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VALMIKI RAMAYANAM VALMIKI RAMAYANAM VALMIKI RAMAYANAM VALMIKI RAMAYANAM VALMIKI RAMAYANAM

Balakandam Balakandam Balakandam Balakandam Balakandam


To reestablish Sanatana dharma and ancient
customs the managing committee of TTD
has decided to distribute these epics freely to
its devotees as Prasadam.
Chilukuru Venkateswarlu

(ii)
Balakandam
Chilukuru Venkateswarlu
Year : 2013
Typesetting by : R. Anuradha Raghuram, Hyderabad. (9441186831)
Submitted for approval by :
SRI RAMAKRISHNA TAPOVANAM
Chennai 600 032, Mobile : 9884708559
Website : sriramakrishnatapovanam.org
E-mail ID : chvenkateswarlu30@gmail.com
(iii)
(iv)
Dedicated to my parents
Sri Nori Suryanarayana and Smt. Nori Seetamma
1897-1952
My father Sree Nori Suryanarayana son of Sree Nori
Ramavadhani, born at Thotlavalluru. He studied Vedas from his
father. He has chosen his career as a Teacher and retired as a
Head Master. He was highly spiritual and initiated Mantra from
his Guru Sri Kuraganti Venkata Ramana Sasti, Vemuru, Tenali.
My mother Seetamma, daughter of Pisupati Vasudeva Sastri
at Kaitepalli (near Repalle). They had five sons and one
daughter. Their second son Sree Nori Sreenadha Venkata
Somayazulu has written many books on Vedanta. Their fifth son
(adopted) Chilukuru Venkateswarlu has written many Epics in
Telugu and English.
- Chilukuru Venkateswarlu
(v)
BETWEEN YOU AND ME
Society is rotten and stinking
It is our duty to protect and preserve
it. If our body fell sick it will not affect
the society. But if the mind gets sick,
the society gets rotten. Why?
Mind is the mother of all
desires. Even the waves in a sea might
stop but the desires in a mind will not
stop. Many more desires crops up
even before the first one is fulfilled.
When the desires did not fulfil, the man
gets angry. Anger breeds hatredness.
Hatredness breeds vengeance.
Vengeance gives birth to violence. Such
a person will resort to heinous crimes
to fulfill his desires. Greed overpowers
mind and encourages achieving his
desires in all unrighteous ways. The
greed will not die even if he is
imprisoned. Why a man resorts to
that? Is it due to lack of love for his
own dharma and sadacharams? or
does he disregards to the laws of land?
Or does he lacks fear for the king
(Constitution)? Or is it due to the lack
of devotion to the god?
In olden days people strive
in gurukulams till they attain perfect
knowledge. Our puranas reveals us
that Rama and Krishna also entered in
gurukulams for knowledge. Even a hundred years ago the grand parents
(vi)
used to make their kids to sit on their stomachs and teach them to
recite the morals from Neeti satakams like Vemana and sumati satakams
. They inculcate devotion in their tender minds with stories of Prahlada
and Gajendra. Thus they train their minds on Ethics on one side and
devotion on god on the other side. Oh! What a great solid system that
existed just before a century?
Now this system is disappeared under the guise of secularism.
Even grand parents do not know ethics and values of life. What can
they teach to their children? On the other hand they are questioning
What gain my child benefit by learning time old morals? We want to
make him an actor or a doctor etc In this manner even the parents
themselves are brain washing the child. While the Parents are dreaming
the future of their children they are missing natural love and affection
from their parents. As the parents are pushing their children to coaching
centres and for campus selection, in turn the children also are driving
their parents to old age homes when they are grown up. The undue
growth of old age homes should be an eye opener to the greedy parents.
Many Doctors, Layers, administrators politicians and many other
professionals are being produced in the above manner and ruling the
society. As a result ethical values are disappeared and jungle law
prevailed. There is no protection for a common man. Possession of
wealth, at any cost, is the order of the day.
These are all off shoots of mental sickness. They are not visible
to the doctors. Even Laws of the land also could not catch them. If one
in a million is caught, he is boasting without shame that he will come
out from the jail, like a cleaned pearal.
Unless the mind is controlled this disease can not be cured. If
mind becomes desireless it listens to sadbudhi. If it listens to sadbudhi,
chittam becomes pure and associates close to antahkaranam. (In fact
manassu, budhi, chittamu and Antahkaranam are all one and one and
to the size of an atom, situates in hrudayam).
Our society is built on Sanatana Dharma. Vedas are authority for
those dharmas. The great rishis took out the essence from Vedas and
(vii)
framed in the form of Upanishads, sastras and puranas. Those dharmas
were further simplified in the form moral poems, devotional stories
and the grand parents were taught to their kids at a very infant age.
Now that time old tradition disappeared. But it is not a difficult task for
the almighty to put it back.
In fact these thoughts are not mime. I am only an instrument, in
the hands of my guru Sri Ramakrishna Paramhansa.
Thought the society is rotten and stinking, people did not lost
devotion towards God. The unending Qs of devotees at all temples is
an evidence of their devotion towards God. This element of bhakti
bhavana is enough to retreat the lost peace and hormoney in the society.
Is not a small seed brings out a huge banian tree? Now let us came to
the point.
In marketing terminology the term P.O.P (Point of Purchase)
occupies a significant place. Which means; normally a business man
keeps many more articles useful to his customers with a view of serving
him better. If a customer comes to buy an article, he buys some more
articles also useful for him. In the same way T.T.D Board also providing
several Savas to the Lord so as the devotees can avail a seva of their
choice.
For the first time I went to Tirumala to have a darshan of Lord
Venkateswara in 1945. At that time a road was laid and dedicated for
the service of devotees. In those days one bus used to come in the
morning to Tirumala and the same bus returns to Tirupati before sunset.
Devastanam used to provide us vessels freely and we used to cook our
own food. Hardly there were 2 or 3 special services were there apart
from dharma dersanam. Now the situation is different.
Devotees are waiting in Q complex between 5 to 20 hours for
darsan. Though they are confined in their comportments physically,
but their minds are not confined at the lotus feet of Lord Venkateswara.
Unless their mind is also made confined on god related matters, they
will not get Poorna Phalam.
(viii)
Keeping in view of the above, and as guided by my Gurudev
I brought out 50 titles from Ramayanam, Bhagavatam, Mahabharatam
etc in an abridged from not expecting 150 pages. I made an appeal to
the Board of Trustees to distribute those epics freely who are all
standing in Q complexes jas long as they continue the scheme of
annadanam. In case the devotees develop taste in Sanatana dharmas,
ethics and Sadacharams they may go for its originals and enrich their
knowledge.
In fact this is a divine cause. It is the duty of the god to propagate
Sanatana dharma among the people. T.T.D has enough funds to for
Dharma Pracharam at their command. In case they need more funds,
people will stand in Q to donate for this divine cause. That is why
Mahatma Gandhi advised Choose the right cause, means follow.
Human mind is like a balance with two pans. As they enrich purity
of their mind by reciting these epics, the worldly desires, greed and
other impure qualities will disappear. In other words the society which
is on the verge of rotting will comeback and start practicing its time old
Sanatna dharmas.
As instructed by my Gurudev I ventured to put this proposal
before the learned T.T.D managing committee. Rest Lord Venkateswara
will take care.
- CHILUKURU VENKATESWARLU
(ix)
Preface
Valmiki Ramayana occupies a significant place in Indian Literature.
It is also popularly known as Adikavyamu the first poetical
composition. Valmiki has created many great characters which are of
great respectability, endowed with nobility and dignity. Of all the
characters Ramas character alone is considered as the most prominent,
since maharishi took every care in depicting its authority, excellence
and abundance. Maharishi has depicted Ramas character with sixteen
excellent qualities. Even upanishads praised Rama as an embodiment
of Dharma, Lord Vishnu, as a highest supreme being. In Ramayana
dharmas were significantly introduced to achieve peace, harmony and
happiness in life that an ordinary man needs. Maharishi said from the
mouth of Mareecha, a rakshasa, as RAMA VIGRAHAVAN DHARMAHA
(Embodiment of Dharma). Thereby maharishi advocated to mankind
to cultivate the qualities of Rama and not that of Ravana. Thus maharishi
has created a great epic and infused various dharmas on various
occasions encouraging the path of Bakthi, Gnana, Karma to pursue the
enumerated values of life which are the principal objects of a man are
depicted in Ramas character. Many learned people viewed Ramayana
in different perspectives. Some viewed it as Tatvagnanamu. Some
viewed as Knowledge of Mantra Sastramu. Some say it as a holy epic
for recital. However it is an encyclopedia for manifestation of life. It is
a treasure of dharmas for all times. Thus it has the universal acceptance.
There is a controversy in determining the period of Ramas life
time. Puranas says that there are thirty kalpas. The first among them is
Swetha kalpa. In that kalpa, Vyvaswatamanmantra was the tenth. In that
manmantra Rama was born at the end of twenty forth mahayuga, and
in the last leg of tretayuga. In Vishnu purana it is said that there will be
one vyasa in each yuga and where as in twenty forth mahayuga Valmiki
him self was vyasa. This version was supported by Hora darpanam and
Koorma-puranam. It is said in Vayu puranam that Kaikasi had three
sons and a daughter. They were Ravana, Kumbhakarna, Vibeshana and
(x)
Surpanakha. It was also said in that Vayu purna that Ravana will be
killed by Rama after extinction all his religious excellence. This
substantiates that Rama was born in twenty fourth mahayuga and Valmiki
has written this epic during the life time of Rama. According to Vishnu
dharmothara purana, Markandaya maharishi tells the story of Rama to
King Vraja. Therefore it is inferred that Rama was born and killed Ravana,
Kumbhakarna, Lava and Kusa were born in Valmiki ashrama and
subsequently Valmiki has written Ramayana, Lava, Kusa read out
Ramayana to Rama and others. So it is believed that Valmiki has written
the epic Ramayana during the life time of Rama.
Valmiki Maharishi :
There are several versions about Valmiki maharishis are in
prevalence. Retnakar a spoilt brahmin made friendship with barbarians
in the forest and torturing people who were passing through the forest.
One day Narada maharishi happened to pass in that way. Took pity on
him and initiated a mantra and advised Penance. While he was
meditating with utmost devotion, went in to an unconscious state. In
course of time ant hill developed over him. After several years again
Narada maharishi passed that way and noticed the advanced state of
Ratnakars devotion. He pitied on him and prayed Indra to pore a heavy
rain so as to melt away the anthill. Since Ratnakar continued his penance
inside the anthill he named him as Valmiki (in Sanskrit Valmikam means
an anthill. So he was named Valmiki.) After melting the anthill, maharishi
provoked Retnakar to write the story of Rama. However there is no
relevant authority for this version of story.
Skanda purana narrates a story like this. long ago there lived a
brahmin by name Sumati belonging to Bhrugu family. His wife is Kausiki.
They had a son by name Agni Sarma. Sumati tried to teach Vedas to his
son. But he did not show any interest in learning Vedas. However Sumati
married to his son as he attained youth. After some years there was an
acute famine prevailed in the country. As such, Sumati could not sustain
his family. So he migrated to the forest, built a hermitage and started
living. In course of time Agni Sarma developed friendship with a group
of robbers. He used to support the family by robbing the people passing
through the forest.
Agni Sarma has become a spoilt brahmin. Did not learn Vedas. Now
he has chosen a profession harassing and torturing people. One day a
(xi)
group of maharishis happened to travel that way and they fell in the
eyes of Agni Sarma and he wanted to kill them to rob their belongings.
Among the maharishis a great saint Atri was also with them. He
took pity on Agni Sarma and asked him Oh Agni Sarma! You want to
kill and take away our belongings, we have not done any harm to you.
Is it not a sin to kill others and rob them? Having done such a crimes to
whom you are going to give those belongings? Agni Sarma replied
that I will protect my father, mother and wife. On hearing Agni Sarmas
reply, Atri Maharishi again asked him your people are enjoying the
fruits of your loot. Will they share in your sins also? Go home and
ascertain from them. We shall wait till you come.
Agni Sarma went home and said to his father, mother, wife I am
robbing the people and protecting you all these years, tell me will you
share my sins? for which they all said you have a responsibility of
protecting father, mother, wife and children. We are not to bother how
you earned it. So we will not share in your sins. Agni Sarma went back
and told Atri maharishi what his people said to him. He has repented
for all his past sinful acts. Other maharishis also requested Atri maharishi
to shower his kindness on Agni Sarma. Atri maharishi took pity on him.
Then Atri initiated a Dhanya sloka to Agni Sarma coupled with a mantra
which will eradicate all the sins. Maharishi instructed Agnisarma to sit
under this tree and commence tapasya immediately and you will achieve
salvation. All those maharishis went away on their pilgrimage and
returned after thirteen years. On their return journey they happened
to pass that way. They saw an anthill at the place where they suggested
Agni Sarma to do penance. With their divine sight they understood that
Agni Sarma was continuing his penance without any body
consciousness. So an ant hill developed over him.
They removed the anthill and saw Agni Sarma as a skeleton. There
was nothing in his body except bones and skin. Atri maharishi woke
him up and had a divine touch with his hands. He opened his eyes and
saw maharishis with the brilliance of Brahma. Immediately he prostrated
at their feet and said Oh maharishis! With your kind grace, I had the
true wisdom and all my sins were disappeared. Atri maharishi said oh
Agni Sarma! With our initiation you have realized the knowledge of
(xii)
soul. With that all your sins evaporated and you became pure. While
you were doing tapasya without body consciousness, Valmikams
developed over you. Since you continued your tapasya from inside the
anthill without consciousness, from now onwards you will be known
as Valmiki. All maharishis blessed and went on their way.
By the grace of God, man will secure a guru. With the grace of a
guru, he will get divinity. Though Agni Sarma was a part of Brahma by
birth, he became spoilt in association with sinners. For some time due
to the fruits of evil karmas of his previous birth, and lived in the path of
troubling people. After annihilation of evil karmas, he became a
maharishi.
Afterwards he built a hermitage at Kusastali on the banks of river
Tamasa and worshipped lord Siva. He learnt the story of Rama from
Narada. Brahma himself appeared before him and said under his
instructions Saraswathi, the goddess of learning, caused him to speak
and pronounced the sloka through his mouth. Brahma further said to
him, know it well that Rama is an incarnation of Sri Maha Vishnu and
instructed to write the story of Rama. In a way he had the blessings of
all the trimurthis and completed the epic of Ramayana. The epic consists
of twenty four thousand slokas, hundred episodes and five hundred
sargas are divided in to seven chapters. Maharishi advocated the non
duality of Shiva , Kesava wherever a context raised. In Yudha kanda
maharishi says from the mouth of Rama Shiva alone possessed the
treasure of archery and again I held it. Ramayana was popularly known
as Adikavyam, the first poetical composition. Since then there exists no
other epic in this world literature. That is why it is popularly known as
adikavyam. What we are talking about revolutionized changes such as
Fraternity of mankind, World citizenship, human dignity. Concern for
society and nationalism are appears in Ramayana every now and then.
Many people adopted Ramayana as an epic for parayanam. Some
believe it preaches the knowledge of Siva. Appaiya dekshitulu has
described it as a glory of Siva. Vaishnavas believe it as an authority for
the followers of qualified non dualistic and preaches them the way of
worldly life.
(xiii)
Valmiki maharishi depicted Rama as an ordinary human being till
the end. In other words he himself must have instructed his own illusion
to surround him. By that he could practice the superior qualities to
preach to the world such as devotion to mother, father, guru, husband,
love to brothers, to protect those who seek refuge and truthfulness.
That is why people will not get tired in reading Ramayana again and
again.
In yudha kanda after killing Ravana all devatas came and said to
him you are no other than Sri Maha Vishnu he replied to them
innocently I am Rama, son of Dasaratha. In the same way some
maharishis also recognized him as Sri Maha Vishnu in bala kanda to
yudha kandam. But he believed himself as an ordinary human being.
Thereby not only practices dharma, but also made others also to follow
him.
Ramayana teaches us the sanctity of matrimonial relationship and
reveals how ancient it is. When Rama broke the bow of Siva, Janaka
requests him to marry his daughter, Sita. But he refused to marry her
unless his father approves it. While Rama was going to forest, his mother
Kausalya asks Rama to take her to forest as a cow follows its calf. On
that occasion while consoling her he advises her a chaste wife should
always attain salvation by serving her husband. Similarly Valmiki
maharishi depicted Manadodaris character as a chaste and pure woman.
Therefore Ramayana teaches us that love is the most powerful factor
in fastening people. Those who can not love will not hesitate to do any
heinous and cruel acts. So we will have to protect the institution of
marriage and its purity with utmost care. The evil affects were depicted
in the episode of Vali. Sugriva and his ministers strongly believed that
Vali was dead. So he married Vails wife with her acceptance. Though it
was an accepted practice in vanaras, Angada could not digest it. He has
expressed his anguish to Hanuma on the shores of southern sea.
Valmiki maharishi has depicted many good customs in various
occasions in Ramayana. Such as, love to parents, guru and brother.
Then only they can become role models to the younger generations. So
parents are to teach such good traditions to their children. Otherwise
the institution of family system will collapse.
(xiv)
Sense organs desire comforts. Those comforts can be provided
only with the help of money. But the earning of money should not exceed
its limits. If it exceeds it will produce adverse results. In Ramayana, we
will observe that Rama, Lakshmana and Baratha valued wealth like a
blade of grass. Thereby they occupied most glorious positions. Kaikeyi
expresses her doubt about the sincerity of Rama going to the forest.
Then Rama said Mother! My goal is to live in a righteous path and lead
people in that path. So I give priority only to dharma. Ardha and Kama
are not my priority. I will lead a muni life in forest. Rama clearly spelled
out his intentions only those who do not give importance alone will be
real munis.
Lakshmana doubts Baratha when he went to Mt.Chitrakuta with
an army. Rama said to Lakshmana. Brother! The wealth (kingdom) that
comes by killing near and dear is like a food mixed with poison. I will
not even touch such food. These words of Rama reveals how liberated
he was on Ardha and kama.
Ravana and others considered Ardha and Kama are the highest
goals in life, so they were all destroyed. Even in these days also, we find
people are living with rakshasas attitude are giving prominence for lust
and wealth. Ramayana will certainly help such people in leading a life of
comfort and peace. Because the episode of Rama and Baratha will be
an eye opener to them. Both brothers refused to accept the kingdom to
up keep dharma and did not give priority for Ardha and Kama.
Though King Dasaratha and family were blessed with royal
comforts they all underwent physical and mental pressures. Sita says
to Hanuma god will tie a rope around the neck of men and drag some
times in to heavenly comforts and some times in to terrific miseries.
Today men are becoming mentally week. They are not able to
withstand even the slightest grief and resorting either to commit a
murder or committing suicide. If we analyze we will find Ardha and
Kama are the main reason and at the same time people are ignorant of
spiritual values. As such they could not pursue goal of perfection. World
is not a bed of roses. This universal fact is to be understood by all and
thus to cultivate the strength of resistance by spiritual practice, by
reciting the morals and dharmas preached by eminent maharishis like
(xv)
Valmiki, who depicted Dasarathas family for the benefit of mankind of
all times. Recital of Ramayana will certainly helps in strengthening
forbearance.
It is defined by our elders that harassing others is a sin and helping
others is punya. So in this kaliyuga we need hot have to perform big
religious karmas like yagnas. It is enough if we resolve to do good to
others in our day to day activities. For which Hanuma himself a living
example in Ramayana. We will not see such a high ranked personality.
We do not find such a person in all the three worlds and at all times.
One has to learn from him, his way of action, his words, self reliance,
courage and faith. Look how exemplary is he?
If we can withstand boldly with out any alarm, progress will come
automatically. All comforts can be achieved only through progress.
Unless we are alive we can not see any good. What do any one achieve
by death? by reciting Ramayana regularly we will come across many
instructions like this. These instructions are universal and for all times.
When Baratha went to Mt.Chitrakootam pleading Rama to rule
Ayodhya, Rama not only politely declined his request but also advised
Baratha the following precautions to become a popular ruler:
Are you driving away the sinister, thieves, wicked and atheist
persons from the country? This will enable you to induce traditional
customs to the people.
Are you keeping a close watch on the judgments pronounced by
your ministers? Sometimes false allegations will be made on the most
superior and righteous persons will be punished. You make a note if
such a pious persons tears fell on the ground, those tears will destroy
the king, his children, his cattle and wealth.
Are the river waters are put to optimum utilization for agriculture?
Are you taking all such precautions for the growth of agriculture?
Does the people are obeying the laws enacted by you? Do you
notice any contempt of your orders? Are you enacting any anti-people
laws?
Are you imposing reasonable taxes or not? Did the revenue
collected is spent for the benefit of the people? That means on
(xvi)
development and welfare measures in right proportions? Are you taking
precautions to avoid deficit financing? Are you keeping sufficient
reserves in your treasury? Are you punishing innocent? Are the
criminals let off unpunished?
Are you keeping an eye on cow protection and increasing the
cattle wealth?
From this we can understand that how able and popular
administrator Rama is. This piece of advice is not only instructed to
Baratha but rules of all times and all ages.
From the above questions he not only proved to be an able
administrator, politician but also reveals as a prudent king.
Ramas rule was praised as Ramarajyam not only because of
the welfare measures but for practicing all dharmas as dictated by Vedas.
Chilukuru Venkateswarlu
1 Kishkinda Kandam
VALMIKI RAMAYANAM VALMIKI RAMAYANAM VALMIKI RAMAYANAM VALMIKI RAMAYANAM VALMIKI RAMAYANAM
Balakandam Balakandam Balakandam Balakandam Balakandam
THE HISTORY OF KING DASARATHA
[This part is taken from Srimadh Ramayanam 1-5 Sargas]
Paramatma desired to take a human form on earth. Devatas,
Maharishis are all anxiously waiting for his appearance on earth. There
are so many royal families on earth. All of them are righteous. However
one must be highly pious and righteous to be blessed with Paramatma
as their son. Such a couple must have donated copiously, performed
many yagnas and fulfilled several religious vows in their previous
births. Such a worthy couple only is eligible for receiving Paramatma as
their son. Such great people lead a totally self less life and do not even
aspire for salvation, though they have performed countless generous
and righteous deeds in many lives. The kindness of Paramatma will be
limitless on such a couple. Since Parmatma himself has made the
smkalpa now, such a royal couple must be living somewhere on earth.
How are we sure that Paramatma takes birth only in a royal
family? Why not he take birth in a brahmin family? Was he not born as a
son of Jamadagni Maharishi (as Parasurama)? Was he not born as
Vamana in the family of Kasyapa? This is not of much significance for
Paramatma, in what varna he takes birth. What is more important is
that he should do all the good that he wants to do for the mankind
during his incarnation. Will god respect the caste system?
(varnashramas). Bhagavat Geeta quotes Chaturvarnam Mayaa
Srushtam Gunakarma Vibhagasaha which implies that the duties of
castes should not be mixed up. That will not do good for the society. The
prestige and reputation of such a family must be on high pedestal for
Paramatma to take birth. Such a family should be glorious, flawless,
2 Kishkinda Kandam
dedicated to the people and should have the good will of Sadhus and
Maharishis. A country ruled by such family is always pure and free from
famines, epidemics, floods etc.
The Kings of Surya dynasty, such as Manu, Ikshvaaku, Mandhata,
Dileepa, Raghu and many others, are all famous. They are all capable of
ruling the entire Bhoomandalam (earth). They all performed several
yagnas ,chandrayana vratas and donated numerous gifts. They ruled
the country several thousands of years righteously. They all practiced
yoga, lived like sages and reached the heaven aat the end of their life.
They used to be like a Kalpataru for anyone who comes to them for any
need. They are capable of teaching subtle dharmas even to Maharishis.
In this manner they became reputed in all the three worlds.
[From this what we are to learn is that one should have this nature
of helping others, and practicing the well-established good customs.
They believed that virtues are the back bone for the race. They all had
great control on senses and worldly pleasures. They performed all
virtuous karmas and attained moksha at the end of their lifetime. There
were no athiests or criminals in their country. Their mind was always
fixed on dispassion] Let us examine the histories of those rulers in that
family.
In the beginning this dynasty was called as Kakutsyas. After
Raghu became the King, the family name was popularly known as
Raguvamsam. The King Raghu performed Viswagit Yaga, and he gifted
away all his wealth to the rithviks. But, as is the custom, he retained the
throne, the white umbrella and the chaamaram as symbolic for a King.
He renounced all pleasures and spent the revenue collected from
people for their welfare measures. Since then, he slept on the floor and
ate food in mud vessels. Thus he became a model to his people and
made them live a righteous life. He practiced dandaneeti as stipulated in
scriptures. Thus he became glorious in this world and attained heaven
after his lifetime.
King Dasaratha was born in Raghu dynasty and was the son of
King Aja. Dasarathas history was not revealed in Ramayana in full.
Hence let us know more about him before we proceed to learn the
history of Sri Rama.
3 Kishkinda Kandam
We do not find a flawless person in this world except god. We find
some mistake or other at different times, in individuals. While
considering the virtuous qualities of King Dasaratha, small and sundry
short comings need to be ignored. He ruled for such a long period of
over 60,000 years. One may doubt that any King can rule for so many
years on earth? In general, the longevity of humans is taken as fixed as
127 years. The science of astrology says. Sampaarhtirdhvighna
Manujakarinaam Panchacha Nisaaha Then some may question why
elders are blessing as Satamaanam Bhavati Here Satam means
many but not exactly hundred. Even in Bhruhajjatakam also it was said
about the longevity as follows Guru sasi sahite Kuleeralagne
Sasitanaye Bhruguje Cha Kendrayaate; Bhava ripu sahajopa
gaischa Seshairamitha mihaayur anukramaavvinaassyaat From
this we are to understand that Dasaratha falls under the category of
unlimited years of longevity. In Tretayuga, the general longevity was
300 years, in Dwaparayuga, the longevity was 200 years and in
Kaliyuga, it is 100 years. However, here and there are one or two
persons live for a long time. This extraordinary longevity of life usually
depends upon the planetary position at the time of birth.
According to yoga sastra, a yogi (Or Sadhaka) can live for long
years (even Kalpas) and they attain many super natural powers, with
the help of yoga. Yogis stay unmoving for any number of years
envisioning the Paramatma in the form of a Nischala Jyothi. The
achievements possible with Yoga sadhana are detailed in Patanjali Yoga
sutras. Let us see the examples below :
Parinama traya Samyamaath atheetha anaagata jnanam.
By practicing Dhaarana, Dhyana and Samadhi, all the three
simultaneously, yogis get into Samyama and achieve extra-sensory
(super natural) knowledge and powers.
If the mind is concentrated on particular nerve centres and
particular chakras, Sadhaka achieves super natural powers, as stated in
Patanjali Yoga Sutra 12-31. The yogis who practiced lambikaa and
relted yogas can live under waters comfortably for any amount of time.
We presume Duryodhana must have practiced this yoga and lived in a
lake (after the battle of Kurukshetra). Some yogis experience
4 Kishkinda Kandam
Paramatma in their heart and remain still like a stone; birds think of
him as a stone. While tears flow from their eyes, birds mistake the same
as rain water and drink. Such Yogis have transcended the need to
perform daily rituals like sandhya vandanam, homas etc., long back.
They are always experiencing Paramatmain in their heart as Nischala
Jyothi and live several thousands of years. Hence the normal longevity
of ordinary persons must not be compared with such yogis. Who can
convince people who question even the existence of yoga sastra itself?
Those who perform number of virtuous actions attain Chittasuddhi.
Unless one attains Chittasuddhi, one cannot have the vision of god. The
purpose of all karmas are to realize Paramatma. Hence performing
virtuous acts means worshipping Paramatma. All karmas that we
perform are the forms of Paramatma only. If karmas are performed
with such a sadbudhi ( pure mind) people will experience the good
results of their actions, otherwise they will receive very low results.
Bhagavat Geeta also teaches the same in the following sloka :
Karmanassukrutasyaahussattvikam Nirmalam Phalam;
Rajasastu Phalam Duhkham, ajnanam Tamasah Phalam.
Further the yoga sastra reveals, that if a Yoga sadhaka worships
Para Devata in the form of Kundalini and washes his body with her
Padodakam(water flowing at her feet), he will gets the ability to practice
yoga without any interruptions.
Yogis can live any number of years in this manner, by practicing
yoga sutras. Since we do not see such great yogi in our midst, in these
days, we get doubts on the yoga sastra. Infact, even today, great yogis,
who have total sense-control, are practicing yoga and living in the slopes
of Himalayas and its dense forests. They will never come in our midst
for the sake of money.
King Dasaratha ruled his country for several thousands of years.
He enjoyed all regal pleasures and made his people also to enjoy a
happy and pleasant life. Such Kings are applauded as Rajanvamta.
THE TIMING OF RAMAYANA
Though Ramas history is cited in many other epics and Puranas
also, only in Ramayana do we find Ramas history in full. Therefore, let
us discuss and analyze from Valmiki Ramayana itself.
5 Kishkinda Kandam
Some people say that Valmiki has written Ramayana even before
the birth of Rama. Some others say , he wrote it during the lifetime of
Rama. Some other people say that there are so many Ramayanas and
each one of them was written stories as the writers liked and then
named after Valmiki. That is why we find many contradictions between
any one Ramayana and another.
Some people say that Rama may be a great person among people
of his time but it is needless to call him an incarnation of god. Rama
might have wedded only one wife, remained completely faithful to her
and adopted Yeka Patni Vrat as his ideal! He might be an ideal and
obedient son to his father! He might have remained completely truthful
at all times! Can we call him God, simply because of all these qualities?
If we search diligently, we may find a few such persons who remain
wedded and faithful to just one wife, who are obedient to their father
and who are highly truthful. Hence we cannot call all of them as god.
However they agree that Krishna is an incarnation but not Rama. Hence
let us give a fitting reply and keep them in silence.
The story of Rama and its poet Valmiki find references in several
Puranas. Therefore Puranas and Ithihasas have accepted Ramayana and
Valmiki. Even in Bhagavatam and Mahabharatam there are references
to Ramas story. In Ananda Ramayanam, Adhyatma Ramayanam and
Brahmanda Puranam, we find the story of Rama. We definitely find the
Ramayana of Valmiki with us. There may be small differences in
narrating the story, but all of them do support the Ramayana and
Valmiki. Kaalam or time is indivisible, creation is beginningless,
pralayams (deluge) are several. In each Pralayam and the creation that
follows pralayam, there might be some differences and changes, but
there will not be change in the major aspects. Veda teaches that
Dhaataa Yadhapoorva Masrujat.
In each creation (after pralayam) Paramatma will manifest in
several forms. Hence there will be some deviations in each of his
incarnations on earth. One may therefore question, whether, in each
Tretayuga, Rama will incarnate? We cant say this, because each yuga
and its yuga dharmas will keep on changing.
In each yuga, cruel rakshasas like Ravana take birth. To reduce the
burden on earth, battles are therefore inevitable. In each battle there
6 Kishkinda Kandam
will be two sides. One side will oppose Paramatma and the other side
will support. However Paramatma will not shower either love or
prejudice on either side, because he alone has created both the sides.
However he pretends as if he was angry on one side. Common people
cannot understand this tatwam of Paramatma. Those who fought on
behalf of wicked people also will not go to hell. Both the sides that
fought and died in the battle will reach to the superior lokas only. But
ignorant people will assume that whoever won the battle are virtuous
and those who lost the battle are wicked. There is no need to blame
rakshasas like Ravana and others, because both sides fought only at the
command of Paramatma. Puranas reveal that Maha Vishnu has
incarnated on several occasions. For example in Vyvaswata
Manvantram, 28
th
Maha Yugam, Aswatthama (the son of Dronacharya)
became the Vyasa. In each Maha Yuga, to suit those times, Vedas are
divided. The person who divides the Vedas is known as Vedavyasa.
From this, we can infer that the names such as Vedavyasa, Valmiki,
Janaka, Vasista and many others are institutions and not individuals,
since they appear in many yugas. In this manner we can also
understand that Maha Vishnu might have incarnated as Rama in several
Kruta Yugas. Adhyatma Ramayanam in its Ayodhya Khandam - Sarga 4
also supports these view points.
Some people say that Valmiki has written Ramayana even before
Rama was born. Let is examine this aspect :
Naradam Paripraccha Vaalmeekirmunipungavam,
Konvasmin Saampratam Loke Gunavaan Kascha Veeryavaan.
Valmiki asked Narada Is there anybody who had all the virtuous
qualities in these days? If so who is he? Then, Narada narrated the
story of Rama. Rama received Sita who was purified by Agni, very
graciously back as wife, became King, and performed several
Aswamedha Yagas. He will be the forerunner of several illustrous
Kshatriya families. He will uphold the Varnaashrama dharmas. He will
rule several years and then reach Brahmaloka. Narada narrated this
episode to Valmiki after Rama was made the King and while he was
ruling Ayodhya.
When such a great king was ruling in his own lifetime, how was it
that Valmiki did not know about Ramas story? Why should he learn the
7 Kishkinda Kandam
same from Narada? These doubts may arise in the readers. The
explanation is simple.
1. Valmiki Maharishi is a great tapasvi and a Jnani. If he wants he
could have known about Rama by himself with the power of his
tapasya. But such jnanis do not waste their tapasya indiscriminately on
such matters.
2. On seeing Narada he must have been incquisitive to know
about a king with the above virtuous qualities. This was also a internal
provocation by Brahma.
3. For the benefit of people, Brahma must have provoked Narada
to sow the seeds of Ramas story in Valmiki.
Valmiki went to river Tamasa with his disciple Barathwaja and
said My son! Look at the waters in this part of the river! These are as
pure as the heart of a virtuous person. I will take bath here before the
sun sets. Bring my clothes and kalasam. You also take bath here.
Valmiki Maharishi was a great tapasvi. He has powers to bless
with great boons or hand down great curses. While he was taking bath
in the river he saw two krauncha birds roaming freely. While they were
flying thus, a hunter killed the male bird with an arrow, even as Valmiki
was looking at them. At the death of her companion, the female bird
cried bitterly. This made the maharishis heart melt with pity. He
became angry with the hunter and took deep pity on the female bird. At
that time, quite unconsciously, the following Sloka came out of
Valmikis mouth.
Maa Nishada Pratishtaam Twamagamassaaswteessamah;
Yatkrauncha midhunath, ekamavadheeh Kaama Mohitam
Maharishi was astonished how he could spell out such a
melodious Sloka. He kept on remembering the sloka, even after he went
back to his cottage. As he was deeply thinking of the sloka, Lord Brahma
appeared before him and said oh Maharishi! With my permission,
Goodess Saraswati stood on your tongue and made you spell out that
Sloka. He also instructed him to write the story of Rama as narrated by
Narada Maharishi and disappeared.
8 Kishkinda Kandam
Valmiki remembered the story narrated by Narada Maharishi but
determined to write the fuller details from the outlines of Ramayana.
He decided not want to give importance for ardha and kaama. But he
wanted to give more prominence to dharma and moksha. The story
after the coronation of Rama was arranged in Uttara Khandam. Thus, it
is clear that Valmiki has written Ramayana during the lifetime of Rama.
THE QUALITIES OF SRI RAMA
Rama has re-established virtuous qualities such as truthfulness,
obedience to the father, affection towards the brothers and public
welfare as the first duty of a king. He proved himself an ideal king. He
stood as a model for all other kings on earth. He protected dharma and
virtuous people(sadhus). He made people to understand how even
kings must respect any criticism from the public. To make people
understand its importance, because of public criticism, he even sent
Sita to the forest though she was really chaste and was purified by Agni.
The above virtuous qualities establish that Rama incarnated himself
only to establish dharma. Lord Krishna also said in Geeta Dharma
Samsthzapanarthaya Sambhavaami Yuge Yuge.
TYPICAL ARGUMENTS
Some people raise a critcism that Sita was not the only wife of
Rama but he had many other wives also. They quote Sundara Khandam
- sarga 15 - Sloka 14. While Sita was in the captivity of Ravana, the
rakshasa woman forced her to marry Ravana and threatened to kill her
if she doesnt listen to them. Ravana also gave her two months time to
make up her mind to marry him. The raakshasa women began
threatening that they will kill and eat her. In her distress and in a state
of helplessness she remembered her memories of Rama. At that time
she lost her hopes (that Rama may not come to protect her) and thought
in herself oh Rama! I am going to get killed here. After sometime you
will fulfill the promise you made to your father and go back to Ayodhya.
You will get coronated and become a king. After becoming kin,g many
broad eyed women will come to marry you and you enjoy with them.
Valmiki Maharishi wanted to reveal to the world the mind of a woman
who was in deep distress and sure of her death. No woman will expect
that her husband also will die with her.
9 Kishkinda Kandam
Valmiki has written this epic with the blessings of Brahma during
the lifetime of Rama. In this great epic there are 24,000 Slokas, 500
sargas and 6 kandams. In this epic it was narrated up to coronation of
Rama. The seventh Kandam is known as Uttara Kandam. Again this
Uttara Kandam was divided into two. 1. Pre Aswamedha Yaga 2. Post
Aswamedha Yaga. In the post Aswamedha Yaga, Bhoodevi absorbs Sita
Devi into her fold and disappears.
Tadha Sargasataan Panchashat kaandani Tadhottaram
Krutvaasi Tanmahaa prajjnassa Bhavishyam Sahottaram
Valmiki Maharishi has completed this epic and looked for
someone who can memorise, sing and propagate the epic. He found two
boys, Lava and Kusa, who are under his care in his own tapovana, as
suitable for the purpose. They had already studied Vedas and
Vedangaas. Vedopabrumhanaardhaaya i.e.,to explain Vedas very
clearly, he had accepted them as his disciples. He explained the story of
Rama, the story of his wife, Sita (Krutsnm Seetaayaascharitam
Mahat), the story of Ravanas killing and so on and taught the full epic
of Ramayana to the two boys. Both the boys had not only learnt the story
but also recited it melodiously. They followed all the pramanas of music
such as Trisrama, Chaturasrama, Misrama etc. On the gesticulation side,
they could express all the feelings of Srungara, Karunya, hasya, Veera,
Bhayanaka on appropriate occasions. They both learnt all the
intricacies of acting in drama format. Since they both were born to
Rama, their appearance was also so handsome and looked like Bimba
and Pratibimbas. In melody and music they have exceeded gandharvas.
They recited Ramayana before Maharishis, brahmins and sadhus in
surrounding tapovanas. While Rama was performing Aswamedha Yaga,
lava and kusa entertained munis, rithviks, Brahmins and others while
they were relaxing after their Yajna duties, with their rendition of
Ramayana Slokas and became very popular. To encourage those boys,
Maharishis and brahmins gave them gifts such as kalasam, valkalas,
krishnajanam and such other articles and also blessed them with full
longevity of life. Wherever a few people gathered, the boys used to
recite Ramayanam and made them happy. Thus they became popular
among the visitors in the yagnavatika. This news spread and reached
Rama. Rama arranged a concert before his brothers, ministers,
10 Kishkinda Kandam
subordinate kings and scholars and made the boys to perform before
all. All the audience praised the boys with thousand mouths.
THE CIRCUMSTANCES IN AYODHYA
[This part is taken from 4,5,6 and 7 Sargas]
The Brahmanas who lived in Ayodhya were well versed in Vedas
and other Sastras. King Dasaratha was liked by both such jnanis and
common people, who lived in cities and villages also and worshipped
him like god. He ruled in a righteous way and performed many yagnas.
He had good control on senses and was a truthful person. He had won
many battles with valour. Thus he had many virtuous qualities.
There were no poor people in Ayodhya and possessed land, herds
of cows, gold and many other asserts. There was not even a single
landless person in his country. People of all the three varnas used to
perform daily rituals such as agnihotra, japa, dhyanam, sandhya
vandhanam etc. There were no atheists or untruthful and jealous
persons. All people pursued the prescribed Dharmic goal of the four
Purusharthas. People used to ride on elephants, horses, chariots as a
mode of transport.
ADMINISTRATION IN AYODHYA
Dasaratha had eight ministers. All of them were scholars,
statemen and able administrators. They were extremely skilled in
understanding others minds. They always worked for the well-being of
the king. Jayantha, Jaya, Siddhartha, Arthasadhaka, Ashoka,
Mantrasaala, Sumantra are the ministers. Apart from these
ministers,Vasista, Vamadeva, Suyagna, Jaabali, Kaasyapa, Gowthama,
Markendeya, Dheerghayu and katyayana also served the king as his
priests cum ministers.
They used to get information from the spies within and outside
the countries. They never left a culprit go unpunished but no innocent
was ever punished. Even they used to punish even their own sons,
strictly as per dandaneeti. Since all the ministers were righteous and
following the path of dharma there were no criminals in the country. In
this manner the glory of king Dasaratha reached all the three worlds.
11 Kishkinda Kandam
PUTRAKAAMESHTI YAGA
[This part is taken from 8
th
Sarga]
King Dasaratha ruled the country in a righteous way for several
thousands of years. He performed severe tapasyas and several yagas.
Yet, he did not have children. One day he announced to his council of
ministers that he intended to perform Aswamedha Yaga. He said to
Vasista and other ministers Oh, great sages! I did many yagas and
religious vows. I performed tapasya too. Still I did not beget children, so
I want to perform Aswamedha Yaga.Please make all arrangements for
successful conduct of this Yagna by me.
The ministers were happy and said oh king! Please do perform
the Aswamedha Yaga which will bring you all good tidings. The
Maharshis told him, oh king! Your desire is appropriate and virtuous.
You will certainly have children. Ee will make all preparatrions. You
kindly release the sacrificial horse. Your desire will fructify. The king
went to his palace and informed his queens about his decision to
perform yaga seeking children.
Vasista Maharishi fixed the Adhvarya and other rithviks for the
yaga. He selected the sight for the yaga on the northern side of river
Sarayu. Townships were built to accommodate subordinate kings and
other guests to witness the yaga.
THE STORY OF RUSHYASRUNGA
[This part is taken from 9,10 and 11 Sarga]
Sumantra was the minister and also the charioteer of King
dasaratha. He said to the king.
Sumantra:
Oh king! Long ago I attended a conference of Maharishis. There
Sanatkumara, the rishi who can visualize both past and future told the
Maharishis about how you can beget children, as follows :
Vibhanda Maharishi will have a son by name Rushyasrunga. He
will live in the forest serving his father, without knowing anything of
the outside world,. Unexpectedly his Brahmacharya breaks, and he
becomes a gruhasta. Even then, Rushyasrunga used to take care of the
12 Kishkinda Kandam
agnihotra and other services to his father, observing Brahmacharya.
His Brahmacharya was in two ways. First is one, followed , wearing the
Krishnajinam. Second is the one followed after marriage. In those days
King Romapaada was ruling the country in a unrighteous way. As a
result, his country did not have rains for several years and suffered big
famine. At last he called the Brahmin pundits and asked them to suggest
the expiatory acts needed for getting rains. Those brahmins advised
him oh king! Vibhanda had a son by name Rushyasrunga. If you can
bring him to our country rains will come. Hence you must bring him
immediately. As soon as he comes, you give your daughter in marriage
to him, so that he will remain here and our country will get rains.
On the advice of brahmins he made arrangements to bring
Rushyasrunga to his country. Ministers consulted the Brahmin pundits
and planned to send some beautiful prostitutes to bring Rushyasrunga
to their country. They succeeded in bringing Rushyasrunga. As soon as
he set foot in their country, rains flooded the country. Afterwards, the
king gave his daughter Santadevi in marriage to Rushyasrunga and
requested him to live in his country.
Oh King Dasaratha ! In that conference, Sanatkumara further said
as follows.
In some future time, King Dasaratha will be born in Ragu
Vamsam. He will have friendship with the king of Anga, by name,
Romapaada. He will give his daughter, Santa, in marriage to
Rushyasrunga. King Dasaratha will perform a Putrakaameshti Yaga to
beget sons. Rushyasrunga will go to the yaga along with his wife, Santa,
and will ensure its successful completion. After the yaga, Dasaratha will
have four sons. O King, I heard all this in Krutayuga. So, believe my
words, go to Angadesam and bring Rushyasrunga and perform the yaga.
King Dasaratha consulted Vasista Maharishi and other ministers.
Vasista Maharishi said that Sanatkumaras words will never become
untrue and therefore, Dasaratha must go to Rushyasrunga and bring
him to perform the yaga. Dasaratha went to Romapaada with his priest
Vasista Maharishi and requested Rushyasrunga to come and assist him
in executing the yaga. Rushyasrunga agreed to be his priest. While
Rushyasrunga was in Ayodhya they observed many auspicious omens.
13 Kishkinda Kandam
ASWAMEDHA YAGA
[This part is taken from 12,13 and 14 Sargas]
Vasista and other rithviks agreed to work under the guidance of
Rushyasrunga. Sumantra went to invite all the distinguished guests to
witness the yaga. All the kings came and offered valuable gifts to King
Dasaratha. Vasista Maharishi took care of procuring all the materials
and general supervision for the yaga. One day Vasista went and said oh
king! All arrangements are made, therefore, please come now with your
queens to perform the yagna. The king, Rushyasrunga and all others
reached yagnavatika.
The sacrificial horse returned to the yagnavatika after one year.
During that period Rushyasrunga and other rithviks completed all the
daily rituals connected with the Yagna. The yagnavatika was built in the
form of Garuda. The traditional Yupa pillars were erected. The
sacrificial horse was also brought there.
Kausalya Devi went round the yagnashva. Other queens also
followed her. She took three golden pins and pierced the body of the
horse with them as laid down in the Sastras. That night Kausalya Devi
slept in yagnavatika with sacrificial horse. Next day King Dasaratha
gave gifts as directed in scriptures.
As prescribed in the rules of this Ygna, Dasaratha gifted Kausalya
Devi to the hota, his maid to Adhvarya and his mistress to Udghaata and
another maid to Brahma. Later they sold all the women back to the king
and took some gold, cows and valuables in return. Adhvaryas took out a
substance called vapathuma from the naval of the yagaswa,
performed vapohoma into the sacred fire as an oblation. The king and
the queens inhaled that smoke. In the same manner other parts of the
sacrificial horse were also offered as oblations. This Aswamedha was
completed in three days.
As dictated by in sastras, the king donated the portion on the
eastern part of his kingdom to the hota; that on the western part to
Adhvarya; that on the southern part to Brahma and the one onthe
northern part to Udghaata. The rithviks who received the four parts of
kingdom were said oh king! You are a kshatrya born to rule this land.
14 Kishkinda Kandam
We are brahmins born for Vedadhyayanam. Hence you give us some
money as mark of its price and take back to your kingdom. We cannot
evaluate your kingdom, give us some money as a token and take back
your kingdom.
The king was happy and donated them gold, land, cows and other
valuables. After sometime, the king requested Rushyasrunga Oh pious
brahmin! I have no sons to rule this country and to continue my family
line. Hence you suggest a yagna for me to get sons. Rushyasrunga was
pleased with his request and said Oh king! Your desire is righteous. I
will arrange for a yagna for your purpose. With that, you will have four
sons.
DEVATAS PRAYER TO LORD VISHNU
[This part is taken from 15
th
Sarga]
Rushyasrunga assured King Dasaratha that he would perform
Putrakaameshti Yagna. He thought well and decided to do a yagna in the
Adharvasirassu chapter in Vedas.He learnt from the power of his
yoga that the king could get sons by performing a specific Yagna. He
remembered and meditated on the presiding deities of each Mantra
with their powerful mantras. Each mantra in its root word (called
beejam) has its presiding deity. The Meditation on the Deity will sent
signals to the Deity through those mantras. If the devotee is not
dedicated and his concentration is not pure, then, the deity will not
respond. Since Rushyasrunga had great yoga siddhi the deity responded
to him very easily.
PAAYASA PRADANAM
[This chapter is taken from 16
th
and 17
th
Sargas]
The queens of Dasaratha become pregnant:
Lord Vishnu said Oh devatas! Brahma has given numerous boons
to Ravana. So he cannot be killed by anyone other than a human. Hence
I have decided to take birth in a human form in the house of King
Dasaratha.
Incidentally Dasaratha also completed his Putrakaameshti Yaga.
From the homagundam, a highly lustrous bhoota came out with a
15 Kishkinda Kandam
golden bowl containing paayasam. It spoke toDasaratha thus: oh king!
I am the servant of Prajapati. I have brought this bowl of Payasam,gifted
by the Devatas. Pleae give this to your dharma patnis. You will beget
sons through them. King Dasaratha took that bowl of paayasam went
to the palace gave the same to his queens. He gave half of the paayasam
to Kausalya; from the remaining half, he gave half of it to Sumitra; and
from the remaining half, he gave half to Kaikeyi; then, he gave the
balance part of payasam, again to Sumitra. After sometime all the three
queens became pregnant.
DEVATAS GAVE BIRTH TO VANARAS:
Brahma said Oh devatas! Lord Vishnu takes human form to kill
rakshasas and to protect sadhus. He will now take birth as a son of King
Dasaratha. You all know sorcery and other super human tricks to fight
battles. Hence you also give birth to sons with your valour through
apsaras and gandharva women. They all will deliver vanaras. As per
the orders of Brahma all devatas gave birth to various vanaras who
were valorous and strong. They are as huge as a mountains.
Jambavanta, the bear king, was born from the face of Brahma. Vali was
born to Indra. Sugreeva was born to Sun. Hanuma was born to vayu. In
this manner several valorous vanaras were born for all devatas.
THE INCORONATION OF RAMA
[This part is taken from 18
th
Sarga]
King Dasaratha was living happily with his queens. One year
passed after the successful completion of the Ygna. In the month of
chaitram, on the day of navami with the star of punarvasu, when five
planets were in the state of ascendancy, Sri Rama was born, as the full
manifestation of Lord Vishnu. Kausalya was brightly shining like Aditi,
who had given birth to Lord Vishnu in the earlier yugas.
Lord Vishnu took birth with one fourth of his amsa in the womb of
Kaikeyi as Bharata. After him Lakshmana and Satrugna were born to
Sumitra.
The King Dasaratha named his sons in consultation with the
astrologers based on their planetary positions. He gave extensive
donations to brahmins by way of cows, gold and land. King Dasaratha
16 Kishkinda Kandam
named his eldest son as Rama since he pleases all people. He named the
second son as Bharata tne one who bears the burden of the kingdom.
He named the third son as Lakshmana, the one who shines with great
wealth or Lakshmi. He named the fourth boy as Satrughna, the one who
will be the killer of enemies.
All the four princess were put up in a gurukulam and were taught
Vedas, Sastras in addition to archery and other martial arts. From
childhood, Lakshmana was closely attached to Rama. He used to do
everything to please Rama like his alterego, his external prana, and
Rame also treated Lakshmana in the same way. In the same way
Satrugna was closely attached to Bharata.
In course of time the princes became youths in age and King
Dasaratha was very much delightful, looking at their beautiful form.
Dasaratha was therefore thinking of their marriages. One day,when he
was thinking so, his guards (doorkeepers) came and said that
Viswamitra Maharishi has come to see the king. King Dasaratha went
along with his priests and ministers and received the Maharishi.
He worshipped the Maharishi with traditional honors and seated
him on a suitable throne and said to him Oh Maharishi! With your
presence, my country has become pure. Kindly order me on what I can
do for you. I shall obey your orders however difficult it may be.
VISWAMITRA WANTS RAMA TO GO WITH HIM
[This part is taken from 19
th
Sarga]
Viswamitra said Oh illustrous king Dasaratha! You are born in
the famous Ikshvahu family line. Your words are befitting your family
prestige. You are always associated with Vasista, you words are so soft ,
proper and filled with respect.
Oh king! I have commenced a yaga to attain a siddhi. Once I
coomenced the yaga, I must maintain silence and leave anger totally. As
I cannot invoke anger and cursem anyone, two raakshasas by name
Maaricha and Subaahu are spoiling my yaga. As a result the yaga
remained unfinished since several years.
Rama and Lakshmana are quiet young, truthful, pure and
valorous. You send them with me without any fear. You are thinking
17 Kishkinda Kandam
Rama is your son but you do not know who he is! We, Maharishis alone
know who Rama is. You believe my words and send them with me. You
take advice from your priest Vasista and others. If they object you need
not send them with me.
Oh king! If you want to protect dharma, if you want your glory is to
remain immortal, please send Rama with me. On hearing Viswamitras
words, Dasaratha shivered with fear and grief.
THE GRIEF OF KING DASARATHA
[This part is taken from 20
th
Sarga]
Dasaratha said Oh Viswamitra Maharishi! Rama has not even
completed sixteen years. He did not have the experience of fighting
battles. The raakshasas are very cruel and do deceptive battles. Instead
of Rama, I will come with all of my army. After performing
Putrakaameshti Yaga, I begot this boy as my son at my very late age.
Hence I request you not to insist to send Rama.
On hearing Dasarathas words, Viswamitra became furious and
said Oh king! There is a raaksasa king by name Ravana, who belongs to
the Paulastya family line and is son of Visravasu. He is known for doing
evil acts. He will not do them by himself. He will encourage raakshasas
and gives obstacles for yagnas of tapasvis. Under him there are two
raakshasas by name Maareecha and Subaahu who are spoiling my yaga.
Rama alone is capable of killing these evil raakshasas. I do not want
either your help or your armys help. If you have faith in me, you send
Rama. You yourself offered me that you will do anything that I want,
even before I asked you. Now you are going back from your words. It
will not enhance the prestige of your family line.
VASISTA TEACHES TO DASARATHA
[This chapter is taken from 21
st
Sarga]
Viswamitra said, Those who respect dharma of his caste, their
presiding deity, honour of their caste, such people will get all glories.
Raghuvamsam is known for upholding dharma. You alone violated the
family tradition. You yourself promised me that you will give whatever
I want. Now you are going back from your word. By this, You will only
18 Kishkinda Kandam
spoil your family prestige of Raghu dynasty. You be comfortable with
your wife and children. I will go back the way in which I came.
Vasista understood the fury of Viswamitra. He thought he should
give appropriate advice to the king and said Oh king! You are born in
the family of Ikshvaku. You know all dharmas. You are valorous and
virtuous. You are truthful. Why are you breaking your word which is
not good for you. Oh king! You leave all your fears about Rama. Though
he was not trained in astra and sastras, no harm will happen to Rama as
long as Viswamitra is by his side. Raakshasas cannot do any harm to
Rama. He protects Rama as agni is protecting nector. Viswamitra is the
embodiment of dharma. He is far superior even among the valorous. He
is a great tapasvi and the treasure house of wisdom. He is in possession
of several sastras and astras. He knows all martial arts. Jaya and
Suprabha, the two daughters of Daksha Prajapati married Bhrusasvu.
Jaya gave birth to fifty sons and Suprabha gave birth to another fifty
sons. All those hundred sons became sastras and astras. The sons of
Jaya are known as Vijaya. The sons of Suprabha are known as killers.
Sastra means which will injuries the enemy. Astram means that which
kills the enemies. Viswamitra performed a great tapasya on Lord Siva
and possessed all those sastras and astras. All of them are in his
possession. Not only that, he himself has created many astras. He wants
to do good to Rama. Hence you do not hesitate to send Rama with him.
RAMA, LAKSHMANA FOLLOW VISWAMITRA
[This part is taken from 22
nd
Sarga]
King Dasaratha was convinced and himself went and brought
Rama and Lakshmana and asked them to go with Viswamitra. While
Viswamitra was going ahead Rama and Lakshmana followed him. As
they reached the banks of river Sarayu, Viswamitra asked them Oh
Princes! You take a bath in the river, perform achamanam ( a prayer)
and come back. I will teach you the Bala, Athibala mantras (Skills). With
the power of these mantras, you will remain tireless during the travel.
Fever and such other ailments will not touch you. Eventhough you are
in deep sleep, your enemies cannot do any harm to you. With the power
of this mantra there will be no equals or superior to you in beauty,
knowledge, vigour and wisdom.
19 Kishkinda Kandam
Then Rama and Lakshmana took bath, performed the prayer
(aachamanam) in the river, came back, and received those mantras
from the Maharishi. On that night all the three slept on the banks of
river Sarayu.
THE STORY OF ANANGADESAM
[This part is taken from 23
rd
Sarga]
Next morning Viswamitra, Rama and Lakshmana, after
completing their daily rituals, started their journey. On their way they
saw many rishis, tapovanams and ashramas. At one place Rama asked
Maharishi! Whose ashrama is this? It looks different from other
tapovanas. Tell me if there is any special story behind it.
Viswamitra said Oh Rama! Long ago, Lord Siva did tapasya here.
Cupid (Manmatha) disturbed his tapasyawith his powers in the Art of
kaama (Sexdesire). Lord Siva became furious and looked at him with his
third eye and burnt him to ashes. Since then Manmatha lost his physical
body. That is why he is also known as Ananga. Since he was burnt in
this place, this country is named as Angadesam. Since Lord Siva did
tapasya, many tapasvis came here and started doing their tapasya. We
shall sleep tonight on the banks of Ganga.
In the mean while, the tapasvis of those tapovanams came to know
about the arrival of Viswamitra, Rama, and Lakshmana and requested
them to receive their hospitality and stay with them for that night.
TATAKAVANAM
[This part is taken from 24
th
,25
th
and 26
th
Sargas]
Next morning the Maharishis arranged a boat for Viswamitra to
cross the river Ganga. When they traveled half way, Rama observed
some violent sounds under the waters. He asked Maharishi to tell the
reason for it. Maharishi said Rama! Brahma went to Himalayas to
perform tapasya. He thought in his mind that it would be nice if a lake
(Saras) is available by the side of his ashrama. Immediately a lake was
formed. Because the lake was formed from Brahmas manas (mind), it is
named as Brahma Manasa Sarovaram. Rivulets from all sides flowed
into the Sarovaram and the overflowing water formed as a river. Since
20 Kishkinda Kandam
this river was born from a Saras (lake), the river is named as Sarayu.
That Sarayu River is joining the river Ganges as its undercurrent here.
That is why you are hearing violent sounds. This is the joining place of
river Ganga and Sarayu. You both offer salutations to this Ganga-
Sarayu Sangamam.
After a long distance passed, Rama asked oh Maharishi! We have
passed a long distance from Ganga-Sarayu Sangamam. All these forest
areas are found to be uninhabited by any humans. The animals are also
cruel and ferocious. Why?
Maharishi said Rama! Long ago Indra suffered from the sin of
Brahmahatya after killing Vrutrasura. Devatas and Maharishis brought
sacred waters from various rivers and did abhishekam with mantras to
the Indra. With those mantras all the impurities of Indra were washed
off into the earth. Indra was therefore pleaser with the land and blessed
it to develop into two countries with great wealth. He named them as
Maladamu, Karoosamu.
With the blessings of Indra both the countries became fertile and
people lived happily. After sometime a yakshini by name Tataka
entered this place. She married Sundha and had a son by name
Maareecha who was as valorous as Indra. Ever since Tataka entered
this land it started eating all the people here. People were afraid of her
and migrated to various other countries. Since then this land has
become uninhabited. Rama! When she attacks us you kill her. I will tell
you her background.
THE BIRTH OF TATAKA
Long ago a Yaksha by name Suketu did tapasya meditating on
Brahma. Brahma was pleased and asked him What do you want?
Suketu asked for a Child. Brahma blessed him with a daughter with the
strength of thousand elephants and disappeared. When she attained
youth, Suketu gave her in marriage to Sundu. They had a son by name
Maareecha. One day Sundhu came under the anger and fury of Agastya
Maharishi and died. Tataka and Maareecha were both angry on
Maharishi and attacked to kill him. Maharishi cursed them to become
rakshasas with an ugly form. Since then Mareecha and Tataka were
killing the people in these countries. Oh Rama! You dont hesitate to kill
21 Kishkinda Kandam
her because she is a woman. Even a woman whocdoes harm to cows
and brahmins should be killed. So you take my word and kill her in the
interest of the people.
THE KILLING OF TATAKA:
Rama said Maharishi! My father ordered me to obey your
instructions. Hence I will kill Tataka. When Maharishi, Rama and
Lakshmana were walking, Rama twanged his bow. Tataka heard the
twanging and raised her head and saw who he is that disturbed her. In
an invisible form she started a deceptive war throwing boulders, trees
etc on them. Rama could not find her anywhere. Hence he the power of
Sabdavedhi and released an arrow straight into her chest and killed her.
VISWAMITRA GAVE DIVINE ASTRAS
[This part is taken from 27, 28, 29, 30 Sargas]
Viswamitra asked Rama to take a bath, come and sit facing East.
Then, the Maharishi asked Rama to receive from him the following
astras. Dharma Chakra, Kaala Chakra, Vishnu Chakra, Indrastras,
Vajrastras, Paramasivas Soolam, Brahma Sironamakastra,
aisheekastra, Brahmastra, Narayanastra, painakaastra, Vaidyaadha-
raastra and many other astras.
Also, Viswamitra gave two divine clubs called Modaki and Sikhari;
and two great lighting weapons called Sushkam and Ardhram;a divine
sword called nandana and so on. He initiated many astras in this
manner.
As Viswamitra recited mantras, Rama took possession of all those
astras. All those astra devatas stood before Rama with folded hands and
said oh Rama! We are all your servants. You order us. Rama touched
them all and said You all remain in my mind and come whenever I
want.
SOME MORE ASTRAS
Viswamitra gave all the astras of the sons of Bhrusaswu. Rama
received them all. Some of those astra devatas looked like burning
flame. Some are like thick smoke. Some are as bright as sun. All those
astras saluted Rama and said We are all your servants. Rama ordered
22 Kishkinda Kandam
them to remain in his mind always but can remain free unitl he calls
them. Astra devatas took leave from Rama and disappeared. From there
Viswamitra, Rama, Lakshmana traveled through several forests,
mountains and reached a tapovanam. Many Maharishis were doing
tapasya. Rama asked Whose ashrama is this?
SIDHASHRAMA:
Viswamitra said oh Rama! Long ago Kasyapa Maharishi did
tapasya and attained siddhi here. That is why this tapovanam is called as
Siddhashrama. Lord Vishnu was born on earth in the form of Vamana
and did tapasya in this ashrama. In those days, Bali Chakravarti
defeated Indra and became the king of the heaven. After some time Bali
Chakravarti started performing a yagna. At that time, devatas requested
Lord Vishnu and prayed oh Lord! You are formless. You are Ananta. You
are Anaadi. You are the superior to all. We are all saluting to you.
Oh deva! Bali Chakravarti is performing a yagna. He was
worshipping brahmins like god. Whatever gifts they are asking he is
giving them. He dislodged all of us [devatas] from the heaven. Now we
have become homeless. Hence you please punish Bali and give us back
our kingdom. At the same time Kasyapa was doing tapasya with his wife
Aditi meditating on Vishnu. Lord Vishnu was pleased and appeared
before them. They prayed Lord Vishnu oh Yagneshwara! Oh Yagna
Purusha! Mangaladhari! Atchuta! We prostrate before you and seek
your blessings.
Lord Vishnu was pleased and said oh Aditi, Kasyapa! I am aware
that rakshasas took away the kingdom of your son. Rakshasas are
presently having excessive strength. All the more they have the
blessings of their guru Sukracharya. At this moment you cannot win
them by a war. You prayed for my blessings ; which will not go waste;
Nobody is equal or superior to me. Hence to satisfy your desire I myself
will take birth as your son and make Indra as the king of heaven. This is
a divine secret. On an auspicious day Lord Vishnu was born in the
womb of Aditi as Vamana.
After some time, Balichakravarti started performing Aswamedha
Yaga on the banks of Narmada River under the supervision of
Sukracharya. At that time Vamana as a young brahmachari entered the
23 Kishkinda Kandam
yagnavatika. Balichakravarti was fascinated by looking at his luster. He
worshipped him and requested Oh Great Brahmin! I became pure by
washing your feet. You order me what you want and, as a servant, will
carry out the same.
Vamana asked him a land of three feet and Bali promosed to give
him that. Vamana occupied all the three lokas, fastened Bali
Chakravarti and made Indra as the king of heaven again and gave
Paataala loka to Bali Chakravarti to be its king. Oh Rama! Long ago
Vamana did tapasya here. Because of my Bhakti towards Vishnu, I have
now stepped into this pious ashrama. In a way it is your own ashrama.
Since I am your devotee, this also belongs to me.
On seeing Viswamitra, Rama and Lakshmana, all the Maharishis of
those tapovanas came to receive them with great happiness. Next
morning after completing their daily rituals, Viswamitra entered into
Yagna Deeksha.
RAMA PROTECTS YAGA:
Rama asked Oh Maharishis! You tell me when I have to kill
rakshasas?
The Maharishis said Oh Rama! Viswamitra has dedicated to the
Yagna and will observe silence. From now onwards, you have to guard
this Yagna for six days and six nights.
Rama, Lakshmana guarded the yagnavatika day and night for five
days. On the sixth day, huge flames arose in the yagnavatika where the
rithviks were sitting. This is an indication that in a short while,
Maareecha and Subahu are going to spoil the yaga.
Rama released Manavastra on Maareechi. It hit him on his chest.
He was thrown into the ocean beyond a distance of hundred yojanas.
With Agneyaastra, he killed Subahu also. After completing the yaga,
Viswamitra came and complemented Rama Oh Rama! You have
obeyed your fathers order. All the tapasvis, rishis, munis and brahmins
are all praising you. You made this Sidhashrama glorious.
RAMA, LAKSHMANA TRAVELS TO MITHILA
[This part is taken from 31
st
Sarga]
Viswamitra completed his yagna. He requested Rama and
Lakshmana to spend a few more days in his ashrama. One day the
24 Kishkinda Kandam
Maharishis of that tapovana said Oh princes! By your grace, we are all
relieved from the torture of raakshasas. King Janaka is performing a
yagna. We are all going to Mithila to witness the same. You also come
with us. This visit will be of some interest to you also. I will tell you
how?
Oh Rama! Long ago Devarata, the king of Mithila, performed a
yagna. In that yagna, devatas came and gifted him a divine bow which
belongs to Lord Siva. The middle of that bow is very strong. Hence
nobody could bend that bow and tie the bow-rope to its sides to release
an arrow. Since then the bow remained in the Mithila palace. All his
successors were worshipping that bow. Even devatas, gandharvas,
asuras and rakshasas tried to bend the bow, tie thae bow-rope and
release an arrow. Till now nobody could succeed. If you come with us,
you can see that divine bow and also the Yagna being performed by
King Janaka yourself. After completing the yagna Viswamitra wanted
to go to Himalayas to continue tapasya. Hence he respected vana
devatas for protecting him all this time. He also made pradakshana
namaskarams to his ashrama and traveled towards Mithila. While
Viswamitra was leaving the ashrama, all birds and animals in the forest
went behind him. After sometime, Viswamitra affectionately asked
them to go back to their respective places. They traveled for some
distance and reached river Sona and slept on its banks for that night.
Rama asked Maharishi! This place is very pleasant with flowers and
fruits. Is there anything special to know about this place?
THE STORY OF KUSANABHA
[This part is taken from 32
nd
and 33
rd
Sargas]
Viswamitra said oh Rama! Long ago there lived a righteous
person by name Kusu. He was the son of Brahma and had great powers
frm Tapasya. He married the daughter of King Vidarbha and gave birth
to four sons. They are Kusambu, Kusanabha, Adhoorta, and Vasuvu. All
the four brothers built their own capitals, ruled their countries. Now we
are in the territory of Vasuvu. This country was surrounded by five
mountains. The river Sona was born in the country of Magadha and
flowed around these five mountains into this country.
25 Kishkinda Kandam
Kusanabha married an apsarasa by name Ghrutachi. He had
hundred daughters. In course of time they all attained youth. While they
were playing, the wind god, Vayu fascinated by their beauty, asked them
to marry him, and promised divinity for them. The girls said oh wind
god! We are all maids and are under the control of our father. You ask
our father. If he agrees, we will marry you. Vayu, the wind God, became
furious and cursed all of them to become hunch backs. Immediately the
girls turned into hunch backs and looked ugly. They were ashamed of
their own form and ran to the palace with grief. Kusanabha saw the ugly
form of his daughters and asked them how they got this hunchback and
who was responsible for it.
The marriage of Kusanabhus daughters:
Kusanabha consoled his daughters and got them married to
Brahmadatta Maharishi. The moment he touched their hands, they all
became beautiful girls as before. Brahmadatta took all his wives to his
home. Somada the mother of Brahmadatta received them all with
honour and respect.
THE STORY OF GADHI
[This part is taken from 34, 35, 36, 37 Sargas]
Kusanabha married off all his daughters to Brahmadatta. Then, he
performed Putrakaamesti Yaga to have a son. At that time, his father
Kusa came and blessed him to have a glorious son and disappeared.
After sometime, Kusanabha had a son by name Gaadhi. Gaadhi later had
a son and a daughter. That son is myself (Viswamitra) and my sister is
Satyavati. She went to heaven with her husband by herself. From there,
she became a sacred river called Kaushiki. That river is very pure and
pious. I used to go very often and do tapasya on its banks. I came to
Siddhashrama to complete my yaga and I had siddhi because of your
valour.
The River Ganga:
Next morning, they completed their daily rituals and reached
river Ganga. By looking at the pious river, Rama asked oh Maharishi!
How has this river Ganga reached all three worlds? Please tell me.
26 Kishkinda Kandam
Maharishi said Rama! Himavanta is the king of Himalayas and he
had two daughters. They are Ganga and Uma. Devatas requested
Himavanta to send Ganga to heaven. Himavanta agreed. Then, Ganga
was taken by the Devatas in three paths to purify all three worlds. Then,
Ganga went to heaven.
The inclination of Siva and Parvathi:
Rama asked Maharishi! What are the virtuous acts that Ganga did
to be called as so sacred? For what greatness of Ganga did the devatas
take her to heaven? Viswamitra said Lord Siva engaged with Umadevi
for over hundred divine years. Since his tejas (brightness) could not be
contained by anybody, he released it on earth at the request of the
Devatas. That tejas spread itself all over the earth covering mountains
and trees. Devatas prayed Agni to find a solution for this engulfing tajs of
Siva. Angi entered into it with the help of The God of Vayu (wind) and it
got solidified. It became a Huge, white mountain. From that Agni,
through the krittikas, a divine Saravanam was born and that became a
son, by name Kumara swami Since the boy was borne by Agni, he was
called Agnisambhava. Since he was brought up by krittikas, he was
named, Kartikeya. As he was born from Sivas tejas he was also called,
Kumaraswamy. But, Umadevi became furious on the devatas and cursed
Oh Devatas! Because of you I and Siva are denied the chance to have a
son. As such you also cannot have children from your wives. After
cursing, Uma and Maheswara went to western side to do tapasya.
THE STORY OF KING SAGARA
[This part is taken from 38, 39 and 40
th
Sargas]
Viswamitra said Oh Rama! I told you the episode of Ganga. Now I
tell you the story of Sagara.
Long ago, Sagara ruled Ayodhya. He had two wives Kesini and
Sumathi. Sagara did not have children for a long time. So he went to
Himalayas with his wives and performed penance (Tapas) on a
mountain called Bhrugusravana in the Himalayas. After sometime
Bhrugu Maharishi was pleased with their penance and blessed Sagara
that both of his wives will have children. One queen will have one son,
another queen will have 60,000 sons who were all valorous and
27 Kishkinda Kandam
glorious, but they will not rule the country. The queens were inquisitive
and asked Maharishi! Who will get one son and who will get 60,000
sons? Maharishi said You yourself can choose. Kesini said I want one
son. Sumathi said I will have 60,000 sons. After sometime, Kesini
gave birth to Asamanja. Sumathi delivered 60,000 sons. Asamanja
became a cruel person ever since his boyhood. King Sagara was
annoyed with him and banished him from the country. Asamanja had a
son by name Amsumanta who was a valorous, well behaved and he
became a darling of the people. After sometime King Sagara desired to
perform a yagna.
King Sagara released yagaswa. After sometime the rithviks found
and told King Sagara that the yagaswa was stolen by somebody and
unless it is brought back to the yagnavatika, the yagna cannot be
completed. King Sagara sent all his 60,000 sons to bring back the
yagaswa. They could not find it anywhere on the earth. So they dug
earth, went to Paatalam. There, while they were breaking the earth,
they killed many creatures like serpents, rakshasas, animals etc. At last
they reached Paatala. The entire devata community went to Brahma
and said that the sons of Sagara were killing several creatures. Brahma
said Oh devatas! They are all going to die with the fury of Kapila
maharishi. So, you all go to your places.
The sons of Sagara burnt to ashes:
While searching in Paatala they found yagaswa by the side of
Kapila Maharishi who is none other than Maha Vishnu. They thought
that he himself must have stolen the yagaswa and was pretending as if
he is doing tapasya. They went to kill him. Kapila Maharishi opened his
eyes and saw them. The fury from his eyes burnt all the 60,000 princes.
THE SONS OF SAAGARA BURNT TO ASHES
[This part is taken from 41
st
Sarga]
Sagara told Amsumanta My child! All your uncles went to bring
yagaswa. They did not come back till now. Without yagaswa we cannot
complete the yagna. Hence you go and bring the yagaswa soon. On your
way, you dont harass anyone. Be kind to the weak and feeble. Whoever
tries to harm you, you kill them. Amsumanta took his blessings from
28 Kishkinda Kandam
his grandfather and reached Paatala. He also saw four elephants
bearing the load of earth. He respected them with pradakshana
namaskaras and proceeded with their blessings. Finally he went to
Kapila Maharishi. He prostrated at his feet and stood obediently. He
took the yagaswa with the permission of Kapila Maharishi. There he
found heaps of ashes of his uncles. He tried to give tarpanas to them. In
the mean while, Garutmantha came and said oh Amsumanta! Your
uncles were burnt to ashes with the fury of Kapila Maharishi. If you give
tarpanas with ordinary water they will not reach superior lokas. You
must bring Ganga waters and give tarpanas. Then only they will attain
superior lokas. Now, you take yagaswa with you and complete the
yagna.
THE EFFORTS OF BHAGIRATHA
[This part is taken from 42
nd
Sarga]
After King Sagara, Amsumanta became the king. After him, his son
Dileepa became king. Both Amsumanta and Dileepa tried to bring Ganga
from heaven. But they could not succeed. After Dileepa, his son
Bhagiradha became King. He made a serious attempt to bring Ganga to
the earth and to the Patala. He entrusted the administration to his
ministers, went to forests and meditated on Brahma. After a long time,
Brahma appeared and asked What do you want? Bhagiradha replied
Oh Deva! I have two desires. One is, Please bless me to bring Ganga to
earth and to Patalam and make my ancestors pure with my tarpanam.
The second desire is, please bless me with a son who will succeed to my
kingdom. Brahma said I am blessing you with son. But for bringing
Ganga from the heaven to the earth, the earth cannot bear the speed of
Gangas flow. Hence you must pray Lord Siva to hold Ganga, before it
reaches the earth. After saying so, Brahma disappeared.
GANGA DESCENDS TO EARTH
[This part is taken from 43
rd
Sarga]
After Brahma disappeared, Bhagiratha continued his tapasya,
meditating on Lord Siva for several years. Lord Siva was pleased and
appeared before Bhagiratha and said that he will hold Ganga on his
head.
29 Kishkinda Kandam
Ganga prepared to jump on to the head of Siva before landing on
to the earth. While jumping, she entertained a mischievous thought of
taking away Siva also to Paatala with her velocity of stream. Siva
understood her mischievous thought. The moment she landed on to his
head, he fastened her in his mass of twisted hair. Ganga tried her level
best to come out of his twisted hair but could not come and of it and and
had to remain there. Bhagiradha waited for the Ganga waters for
several years but he could not find even a drop of water from the head
of Siva. Again he made tapasya addressing Siva. Siva became pleased
with him and released Ganga. The Ganga waters has flowed into seven
ways. Of them three are Hladini, Pavani, Nalini which traveled towards
the east. Three more water ways flowed towards west and are named
as Suchakshuvu, Seeta and Sindhu. One part followed Bhagiratha to
Paatalam. While Ganga was flowing thus, several water animals, fish
also came along with the stream. Since it is brought by Bhagiratha to
the earth, the river was named as Bhaageerathi. While the Ganga
flowing behind him entered the tapovana of Jahnu Maharishi, the waters
flooded the Maharshis yagnavatika. The Maharishi became furious and
swallowed all the waters and retained them in his stomach. Again
Bhagiratha prayed the Maharishi and requested him to release Ganga.
The Maharishi was pleased with the worship and released the water
through his ears. Since the water flowed from the ear of Jahnu
Maharishi, Ganga is also named as Jahnusuta or Jahnavi. In this manner
Ganga reached the ocean first and from there to Paatalam. By the touch
of Ganga waters, all the 60,000 sons of Sagara became pure and reached
superior lokas. Since then, people compliment any great and difficult
effort as Bhigeeratha Prayatnam.
BRAHMA ADVISES TO BHAGIRADHA
[This part is taken from 44
th
Sarga]
Brahma appeared before Bhagiratha and said Oh Bhagiratha! All
your ancestral parents have reached heaven. They will remain there as
long as the waters are there in the oceans. Since you performed a great
effort to bring Ganga to the earth, from now on, Ganga will be called as
Bhageerathi. Because it came from heaven, touched earth and reached
Patalam, it is also will be called as Tripathaga. Now you give jala
30 Kishkinda Kandam
tarpana to all devatas and to your ancestral parents and go home.
VISALAPURAM
[This part is taken from 45
th
Sarga]
They crossed river Ganga and reached Visalapuram. There
Viswamitra said Rama! I will tell you the story of Visalanagaram. Long
ago, in Krutayuga, the sons of both Diti and Aditi used to live in a
righteous way. They wanted to find a way to do away with old age,
disease and death. They thought that, by churning Ksheerasaagaram
they can obtain nectar and by consuming nectar, they can do away with
old age, disease and death. To churn Ksheerasagaram they chose Mt.
Mandhra as the churning stick and Vasuki as the churning thread. The
churning took for thousand years. In course of time, Vasuki (serpent)
could not withstand the strain and it vomited poison and bitten Mt.
Mandhra. With the poisonous attack the mountain dropped into the
sea. From the ocean, a dangerous poison was born, which is called as
Haalahalam. It engulfed all lokas and started burning. Then Vishnu
went to Lord Siva and said Oh Siva! You are the one born first, before all
others. Hence you must receive the first product that came out of
Ksheerasagaram. You only are capable of receiving this halaahalam.
Siva agreed and consumed the Haalahalam and kept it in his throat and
saved the people. Since he kept it in his throat, which became blue, he
was called, Neelakantha. Again the two sides started churning. This
time, Mt. Mandhra dropped into Patalam. Again devatas prayed to Lord
Vishnu to come to their rescue. Vishnu took the form of a huge tortoise
and kept Mt. Mandhra on his back and lifted it to its original place. Again
the two sides churned ksheerasagaram with Mt. Mandhra. After some
years, Danvantari, and 60,000 apsara women were born from the
ksheerasagaram.Both devatas and danavas did not agree to marry
them. Therefore they all became whores. After them, Varuni (sura), the
daughter of Varuna cam out. Danavas refused to marry her. Hence they
become asuras. Devatas agreed to marry her and hence they became
suras.
After Varuni, a divine horse came out. After that a invaluable
precious stone by name Koustubham came out. After that, finally,
Amrutam also (nectar) came out. To possess Amrutam both devatas and
danavas fought bitterly and killed each other. At that time Lord Vishnu
31 Kishkinda Kandam
took the form of Mohini and gave it to devatas. After consuming nectar,
Indra defeated the danaas and ruled the three worlds, along with
varuna, agni and other Devatas.
DITI PERFORMS TAPASYA
[This part is taken from 46
th
Sarga]
Vishwamithra said Rama! Indra killed all the sons of Diti. So, Diti
went to her husband, Kasyapa and said all my sons are killed by Indra.
Now I request you to give me a son who can kill Indra. Permit me to do
Tapasya for this purpose. Kasyapa understand her grief and said Oh
Diti! You do Tapashya. I am blessing that you wil have a son who can kill
Indra. However you should perform the penance with purity of heart
for thousand years. If you do that, you will beget a son who will rule all
three worlds. He blessed her and he himself went away to perform
Tapashya.
Diti was happy and went to a tapovana to do Tapasya. During her
Tapasya, Indra used to serve her with at most devotion. She was also
happy with his services. She continued in this manner for nine hundred
and ninety years. On day, Diti said to Indra your father blessed me with
a son after thousand years of thios penance. If you wait for ten years,
you can see your brother. He will bring you all auspiousness. You in
association of your brother can win all the three worlds.
After speaking to Indra she kept her head on her knees. While her
hair covered her head and fell on the feet. To her bad luck she had a
sleep on that evening time. That was a breach of her Vratha. Taking that
opportunity Indra entered into her stomach with vajrayudha and broke
the child into seven pieces. The child started crying dont kill me.
Immediately Indra came out of the stomach and stood before her and
said Oh mother you were sleeping in the evening time covering your
face with your hair. This is a breach of vratha. Hence I killed the child in
your stomach. I beg you parden
THE HISTORY OF MARRUTHU
[This part is taken from 47
th
Sarga]
Diti told Indra My son! I lost my pregnancy because of my sin. It
isyoure your fault. However you help me by making all those seven
32 Kishkinda Kandam
pieces of my fetus to be the rulers of seven lokas called Maarutha
sthaanaas. You also bless them divinity. Indra said Oh mother, I will
obey your order. They all become rulers of various lokas and were
blessed themy. They are called Maaruthus.
After telling this story, Viswamitra and others slept that night in
that tapovana and went to Mithila next morning.
THE STORY OF AHALYA
[This part is taken from 48
th
Sarga]
Next morning Viswamitra, Rama, Lakshmana and other
maharishis entered the outskirts of Mithila. Rama asked Oh Maharishi!
Though this ashrama is very close to the city of Mithila, why does it look
so deserted?
Vishwamithra said Rama! this ashrama belongs to Gauthama
Maharishi. Even devatas worship him. He did tapasya for a long time
with his wife Ahalya. One day Indra came in a false form of Gauthama
Maharishi while the Maharishi was away from his ashrama. He went to
Ahalya and said My dear handsome! I had an untimely desire on you. I
am aware this is not your menstrual time. However I request you to
oblige by request. She understood him as Indra who came in a false
form of maharishi.i She said Oh superior among the gods! Indra! I feel I
am privileged to have a union with you. I feel I am blessed. You fulfill
your desire and leave the place before maharishi comes. Thus you save
yourself and save me. Indra said My dear handsome! I will complete
my work and leave the place unnoticed. Leave your fears. While Indra
was leaving the ashrama, the maharishi came opposite to him, saw the
false maharishi and understood him as Indra. He became furious and
cursed Since you have committed this sinful act ,your scrotums will fall
down. Immediately the scrotums of Indra fell on the ground. Maharishi
turned towards Ahalya and cursed You lay down here for several years
and nobody can see you. You survive only by air. When Sri Rama enters
this ashrama, you worship him. You will have deliverance from my
curse. Afterwards you can join me. After this, Gauthama Maharishi
went to Himalayas to perform tapasya.
33 Kishkinda Kandam
THE DELIVERANCE OF CURSE
[This part taken from 49
th
Sarga]
Vishwamithra said Oh Rama! Indra told the devatas of the loss of
his scrotums and they replaced with scrotums of a goat through the help
of Pitru Devatas. From then on, the pitru Devatas receive goats without
scrotums. Now we are in the ashrama of Gauthama maharishi, Ahalya is
waiting for the deliverance of her curse with your presence.
As soon as Rama entered the ashrama, Ahalaya took the form of a
woman again and worshiped Rama, Lakshmana and Vishwamithra. She
offered food to all of them. Devatas rained flowes from the sky.
Immediately Gauthama maharishi appeared there and prostrated at the
feet of Rama and worshiped him. Maharishi took Ahalya with him and
went to his Tapavana. Viswamitra, Rama and others went to Mithila
Nagaram.
RAMA AND LAKSHMANA REACH MITHILA
[This part is taken from 50
th
Sarga]
King Janaka came to know of the arrival of Viswamitra maharishi
and went with his ministers, priest and rithiwiks. He worshiped him
and took them to the yagnavatika. Janaka said Oh Maharishi! The
yagna will be completed in another 12 days. All devatas will come to
take their part of havis. You can see them all.
Oh Maharishi! Who are these two boys? Their faces look as bright
as devatas. They are holding bows and arrows. Are they princes of any
county? Viswamitra said Oh king! They are Rama and Lakshmana, the
sons of king Dhasaratha. Mareecha and Subahu were spoiling my yagna.
These two boys killed them and I could complete my yagna, with their
help. From there, we came to vishala nagaram and blessed Ahalya with
the deliverance from her curse. Gauthama Maharishi came and joined
Ahalya there. Now we have came to see your yagna. Also these princes
wanted to examine the bow of Siva which is in your custody.
THE STORY OF VISWAMITRA
[This part is taken from 51
st
Sarga]
Satananda was the priest of king Janaka and the eldest son of
Gauthama Maharishi and Ahalya. He enquired with Viswamitra Oh
34 Kishkinda Kandam
Maharishi! Did you tell Rama all about my mother? Did you not tell him
that she became a victim in the hands of Vidhi? Did she join my father?
Did my father receive her with honour? You tell me all about my
mother.
Visvamitra said oh Setananda! I did what all I am supposed to do
to help your mother and father. She joined your father Gauthama
Maharishi like Renukadevi joined Jamadagni. Satananda said to Rama
Oh Rama! There is nothing impossible for Viswamitra in this world. He
became a Brahmarishi by doing a severe tapasya. He is a great guru and
your are fortunate to have such a great guru. I will tell you how great
Viswamitra is!
Oh Rama! Viswamitra was a righteous king. He learned all Vedas
and Sastras. He was striving always for the welfare of his people.
There was another King Kusu, who was the son of Brahma and a
very rightious person. His son was Kusanabha and his son was Gaadhi.
Viswamitra is the son of Gaadhi. Viswamitra ruled his country for
several thousands of years. One day Viswamitra went to forest for
hunting. On his way he visited the ashrama of Vasista maharishi.
VASISHTA OFFERS A FEAST TO VISWAMITRA
[This part is taken from 52
nd
Sarga]
Viswamitra entered the ashrama of Vasista maharishi. Maharishi
worshiped him with traditional honours. The King enquired about the
welfare of maharishi. In turn maharishi also enquired about the welfare
of his people. At the end, Vasista maharishi offered a feast for the king
and his army. But the king politely refused since he did not want to
cause any inconvenience to him. Since maharishi insisted again and
again the king has agreed to dine with him.
VISWAMITRA WANTED KAMADHENU
[This chapter is taken from 53
rd
Sarga]
Satananda said Oh Rama! Vasista called his Homadhenu, Sabala
and asked it to prepare a feast for the king and his army. Visvamitra and
his ministers were all fully satified with the feast. The king went to
Vasista and said Oh Great brahmin! I am previliged to have your
35 Kishkinda Kandam
hospitality. Your cow is a jewel. I will give you one lakh cows. you give
me that one cow to me. Vasista said Oh king! that is not a cow, it is
more than my daughter. Without her I cannot do my daily Havyam,
Kavyam, Agnihotra etc., so even if you give 10 lakhs cows I cannot give
her to you. Viswamitra further offered several valuable gifts like gold,
jewel, horses, elephants etc. Vasista was determined not to part with his
cow, Sabala.
SABALA KILLS ALL THE ARMY OF VISWAMITRA
[This chapter is taken from 54
th
Sarga]
Satananda said Oh Rama! Since Vasista refused to give Sabala,
Viswamitra tried to take her by force. The Army caught hold of Sabala
and dragged with force. While being dragged away, it looked into the
face of Vasista Maharishi and said in a dumb way Oh father! Why are
you sending me with the king? Maharishi said My daughter! I am not
sending you with the king. He is forcibly taking you. He is a powerful
king with a large army. I am a poor brahmin. How can I fight with him.
You can protect yourself. Now you invoke brahma tejas and show your
strength.
On hearing the maharishis words, Sabala produced several
millions of soldiers from her body. They all killed the army of
Viswamitra.
VISWAMITRA DID TAPASYA ON LORD SIVA
[This part is takek from 55
th
Sarga]
Satananda said oh Rama! The soldiers who came out from
Sabalas body killed the entire army of Viswamitra. Viswamitra became
very furious with this. He went to Himalayas and did extreme penance
or tapasya meditating on Siva. Siva was pleased with his tapasya and
asked him what do you want? Viswamitra requested Deva! If you are
pleased with my tapasya you bless me with all weapons, the sastras and
astras that are held by devatas. Lord Sive blessed him with all those
weapons and disappeared. Viswamitra was very proud of possessing
all these, powerful, devine weapons and thought that he could now kill
Vasista with ease.
36 Kishkinda Kandam
Viswamitra went to Vasistas ashrama and burnt all tapovanas,
trees. The maharishis of those tapovanas were alarmed at this, and they
went to Vasista maharishi for protection. Vasista gave them assurance
and said I will put an end to all the mischief and it will disappear, like
ice melts with the heat of sun. Saying so, Vasista came out with his
Brahmadandam.
VASISTA DEFEATS VISWAMITRA
[This part is taken from 56
th
Sarga]
Viswamitra released Aagneyastra, Varuna, raudra, Indra,
pasupata, manava, mohana, gandharva and many more astras on
Vasista. All those astras were swallowed by the brahmadandam of
Vasista. Viswamitra became furious and released Brahmastra. That
astra perplexed all lokas. The brahmadandam consumed that
Brahmastra also. While consuming Brahmastra Vasista looked very
dangerous to all three worlds too. The maharishis from all tapovanas
came and requested Vasista to withdraw his fearsome form. Viswamitra
realized that the power of brahmin was more powerful than all his
divine astras and he went back to continue tapasya to become a
bhramarishi.
VASISTA REFUSE TRISANKUS DESIRE
[This part taken from 57
th
Sarga]
Satananda said Rama! Viswamitra developed enmity with
Vasista and went towards the south to continue his tapasya with his
wife. There he did tapasya for thousand years and during that period,
he was eating only vegetables. During that period he had four sons. One
day Brahma appeared and said Oh Viswamitra! I am pleased with your
tapasya and blessing you as rajarishi. You will get all lokas that a virtuos
rajarishi is eligible. Viswamitra was not happy with this boon from
Brahma and continued his tapasya.
In those days, there lived a king by name Trisanku who belonged
to Ikshvaku family. He went to Vasista, his priest, and requested him to
perform a yagna and enable him to go to heaven with his physical body.
Vasista told him that there was no such yagna and asked him go back to
37 Kishkinda Kandam
his kingdom. Trisanku was not happy and went to the sons of Vasista
and requested them Oh superior brahmins! I wanted your father to
perform a yagna for me to go to heaven with physical body. He said he
cannot do it. Hence I request you to perform a yagna for me. The sons
of vasista said when our father refuges to execute your request, how
can we do it for you? Hence you go back to your kingdom.
TRISANKU SEEKS REFUSE FROM VISWAMITRA
[This part is taken from 58
th
Sarga]
King Trisanku was not satisfied with this reply and said if you do
not execute yagna, I shall engage some other priest and do it. The sons
of Vasist became furious for his disrespect for the guru and cursed.
Since you disregarded your guru, you become a chandala.
Immediately king Trisanku became a chandala with an ugly form.
King Trisanku was distressed at the curse of his gurus sons and
was wandering in the forest. Finally he reached the ashrama of
Viswamitra, fell at his feet and requested for protection. Viswamitra
assured protection and asked him how he became a chandala. King
Trisanku said Oh maharishi! I did hundred yagnas. I never said a lie,
I always followed kshatriya dharma. I respected brahmins and elders. I
went to Vasista, my guru, and requested him to execute a yagna which
takes me to heaven with my physical body. My guru and his sons not
only refused to execute a yagna but also cursed me to become a
chandala. Now I cannot go to my kingdom. Even now I want to do that
yagna and want to go to heaven with my physical body.
I therefore came to seek your protection.
VISWAMITRA PERFORMS YAGNA
[This part is taken from 59
th
Sarga]
Viswamitra said Oh Trisanku! I am convinced that you are a
righteous king. I will protect you and execute the yagna for you. I will
send you to heaven with your physical body. By saying so, he asked his
sons to make all arrangements for the yagna. He sent his disciples for
fixing hota, and rithwiks. He futher said to them whoever disrespects
my words and heckles my yagna, you tell me. I will show them my
38 Kishkinda Kandam
power. His disciples went around the country and fixed the rithviks for
the yagna. They said Oh gurudev! Only the sons of Vasista and
Mahodaya showed disrespect for your words. Viswamitra became
furious on them and cursed that Mahodaya must be burnt to ashes.
They shall live on flesh of dead bodies for seven hundred generations
for blaming me. May Vasistas sons live as hunters, eating dogs flesh for
thousand years.
CONSTRUCTION OF A NEW HEAVEN
[This Chapter is taken from 60
th
Sarga]
Viswamitra said to rithviks and tapasvis Oh Illustrous brahmins!
He is king Trisanku, belonging to ikshaku family. He is a righteous king,
and he wants to go to heaven with his physical body. He wanted my
help. I gave him protection. We are all to help him in sending to heaven.
Viswamitra said to Trisanku Oh king! I have started yagna for
you. Now you will see the power of my tapasya. Now you will enter
heaven with your physical body. While the rithviks were reciting
mantras, Trisanku traveled towards heaven. Indra and other devatas
saw Trisankus entry into the heaven with his physical body. Indra said
Oh Trisanku! You stop there. You are a human. Not only that, you are
cursed by your guru. Hence you are not eligible to enter into heaven.
Saying so, Indra pushed Trisanku upside down and Trisanku started
falling towards the earth. He cried Oh Maharishi! I am falling down.
Save me. Viswamitra with the power of his tapasya stopped Trisanku
from falling down on earth and made him stay midway, where he was.
He created the saptarisi madalam on his south. He created other stars
and galaxies etc and announced that he was going to remove the
existing Indra and creating a new Indra and started creating devatas.
Indra and other devatas appealed to Viswamitra and said Oh
maharishi! This Trisanku was cursed by his guru. Hence he is not
eligible to enter into the heaven. Viswamitra said Indra! I have
promised Trisanku that I will send him to heaven. My promise cannot
go untrue. The orbit of stars and other creations that I already created
will continue to remain as long as the sun and moon exist. If you agree
to these two conditions I will not make any further creation. Indra said
Oh maharishi! Your word will not become untrue. All creations you
39 Kishkinda Kandam
made will remain forever. Trisanku also will remain in that new
creation with his head upside down. Viswamitra was satified with this.
Trisanku stayed on in the orbit of stars created by Viswamitra.
VISWAMITRA AT PUSHKARA TEERTHAM
[This part is taken from 61
st
Sarga]
Satananda said Rama! Viswamitra moved to Pushkara theertham
for continuing his tapasya. In those days king Ambarisha was
performing a yagna. Indra abducted his yagaswa. His rithwiks said the
yagna cannot be completed without the yagaswa. Otherwise in its
place, a human can be given as sacrifice. Then only the yagna will be
completed.
King Ambarisha went to search of a human being to replace the
yagaswa. After sometime he met Rucheeka maharishi who had three
sons. The king said Oh maharishi! I lost my yagaswa. My rithwiks
suggested a human sacrifice in the place of yagaswa. If you can offer one
of your sons for this divine cause I shall give you one lakh cows. The
Maharishi said Oh king! The eldest son is very dear to me. I can not part
with him. My last son is dearer to my wife. She also cannot live without
him. The second son Sunassepa came forward and said Oh king! The
eldest son is dearer to my father. The youngest son is dearer to my
mother. They cannot lose your offer of one lakh cows. So I am the only
son that they can spare as a sacrificial animal. So you take me in the
place of your yagaswa and give one lakh cows to my parents. The king
was happy.
VISWAMITRA SAVES SUNASSEPA
[This part is taken from 62
nd
Sarga]
Satananda said Oh Rama! while Sunassepa was going with King
Ambarisha, they passed through Pushkara theertham. While the king
was taking rest, Sunassepa went to Viswamitra who was doing tapasya
and fell at his feet and cried Oh maharishi! My parents have given me as
a sacrificial animal for the yagna og King Ambareesha. I want to live and
do tapasya and finally reach heaven. Please save me without breaking
the word given by my parents. At the same time, the yagna of the king
also should not be spoiled.
40 Kishkinda Kandam
Viswamitra assured Sunassepa, of his protection, called his own
sons and said My sons! the king Ambareesha is taking Sunaseepa as a
sacrifial animal for his Yagna. Sunassepa wanted my protection and I
assured him. At the same time, the king also must complete his yagna.
Hence one of you volunteer and go as a sacrificial animal in the place of
Sunaseepa. His sons said Oh father! Your demand is not justified.
Because you are asking us to to save an unknown person at the cost of
our life, we are not prepared to give up our life to keep up your word.
Viswamitra became furious and cursed them to take birth in a hunter
family and live for thousand years eating dogs flesh.Turning to
Sunaseepa he said My son! I will save your life. I will initiate you to a
mantra. When you are taken to the Yagna and fastened to a yupa Pillar,
you recite this mantra and initiated him to the mantra.
Sunaseepa went with Ambarisha and was fastened to a yupa pillar.
When they were about to kill him, he recited the mantra given to him by
the maharishi. Indra was pleased with Sunassepa and appeared at the
yagnavatika. He blessed Sunasseopa with long life and gave to
Ambarisha the full benefit of his yagna and disappeared.
VISWAMTRA BECOMES A MAHARISHI
[This part is taken from 63
rd
Sarga]
Satananda said Oh Rama! Viswamitra did tapasya for thousand
years in pushkar. One day brahma was pleased with his tapasya,
appered before him and said, Oh Viswamitra! I am pleased with your
tapasya. I am declaring you as a rishi. Viswamitra was not happy with
this and continuing his tapasya. One day Menaka, a beautiful apsarasa
(angel-woman) went to pushkar. Viswamitra saw her while she was
taking bath and he developed a desire on her. Viswamitra went to her
and said Oh beautiful girl! I am very much fascinated with your beauty.
I want to live with you. Menaka gladly agreed to his request and lived
with him for ten years. At the end he was ashamed of himself for getting
into the trap of a woman and he repented for getting distracted from his
tapasya. He understood that this must be the wicked plan of Indra and
repented. Viswamitra pacified Menaka and sent her away from his
ashrama.
After sending away Menaka, Viswamitra controlled his senses,
went to the banks of river Kaushiki and started doing tapasya again.
41 Kishkinda Kandam
Again Brahma appeared and said, I have made you maharishi and so,
you can stop doing tapasya. Viswamitra said Oh God! I am doing
tapasya to become a brahmarishi and hence I am not satisfied with the
title of maharishi given by you. Then Brahma said you have not yet
gained control on your senses. Hence, you must continue tapasya, and
disappeared.
VISWAMITRA CURSES RAMBHA
[This part is taken from 64
th
Sarga]
Satananda said Indra was serious in disturbing the
concentration of Viswamitra. So he called Rambha and instructed her to
divert the attention of Viswamitras towards her. Rambha said Deva!
Viswamitra is a hot tempered maharishi, and if he get furious he may
curse me. I am afraid of his curse. Indra said Oh Rambha! Dont worry
about Viswamitra. Because I and Manmatha ( the god cupid) will be by
your side and we will see to it that Viswamitra does not do any harm to
you. Finally she went and tried to divert the attention of Viswamitra.
Indra could not succeed in this attempt. Viswamitra understood
the wicked plans of Indra and cursed Rambha to become a stone and lay
there for ten thousand years. However, Viswamitra repented for his
hastiness and said you will get back your original form with the help of
an illustrous brahmin. Looking at the fate of Rambha, Indra and cupid
ran away from that place. By cursing Rambha again, the power of
Viswamitras tapasya came down again. As he became a victim of anger,
he again started pursuing his tapasya.
VISWAMITRA BECOMES A BRAHMARISHI
[This part is taken from 65
th
Sarga]
Satananda said Rama! since he was facing frequent interruptions
like this, Viswamitra went to the west to continue his tapasya. There, he
started observing silence, stoped eating and did severe tapasya. With
that severe tapasya, all his flesh withered away and he became like a
skeleton. He did tapasya like this for over a thousand years. One day, he
was hungry, secured some food and was about to eat. In the mean while,
Indra came there in the form of a brahmin and asked for food. Since
Viswamitra was observing silence he gave the food to the brahmin and
resumed tapasya for another thousand years. This time he practiced
42 Kishkinda Kandam
yoga stopping his breathing also. In this manner, he did tapasya for
another thousand years. As a result if his tapasya, smoke started
coming out of his skull. This smoke started spreading to all worlds. All
living beings were afraid of the spreading smoke. So, all devatas went to
Brahma for protection.
Brahma went to Viswamitra and said Oh brahmarishi! I am
pleased with your tapasya. Your dedication to become a brahmin is
exemplary. I am blessing you with immortality and also
Brahmarishithvam. Viswamitra said Deva! I am greatful to you for
making me a brahmarishi and immortal. I request you that Omkaram,
Vashatkaram and Vedas are to be in my possession and give me the
authority to teach Vedas to others and perfom yagnas. Vasista the
illustrous brahmin must also address me as brahmarishi. Then only I
will stop doing tapasya. Brahma was happy and asked devatas to bring
Vasista maharishi. Vasista came and embraced Viswamitra and
addressed him Oh brahmarishi! Brahma and other devatas also
blessed Viswamitra with all auspiciousness.
King Janaka Said Oh righteous maharishi! I am blessed by
hearing your life story. I and my people became pure by having your
darshan. I am inclined to hear more about you. But it is the time for us to
perform our evening rituals. I request you to come to the yagnavatika
with Rama and Lakshmana. The king, rithwiks, and other brahmins
made salutations to Viswamitra and went to their places.
THE STORY OF SIVAS BOW
[This chapter is taken from 66
th
Sarga]
Next morning king Janaka completed his morning rituals and
invited Viswamitra, Rama and Lakshmana to yagnavatika. He
worshiped them and requested them to occupy their seats. The king
said Oh maharishi! I welcome you. You order me what service I can do
for you. Viswamitra said Oh king! Rama and Lakshmana are
Kshatriyas. They are valorous. They want to examine the bow of Lord
Siva.
King Janaka ordered his people to bring the bow of Siva on a
chariot and started telling the story of Sivas bow.
43 Kishkinda Kandam
Long ago, Siva became furious with Daksha and destroyed his
yagna. He said to devatas Oh Devatas! This Daksha refused to give my
share of havis in the Ygna and thereby insulted me. Now I wll kill all of
you with this Bow. All devatas were afraid and prayed Siva for his
grace. Siva obliged their request and gave the bow to them. Those
devatas gave that bow to our ancestor, king Nimi. From then onwards
this bow is in our palace and receiving our worship.
Oh Viswamitra maharishi! Long ago, while I was tilling the land,
for the preparation of a yagnavatika, I found a girlchild at the tip of my
tiller. I took the child home and brought her up as my own daughter.
I named her as Sita. When she came of age, I decided to give her in
marriage to a valorous person who can release an arrow from this Sivas
bow. Many kings came and could not even lift the bow. So,
I refused to give my daughter in marriage to any of them.They all
became furious and declared a war and surrounded my city. In this
manner they captured our city for one year and our people suffered
even to have their daily rations. The strength of these enemies
increased further and I became weak before them. At that time
I prayed the devatas for protection. They all came to my rescue,
defeated all the kings and saved me. Now Rama and Lakshmana can
also see the bow. If Rama can shoot an arrow with this bow, I will give
sita in marriage to him.
BREAKING SIVAS BOW
[This part is taken from 67
th
Sarga]
King Janaka said Oh maharishi! I have brought the Sivas bow. It
has been worshiped by us. So far, Deva, Danava, Raksasa, Gandharva,
Kinera and many valorous people could not even lift this bow. Such a
bow is kept in front of you. You show it to your princes.
Viswamitra said Rama! You go and see that bow. Rama said Oh
brahmarishi! I shall try to lift that illustrous bow. If it is possible, I shall
also try to string it.
Rama took the blessings of maharishi and took the bow into his
hands, very easily, stringed it and pulled the string upto his ears, like
releasing the arrow. But, the bow broke into two pieces, with big
sounds of a thunder, as if big mountains broke into two pieces or the
44 Kishkinda Kandam
earth has quaked. Excepting Janaka, Viswamitra, Rama and Lakshmana,
all others were fainted.
King Janaka witnesed the extraordinary valour of Rama and was
astonished. He did not even draem of seeing it. He felt very happy for his
daughter. He thought that she would bring great glory to both the
families. He went to Rama and said I announced that I would give my
daughter to that valorous person who strings the bow of Siva. You have
done it. You accept my daughter as your wife and make he and her
privileged.
Oh Viswamitra maharishi! If you order me, I shall send my
ministers and priests to Ayodhya to invite king Dasaratha for the
marriage. Viswamitra said so,be it. King Janaka sent his ministers
and priests to Ayodhya to invite king Dasaratha and his people.
KING DASARATHA REACHES MITHILA
[This part is taken from 68-71 Sargas]
King Janaka sent his ministers, priests and brahmins to Ayodhya
to invite king Dasaratha. They all went to king Dasaratha and said Oh
king! We came as the messengers of king Janaka. He wanted us to
convey the following words as his own.
Oh king Dasaratha! With the permission of Viswamitra and my
priest Satananda, I am submitting the following words through my
messengers.
I had announced that I shall give my daughter, Sita, in marriage
to whoever strings the bow of Siva. Rama and Lakshmana came to our
city with Viswamitra maharishi to witness my yaga. Your eldest son,
Rama, has stringed the bow of Siva which broke into two pieces. Thus
he proclaimed himself as the most valorous person in all the worlds. As
per my proclaimed words, your son Rama has won my daughter Sita
with his valour. I therefore intend to give Sita to him in marriage. Hence
I seek your permission and request you to come to Mithila with all your
Ministers, Priests and your other people.
King Dasaratha said Oh Vasista maharishi and other illustrous
brahmins! You listened to the message of king Janaka. I request you to
express your views. Vasista expressed his happiness and said that they
may start the journey the next day, to Mithila.
45 Kishkinda Kandam
DASARATHA REACHES MIDHILA:
King Dasaratha ordered his ministers and treasury officers to
carry valuable gold, diamonds and such other valuables in advance.
Behind them the four wings of his army also moved.
Vasista, Vamadeva, Jabali, Kasyapa, Markendeya and many other
illustrous Brahmin rishis went with king Dasaratha on chariots. All of
them reached the city of Mithila in four days.
Janaka gave a hearty welcome to king Dasaratha and other
distinguished guests. Dasaratha embraced Rama and Lakshmana. King
Janaka said Oh king! By tomorrow morning, my yagna will become
complete. After its completion, we shall arrange the marriage of Sita
and Rama. Dasaratha agreed of his offer and spent the whole night at
Mithila with his sons.
THE DYNASTY OF IKSHVAKU :
Next morning Kusadhvaja the brother of king Janaka came from
the city of Saamkaasya to Mithila. Immediately on his arrival, king
Janaka sent Satananda to invite king Dasaratha and his people to the
marriage hall. King Dasaratha and his people reached the marriage hall
and said Oh Janaka! Vasista is our priest and illustrous brahmarishi. It
is our custom that he will reveal our dynasty in my presence.
Vasista said Oh king Janaka! Lord Brahma was born of the to
Supreme being. Mareechi was born to Brahma. Kasyapa was born to
Mareechi.. Yayati was born to Nahusha, Naabhaaga born to Yayati, Aja
was born to Naabhaaga, Dasaratha was born to Aja and this Rama,
Lakshmana, Bharata and Satrughna were born to Dasaratha. Oh king!
Rama and Lakshmana were born in the family of ikshvaku and are now
ready to marry your daughters. They are the most eligilble bride
brooms. You give your daughters in marriage to them.
The Dynasty of Janaka:
King Janaka said oh maharishi! At the time of the marriage
I must also reveal the dynasty of my family. Kindly listen to the same.
The virtuous and superior among the most valorous kings was king
Nimi. He was the father of king Mithi, who built this city of Mithila. King
46 Kishkinda Kandam
Janaka Sr was the son of Mithi. Hraswaroma was born to
Swarnaroma, Hraswaroma had two sons. They are Janaka (myself) and
my younger brother, Kusadhwaja. My father coronated me as king of
Mithila. I love my brother more as a friend. I defeated my neighbouring
country sankasyapuram and made my brother as its king. Since then he
was ruling that country.
Oh Vasista Maharishi! I am giving my daughter Sita to Rama and
my brother is giving his daughter Urmila to Ramas brother Lakshmana,
in marriage. I promise the same with my heart, word and deed, three
times. This is the truth. Let my daughters be accepted as the wifes of
Rama and Lakshmana.
DASARATHAS GIFTS TO BRAHMINS
[This part is taken from 72
nd
Sarga]
Vasista and Viswamitra said Oh Janaka! Today both the dynasties
of ikshvaku and Videha have become one. Rama for Sita, Lakshmana for
urmila were made for each other. We both are suggesting to you, why
not the daughters of Kusadhwaja be offered for Bharata and
Satrughna?
King Janaka said Oh Maharishis! your suggestion is most pious
and aspicious. We are fortunate to have bride grooms from the family of
Ikshvakus. I hereby agree to give my brothers daughters to Bharata and
Satrughna and we shall arrange all the marriages at a time. Next
morning they arranged snataka vrata for all the four bride grooms and
donated one lakh cows for brahmins.
THE MARRIAGE OF SITA AND RAMA
[This part is taken from 73
rd
Sarga]
Next morning king Dasaratha made a gift of one lakh cows by each
of his sons before the marriage. At that time Yoodhajittu the uncle of
Bharata came to Mithila. All of them went to the marriage hall.
The Marriage of Rama and Sita:
King Janaka brought his daughter Sita and made her to stand
before Rama and said Oh Rama! This is my daughter Sita, she will be
your dharmapatni. You accept her hand and keep it in yours and protect
47 Kishkinda Kandam
her. She will be your chaste wife, she will follow you like a shadow.
Saying this, he sprinkled the sacred mantra jalam on both of them. After
this, Lakhsmana was married to Urmila. After that, the marriages of
Bharatha with Mandavi and Satrughna with Srutakeerti were
performed.
With the permission of Vasista maharishi and king Dasaratha,
they all took the hands of their brides and made pradakshinam to agni.
Afterwards they made pradakshanam to king Dasaratha, Janaka,
Vasista, Viswamitra, Satananda and other maharishis and to the agni,
three times. After the marriage they all took their brides and went to the
palace allotted to them.
FAREWELL TO RAMA SITA
[This part is taken from 74,75th Sargas]
Next morning Dasaratha and others took leave from king Janaka
and started back for Ayodhya. Viswamitra maharishi blessed the
married couples and went for Himalayas to do tapasya.
On their way to Ayodhya, Dasaratha observed some bad omens
and asked Vasista maharishi the reasons for them. While he was talking,
they all saw that Parasurama was coming before them in a furious form.
Common people could not see at his luster and closed their eyes. King
Dasaratha worshiped him with traditional honours. Parasurama went
to Rama and said.
Discussion between Rama and Parasurama:
Parasurama said Rama! I heard that you are very valorous
person and broke the bow of Siva. Hence I came to see you in person. I
have another bow with me which was given to me by Jamadagni and
belongs to Lord Vishnu. If you can string that bow also and shoot an
arrow, I shall appreciate your valour and have a direct fight with you.
There should not be two Ramas in this world. Either Parasurama or
Rama only must exist. Now you show your strength.
King Dasaratha was upset and requested him to spare the life of
his son Rama. But Parasurama did not conceded to his request. Rama
took the bow of Vishnu from the hands of Parasurama and said.
48 Kishkinda Kandam
RAMA CONDONES PARASURAMA
[This part is taken from 76
th
Sarga]
Rama said Oh Parasurama! I heard what you were talking to my
father. I appreciate your respect towards your father. But do not under-
estimate my strength. Now I am ready to accept your challenge. By
saying so, he took the bow from Parasurama fixed the arrow and asked
Oh Parasurama! Now I am ready to release the arrow. Once I fix the
arrow it cannot go without hitting its target. Tell me, should I hit at your
Power of movement or the superior lokas earned with your punyam? I
do not want to kill you, as you happen to be a brahmin. Not only that,
you are also a distant relative to my guru Viswamitra. I am leaving the
decision to you. On hearing the words of Rama all the tejas of
Parasurama has became powerless. All lokas became still.
Parasurama said Rama! I gave away all my land to kashyapa. At
that time, he ordered me to not live in his land. From then, I was always
living on Mahendragiri and performing tapasya. Before sunset, I have to
leave from this land, otherwise I will have the blame of telling a lie.
Hence you dont hit at my velocity. You hit on my punyam, superior
lokas, and my tapasya. I am not ashamed to get defeated in your hands,
because I have understood that you are Paramatma. After you release
the arrow, I will go back to Mahendragiri. On hearing parasuramas
words, Rama released the arrow on his punyam and superior lokas of
Parasurama. Immediately Parasurama left the place and went back to
Mahendragiri.
SITA RAMA ENTERS AYODHYA
[This part is taken from 77
th
Sarga]
After Parasurama left, Rama handed over the bow and arrows of
Vishnu to Varuna. Varuna took the bow and disappeared. Later, Rama
saluted to Dasaratha, Vasista and other maharishi and said
Oh father! Parasurama has left. You forget about him. Let us all go
back to Ayodhya. You give orders to the army to procede. Dasaratha
and all his people reached Ayodhya. The entire Ayodhya was decorated
and gave a festive look.
After reaching the palace, Kausalya, Sumithra and Kaikeyi
received, with traditional honours, their daughters in law Sita, Urmila,
49 Kishkinda Kandam
Mandavi and Srutakeerti. They donated cows, land, gold and many
other valuables to brahmins and poor people.
One day Dasaratha said My son Bharata! Your grandfather, the
king of Kekaya wanted to see you. He has sent your uncle Yudhaajittu.
He came all the way to Mithila nagaram and is now waiting to take you
there. Hence you may go with him and please your grand father.
As instructed by his father, Bharata went to the kingdom of his
grandfather with his uncle. Satrughna also went with him. Before they
left, they embraced Rama and Lakshmana and took leave from them.
After Bharata ans Satrughna left, Rama and Lakshmana were serving
their father, Dasaratha and their mothers and were making them very
happy.
Ramas mind was now always on Sita, who attracted him
completely with her beauty and character. Sita was also attracted to
Rama completely. Their mutual love was immeasurable and so was
their happiness now.
oOo