The majority of participants responded positively towards myCafe, the personalised space within the Café, citing the ability to collate both posts from the pinboard, their own work and also peers’ posts from the galleries:

It was helpful to collect the posts from the pinboard - images and videos related to assignments or lectures.(International student).

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94% of participants indicated they wanted to use the Café as a learning environment in the future, referring to the application’s ability to generate peer discussions, to learn about design, and to promote group learning:

I really like the way our course interacted with the Café, it’s nice to see the uni using available technologies.(Local student). Definitely - this was a good way to get everyone learning together.(International student).

A large number of students, predominantly international students, noted that the online environment gave them more time to think and react, as opposed to a traditional classroom:

As an international student it is hard sometimes to discuss in class. It is great to get so many comments from other students and staff. (International student). The Café is excellent because we have our critiques written down, and we can read through and comment at our own pace. (International student).

Many participants responded positively when asked about the design, layout and navigation of the Café:

Great, simple to navigate and understand.A good layout.A great tool to see peers’ work.(International student). The Café is easy to navigate through and that is credited to the simple design layout.(Local student).

While the majority of students enjoyed participating in the online environment, and believed they benefitted from doing so, there was a small number of students who simply did not. When asked to provide details on any problem areas, concerns, or room for improvement in the design and functionality of the Café, students noted loading times and upload errors related to specific video types as key issues:

The only problem would be sometimes there are issues with uploading videos and sometimes uploaded videos wouldn’t play straight away.(Local student).

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Sometimes the pages took a while to load because they contained large files.(International student).

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The only thing that I find annoying is that I have to enter the DLMA forum when I launch the Café instead of it taking me straight there. (Local student). Final reflections on the learning experience provided insight into how the Café could grow in the future:

The Café allows me to be inspired by some really creative works.(International student). At the start of the semester I was very sceptical in regards to the whole 'Facebook idea', but it actually worked really well. It is almost surprising for someone like me who still uses a very old Nokia without internet!(International student).

Discussion The majority of participants responded positively towards the learning experience within the Café at the conclusion of the pilot studies. The international student respondents were particularly positive towards the experience, as outlined in Table 4, noting the professional design and simple navigation as two key features of the application, while its accessibility (via Facebook) and interactivity (through posting, commenting on, and collating content) were also important in providing a platform for discussing their design work and interacting with peers, especially local students. This online interaction helped the development of cross-cultural relationships. Such relationships are particularly important for commencing international students, who can struggle to develop meaningful connections with local students, often due to language barriers. The addition of a virtual environment enabled international students to formulate meaningful comments and critiques, as opposed to rushing immediate responses under pressure in the classroom. Research and development of the Café will continue in the future and forthcoming publications will focus on revisions to the design and operation of the application, as well as additional case studies using it as an e-learning environment. In the second half of 2014, student cohorts from the University of South Australia, Swinburne University and Queensland University of Technology, will participate in a collaborative animation forum hosted by the Café. From July 2014the Café will be available to download for free and be

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used by anyone with an active Facebook account, on any device that has an internet connection.

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References

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Baloglu, M. (2000).Expectations of international students from counseling services. Paper presented at the Annual Conference on the American Psychological Association, Washington DC, USA. Bosch, T. E. (2009) Using online social networking for teaching and learning: Facebook use at the University of Cape Town. Communicatio: South African Journal for Communication Theory and Research, Vol. 35, No. 2, pp.185-200. Deng, L., &Taveres, N. (2013). From Moodle to Facebook: Exploring students’ motivation and experiences in online communities. Computers & Education.68, pp167-

176.

Duffy, P. (2011) Facebook or Faceblock. Web 2.0 based e-learning: applying social informatics for tertiary teaching. EdsMcLoughlin, C., and Lee, M., pp.284-300. Hojat, M. (1982).Loneliness as a function of selected personality variables.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 137-141. Irwin, C., Ball, L., Desbrow, B. and Leveritt, M. (2012) Students’ perceptions of using Facebook as an interactive learning resource at university.Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, Vol. 27, No. 8, pp1221-

Kenney.J, Kumar, S, and Hart, M., (2013).Facebook group as a space for interactive and collaborative learning.International Journal of Social Media and Interactive Learning Environments, 1(4), pp355-369. Krause, K., (2006). Making connections in the First Year: The key to Success in An Age on Unreason, Keynote paper presented at the Nineteenth International Conference on The First-Year Experience, July, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Kurtz, G., (2013). Facebook group as a space for interactive and collaborative learning.International Journal of Social Media and Interactive Learning Environments, 1(4), pp406-418.

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Mazman, S. G. and Usluel, Y. K. (2010) Modeling educational usage of Facebook.Computers and Education, Vol. 55, No. 2, 444-453.

McCarthy, J. (2009) “Utilising Facebook: immersing Generation-Y students into first year university”, Journal of the Education Research Group of Adelaide, Vol. 1, No. 2,

pp39-49.

McCarthy, J. (2010) Blended learning environments: Using social networking sites to enhance the first year experience. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp729-740.http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet26/mccarthy.html McCarthy, J. (2012). “Online networking: integrating international students into first year university”, in Multiculturalism in Technology-Based Education: Case Studies on ICT-Supported Approaches, editor: Dr Francisco Jose Garcia, pp189-210, IGI Global,

2012.

McCarthy, J., (2013a). Learning in Facebook: First year tertiary student reflections from 2008 to 2011. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 29(3), 337-356.

McCarthy, J., (2013b). The Café: creating the ‘collaborative application for education’; a dedicated e-learning environment in Facebook. International Journal of Social Media and Interactive Learning Environments, 1(4), pp419-438. Osterman K.F. (2000) Student’s Need for belonging in the School’s Community in Review of Educational Research, Vol.70, No.3, pp.323-367. Rambe, P. (2012) Critical discourse analysis of collaborative engagement in Facebook postings.Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp295-314. Richardson, W. (2006) Blogs, wikis, podcasts, and other powerful tools for classrooms. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Ritter, N, and Delen, E., (2013). Undergraduates’ Facebook use: evidence-based practice to implement social media in education. International Journal of Social Media and Interactive Learning Environments, 1(4), pp387-405.

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Sarason, B., Sarason, I., &Gurung, R. (1997). Close personal relationships and health outcomes: A key to the role of social support. In S. W. Duck (Ed.), Handbook of personal relationships: Theory, research and intervention, 2 nd ed, 547-573, Chicester, UK: Wiley. Sawir, E., Marginson, S., Deumert, A., Nyland, C., &Ramia, G. (2008). Loneliness and International students: An Australian study. Journal of Studies in International Education. 12 (2), 148-180. Shih, R.-C. (2011) Can Web 2.0 technology assist college students in learning English writing? Integrating Facebook and peer assessment with blended learning.In J. Waycott and J. Sheard (Eds), Assessing students' Web 2.0 activities in higher education.Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, Vol. 27.(Special issue), No. 5, pp829-845. www.statisticsbrain.com/facebook-statistics/ Accessed 01/11/2013. Stokes, J. (1985).The relation of social network and individual difference variables to loneliness.Journal Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 981-990. Wang, Q.Y., Woo, H.L., Quek, C.L., Yang, Y.Q., and Liu, M. (2012) Using the Facebook group as a learning management system: An exploratory study.British Journal of Educational Technology, Vol. 43, No. 3, pp428-438. Weiss, R. (1973). Loneliness: The experience of emotional and social isolation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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RUDE OR POLITE: DO PERSONALITY AND EMOTION IN AN ARTIFICIAL PEDAGOGICAL AGENT AFFECT TASK PERFORMANCE?

Samantha Tan & Paul Howard-Jones University of Bristol, United Kingdom

E-mail id: xuelil.samantha@gmail.com

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ABSTRACT

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This study investigated the validity of the ‘Politeness Effect’ in APA-human interaction. It compared the effects of two APAs (rude vs. polite) on 16 postgraduate participants’ instruction-taking and performance on a maze task. Perceptions of both APAs were also captured through interviews. Results cast doubt on a strong ‘Politeness Effect’, suggesting that a blend of both (rude and polite) might aid learning. Consequently, this study emphasises the need to investigate what the optimal personality mix of an APA should be - with the possibility of banter being ideal. It also recommends a variety of, and flexibility in, APA personality and communication style for students as this study highlights the complexity of human-APA interaction.

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1. Introduction Advances in computer and communication technologies has seen artificial intelligence move from an “ancient wish to forge the gods” (McCorduck, 2004) to become a reality in everyday lives, with human-computer interaction evolving to utilize sophisticated virtual characters capable of interacting with humans. The case for using technology in education is made by educators who seek to increase students’ academic intrinsic motivation for its life-long benefits (Ryan & La Guardia, 2000). Unfortunately, academic intrinsic motivation declines with age and is heavily related to school curriculum and the way in which subjects are taught (Gottried, Fleming & Gottfried, 2001). Crucial to bolstering learners’ intrinsic motivation are elements of incongruity, novelty, and complexity; as well as tasks that relate to students’ interests (Covington,2000). The search for educational methods incorporating such elements has led to research into computer based systems due to its popularity and social nature (Mitchell & Savill-Smith

2004).

Empirical studies on the benefits of computer-based tutoring systems have produced mixed results (Kirriemuir, 2002; Rosas et al., 2003; Conati & Klawe, 2000), but computer-based learning systems have been found to be most effective when there is strong instructional support and teacher mediation (Klawe, 1998; Kirriemuir, 2002). The instructional aspect to learning is crucial, as it deliberately arranges learning conditions to provide an optimal learning environment (Clark &Harrelson, 2002). In addition, the social nature of learning for human beings implies thateducational technology should embody the principles of social interaction in intelligent tutoring systems (Meltzoff & Moore, 1977; Vygotsky, 1978; Rizzolatti, Fogassi & Gallese 2001), with theoretical evidence that one-on-one tutoring can significantly improve learner performance (Bloom 1984). Hence, one possible solution to the ‘social problem’ of computer-based tutoring and to increase the feasibility of providing individualized instruction to a huge number of learners, has emerged in the form of Animated Pedagogical Agents (APAs). They are defined here as intelligent virtual characters employed in electronic learning environments to serve instructional goals (Baylor, 2002; Gulz, 2004).

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While studies show that humans tend to impose human-human social norms on virtual characters when interacting with them (Reeves & Nass, 1996; Ryokai, Vaucelle & Cassell 2003; Chaminade & Cheng, 2009) and virtual characters have considerable motivational impact, this has not led to conclusive evidence supporting the supposed social and cognitive benefits that lead to better learning outcomes (Lester et al., 2001; Moreno et al., 2001; Johnson et al., 2003; Gulz, 2004). Veletsianos etal. (2010, p. 7) argues this is due to a present lack of natural and effective agent-learner communication in APA-based learning systems, which ‘impedes successful engagement with educational tasks, contributes to poor learning experiences, and ultimately obstructs learning’. They further argue that the proposed benefits may manifest by improving the design of APAs to better approximate human- human communication. That APAs be perceived as social actors may be better achieved by endowing them with enriched social cueing abilities in the form of emotions and personality. It is argued that this would facilitate the inference of intentions, which is necessary for information transfer (Ball & Breese, 2000; Kircher et al., 2009), as well as to establish an “empathetic” relationship with the user (Dautenhahn & Coles, 2000). Though research into virtual character personality is in its infancy, it is clear that human APA interaction is complex. Firstly, affective support from APAs appear to be gender dependent, with differing learning styles between the genders and females reported to benefit more from APA support in disciplines such as Maths (Arroyo et al., 2011). Secondly, trust and empathy between human and APA may not be related to student engagement in a direct, simplistic way (Goetz & Kiesler, 2002). Researchers have suggested that APAs should display politeness and positivity (Veletsianos, Miller & Doering, 2010) based on Brown and Levinson’s (1987) cross- cultural theory of politeness. They argue for the ‘Politeness Effect’, which suggests that students learn better with a polite APA (Mayer et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2008). However, not all evidence supports this (Person et al., 1995; McLaren et al., 2007), particularly since human expert tutors are found to be direct, immediate and discriminating (D'Mello, Lehman & Person, 2010). Furthermore, qualitative studies have shown that a “too soft, nice and polite”

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APA appeared to be scripted and elicit skepticism among students (Gulz et al., 2011), with some learners preferring to engage with a rude instead of polite tutor (Graesser et al., 2008). A stronger case for a less polite and accommodating tutor is made in light of evidence showing that APAs that are too nice may allow distraction and off-task activities (Veletsianos & Miller, 2008), and even encourage learners to verbally assault conversational agents instead of learning from them (Rehm, 2008) as there are no formal repercussions of such behavior (Veletsianos & Miller, 2008). Therefore, this study seeks to investigate the viability of the ‘Politeness Effect’, and further explore the effect APA personality (rude vs. polite) in modulating the motivational and cognitive aspects of instruction-taking and task performance. This study also explored if there were any gender effects. Such knowledge will help in the understanding of the user experience, contributing to the design of instructional APAs.

1.1 Research questions:

1. Does the personality of an APA (rude vs. polite) affect participants’ instruction-

taking and task performance?

2. Will participants perceive the rude and polite APAs differently in terms of helpfulness and likeability?

3. Will there be an interaction between gender and APA personality (rude vs. polite) in participants’ task performance?

4. Will male and female participants perceive the rude APA differently?

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2. Methods All participants had to do an experimental task consisting of two runs, each with a different APA, Rude Julie or Polite Julie, as seen in Fig. 1. Each run involved a maze with hidden parts that participants were to complete as quickly as they could.

that participants were to complete as quickly as they could. Participants had to navigate the maze

Participants had to navigate the maze independently, but at the hidden parts, they had to listen to the APA give them instructions on how to get back onto the visible parts of the maze. This study used an explanatory mixed methods approach to better assess the multidimensionality of social interaction and its relationship to task performance (Johnson et al.2007). Qualitative data (interviews and video footage) was collected to complement the quantitative data as well as to gain more insight into the motivational and social effects of APAs on participants’ task performance. Quantitatively, this experiment employed a 2 x 2 mixed ANOVA design. The dependent variable (DV) is the time participants took to complete each maze task, which was taken to be a measure of how well the personality of an APA had facilitated instruction-taking and performance. The independent variables (IV) consist of the personality of the APA (2 levels: rude and polite; within subject factor), and the gender of participants (2 levels:

male or female; between subject factor). Participants were split into 4 different groups as seen in Table 1, where there were an equal number of males and females in each group (i.e. 2 males, 2 females), and the presentation order of the mazes and conditions (rude vs.

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polite) were permutated to prevent any order effects. There were 2 runs - in each run, participants would do a different maze with a different APA.

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CTLT Conference Proceedings www.academy.edu.sg Participants were also asked to rate how likeable and helpful they found

Participants were also asked to rate how likeable and helpful they found each APA on a Likert scale, as designed in Table 2.

were also asked to rate how likeable and helpful they found each APA on a Likert

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In light of the literature reviewed in the introduction, this study hypothesized that:

H1: In line with the ‘Politeness Effect’, time taken in the maze task will be longer when Rude Julie is giving instructions compared to Polite Julie. H2: An interaction between gender and APA is expected, where female participants will take a longer time to complete the maze task with Rude Julie. H3: Participants will find Polite Julie more helpful and likeable. H4: Gender differences in likeability and helpfulness towards the Rude Julie will be found. Female participants will find Rude Julie less likeable and less helpful.

2.1. Experimental Set-up The experimental set up is illustrated in Fig. 2. Participants were placed in a separate room from the experimenter to allow maximum impact of Julie’s social presence on their task progress. The experimental mazes (ref. Appendix A) were displayed on the Maze monitor, and Julie was presented on the APA monitor placed just next to the Maze monitor. A webcam was positioned on a tripod to face the Maze monitor. Just outside the participants’ room, the experimenter used the Experimenter’s monitor to observe participants’ task progress via the webcam connected to Windows Live Movie Maker on the Experimenter’s monitor. Julie was set up on SitePal on the Experimenter monitor, and using the screen splitter, the monitor screen was extended to allow Julie to appear on the APA Monitor. Julie’s speech was controlled by transferring lines from APA scripts (ref. Appendix B) on a Microsoft Word document into the SitePal textbox on the Experimenter’s monitor. Julie’s speech was heard through the APA monitor by connecting an audio cable from the Experimenter’s monitor to the APA monitor.

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CTLT Conference Proceedings www.academy.edu.sg 2.2. Participants 19 participants (mean age 25 years, age range 21 –

2.2. Participants 19 participants (mean age 25 years, age range 21 30 years), from the University of Bristol participated and gave informed consent. Originally, only 16 participants were required, but as data from 3 participants of the original 16 had to be omitted in this study due to technical difficulties, the experimenter had to recruit another 3 participants to replace them (2 males, 1 female). Altogether, data from 8 males and 8 females were used.

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2.3. Procedure When the participant arrived, s/he was brought into the participant room, where either Polite or Rude Julie was present on the monitor depending on which group participants were in. Firstly, participants were briefed on the experiment and given full opportunity to raise questions before being asked to sign a consent form that laid out the experimental procedure and information pertaining to sensitive information collection. They were told that there were 2 runs in this experiment, with each run consisting of a different maze task and a different APA. Depending on which group participants were in, they encountered 2 different permutations of the conditions on the first and second run. The experimenter told them that their goal was to complete the maze as quickly as they could, before reminding them they would be filmed throughout the experiment. Subsequently, Julie was introduced as an intelligent, autonomous agent capable of responding to their progress on the maze. The webcam was referred to as Julie’s ‘eyes’, which were described as allowing her to monitor participants’ movement through the maze. They were told that Julie would be facilitating the experiment, i.e. giving them instructions about when to begin and when the experiment ended, and how to navigate the hidden parts of the maze. Afterward, participants were shown an example maze to practice on and to follow instructions read by the experimenter that supported their journey through the hidden parts. They were also allowed to ask any questions about the experiment and Julie. Finally, the experimenter began filming and left the room. During both runs, the experimenter started timing participants as soon as they began the maze. When the first run was done, the experimenter entered the room and asked participants to turn away from the maze and APA Monitor, while the maze tasks and APA were switched for the

second run. Participants were told to follow Julie’s instructions again, and were then left to do the second run with a different Julie. After the maze tasks were completed, the experimenter entered the room to stop the filming and carried out 15 minute long interviews with participants on their perceptions towards the APAs. During the questions

On a Likert scale

how

much would you rate the helpfulness of the rude and polite

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APA?’ and ‘On a Likert scale

polite Julie?’, subjects were presented with the Likeability and Helpfulness Likert scale

how

much would you rate your liking towards rude and

and asked to rate both Julies.

3. Results To recap, participants were given two mazes, where some parts were covered up. They then had to follow instructions from Rude Julie or Polite Julie to complete the maze. The time taken for participants to complete the mazes were recorded, as well as their ‘Likeability’ and ‘Helpfulness’ Likert scale ratings. The independent variables were the gender of participants and the personality of the APA (rude vs. polite). All 16 participants were interviewed and filmed. The filmed footage was examined to see if reactions and emotional responses caught on film corroborated with the interview data.

3.1. Participants’ timings Data was analysed using a mixed-design ANOVA with a within-subjects factor of APA personality (rude, polite), and a between-subject factor of gender (male, female). Mauchly’s test indicated that the assumption of sphericity had been violated (χ2(0) = .00, p < .001), and because epsilon > 0.75, degrees of freedom were corrected using Huyndt- Feldt (ε = 1.00). As seen in Table 3, participants were faster in the rude condition than in the polite condition, thus not supporting H1. According to Fig. 3, female participants were faster on the maze with rude Julie, compared to male participants. In contrast, male participants were faster than female participants in the polite condition. It also appears that there was greater variation in timing for males in both conditions (rude vs. polite), compared to females.

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CTLT Conference Proceedings www.academy.edu.sg 54

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CTLT Conference Proceedings www.academy.edu.sg However, the main effect of APA personality (rude vs. polite) was found

However, the main effect of APA personality (rude vs. polite) was found to be non- significant F(1, 14) = 1.04, p = .33. The interaction between APA personality and gender also proved non-significant F(1, 14) = .28, p = .60, thus not supporting H2. APA Gender Mean (SD) (ms) No. of participants

3.2. ‘Helpfulness’ and ‘Likeability’ Likert scale ratings Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test was performed on the helpfulness and likeability ratings of the rude and polite APA. Analyses on the Likert Scale ratings showed that participants found polite Julie significantly more helpful (z = 3.35, N Ties = 14, p = .0005, one- tailed), and likeable (z = 2.87, N Ties = 16, p = .002, one-tailed) than rude Julie. This is illustrated in Table 4, which shows that participants’ perceived helpfulness and likeability ratings of polite Julie were nearly double that of their ratings for rude Julie. Thus, these results appear to support H3.

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CTLT Conference Proceedings www.academy.edu.sg However, no significant differences between genders were found for

However, no significant differences between genders were found for Likeability (z = .743, N Ties = 4, p = .229, one tailed), or Helpfulness, (z = .769, N Ties = 7, p = 221, one tailed) towards rude Julie, thus not supporting H4. This is supported by Table 5, which shows that male and female ratings for rude Julie did not differ by a large margin.

This is supported by Table 5, which shows that male and female ratings for rude Julie

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3.3. Trends observed from interviews and corroborated with filmed footage. 1) Humanizing of APAs Generally, all participants humanized and attributed a level of sentience to Julie, as they used ‘she’ and ‘her’ to refer to Julie. Nevertheless, there was cognitive dissonance, with participants fighting the illusion that Julie was subject to the same social norms as humans are. This was succinctly summarized by a participant, “I think you can detach an APA from a person, because it’s not a physical person in the room, it’s just a screen, but there’s definitely something going on.” Though participants felt that the ‘human’ visual aspect made the APA more relatable, this degree of humanization met with gender differences. Male subjects tended to regard the APAs in a more detached manner, while female participants appeared to be more affected.

2) Complexity feelings of likeability towards Rude Julie compared to Polite Julie. All participants generally expressed positive feelings towards polite Julie because she was encouraging, and helped put them at ease, supporting the Likert scale ratings and to some extent, H3. However, 10 out of 16 participants expressed that she was a blander character compared to rude Julie, and made them feel bored and ‘lose respect for her.’ This is illustrated in Appendix C1 and C2. Participants showed more ambivalence towards rude Julie from the video recordings, they showed expressions of surprise, amusement and annoyance (Ref. Appendix C3 and C4). During the interviews, though participants expressed dislike towards her, it was mixed with amusement to varying degrees. Feelings of annoyance were mitigated by the fact that ‘she was not human’. 4 participants even said they liked her more than polite Julie, because it was ‘interesting to have a rude one for a change’ and‘she seemed more sincere’ and ‘honest’. The two genders also expressed different reasons for disliking rude Julie, though interviews did not find that more female participants disliked Rude Julie, thus only partially supporting H4. Female participants felt that her comments and facial expressions were personally offensive and reported being more emotionally affected, while male

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participants disliked her more so because they felt her comments were unhelpful in assisting them to reach their goal.

3) Polite Julie was generally deemed to be more helpful. 9 out of 16 participants thought that Rude Julie was unhelpful or very unhelpful because of her impatient and nasty comments, supporting H3. Out of these 9 participants, 6 were female subjects who expressed being emotionally affected to various degrees by the mean comments, supporting H4. On the contrary, male participants felt that Rude Julie was unhelpful because her excess words were interfering and ‘inane’. 6 of the 9 participants also felt that Rude Julie was less helpful because they were too absorbed in watching her and waiting for her next insult. However, 7 participants still rated Rude Julie as helpful, as they recognized the instructional content both APAs gave were the same.

4) Rude Julie was seen to be more interesting, but not necessarily more positively engaging. Generally, all participants found Rude Julie more interesting because she was perceived as being more unpredictable and less ‘boring’. However, this did not necessarily make all participants positively engage with the task. In fact, some of them mentioned that Rude Julie distracted them from their tasks. Nevertheless, all participants clearly remembered rude Julie and her insults it appeared that some quality of her rudeness engaged participants to pay attention to her. This was particularly true for female participants, who expressed that they were more susceptible to rude Julie’s impatient demands.

5) Both APAs may provide different kinds of motivation. There were more male participants (5 out of 8) who found that polite Julie provided greater motivation to do the task, as they found rude Julie distracting. Half of all female participants, however, said that polite Julie was more motivating because rude Julie’s attitude made them want to slow down in a show of defiance, or made them reconsider their moves.

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Some participants said that rude Julie provided more motivation because she kept them ‘on the ball’, and even brought out a competitive streak, commenting that polite Julie was too much of a walkover to take seriously. Nevertheless, 3 participants mentioned that rude Julie could also be negatively motivational, in that they went faster because she made them feel harried and that they were ‘imposing on her’.

6)

Julie. 13 out of 16 participants expressed preference for polite Julie, especially if an APA

were to play a guiding role. This was mostly because they felt politeness and encouragement were important in taking instructions and learning, especially if the task is difficult. However, these participants also found it hard to decide which APA they preferred, as they appreciated rude Julie’s novelty and unpredictability, which they found was ‘entertaining and provided more of a challenge’. Importantly, 5 participants mentioned they would prefer a mix of both APAs, with allusions to rude Julie being ‘honest’ and polite Julie being ‘encouraging’.

While most participants preferred nice Julie, they appreciated aspects of rude

4. Discussion Overall, the results from this study appear to partially support some hypotheses. The timings on the maze task and the qualitative data seem to imply that a polite, charming APA might not always be what is needed or preferred. While Likert Scale results imply that participants found polite Julie more helpful and likeable, the qualitative data (interview and film) paints a more complicated picture regarding participants’ perceptions of both APAs. 4.1. A complex picture of human-APA interaction 1) Personality and emotions of APA are important in ensuring the humanizing effect. All participants had a tendency to, though to differing degrees, humanize both Julies and this was ultimately facilitated by what they pointed out to be her human-like appearance and speech. Importantly, participants preferred a realistic human APA to a cartoon-like APA. Nevertheless, it appears that humans also access post-hoc meta- reasoning about APAs by extrapolating from their current knowledge about computers

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(Lee, et al. 2005). Thus, it is necessary to further investigate the feasibility of, and to what extent one may design APAs to invoke a ‘suspension of belief’ in order to replicate human- human interaction. If this is not possible, then it is necessary to explore creating other more effective learning context within these limitations.

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2) Participants found different aspects of both APA personality motivating and engaging. The interview data revealed that all participants found rude Julie more interesting compared to polite Julie due to her unpredictability and incongruity. In addition, the rude comments seemed to be humorous and induce academic motivation to avoid failure, particularly among females, providing a reason for faster female maze timings with Rude Julie compared to males. Some participants also reported that rude Julie represented a competitive figure that spurred participants on to do better and to‘show the agent’. Unfortunately, it is not clear whether it was the element of competition, or interest, or even the slight level of anxiety that intrinsically motivated participants to do better. However, the interview data suggested that rude Julie’s remarks could also have had a potentially discouraging effect, as her comments were consistently threatening to the user’s positive face. In contrast, Polite Julie appeared to engender more positive emotions and motivation, particularly among male participants who found her less distracting. This could also explain why there was greater variation in male participants’ timings for Rude Julie, as some complained that she was more distracting. Thus, elements of calmness and encouragement can be seen as important in APAs to facilitate concentration on the task, particularly for males. However, interview results and film footage suggest that her constant praise may be seen by both genders as ‘boring’, ‘predictable’ and ‘too nice’ after an extended period. Indeed, some participants remarked that she induced positive deactivating emotions that were disengaging after a while.

3) Participants’ perceptions of likeability and helpfulness of both APAs affected by gender, self-efficacy and visual appearance. Even though polite Julie was found to be significantly more helpful and likeable on the Likert Scale measure, she was not found to help participants do better on the maze task. This cautions against a strong ‘Politeness effect’. It also suggests that inducing positive affect may not necessarily lead to learning gains, and participants may not always be in the best position to know what engenders best learning outcomes. Moreover, the interview data suggests a more nuanced picture, where gender and level of self-efficacy act as variables that affect participants’ perceived liking and helpfulness of both APAs.

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More female participants expressed being more affectively influenced by non instructional comments, either expressing great liking or intense dislike for Rude Julie. Male participants, on the other hand, seemed to view her in a more detached manner, mirroring findings that male learners are less interested in suspending disbelief to immerse themselves in a pretend world (Arroyo et al., 2011). In addition, female participants might have felt more strongly about rude Julie, as they might have unconsciously expected her to adhere to stereotypical social rules that females should be more prosocial (Rose & Rudolph, 2006). This is in contrast to male participants, who felt negatively about Rude Julie mainly because she distracted them from the task, rather than because she was being socially incorrect. However, it is important to note that these differences were not severe, as both male and female participants reported also being amused by Rude Julie, further supporting results showing no significant differences between both gender’s Likert Scale ratings of Rude Julie. In addition, participants’ level of confidence in their ability to do the task could have affected results. Those who expressed a dislike for Rude Julie also said she made them feel ‘nervous’ and ‘anxious’ because they were ‘trying hard’ to do a ‘new and unfamiliar’ task, implying a degree of effortful concentration. In contrast, participants who felt that the maze task was ‘simple enough’ found Polite Julie ‘boring’, and tended to find Rude Julie more entertaining. Lastly, because of humans’ sensitivity to visceral facets of an agent’s design, the visual aspect of both Julies could have been the most salient to participants, especially with the facial expressions being congruent to non-directional content. Thus, the ‘physical personality’ of both Julies could have affected participants’ judgment and initiated different attitudes and expectations (Haake, 2009), depending on participants’ individual learning preferences and personality. Interestingly, participants were more likely to refer to Rude Julie as being more honest despite the fact that none of Rude Julie’s non-directional comments were actually related to participants’ performance on the maze, and the voice used for both APAs were the same. Thus, it appears that the visual characteristics manipulated participants into thinking that she would be direct in pointing out their mistakes. Though not necessarily increasing her likeability, Rude

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Julie’s directness might have been appreciated because it is what is expected of expert tutors (Mello et al., 2010).

4) There were unclear effects on the cognitive aspects of instruction-taking and task performance. It was not possible with the experimental design to isolate the effects of APA personality on each cognitive process involved in instruction-taking and maze navigation, however, some interpretations may be considered. Participants’ reports that rude Julie was distracting suggest that cognition and emotion are intricately intertwined, where more effortful cognitive processes may have been involved in concentrating on the maze task with Rude Julie. However, it is unclear whether it was the unpredictability element, or the visceral facets of Rude Julie’s design (visual presentation and negatively-valenced words) that had an undesirable effect on the cognitive processes of attention, memory and monitoring. Results showed that there were no significant differences in maze timing for the two APAs and there is no main effect of APA personality. The different personalities of APAs could have interacted with various types of learner personalities and preferences to produce both positive and negative effects that had a ‘cancelling-out’ effect, thus not producing any significant results for H2. It cannot be concluded if the distracting or stimulating effect of rude Julie had greater influence on participants compared to the de- motivating or encouraging effect of polite Julie and vice versa.

4.2. Towards an optimal APA 1) An overall optimal balance between positivity, unpredictability and conflict. To establish affective affiliation between the APA and the learner, it is important to incorporate qualities that make it more human-like. Thus, instead of being one- dimensionally conflict-free, or introduce too much friction, it is crucial to establish a balance that simulates the complexity found in humans. Participants indicated that pleasantness is imperative in challenging learning situations, but a level of competition and unpredictability is useful in keeping their interest. Therefore, instead of rudeness that may be regarded as face-threatening, banter

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could be introduced. As banter consists of a surface layer of impoliteness but a proper layer of politeness (Nowik, 2005), it would be ideal as it still adheres to social norms and avoids the risk of seeming too artificial. It could narrow social distance between the tutor, who is in an authoritative position, and a learner by introducing a level of informality, which is especially popular among young people to mark emotional closeness.

This could also be cognitively beneficial, as informal speech is often found to be more supportive of learning than formal speech (McLaren et al., 2007). The decreased social distance possibly enhances learners’ negative face, and increases their agency to explore and construct knowledge for themselves. In addition, the introduction of a healthy level of competition has also been found to be related to students’ enjoyment of learning and hope for success (Pekrun et al.,

2000).

2) Is honest and provides constructive criticism Though criticism and honesty can sometimes be face-damaging, it has been postulated that negative activating emotions from direct feedback are part of a natural learning process (Kort, Reilly and Picard, 2001). In addition, as seen in this experiment, positive affect towards polite Julie did not necessarily stimulate better instruction-taking. Thus, it is important to find a balance between the entertaining aspects of APAs that ensure user enjoyment, and a mode of communication that is direct and immediate but pedagogically effective (D’Mello, Lehman & Person, 2010). This is especially since participants’ reports of APA likeability and helpfulness are not necessarily consistent with their actual task performance.

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4.3. Conclusion This study has shown that users’ academic emotions and motivations in instruction-taking from APAs are multifaceted and diverse. There is also the implication that an APA that is onedimensionally nice or nasty produces no significant cognitive differences in participants’ instruction-taking and task performance. As summed up by a participant, “It’s not so much about being rude or polite, but being realistic and showing the human quality of emotion.” Additionally, there are significant individual differences in learning with social interfaces. Indeed, the results suggest that while there are certain trends as mentioned earlier, there is no ‘standard user’. Thus, it is necessary to supply an adequate variety and flexibility in APAs while maintaining a mode of communication that is pedagogically effective. This field needs systematic research of differences between groups of people in terms of attitudes and reactions towards virtual social characters (Gulz, 2004), in particular, what differences between groups of people are relevant in certain contexts. Only then may we provide an adequate set of character strategies, roles and character visualisations to choose from. APAs should also be designed to actively generate tailored interventions by taking into account students’ cognitive states, meta-cognitive skills and their emotional responses (Conati & Klawe 2000). For example, APA feedback to incorrect answers could be personalized and dependent upon learners’ confidence and ability. This would have a positive influence on learning and long-term attitudes towards difficult subject matter, as APAs eventually identify students’ academically desirable states and provide effective interventions to achieve that.

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Acknowledgment I would like to thank Dr. Paul Howard-Jones from the Graduate School of Education at the University of Bristol for providing me the support to complete this dissertation. I would also like to thank all the friends who participated in my experiments and read my paper. Lastly, I would like to thank God for giving me the grace and strength to finish this paper.

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A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR CLOUD-BASED SERVICE IN E- LEARNING SYSTEMS

Porntida Kaewkamol

Chiang Mai University, Thailand

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Cloud computing is increasingly being used in education particularly in e-learning systems. The main reasons are cloud-based services support data access with time and location independence, effective information sharing and real-time collaborative information editing. According to these cloud characteristics, students are able to create and adjust their personal learning paths as well as comfortably share the learning outcomes with their peers. Besides, educators can also guide students to achieve the learning objectives by engaging in the e-learning community. This paper, therefore, aims

to propose a conceptual framework for utilising cloud-based services to facilitate self-

learning processes in e-learning environment. Methodology of this paper is mainly based on a combination of literature reviews. As a result, this paper provides the conceptual framework which is likely to assist educators to integrate cloud-based services in e- learning systems. However, the proposed framework only refers to the use of Software as

a Service (SaaS) in generic e-learning environment rather than the specific study program.

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Introduction Cloud computing rapidly plays an important role in e-learning system. This technology provides an alternative approach to overcome the demand of massive data storage for interactive learning contents. It also reduces startup costs with a fixed or small budget to implement the solution. Apart from infrastructure and financial benefits, there are various cloud-based services that can support information sharing and collaboration among users. However, the implementation of cloud-services particularly Software as a Service (SaaS) in e-learning systems may involve many factors. This paper therefore aims to introduce a conceptual framework to utilise Software as a Service in e-learning system.

Literature Review Literature reviews of this paper consist of four parts: e-learning, cloud technology, Software as a Service (SaaS) and cloud computing in e-learning. The review of e-learning focuses on its definition and critical success factors. Cloud technology is reviewed regarding general meaning and service levels. Software as a Service (SaaS) is also studied in its unique characteristics. Moreover, there is a review of key advantages of cloud computing in e-learning, an academic cloud framework, featured functions that should be included in SaaS-based service for e-learning and the examples of utilised SaaS in education sector.

E-learning E-Learning can be regarded as an Internet-enabled learning system. It consists of learning contents, learning experience management and an online community of learners. Contents of e-Learning can be developed in various formats. However, interactive- based media can be considered to suit students’ interest (Fernandez et al., 2012). In terms of critical success factors, McPherson and Nunes (2006) studied on e-learning implementation and also identified organizational critical success factors for the system. They included four issues which were leadership structural and cultural issues, design issues, technological issues and delivery issues.

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Cloud Technology According to Hayes (2008), Cloud computing is the scalable technology that provides virtualised resources to users. They are able to utilise these resources without the understanding of technical mechanism behind cloud technology. Fernandez et al. (2012) mentioned that cloud technology generally has three service levels: Software-as-a- Service (SaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) as can be shown in Figure 1.

(IaaS) as can be shown in Figure 1. Figure 1 Cloud service levels (Fernandez et al.,

Figure 1 Cloud service levels (Fernandez et al., 2012)

Software as a Service (SaaS)

Software as a Service (SaaS) is the cloud-based service which can dynamically be extendable depending on the demand of users (Al-Zoube, 2009). It can also enable new digital resources for education such as Youtube and iTunes. Learners can subsequently customise their learning content through the provided service (Little, 2008). Additionally, SaaS-based system is able to support data sharing and knowledge-based service as well as reduce operation cost (Cho, 2010).

Cloud Computing in E-learning With reference to literature reviews, key advantages of cloud technology for e-learning are cost reduction, usage scalability, data sharing, data security and real-time data access with location independence.-

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The reviews can be summaried as follows:

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Researcher

 

Advantages of cloud computing in e-learning

Madhumathi and

Data damage from software and hardware are reduced.

Ganapathy (2013)

Course content can be remotely backed up.

Information transferring between devices is more convenient.

Students are able to study from multiple locations through browser-based applications.

Some services are available and ready-to-use for free.

Users can dynamically scale their data storage usage.

Fernandez

et

al.,

Cloud services provide ease of access from anywhere and at anytime.

(2012)

Client-side software is decreased.

Cost of software subscription can be flexible based on demand.

SaaS server might be used to support more than one institution.

Data security is enhanced as it is stored in the server.

Cloud system can minimise data loss when client computer crashes.

Scale infrastructure and maximise system investments.

Data access can conveniently be monitored as cloud provides a unique entry point for every user.

Al-Zoube (2009)

Many programs can be accessed from web browser while they are stored in the cloud.

Browser-based applications are accessible from a set of devices and mobile platforms.

Institutions without technical expertise can still get the use of on-demand scalability in order to serve the increasing number of users.

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 Software installation and maintenance are generally facilitated and managed by cloud-service provider.  Data
 Software installation and maintenance are generally facilitated and managed by cloud-service provider.  Data

Software installation and maintenance are generally facilitated and managed by cloud-service provider.

Data can be shared and collaborated more easily and safely in the cloud

According to Madhumathi and Ganapathy (2013), an academic cloud framework was proposed as a guideline to construct and deploy cloud system in universities. The framework technically includes six layers: user interface layer, software instance layer, platform layer, virtual resource maintenance and management layer, vitualisation layer and physical layer. Each layer has its own components while security and monitoring management is administrated across all layers. By focusing on Software as a Service, the details of software instance layer are specifically reviewed. The cloud-based service in this layer are installed in the cloud server and provided to the students as a service with user customisation function.

Fernandez et al. (2012) additionally suggested the important functions that should be included from SaaS provider in order to successfully manage e-learning system. They consist of five subsystems which are:

Application Registry Management to register the application.

Application Server to store learning contents.

Account and User Management to authorised users.

Virtual Desktop Deployment to provide personalised desktop environment.

Session Management to ensure the system is being used by an authorised user.

Personalised Management to enable the selection of favourite learning contents.

Besides, Cloudtweaks (2014) studied on the essential of cloud computing in the classroom and highlighted some cloud-based services that have been utilised particularly in education sector. Gmail, Google Docs and Microsoft Office Live Meeting are the examples of cloud application using in schools. It is noticeable that these applications

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have the featured functions on document sharing and group communication. However, other solutions have been identified as the services which especially suit to educators. They contain additional capabilities to design and create interactive learning contents with a flexible price. These applications are Adobe Creative Cloud, Microsoft Office 365 and IBM SmartCloud Engage Advanced.

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Proposed Conceptual Framework

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From a set of literature review, a conceptual framework for cloud-based service in e- learning systems is developed. According to Madhumathi and Ganapathy (2013), cloud- based service focusing on Software as a Service, for example, on-line services for document, spreadsheets and database management, should be stored in the cloud server together with the layer of security and system monitoring management. Besides, the SaaS services should also include the key functions which have a beneficial impact on e- learning system. These functions are application registry management, account and user management, virtual desktop deployment, session management and personalised management (Fernandez et al., 2012). Moreover, students and educators should be able to access the services from various locations using browser-based application. They should also be able to access and customise e-learning content, as well as share information, through cloud-based applications from a range of devices, for example, mobile, laptop and desktop computer. The proposed conceptual framework for cloud-based service in e- learning systems can be shown in Figure 2.

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CTLT Conference Proceedings www.academy.edu.sg Figure 2 The proposed conceptual framework for cloud-based service in

Figure 2 The proposed conceptual framework for cloud-based service in e-learning systems

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Result and Conclusion

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E-learning system is one of learning approaches which encourages students to practise self-learning skill. It also allows students to comfortably adjust their personal schedule and content structure to obtain the learning outcomes. However, e-learning system should be able to create a virtual classroom circumstance in order to stimulate learning environment among students. According to this concerns, cloud computing can play an alternative role to support the e-learning system. This is due to the fact that cloud-based services, especially Software as a Service, provide information sharing as well as the ability for students to concurrently access and edit a document at the same time. It hence encourages a virtual classroom and a collaborative learning environment. Nevertheless, the implementation of cloud-based service in e-learning systems can be related to many concerns. Service and data should basically be stored in cloud server with security and monitoring management layer. Moreover, cloud-based service should provide some important functions, such as application registry management and virtual desktop deployment, so as to effectively support e-learning systems.

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References

Al-Zoube, M. (2009) E-Learning on the Cloud, International Arab Journal of e- Technology.

[Online]

http://www.iajet.org/iajet/iajet_files/vol.1/no.2/ELearning%20on

%20the%20Cloud.pdf (Accessed: 2 May 2014).

1

(2),

pp.58

64,

Cho, J. (2011) Study on a SaaS-based library management system for the Korean library network, Electronic Library, 29 (3), pp. 379 393, Emerald, [Online] DOI 10.1108/02640471111141115 (Accessed: 26 January 2014).

Cloudtweaks (2014) Going to the cloud [Online] http://cloudtweaks.com/2014/01/cloud- infographic-going-to-the-cloud (Accessed: 30 April 2014).

Fernandez, A., Peralta, D., Herrera, F. and Benıtez, J.M, An Overview of E-Learning in Cloud Computing, Workshop on Learning Technology for Education in Cloud (LTEC'12). AISC

173, pp. 3546, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.[Online] http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-30859-8_4# (Accessed: 1 May

2014).

Hayes, B. (2008) Cloud computing, Communications of the ACM, ACM Digital Library, 51 (7), pp. 911, [Online]. DOI: 10.1145/1364782.1364786 (Accessed: 2 May 2014).

Little, B.(2008) Trends in learning content management, Industrial and Commercial Training

Emerald, 40 (5). pp. 261-265, [Online] DOI 10.1108/00197850810886504 (Accessed: 2 May 2014).Madhumathi,.C, Ganapathy, G. (2013) An Academic Cloud Framework for Adapting e-Learning in Universities, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineerin,. Emerald, 2 (11), pp.4480 4484, [Online].

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http://www.ijarcce.com/upload/2013/november/66-

SMadhu%20Mathi%20AN%20academic.pdf (Accessed: 30 April 2014). McPherson, M. and Nunes, M. B. (2006) Organisational issues for e-learning Critical success factors as identified by HE practitioners, International Journal of Educational Management, Emerald, 30 (7), pp.542 558, [Online]. DOI 10.1108/09513540610704645 (Accessed:

1 May 2014)

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CHANGING C PROGRAMMING TEACHING: A SUCCESSFUL CASE STUDY

Ming Yang, Songhua Yang, Xiaofang Wang & Yufang Zhao Southwest University, China

School of Computer and Information Science, Faculty of Psychology,

Southwest University, China 4

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ABSTRACT

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C programming language is very important in the teaching of undergraduate computer science students. We describe in this paper our experience in changing programming teaching in our college from a traditional lecturing based system to a new autonomous learning based platform. At the same time an online continuous evaluating system was set up to check what they had learned and a technology forum was used to solve students programming problems in time. After 2 years’ attempt, most students’ operational abilities on programming, interest in design, and autonomous learning skills were greatly improved. Practice has proved that this study is a very useful teaching model and has promotional value in most Chinese colleges of computer science major.

Keywords: E-Learning, Satisfaction, Factors for Enhancing

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1. Introduction

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C programming language has a long history among most programming languages (Kernighan et. al 1988); however it endures very well and there is no sign of disappearing. While many people who do not know the truth behind take the graphical interfaces developed by other programming languages for granted as the whole content of programming design, lots of software developed by C programming have supported human civilization silently in most key fields such as operating system, drivers, controllers, servers.

As a professional primary language for learning programming, C is still the best choice. Some other popular programming languages with full functionality that have been in use, like C++, java, they are descendants of C. It will be easier to learn other programming languages after you have studied C, but not vice versa.

In China, most colleges which have specialization of science and engineering set up programming language C as their basic required course for the undergraduate students in the first year. However, the effect is not ideal, even worse than people imagine, as graduated students need to restudy programming when they take a job (Li, 2012). In order to change this situation, we must amend the learning objectives of students from how to get high score in examinations to how to get the true abilities of programming. In fact, the teaching objective is that undergraduate students should learn how to design and implement programs. As we all know, coders have rich experiences and skills in programming and debugging because they get largely these skills from keeping trying to debug and modify codes, not from learning by heart programming syntax rules, copying examples and doing exercises of textbook, and passing the written exams by answering questions. At the same time coders know very well that code is designed for other people to read, so they developed good programming styles and easily finished team work. Unfortunately, many teachers pay more attention to syntax rules and producing a fragment of code according to relevant grammar to debug and show it to students, and do not realize the importance of coding styles. So a lack of correct guidance not only wastes a lot of time, but it also easily forms too bad a working habit to fit team work.

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So for 3 years now we have been doing some reforms in C programming language teaching and obtained good effects in developing the abilities of designing and programming.

2.1 Curriculum properties

2. About C language Course

A programming course is different from mathematics and physics theory. It is a practice-based course and you cannot use it flexibly if you lack practical experience. The knowledge related to the practice-based courses is similar to the graph structure, while content in textbook seems like a linear structure. So no matter how general or how perfect textbooks or reference books of C programming are, they cannot make students success in coding if they rely only on lectures and reading. This course is closer to practical research, and knowledge related to programming is very broad, so students can practically eliminate the false and retain the true by coding and debugging in quantity. We want that students get the ability of autonomic learning. During the learning process

teachers should answer questions which appeared in the practicing and introduce their

programming experience to the students, not only explain the grammar in the classes. However some important chapters such as the memory usage, file pointer and programming specification should be emphatically explained. The students will go through very hard process during designing code, debugging and running. Only by their own efforts to solve the problems instead of looking for ready-made answers from the teacher or reference, students can get the true knowledge and skills. This problem-solving process may be very long and painful, but the obtained experience is very valuable and robust. And students will not only master C programming but also the method of self- learning. They will learn more and more by themselves.

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2.2 Programming development environment

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Programming was originally done in character interface terminals with Unix Environment, later with both Integrated Development Environment (IDE) and graphical user interface (GUI), which indeed provide a great convenience for developers. However, from many years’ teaching practice people found IDE and GUI were not convenient for beginners, because they easily focused on how to use these complex multifunctional tools rather than on designing and debugging a program itself. Moreover, IDE and GUI hide the processes connected with the compiler, and it makes the beginners hard to understand the program generation and start-up process. This controversial development platform is VC++. VC++ aims at C++ programming, and the interface is more complex, therefore should not be used as common teaching platform.

Using character terminal to learn C programming is much better for students’ beginners. It can dramatically reduce the difficulty of understanding developing tools and make beginners concentrate on programming design process.

Linux system is a combination of kernel and Shell, where Shell can be character terminal style or it can be graphical interface too. Bash is one widely used character terminal Shell. In bash people can use vi(command) to edit, use gcc to compile and connect, use make to manage project, and it is a very classical developing mode now. Learning the basic usage of these tools is very easy, and students can know the technologic flow from source code to executable program well by such a development mode step by step. In addition, with respect to the cost of the commercial version of the integrated development environment, free gcc and make are undoubtedly a much better choice.

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3. The C language teaching reform

From the start of 2011, we launched the C language teaching reform in our college and changed the programming teaching. From a traditional lecturing based system we went to a new autonomous learning based platform by using a Linux character terminal. At the same time a technology forum by CSDN (Chinese software development net) was set up to solve students programming problems in time, and an online continuous evaluating system was used to check what they had learned. After 2 years’ attempt, most students’ operational abilities on programming, interest in design, and autonomous learning skills were greatly improved.

3.1 Teaching objectives

As a programming design course, practice in programming design should be the main goal of teaching, not to be diverted with the various examinations goals. We divided it into two levels: the first level is that students can develop programs which accomplish a certain function by hands-on programming procedures; the second level is that teachers must require students to learn the standard style of source codes such as good readability, easy understandability, simple statement structures and write the software supporting document.

Generally speaking, students who are as long as serious in self-study, after a few months practice in programming, they can grasp most skills from simple to complex design and debug procedures. However, the importance of normative (or standard) coding style and writing software documents seemed hard for beginners to totally understand. For example, it is hard to realize the importance of program readability for those who are less experienced; and also hard to understand the importance of software documentation for those who lack designing projects experience. In real programming development both of them are very important to teamwork. This is one kind of shortage of textbooks to emphasize this knowledge as an integral part; unfortunately many

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teachers themselves lack experience in these two aspects. So we emphasized both levels of teaching objectives, especially repeated the second level using several methods during the practice process in order to develop good habits from the beginning.

3.2 Teaching method

In the past almost all courses which have theory class hours and laboratory class hours were separated to give lectures because of lack of computers and hardware resource. Students could touch a computer only in the laboratory, so the programming practice using computer was not enough for students. Even now, there is still lack of computer rooms if most courses are lectured only in computer rooms. However, computers and laptops are more popular at present, take 2012 grade students as example, more than 96% students majoring in computer science had laptops. Even for those poor students that could not afford it, they can apply for computer time offered freely by school according to their schedule. Thus students do have sufficient resources to use a computer after classes. With the popularization of campus network and wireless network, practicing programs and trouble shooting in any time are possible.

We deployed a Linux host in campus network and let students run terminal simulation software named putty to login the host and design program. Teachers can check the students’ online status and judge the quality of their codes.

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3.3 Teaching assessment

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Since 1994, the National Computer Rank Examination (abbreviate NCRE) has been running in China for undergraduate students of non-computer major, meanwhile C language teaching in many colleges related to computer major gradually evolved into a training course of NCRE (Tan, 2010). Students could get a high score by remembering most grammar rules and passing the written examination. This led to many students not to grasp the true process of designing and the skills of debugging, so after the end of the course they did not have the ability of programming skills at all and needed to restudy the subjects when they were in the follow-up courses, such as Data structures. That meant a lot of troubles both for teachers and students.

To change this situation we realized that students need to program a lot and we must find a way to monitor their daily homework, change the assessment method and even improve the difficulty of examination. So we designed two kinds of examinations, one is for simple programming not involving the design of program pointers, the other is named complex examination including the design of a function pointer. For each examination we offered a set of test questions in the host, and the system would present the students the questions randomly. Every question is a word document which includes all requirements of input and output. In order to avoid some students feel nervous and thus negatively influence their developing abilities, each examination was done 3 times. During the test process, students can use reference books or Internet, but they must explain the main idea clearly in case some students copy the result from a website or others.

In fact, the criteria of assessment are very strict. First, if the required functions in the question are completed correctly the student gets 60% of the score. Second, if in addition the source code meets the style specification the student can get 100% of the score.

Each question is not only a description of the requirements document, including also the reference supporting example and test data files. The assessment system will

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copy all source files in a backup database, then compile the students’ programs, if compilation is successful, will go on running by using the test data files as input. By comparing the output of students’ source code with the reference answer,, we can consider the source programs achieve full functionality. These test data files not only contain the correct data, but also contain a variety of erroneous data, because in the program design, how to handle error is also very important.

Although we emphasize the programming style, only basic standard of students’ source codes are required in the assessment system, for example, they must have the correct indent, must give a space after assignment in a single assignment statement, must have a space after the comma, etc. All these requirements can improve the readability of the source codes and be detected by this system instead of manual reading.

After these two tests of evaluation, we arrange students to design and analyze a comprehensive program of at least 500 lines in the end of term. This program must have some practical value functions, and students can refer to the materials the teachers supplied to solve the problem in two weeks.

3.4 Teaching support

Traditional teaching support time was only in the laboratory classes, thus most of the time the students only solve their problems by themselves or other classmates (Chen, 2012). When they faced with difficult questions in programming, many students didn’t insist to overcome them. On the other hand, students may go astray or take unnecessary pains to study an insignificant problem if they explore by themselves the different questions. Therefore, trouble shooting and supporting within 24 hours is very helpful for students.

In the process of student programming practice, we use as a powerful tool the Internet to give technical support. The main way is by instant messaging tool QQ and Technology Forum CSDN (Chinese software development net). We have built a large QQ group for all students in one grade, and asked more than 10 teachers to join the group

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and to communicate with students by QQ tool. However, the more important way is the technical forum. If with guidance by QQ group, the teacher often repeatedly answers the similar questions, but using the forum we can accumulate more common questions and group them by topic.

Sometimes the answer comes from excellent students, so it is a very effective way to practice expressing ability and programming techniques to answer others’ question. After graduation this technology forum is still an important way to get answers.

4. Conclusion

We describe in this paper our experience in changing C programming language tea ching in our college, from a traditional lecturing based system to an autonomous learning

based platform by using a Linux character terminal, dramatically reducing the difficulty o

f understanding developing tools and making students concentrate on programming desig

n. After 2 years’ attempt, most students’ operational abilities on programming, interest in design, and autonomous learning skills were greatly improved. Practice has showed that t his teaching model is very useful for undergraduate students’ programming design and ha

s promotional value in most Chinese colleges of computer science major.

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Acknowledgment

Project supported by “the research and practice of teaching reform for fundamentals compulsory course of computer specialty (C Programming Language)" (2012JY022) and "National Natural Science Foundation of China (31371055)"

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References

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1. Brain W. Kernighan, Dennis M. Richie(1988). The C programming language, 2nd Ed, Prentice Hall Inc.

2. Xiangling Li(2012). The research of C language course reform exploration and practice. Journal of Gansu Union University:(Natural Sciences),2(4),103-106.

3. Haoqiang Tan(2010). C Language programming design, 4th Ed, Beijing, Tsinghua University Press.

4. Gang Chen, Xiaoyan Zhu(2012). The teaching reform of C Language design in Jianghan university, Computer CD Software and Applications, No. 7, 245-246.

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FACTORS FOR ENHANCING THE LEVEL OF SATISFACTION AMONG STUDENTS IN AN E-LEARNING SYSTEM: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR A COMPUTER PROGRAMMING COURSE

Kannika Daungcharone

College of Arts, Media and Technology, Thailand

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ABSTRACT

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The computer programming course is hard to understand because it is not a pure theory. The main objective of this course is for students to understand and apply all applicable theories with any problem. However, most students cannot do so in their classrooms, they have to spend more time to practise from various examples and exercises. For the complex exercises, the students may have to try with many errors that sometimes they cannot fix the problems by themselves. One best way to help them is to prepare the E-Channel for all students and teachers to participate together. As such, the purpose of this paper is to create a conceptual framework to develop an E-Learning system by examining the factors impacting on the level of satisfaction among the students in the computer programming course. Its aim is to find the best solution for helping the students improve their knowledge and to apply the knowledge with any problem regarding computer programming.

Keywords: E-Learning, Satisfaction, Factors for Enhancing

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Kannika Daungcharone

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This paper was prepared from gathering, research, analysis and design in many related parts. The objective is to present the way for finding the main factor to improve the E-Learning system in the computer programming course. The benefit of this paper is helping the students who study the computer programming course to understand the lesson and can apply the knowledge with other problems from learning via E-Learning system.

INTRODUCTION Computer programming skill is one of the core competencies that graduates from many disciplines, such as engineering and computer science, are expected to possess. To develop good programming skills typically requires students to do a lot of practice (Law et al., 2010). Most of the students cannot understand the computer programming lesson in the classroom because it is the practical discipline. Students have to apply the theory with the real problem. Normally, if they review the lesson and do more exercise outside the class time, then they can build the knowledge and fix other problems by themselves.

Nowadays, there are many technologies which can be applied to teaching, especially the internet and communication system. The existing face-to-face learning paradigm is no longer the only educational method due to the advent of E-Learning that makes it possible to receive education without being restricted by time and space.

So, the way to help them is to prepare the E-Channel for all students and teachers to participate together. As such, the purpose of this paper is to create a conceptual framework to develop an E- Learning system by examining the factors impacting on the level of satisfaction among the students in the computer programming course. Its aim is to find the best solution for helping the students improve their knowledge and to apply the knowledge with any problem regarding computer programming with the satisfaction of students in the course.

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LITERATURE REVIEW

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For supporting this paper, there are many theories and researches to explain and promote this concept. There are three related topics, including the E-Learning system, the satisfaction in learning and the self-learning.

E-Learning System E-Learning offers an opportunity to improve the learning experience. The advantages for teachers are enhanced distribution of learning content, ease of update, standardization and tracking of learner activities. The advantages for learners are ease of access, better interactivity and individual choice concerning the pace and mix of learning. Important disadvantages are the considerable resources required to develop E- Learning projects and difficulties in simulating some aspects of the real world prescribing experience. Pre-requisites for developing an E-Learning program to support prescribing include academic expertise, institutional support, learning technology services and an effective virtual learning environment. E-Learning content might range from complex interactive learning sessions through to static web pages with links. It is now possible to simulate and provide feedback on prescribing decisions and this will improve with advances in virtual reality (Maxwell & Mucklow, 2012).

The growing demand for E-Learning along with striving for excellence associated with globalization; there are worldwide calls for enhancing and assuring quality in E- Learning, specifically in the context of the developing countries. Such calls for quality enhancement, accountability, added value, value for money, self-evaluation and role players’ satisfaction in higher education settings cannot go unheeded (Masoumi & Lindström, 2011).

The quality of E-Learning can be defined in many different ways, reflecting different stakeholders and the complexity of the systems and processes used in higher education. These different conceptions of quality can be mutually contradictory and while politically significant, may also be beyond the direct control or influence of institutional leaders (Marshall, 2011).

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Learning designs refer to a variety of ways of designing student learning experiences, that is a sequence of types of activities and interactions. It may be at the level of a subject or subject components and it also can be considered the framework that supports student learning experiences. It should focus on learning designs implemented with the use of Information and Communication Technologies. A learning design comprises the following key elements (Oliver, 1999):

Tasks that learners are required to do.

Resources that support learners to conduct the task.

Support mechanisms that exist from a teacher implementing it.

Figure 1 An E-Learning framework (Blake, 2004)
Figure 1 An E-Learning framework (Blake, 2004)

The Satisfaction in Learning The student satisfaction is worthy of investigation because it is critical to academic achievement. Student satisfaction, which reflects how positively students perceive their learning experiences, is an important indicator of program and student- related outcomes, for example, student satisfaction is associated with program quality, student retention and student success in program evaluation. High student satisfaction can

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lead to lower drop-out rates, higher persistence and greater commitment to the program. Considering these potential benefits, student satisfaction should be studied to increase retention and recruitment of future students. In addition, student satisfaction enables institutions to target areas for improvement and facilitates the development of strategic planning specific to online learners. The factors contributing to student satisfaction in online learning are interaction, internet self-efficacy and self-regulated learning (Yu- Chun, 2013).

Other scholars also have found that learners’ on-line learning satisfaction was affected by factors like learners’ technology acceptance behaviors, learners’ experience in online learning, quality of institutional support, academic environment and instructional interaction. For instance, learners who had more experiences in online learning were more likely to be satisfied with learning online and were less likely to feel anxious about online learning. In addition, the issues of academic environment and instructional interaction also contributed to students’ online learning acceptance and satisfaction in higher education online programs. However, these perspectives do not account sufficiently for the influence of individual differences in online satisfaction since motivation, a predictor of achievement in academic settings and personality, the description of an individual’s pattern of personality interaction with the environment to satisfy needs, both help in understanding why individuals process and respond to the same online learning situations differently. There have been fewer studies of online learning that account for the impact of personality and motivation differences on online learning satisfaction (Shih, 2013).

Sun (2006) points out that E-Learning is basically a web-based system that makes information or knowledge available to users or learners and disregards time restrictions or geographic proximity. Although online learning has advantages over traditional face-to-face education, concerns include time, labor intensiveness and material resources involve in running E-Learning environments. Many researchers from psychology and information system fields have identified important variables dealing with E-Learning. A summary of literature relevant to all factors vital to the activities of E-Learning and affecting learner’s satisfaction with E-Learning is made. There are six dimensions which

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are used to assess the factors, including student, instructor, course, technology, design and environment, the model is shown in Figure 2.

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CTLT Conference Proceedings www.academy.edu.sg Figure 2 Dimensions and antecedents of perceived e-Learner satisfaction The

Figure 2 Dimensions and antecedents of perceived e-Learner satisfaction

The Self-Learning Law (2010) states that computer programming skills constitute one of the core competencies that graduates from many disciplines, such as engineering and computer science, are expected to possess. To develop good programming skills typically requires students to do a lot of practice which cannot sustain unless they are adequately motivated. Learning to write computer programs is known to be difficult for many beginners. For decades, researchers have been building automated e-learning systems to lower the barriers to programming. Learning and motivation are highly complex facets of human behavior. People do learn from their experiences while their willingness to learn is affected by a set of determinants. Relationships between motivating factors and learning have been a prominent research topic in the field of higher education. Motivation is believed to be an enabler for learning and academic success. This is more so in the case

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of learning computer programming where engagement in frequent practice would not happen without the sustained motivation to succeed.

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Motivation can be defined as the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal and learning motivation can be understood as the extent to which persistent effort a student pays toward learning. Motivation can be determined intrinsically by individuals and externally by sources due to situational variables and environmental factors. The factors motivating learning are intrinsic factors: individual attitude and expectation, goals and emotions; extrinsic (environmental) factors: clear direction, reward and recognition, punishment and social pressure and competition. These are related and affect the efficacy of learning as shown in Figure 3. H1 shows students who value intrinsic factors more importantly exhibit a higher level of efficacy. H2 shows students who value extrinsic factors more importantly exhibit a higher level of efficacy. H3 shows students at a higher level of efficacy score a higher level of perceived e-effect.

Figure 3 The related factors of motivation
Figure 3 The related factors of motivation

Interaction with others, specifically peers and instructors, is one of the important variables determining students' successful learning experiences in an online learning environment. A number of online educators and researchers have reported that interaction with others significantly and positively relates to student satisfaction with the course, perceived learning and social presence. In addition, because a major portion of online assignments require students to interact with others, skillful and effective interaction with others is very important not only for individual learners' success, but also for cultivating positive learning environments. Student interaction with others is, therefore, critical in online learning settings. A number of models of self-regulated learning have emanated from various views of learning, but self-regulation is most commonly defined as students'

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proactive management in two areas of learning: motivation and cognition. With regard to motivation for interacting with others, self-regulated online learners tend to enjoy and have high self-efficacy for interacting with others (e.g., peers and instructors). Cognitively, self-regulated online learners use effective writing strategies. They intentionally write messages, monitor the interaction process and reflect their interaction by reading others' messages (Cho and Kim, 2013)

THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK The conceptual framework in this paper is developed from the basic approach for enhancing the level of satisfaction among students in an E-Learning system in computer programming course as shown in Figure 4.

Problem Cognitive Dialogue Learning Research Assignment Tasks Care Plan Inquiry Collaboration Instruction
Problem
Cognitive
Dialogue
Learning
Research
Assignment
Tasks
Care Plan
Inquiry
Collaboration
Instruction
Learning
E-Learning
Template
Community
Supports
Sustisfaction
Group Work
Social
Assessment
Text
Learning
Article
Resources
Technique
Feedback
Website
Frequency of using Number of suggest to other
Frequency of
using
Number of
suggest to other

Figure 4 The conceptual framework

The basic model consists of latent and observed variables. This is to analyze the relationships between exogenous latent variables and endogenous latent variable. The approach assumes that these variables are critical if the E-Learning is integrated to the computer programming course. Regarding the expected methodology, a questionnaire survey is needed to conduct by asking all students who enroll in all relevant subjects.

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For analyzing the data, the Structural Equation Modeling will be needed to identify the causal relationships between various variables.

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CONCLUSION

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The purpose of this paper is to find the best solution for helping the students to improve their computer programming knowledge and to apply this knowledge with any problems regarding computer programming. However, the success of this framework depends on various factors consisting of latent and observed variables. Moreover, It is expected that the framework will be employed so as to provide some suggestions which will well facilitate the E-Learning setting and then can enhance learning motivation and self-efficacy for the students in the course and also affect the academic performance of them.

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REFERENCES

Blake A. (2004). Centre for Learning and Research in Higher Education. Retrieved

Apirl 25, 2014, from the University of Auckland, New Zealand. Web site: https://www.clear.auckland.ac.nz/index.php?p=staff_page&staff=ablake

D. Masoumi & B. Lindström. (2011). Quality in e-learning: a framework for promoting

and assuring quality in virtual institutions. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning.

Volumn 28, Issue 1,

Retrieved April 8, 2014, from Wiley Online Library.

Hsiu-Feng Shin, Shu-Hui Eileen Chen, Shu-Chu Chen and Shyh-Chyi Wey. (2013). The Relationship Among Tertiary Level EFL Students’ Personality, Online Learning Motivation And Online Learning Satisfaction. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 103, 1152-1160. Retrieved April 26, 2014, from Science Direct database.

Kris M.Y. Law, Victor C.S. Lee and Y.T. Yu. (2010). Learning motivation in E-Learning facilitated computer programming courses. Computers & Education 55, 218228. Retrieved April 11, 2014, from Science Direct database.

Moon-Heum Cho and B. Joon Kim. (2013). Students' self-regulation for interaction with others in online learning environments. Internet and Higher Education 17, 6975. Retrieved April 11, 2014, from Science Direct database.

Pei-Chen Sun, Ray J. Tsai, Glenn Finger, Yueh-Yang Chen and Dowming Yeh. (2008). What drives a successful E-Learning? An empirical investigation of the critical factors influencing learner satisfaction. Computers & Education 50, 11831202. Retrieved April 26, 2014, from Science Direct database.

R. Oliver. (1999). Exploring strategies for online teaching and learning. Retrieved April 8, 2014, from the online platform for Taylor & Francis group content. Web site: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0158791990200205#.U2qG

S. Marshall. (2011). Improving the quality of E-Learning: lessons from the eMM. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, Volume 28, Issue 1, 65-78. Retrieved April 10, 2014, from Wiley Online Library.

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Simon Maxwell & John Mucklow. (2012). E-Learning initiatives to support prescribing. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Volume 74, Issue 4, 621-631. Retrieved April 18, 2014, from Wiley Online Library.

Yu-Chun Kuo, Andrew E.Walke, Kerstin E.E. Schroder and Brian R. Belland. (2013). Interaction, Internet self-efficacy, and self-regulated learning as predictors of student satisfaction in online education courses. The internet and higher education,35-50. Retrieved April 26, 2014, from Science Direct database.

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COOPERATIVE LEARNING PRINCIPLES ENHANCE ONLINE INTERACTION

George Jacobs

James Cook University Singapore

Peter Seow

Nanyang Technological University

National Institute of Education, Singapore

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ABSTRACT

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This paper describes eight principles that can be used to promote cooperative interactions among students working in online environments. The principles derive from a well- established approach to education, known variously as cooperative learning and collaborative learning. Each principle is explained as to what it means, why it is important and how it can be deployed. The eight principles are heterogeneous grouping, teaching collaborative skills, group autonomy, maximum peer interactions, equal opportunity to participate, individual accountability, positive interdependence and cooperation as a value.

Keywords: cooperative learning, collaborative learning, peer interaction, computer enhanced collaborative learning

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Cooperative Learning Principles Enhance Online Interaction

When many people think about computers, tablets, smartphones and other IT devices, they picture individuals alone seemingly glued to the screens and keyboards of their devices. Similarly, when people think of students using those devices for learning, they imagine the students alone, perhaps at desks or tables in their homes, far from their classmates. However, such images of individualized involvement with electronic learning tools often fail to look below the surface. In reality, students are often using their devices to interact with others, and frequently those others are their fellow students.

The purpose of this paper is to share ideas for facilitating and enhancing those student- student online interactions. These ideas flow from a learning technology known variously as cooperative learning or collaborative learning. In this paper, the neutral abbreviation ‘CL’ will be used.The paper begins with background information on CL, including supporting learning theories and research, as well as a definition. The main section of the paper explains eight CL principles, including what each principle means, why it is important and how it can be applied in IT environments.

Background on Cooperative and Collaborative Learning (CL)

CL dates back to at least the 1970s and finds support in many theories of learning, including Sociocultural Theory (Vygotsky, 1978), Social Interdependence Theory (Johnson & Johnson, 2006), Humanist Psychology (Maslow, 1968), Social Constructivism (Palincsar, 1998) and Multiple Intelligences Theory (Gardner, 1993).Additionally, a great deal of research has been done on CL. This research covers a wide range of learners, subjects and modes of learning, including online learning. In general, the research suggests positive effects for CL on both cognitive and affective variables (Ibáñez, García Rueda, Maroto, &Kloos, 2013;Johnson, Johnson, &Stanne, 2000; Slavin, 1991). Indeed, a steady stream of research continues to investigate many

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areas of CL, including research on online learning, as can be seen from a search of online databases and in the ‘From the Journals’ listings in the enewsletter of the International Association for the Study of Cooperation in Education (IASCE) (IASCE, 2014).

CL can be defined as principles and techniques for helping students collaborate with

peers and others. This paper will explain eight of these CL principles. Furthermore, hundreds of CL techniques have been developed. The key point about CL is that it is so much more than asking students to push their desks together in a classroom, or to connect to each in an online environment, and then hoping that they will collaborate successfully. Instead, CL provides teachers and students with a large and growing body of ideas for taking further steps towardsmaking it more likely that student-student interaction will realize its potential. Additionally, the hope is that the collaborative skills and attitudes that students develop in the process of interacting with their peers will serve students well throughout their lives in whatever contexts they find themselves.

Eight CL Principles

This section of the paper explains eight CL principles, including what each principle means, why the principle is important and how to implement it in IT groups. Readers should be aware of two points. One, different books and websites on CL espouse different principles, but a great deal of overlap exists among the various principles espoused. Second, readers should also note that a twosome or pair is considered a group. Indeed, in some ways, two members is the best size for groups, because in twosomes,

students may have more opportunities to be active. Plus, students are less likely to be left

out of the groups of two, and they can manage their groups more easily. Furthermore,

after working in twos, students can pair with other twosomes to share ideas, thereby widening their resources and enjoying more interaction opportunities. The eight CL principles to be discussed in this paper are heterogeneous grouping, teaching collaborative skills, group autonomy, maximum peer interactions, equal opportunity to participate, individual accountability, positive interdependence and cooperation as a value.

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Heterogeneous Grouping

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Heterogeneous grouping involves students forming CL groups with fellow students who are different from themselves. The many variables on which students differ include past achievement, social class, nationality, ethnicity, religion, sex, diligence and personality. Many CL experts advocate heterogeneous groups, because when students learn in groups that are heterogeneous as to past achievement, they are more likely to engage in peers tutoring, as those higher in past achievement can help those who are, at least temporarily, lower achievers. Such interactions can benefit both parties (Webb, et al., 2009). Heterogeneous grouping on other social and personality variables encourages students to see different perspectives and to learn to work with people different from themselves, thereby setting the stage for building a more harmonious society (Aronson, 2014).

Often, if students choose their own groupmates, the resulting groups may tend towards homogeneity, as the tendency is for “birds of a feather to flock together”, and students may, at least initially, prefer such groupings (Jacobs, Power, & Loh, 2002). The most straightforward way to encourage heterogeneous groups is for teachers to assign students to groups. In a more student centric mode, teachers can discuss with students the meaning of heterogeneous grouping and its potential benefits. From there, students can be encouraged to form their own groups. Even if students never meet face to face, they can post data about themselves. With those data and perhaps some discussion, students working in online environments can form their own heterogeneous groups.

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Teaching Collaborative Skills

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The CL principle of teaching collaborative skills means devoting class time for students to learn about and reflect on their use of collaborative skills. Many lists of collaborative skills exist (e.g., Underwood & Underwood, 1999). Skills important for CL include comparing understandings, asking for help, offering suggestions and feedback, responding productively to suggestions and feedback, asking for reasons, providing reasons, disagreeing politely, providing specific praise and thanks and attending to group functioning.

When students use collaborative skills, their groups are likely to function better (Soller, 2001), leading to more learning and more enjoyment of learning. Furthermore, these skills will advantage students in many areas of their present and future lives. However, not all students have these collaborative skills, and, perhaps more crucially, even if students have the skills, they may not use them routinely. As a result, instructional time devoted to learning these skills and practicing their use may be time well spent.

Johnson, Johnson and Holubec (2007) present a six step procedure for teaching collaborative skills. The procedure focuses on one skill at a time. First, students need to understand the importance of the collaborative skill and second,what the skill involves, as to verbal (the words used) and non-verbal (gestures, facial expressions, emoticons) elements. Third, students practice the skill apart from class content, i.e., they work just on the skill, e.g., via a game or role play, without paying attention to the topic the class is studying. Fourth, students then combine use of the skill with learning of class content. Fifth, students discuss how well they, individually and as a group, are using the skill and how they might improve. Sixth, because time on task is often needed for students to reach the level of natural use of a collaborative skill, students persevere in practicing the skill. Teaching of collaborative skills may be especially important in online environments, such as discussion boards, email and social networks, as these environments present new challenges, requiring variations from the skills appropriate in face to face environments.

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Group Autonomy

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Too often, students tend to depend too much on their teachers, overlooking their own and their peers’ abilities. The CL principle of group autonomy encourages students to look first to their groupmates when they need help or want feedback. For students to become lifelong learners, they need to take on some of the roles formerly seen to be the exclusive domain of teachers, such as the roles of providing assistance and feedback. Performing these roles provides students with learning opportunities and promotes peer interactions. Also, when students are helping each other within their capability to do so, teachers are able to provide help that lies beyond students’ current abilities.

The CL literature offers many ideas for promoting group autonomy. For instance, groups can utilize the slogan, ‘Team Then Teacher, i.e., studentsasktheir groupmates before asking their teachers. Taking that slogan one step further, groups can follow a policy of ‘3 + 1 B4 T’, i.e., if no one in their groups(of two, three or four members) can help, students ask one other group for help before asking teachers. Teachersare still there to help, but not as first options. Group autonomy can be especially important in IT environments, even more so than in classrooms, as teachers are less likely to be immediately available to provide assistance. In online environments, when students face difficulties, instead of giving up or waiting several hours or more for assistance from teachers, students can turn to their peers.

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Maximum Peer Interactions

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The CL principle, Maximum Peer Interactions, refers to maximizing two aspects of peer interactions. First, the quantity of peer interactions increases when group activities are used, particularly when the number of members in each group is kept small and when groups sometimes report to other groups instead of or in addition to the entire class. Second, the quality of peer interactions increases when students use higher order thinking skills (Chiang, et al., 2013). Indeed, the ‘magic’ of CL lies in the quality of peer interactions. These thinking interactions promote more learning, greater depth of processing and greater engagement (Järvelä, Hurme, &Järvenoja, 2011; Nussbaum, 2008). Thus, the greater the quantity of these quality peer interaction, the better.

IT provides many new and engaging tools for peer interactions. Unfortunately, too often, the use of IT in education merely results in teacher fronted instruction being delivered electronically rather than face to face. This situation can easily be changed. For instance, when students listen to online lectures or read texts provided online, time and tasks for interactions should be included, and these tasks should include thinking tasks. Care, however, must be taken so that these thinking tasks are within students’ current ability levels. Here, teachers have a vital role in providing the support students need so that these interactive thinking tasks are doable. This support might, for example, include annotated model responses. Furthermore, when groups are heterogeneous as to past achievement, lower achieving students can ask their groupmates for help, rather than going astray or giving up when faced with tasks that are too challenging.

Equal Opportunity to Participate

Sometimes one or more group members attempt to dominate the group, denying others the chance to interact with the task and with groupmates. Equal opportunity to participate is the CL principle that specifically addressessuch situations. When some students are excluded from the group interactions, those students may learn less and enjoy less. At the

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same time, the rest of the group members lose the benefits of interacting with the excluded person(s). For instance, if excluded group members are less proficient at the task the group is undertaking, the other group members miss out on peer tutoring opportunities they would have had if everyone had been included.

CL techniques, along with various software, offer tools for providing all group members equal opportunity to participate. For example, in contrast to face to face discussions in which some group members may have difficulty being heard, asynchronous online communication allows students to share their ideas without having to compete for a spot in the conversation. Other ideas promoting equal opportunity to participate include colour coding to show each person’s contribution to a graphic, table or text, or group members being chosen at random to share their group’s ideas. Additionally, some software allows students and teachers to monitor the distribution and quality of turns in their groups.

Individual Accountability

While equal opportunity to participate is the CL principle which seeks to offer all group members chances to play important roles in their groups, the principle of individual accountability puts pressure on members to do their fair share in the groups. Thus, individual accountability can be seen as the flip side of equal opportunity to participate.Students need to use the opportunities provided to contribute what they can to their groups. Unless students feel individually accountable, if instead some students act as freeloaders, group morale may suffer, and students may lose faith in the use of groups for learning due to the presence of these freeloaders. Furthermore, freeloading makes assessment more difficult, as teachers may not be able to judge the members’ contributions to their groups (Johnson & Johnson, 2003).

Fortunately, the CL literature and IT tools offer ideas for promoting individual accountability. For example, groups can roster who needs to do what and when, and monitor if it is done. Additionally, the same software that promotes equal opportunity to participate by monitoring each group member’s participation can also let groupmates and teachers know who is not pulling their weight in the group. Two ways to address the

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difficulties that freeloaders pose for assessment are to involve peers in assessment, as peers are better placed to monitor each member’s input, and for students to study together but be assessed alone, e.g., after students work together to solve a set of online mathematics problems, they do another set of similar problems on their own.

Positive Interdependence

Positive interdependence is the CL principle which most prominently encourages sharing among students. When students feel positively interdependent with their groupmates, the groupfeels that their outcomes are positively correlated, i.e., the feel that what helps one helps others, and what hurts one hurts others. In other words, groups adopt the spirit embodied by the Three Musketeers’ slogan “All for one; one for all”. Whereas individual accountability puts pressure on group members to contribute to the group, positive interdependence provides support; if students are having difficulties, their groupmates are there to help them. Positive interdependence can also promote motivation to learn, because students are learning not just for themselves but also for the benefit of their groups.

Many ideas have been developed to encourage students to feel positively interdependent with their groupmates. For instance, students are more likely to feel that all group members’ outcomes are positively correlated if they have group goals. These goals are not about the group, but about the strengthening of each individual member. An example in a writing class of such a group goal would be for all group members to do better on the second writing task of the term (except in the case of group members with perfect scores on the term’s initial writing task). To help groupmates improve, students could use the Track Changes and Comments functions in MS Word to offer each other feedback on their drafts. If everyone in the group succeeds in improving on the second writing task, a celebration or other rewards could recognize this accomplishment. Yet another means of promoting positive interdependence is for each student to have different resources. For example, each group member could go online to research a different subtopic of the

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larger group topic and then share what they learned with their groupmates (Aronson,

2014).

Cooperation as a Value

An eighth CL principle, cooperation as a value, builds on positive interdependence and seeks to spread the feeling of “One for all; all for one” beyond the small group to the entire class, the entire educational institution, the entire city, the nation and the world, expanding to also include other species. While students need to know how to compete and how to work alone, the hope embodied in the principle of cooperation as a value is that students will come to view cooperation as their preferred option. A look at the news headlines on almost any day finds many areas in which the world needs more of this cooperation, yet many factors in society foster competition and individualism.

Many means exist for promoting cooperation as a value. For example, in service learning projects (Kinsley & McPherson, 1995), students work together to provide a service while at the same time engaging in learning linked to their curriculum, e.g., IT students might develop websites and other online tools for non-profit organizations. Another means of promoting cooperation as a value would be for students to appreciate the many benefits of cooperation, e.g., they can learn about IT inventions, IT companies and IT networks that required large scale cooperation to bring to fruition and to grow. Students can also reflect on how their own cooperation in small groups (2-4 people) lays a foundation for their later participation in larger scale cooperation.

An Example of Some of the Principles at Work with Technology

The availability of Web 2.0 and cloud-based tools, such as Google Docs, Popplet and Prezi, allows multiple users to create, write, edit, annotate and comment on shared documents, thereby providing a platform for individuals to collaborate. The eight CL principles described in this paper can be applied to the use of such tools to foster collaboration. An example is sharing a Google Doc among a group of students to

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collectively write a research report. At the start of the assignment, each student chooses to be individually accountable to the group by choosing to write the first draft of a particular section of the report. After they finish their individual research, students contribute their draft to the shared Google Doc. As every student shares and views the same document, they each have an equal opportunity to comment, annotate or edit to improve their peers’ initial contributions to the report. This collective endeavor to clarify, correct and elaborate can improve the report. As students work together on the report, maximum peer interactions are promoted in many ways, e.g., when groups in the class are invited to critically review every other groups’ report, thereby stimulating higher order thinking skills. Through the process of collective writing, students will recognize the value of cooperation, being aware that the quality and success of their report is dependent on the contributions and feedback of individual students. Technology allows the collaboration to happen in realtime where students’ feedback and comments can be instantly viewed. Moreover, with the cloud computing, collaboration between students takes place seamlessly across different devices, such as tablets, smartphones and computers, and students can collaborate wherever they are and just-in-time.

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Conclusion

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The goal of this paper has been to offer principles and other ideas to heighten the value of student interactions conducted via electronic devices. The foundation of the ideas in this paper lies in a learning technology which some call cooperative learning and others call collaborative learning, both which all can abbreviate as CL. The first section of the paper provided brief background on CL including related theories, relevant studies, and a simple definition. The paper’s longest section described eight CL principles in terms of the definitions of the principles, the principles’ importance and ideas for applying the principles to learning contexts involving IT.

Perhaps the key idea to take away from this paper is that fostering successful groups is no easy matter. The initial step of students forming groups is only a very initial step. Much more needs to be done to increase the chances that the group members will strive to foster each other’s learning. The theory and research cited early in this paper speak of the great potential of student-student interaction, and the eight principles described in this paper help students and teachers take many more steps towards successful groups not just among themselves as students but also in the wider world generally.

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References

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Aronson, E. (2014). The jigsaw classroom. Retrieved from http://www.jigsaw.org

Chiang, V. C. L., Leung, S. S. K., Chui, C. Y. Y., Leung, A. Y. M., &Mak, Y. W. (2013).Building life-long learning capacity in undergraduate nursing freshmen within an integrative and small group learning context. Nurse Education Today, 33(10), 1184-1191. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2012.05.009

Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple intelligences: The theory and practice. New York, NY:

Basic Books.

IASCE.(2014). IASCE newsletter.Retrieved from http://www.iasce.net/home/newsletters

Ibáñez, M. B., García Rueda, J. J., Maroto, D., &Kloos, C. D. (2013).Collaborative learning in multi-user virtual environments. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 36(6), 1566-1576.

Jacobs, G. M., Power, M. A., &Loh, W. I. (2002). The teacher's sourcebook for cooperative learning: Practical techniques, basic principles, and frequently asked questions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Järvelä, S., Hurme, T. R., &Järvenoja, H. (2011). Self-regulation and motivation in computer supported collaborative learning environments. Learning across sites:

New tools, infrastructures and practices. London, England: Routledge.

Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2003).Assessing students in groups: Promoting group responsibility and individual accountability.Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T (2006).New developments in social interdependence theory.Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 131(4), 285-358.

Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., &Holubec, E. J. (2007). Nuts & bolts of cooperative learning (2 nd ed.). Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company.

Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., &Stanne, M. B. (2000). Cooperative learning methods:

A meta-analysis. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota.

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Kinsley, C. W., & McPherson, K. (Eds.). (1995). Enriching the curriculum through service learning.Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Maslow, A. H. (1968) Toward a psychology of being (2 nd ed.) NewYork, NY: Van Nostrand.

Nussbaum, M. E. (2008). Collaborative discourse, argumentation, and learning: Preface and literature review. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33(3), 345-359

Palincsar, A. S. (1998). Social constructivist perspectives on teaching and learning.Annual Review of Psychology, 49, 345375.

Slavin, R. (1991). Synthesis of research on cooperative learning.Educational Leadership,

45(5), 91-82.

Soller, A. (2001). Supporting social interaction in an intelligent collaborative learning system. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 12, 40-62.

Underwood, J., & Underwood, G. (1999).Task effects on co-operative and collaborative learning with computers. In K. Littleton & P. Light (Eds.), Learning with computers: Analysing productive interaction (pp. 10-23). Florence, KY:

Psychology Press.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society.Ed. by M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Souberman). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Webb, N. M., Franke, M. L., De, T., Chan, A. G., Freund, D., Shein, P., &Melkonian, D. K. (2009). ‘Explain to your partner’: Teachers' instructional practices and students' dialogue in small groups. Cambridge Journal of Education, 39(1), 49-70.

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LISSA A GAME TO LEARN CPR AND AED USE

Imma Boada Graphics and Imaging Laboratory, University of Girona, Spain Voravika Wattanasoontorn Prince of Songkla University, Thailand Juan Manuel García-González Paidia Technologies, University of Girona ,Spain Antonio Rodríguez-Benítez Graphics and Imaging Laboratory, University of Girona, Spain Mateu Sbert Graphics and Imaging Laboratory, University of Girona, Spain

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ABSTRACT

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LISSA, acronym of LIfe Support Simulation Activities, is a serious game designed to teach the cardiopulmonary resuscitation protocol (CPR) and the automated external defibrillators (AED) use. LISSA presents an emergency situation in a 3D virtual environment and the player has to solve the emergency by applying the CPR protocol and using the AED in the proper way. All actions are automatically evaluated and, at the end, a final report is returned. LISSA can be used to train both experts and laypersons. It is also an excellent channel to disseminate the importance of CPR and AED among citizens, which will result in an improvement in their quality of life and health.

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Introduction

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Every year thousands of people die due to cardiac arrests outside hospitals. Most of these deaths could have been avoided by practicing cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a first aid key survival technique used to stimulate breathing and keep blood flowing to the heart. Its effective administration can significantly increase the chances of survival for victims of cardiac arrest. Since 1960, when Kouwenhoven et al. published an article stating that anyone, anywhere, could perform CPR, providing CPR has become an essential competency not only for expert or professional but also for laypersons. An automatic external defibrillator (AED) is a portable electronic device that checks the heart rhythm, and if it is needed, it can send an electric shock to the heart to try to restore a normal rhythm. AEDs give oral or visual instructions on how to apply CPR in such a way that lay people other than paramedics or emergency medical technicians are able to use them. The American Heart Association notes that at least 20.000 lives could be saved annually by prompt use of AEDs. In Singapore, only 2.7 per cent of victims survive compared to nearly 20 per cent in the United States, Europe and Japan. Since a cardiac arrest is a medical emergency that can happen to anyone, anywhere, and AEDs can increase the survival rate and the quality of life after a cardiac arrest, the installation of AEDs in public spaces has become a fact. Almost all cities have created programs to increase the public availability of these devices. In Singapore, according to a voluntary registry kept by the Singapore Heart Foundation, at least 280 AEDs are already installed across the island. In this context, there is a need of new strategies to disseminate CPR knowledge and AED use among citizens. To teach CPR and AED use, different learning strategies have been proposed, such as classical teaching strategies with mannequins, interactive videos and 3D simulation (Laerdal Medical, 2012; Ponder et al. 2002; Semeraro et al., 2012). However, several studies show that CPR skills decay within three to six months after initial training (Einspruch et al. 2007; Roppolo et al. 2007; Andersen et al. 2008). To tackle this problem, we propose LISSA, a serious game designed in the Graphics and Imaging Laboratory of the University of Girona in collaboration with health care professionals. LISSA can be used to teach and learn, in a game mode, CPR and AEDs use in complete

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compliance with the European Resuscitation Council CPR guidelines (ERC, 2010). Moreover, it can be used to refresh training in order to help to maintain CPR and AEDs use knowledge and skills.

Related Work In this section, we describe the basic CPR and the AED use guidelines. We also present previous work on applications and serious games designed to learn these protocols.

CPR and AED use guidelines Due to the importance of CPR and AED use, different organizations, such as the European Resuscitation Council (ERC, 2010), the Red Cross, and the American Heart Association (AHA, 2014), have defined guidelines that describe how resuscitation should be undertaken both safely and effectively. In our case, we have followed the 2010 ERC guidelines summarized in Figures 1 and 2. These algorithms define the steps that have to be applied and how they have to be applied.

Serious Games and CPR David Rejeski and Ben Sawyer (2002) introduced the term Serious Games, in their white paper Serious Games Initiative as entertaining games with non-entertainment goals. Since this first definition, many different ones have been proposed (Zyda, 2005; Michael and Chen, 2005) and all they convey the same idea, use games to teach or transmit something. This idea has led some analysts to describe serious games as the next wave of technology-mediated learning (Derryberry, 2007). Serious games are applied in many different areas, such as, healthcare, defence, education, communication and politics. Focusing on healthcare, Wattanasoontorn et al. (2013) presented a survey with more than one hundred serious games for health. In the context of CPR, there are also different applications and games designed to learn the protocol. Some video training applications are: Save-a-life simulator (MedtronicFoundation), an interactive online video simulation that tests the player knowledge of helping someone suffering from sudden cardiac arrest; and CPR & Choking (StoneMeadow Development LLC), an application that provides instant

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information on how to perform CPR and how to aid a choking victim. There are also handheld device applications such as: CPR Game (EM Gladiators LLC), a cardiac arrest simulator on iOS platform focused on advanced CPR training; iResus (Low et al. 2010), an application for smart phone, designed to improve the performance of an advanced life support provider in a simulated emergency situation; iCPR [Alessandri, 2009; Semeraro et al. 2011), an iPhone application designed for both lay persons and healthcare professionals able to detect the rate of chest compressions performance by using the built-in accelerometer; M-AID (Zanner et al., 2007), a first aid application for mobile phones that uses yes or no questions to judge an on-going situation giving to the user detailed instructions of how to proceed; and CPR simulator (Less Stress Instructional Services,Medtronic Foundation), a set of CPR exercises including adult, child and infant CPR simulator that runs through the CPR sequence. In addition, some applications for PC platforms are Mini-Virtual Reality Enhanced Mannequin (Mini-VREM) (Indiegogo Inc) which is a CPR feedback device with motion detection technology including Kinect, sensor and software specifically designed to analyse chest compression performance and provide real-time feedback in a simulation training setting, and AED Challenge (Insight Instructional Media), an application that provides online automated external defibrillation and CPR skill practice and testing with realistic scenarios. Finally, in the serious games context, some games for CPR training are JUST (Ponder et al., 2002), an immersive VR situation training system for non-professional health emergency operators, MicroSim Prehospital (Laerdal Medical) designed for pre-hospital training on emergency medical services, and Staying alive (2011) (Illumens), an online 3D simulator which provides a learning experience of saving a virtual patient from cardiac arrest in four minutes. Different to reported methods, LISSA has been conceived considering both instructors and learners and with the idea to make instructors tasks easier. In this way, LISSA allows the creation of different scenarios with different characters, patient symptoms and environments. Moreover, the system provides automatic feedback to the learner that enhances the learning process.

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The LISSA Serious Game

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In this section, we describe the design requirements of LISSA and the main components of its architecture.

Design Requirements LISSA was conceived with the idea to create a user-friendly and enjoyable environment to teach and learn CPR and AED use. In addition, LISSA has to be capable to support any kind of user, expert and non-expert. Finally, it has to make the instructors tasks easier and if it is possible automate them. To reach our objectives, we considered that game technology is the most suitable one since it allows the creation of user-friendly and enjoyable environments. In our game, all the actions will turn around an emergency situation represented in a 3D virtual environment with the victim, the helper, and all the auxiliary tools that may require the emergency. This scenario will be defined by an expert (the instructor) and will be presented to the player (the learner) as a problem. The objective of the player will be to save the victim by applying the CPR protocol and using the AED in the proper way. We will interpret the learner actions as the solution to the problem. To automate instructor tasks, all the learner actions will be evaluated by the system and, at the end, a final report and a score will be returned. In this way, our game will be able to automatically correct learner solutions and return automatic feedback. Taking into account all these considerations LISSA has to satisfy the following requirements:

It has to support two user profiles (instructors and learners). There will be also an administrator profile to maintain the system and perform more specialized tasks.

The instructor may create emergency scenarios (or problems). These problems will be stored in a common repository to share between users of the system.

The instructor may select problems from the repository.

The instructor may assign problems to the learners. These problems will be assigned to a learner workbook.

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The learner may access his workbook and can solve the problems. To solve a problem he has to apply the actions of the CPR and AED algorithms. These actions will define the solution of the problem.

The system will evaluate on-line and automatically all the learner actions. It will create a report with the final evaluation of the actions. If the solution is not correct, and the instructor allows him, the learner can enter a new solution to improve his score.

The instructor may check the learner evaluation report. He can also ask for statistics about learners and problems.

The instructor may send messages to the learner and the learner may answer them. These messages will be registered by the system. There will be a communication channel between learner and instructor. Taking into account all these requirements we designed the platform presented below.

Architecture To present LISSA architecture, in Figure 3 we illustrate the main modules that compose it and the connections between them. We have labelled these connections with a number to make its comprehension easier. These labels represent the order in which actions are performed. LISSA supports three types of users: learners, instructors and administrator. To enter into the system a username and a password is required. All interface windows are specifically designed for each user profile. In this description, we will only consider the instructor and learner actions. The communication module establishes a virtual communication channel between the instructor of a course and all the learners of this course. LISSA has a problem repository that registers all the created scenarios. This repository allows instructors to share material. All problems have assigned a set of labels that identify: title of the problem, author, topic, category into the topic, application area, level of difficulty, description and creation date. The system database also registers information related to learners, such as, assigned problems or learner solutions, and also tutorials related to courses. Focusing on the modules of the platform, there is a problem management module used to enter

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problems into the system and register them into the repository. There is also a workbook generation module used to create the learners workbooks. The instructor selects problems from the repository and assigns them to the learners. The learner accesses the workbook and selects the problem he wants to solve, and once selected enters in a 3D scenario where the emergency is represented. A menu defines all the actions of CPR and AED use protocol, and the learner has to select the actions in the correct order. At the beginning he has the maximum score and according to the actions he will keep this score or he will loose some points if he makes mistakes. If subsequent actions are performed in the correct way he has the chance to increase the score. The key point of the protocol is the CPR manoeuvre. To detect if the learner is performing it in the correct way the system has a special icon (see next section for more details). The correction module corrects on- line each action and returns feedback. This module when the game is over generates a final report with all the details of the actions. This report is also stored in the learner workbook and can be consulted by the instructor. Since all the information about problems, solutions, and corrections is stored in the system database, there is a statistics module to interrogate this database and extract information to follow-up learner progress. This information can be used to guide the learner through the topics that present a greater difficulty for them.

Results

In this section, we present some of the main LISSA interfaces. For a real demo of the game you can access to http://gilabparc.udg.edu/lissa/WebLISSA/demoLISSA.html. Figure 4 illustrates one of the emergency situations of LISSA that will be presented as a problem that the player has to solve. The main menu, on the bottom, contains the actions of the basic life support and AED algorithms. Actions are grouped in four different groups. The first one includes security actions, such as, controlling if the perimeter of the victim is secure and also actions related to the patient position. To apply the protocol the victim has to be in supine position and once it has been recovered in the lateral position. The second group of actions is related to response actions. These are used to control if the patient is conscious, and if he breathes or not. The third group of actions includes actions

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to ask for help and to call emergencies. Finally, the last group includes the core actions of the algorithm, these are: CPR used to perform compressions and ventilations and AED to access to the device. The score is represented in the top of the window as well as time. The score is updated on-line according to the correctness of the actions. It is important to control the time of the different actions since the algorithm imposes several restrictions. For instance, the compressions and ventilations have to be done during 2 minutes. The ratio has to be 30 compressions and 2 ventilations. Figure 5 illustrates the performance of CPR actions. The player has to select the position where the compressions have to be done and then using the space bar he performs compressions. To perform a ventilation he has to press enter. The player can see on-line if the compressions and ventilations are correct or not, since it appears a perfect, good, bad