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Perceptions about Sexual Street Harassment / Eve


We request you to fill this questionnaire to help us understand the perceptions about Sexual
street harassment (or Eve Teasing). This is a part of development research and the researchers
hope to use the understandings gained hereby to implement a nation wide project.

Note :
1. Number of Questions : 30 (Page 1 - 3)
2. Estimated Time : 15-20 minutes

IMPORTANT : Please remember to SUBMIT your response by navigating to the last page.(if
you may not manage to answer all questions)

CONFIDENTIALITY : The personal details required herein are optional, but we assure you
the confidentiality of the information should you decide to share the same with us. This will
help us immensely to connect with the like minded individuals as yourself during the
implementation stage of the study.
1. Personal Information




Email Address:


2. Age

3. Sex
Sex Male Female
Other (please specify)
4. Educational Qualifications
Educational Qualifications
Matriculation or lower
Post Graduation or higher
Other (please specify)
5. What do you understand by 'Sexual street harassment' / 'Eve Teasing' ?
What do you understand by 'Sexual street harassment' / 'Eve Teasing' ? Light
hearted flirtation with strangers in public space.
Any means employed to get a woman's attention in the public space.
Any behaviour that is unwanted by a woman and makes her uncomfortable.
Assserting your power by intruding into someone's private territory.
Other (please specify)

6. Are incidents of 'Sexual Street Harassment' / 'Eve teasing' prevalent in your city?
Are incidents of 'Sexual Street Harassment' / 'Eve teasing' prevalent in your city?
Yes, the incidents are very rampant.
Yes, the incidents are common.
Yes, there are a few incidents.
I am not sure
Not really, the incidents are very rare.
Not at all, my city is safe.
7. I can say that on an average, out of every 10 visits to a public place, I have experienced /
witnessed harassment, in some form or the other :
I can say that on an average, out of every 10 visits to a public place, I have
experienced / witnessed harassment, in some form or the other : On more than 5
On about 4 - 5 occasions, I think
On about 2 - 3 occasions, I think
On 1 occasion, may be
Not even once.
Other (please specify)
8. Where in your city are acts of sexual street harassment more prevalent ?
Where in your city are acts of sexual street harassment more prevalent ?
Generally, in Public Transport.
Generally, on a road or street.
Generally, in busy markets.
Almost, in every public space.
Not prevalent in my city.
Other (please specify)

9. Do you think Sexual Street Harassment/ Eve Teasing is a matter of Concern ?
Do you think Sexual Street Harassment/ Eve Teasing is a matter of Concern ?
Not at all, it is a trivial matter.
Not a serious problem.
I am not sure.
Yes, it concerns me (I think about it).
Yes, it concerns me very deeply.
Other (please specify)
10. Please rate the following situations of harassment/ eve teasing, as common and rare
according to your knowledge/ experience.

Rare Common Very Common
Staring/ Leering
*Please rate the
following situations of
harassment/ eve
teasing, as common
and rare according to
your knowledge/
experience. Staring/
Leering Rare
Staring/ Leering
Staring/ Leering
Very Common
Stalking Rare
Stalking Common
Stalking Very
Whistling Whistling Rare
Whistling Very
Groping Rare
Groping Common
Groping Very
Passing lewd /
sexually explicit
remarks about
Passing lewd /
sexually explicit
remarks about
looks/body Rare
Passing lewd /
sexually explicit
remarks about
looks/body Common
Passing lewd /
sexually explicit
remarks about
looks/body Very
Singing Song
Singing Song
Singing Song
Singing Song
Very Common
Kissing Sound/
Kissing Sound/
Action Rare
Kissing Sound/
Action Common
Kissing Sound/
Action Very Common

Rare Common Very Common
Winking Winking Rare Winking Common
Winking Very
Pinching/ Poking
Pinching/ Poking
Pinching/ Poking
Very Common
Snicker/ Laugh
Snicker/ Laugh
Disrespectfully Rare
Snicker/ Laugh
Snicker/ Laugh
Disrespectfully Very
his private parts
publically with
an intention to
his private parts
publically with an
intention to make
uncomfortable Rare
his private parts
publically with an
intention to make
his private parts
publically with an
intention to make
uncomfortable Very
Pushing against
you in public
Rubbing body
Pushing against
you in public
transport/ Rubbing
body Rare
Pushing against
you in public
transport/ Rubbing
body Common
Pushing against
you in public
transport/ Rubbing
body Very Common
Masturbating in
Masturbating in
Public Rare
Masturbating in
Public Common
Masturbating in
Public Very Common
Other (please specify)
11. Please rate the following situations of harassment/ eve teasing, in terms of severity as felt
by you.

Low Moderate High
Staring/ Leering
*Please rate the
following situations of
harassment/ eve
teasing, in terms of
severity as felt by
you. Staring/ Leering
Staring/ Leering
Staring/ Leering
Stalking Low
Stalking Moderate
Stalking High
Whistling Whistling Low
Whistling High
Touching/ Touching/ Touching/

Low Moderate High
Groping Low Groping Moderate Groping High
Passing lewd /
sexually explicit
remarks about
Passing lewd /
sexually explicit
remarks about
looks/body Low
Passing lewd /
sexually explicit
remarks about
looks/body Moderate
Passing lewd /
sexually explicit
remarks about
looks/body High
Singing Song
Singing Song
Singing Song
Singing Song
Kissing Sound/
Kissing Sound/
Action Low
Kissing Sound/
Action Moderate
Kissing Sound/
Action High
Winking Winking Low
Winking High
Pinching/ Poking
Pinching/ Poking
Pinching/ Poking
Snicker/ Laugh
Snicker/ Laugh
Disrespectfully Low
Snicker/ Laugh
Snicker/ Laugh
Disrespectfully High
his private parts
publically with
an intention to
his private parts
publically with an
intention to make
uncomfortable Low
his private parts
publically with an
intention to make
his private parts
publically with an
intention to make
uncomfortable High
Pushing against
you in public
Rubbing body
Pushing against
you in public
transport/ Rubbing
body Low
Pushing against
you in public
transport/ Rubbing
body Moderate
Pushing against
you in public
transport/ Rubbing
body High
Masturbating in
Masturbating in
Public Low
Masturbating in
Public Moderate
Masturbating in
Public High
Other (please specify)
12. On an average in a 6 month period, how many times do you face/ witness incidents,
categorized as 'High' (on severity) by you in the above question ?
On an average in a 6 month period, how many times do you face/ witness
incidents, categorized as 'High' (on severity) by you in the above question ? On
more than 6 occasions.
On about 4 - 5 occasions.
On about 2 - 3 Occasions.
Once, may be.
Almost never.
Other (please specify)

13. When a girl goes out to a public space, I think
When a girl goes out to a public space, I think She never feels secure
irrespective of her clothes and time.
She sometimes feels insecure irrespective of her clothes and time.
She feels secure as long as her clothes and time are appropriate.
She always feels secure irrespective of her clothes and time.
Other (please specify)

14. In your opinion, some men tease/harass women, because
In your opinion, some men tease/harass women, because They think it's fun
They think it's a time pass
They think it's 'manly'
They are frustrated.
They know they'll not be opposed or punished.
Because of the cultural dominance of men over women
They think women like it.
Women call for it.
They think women will not pay attention/ converse without being provoked
Other (please specify)

15. At a broader level, why do incidents of Sexual Street Harassment occur in society ?
At a broader level, why do incidents of Sexual Street Harassment occur in
society ? The Police is inefficient in ensuring safe environment.
No stringent punishment to deter the culprits.
Public Apathy - The victim gets/expects no help from the sorrounding people.
Wrong mindset of males about females.
Women dress inappropriately
Women invite trouble themselves by going to 'wrong places' at 'wrong times'
It is a natural phenomenon - men are attracted to women
Less interaction between men and women (Specifically in Indian context)
Other (please specify)

16. How does an incident of Eve Teasing / Sexual Street Harassment make you feel ?
How does an incident of Eve Teasing / Sexual Street Harassment make you feel
? I enjoy it.
I do not feel anything, it's too common an issue.
I feel bad, but I have learned to live with it.
I feel bad, but I feel helpless.
I feel bad, and I want to do something to confront the issue.
I feel bad, and I often confront such an incident.
Other (please specify)
1 / 3


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Questionnaire on Sexual Harassment in Public Places

Please support the Safe Delhi Campaign by answering the following questions keeping in
mind your experiences in the last one year in the city of Delhi.

1. How do you usually commute? (Tick all applicable)
Blueline Bus
Chartered Bus
Auto Rickshaw

2. Have you been harassed / eve teased by men in a public space (such as market, bus stop,
roadside, in the bus/metro, cinema hall etc) in the last one year?
(If no, please move to question 12)

3. Where all have you been harassed/ eve teased? (Tick all applicable)
Bus Stop
Public Transport
Cinema Hall
Other Public Places:

4. What kind(s) of harassment / eve teasing have you faced? (Tick all applicable)
Verbal (comments, whistling etc.)
Physical (touching, feeling up etc.)
Visual (staring, leering, gesticulating etc.)

5. At what time(s) of the day have you faced harassment/ eve teasing? (Tick all applicable)

6. What were you wearing on the occasions when you were harassed/ eve teased? (Tick all
Salwar kurta/ kurti with dupatta
Salwar kurta/ kurti without dupatta
Top with trousers/ jeans
Top and skirt

7. In your experience, harassment/ eve teasing is done by

8. Who harassed/eve teased you? (Tick all applicable)
Unknown person/s
Familiar person /s

9. How does street harassment/ eve teasing make you feel? (Tick all applicable)
Feel humiliated
Feel angry
Feel degraded
Feel scared
Feel traumatized
It does not affect me at all
I enjoy it

10. Have you ever reacted/ taken action when someone has harassed/eve teased you?

If yes, how? (Tick all applicable)
Retaliated verbally
Retaliated physically. If yes, what did you do?
Walked away
Asked others for help
Asked police for help
(If yes, did the police respond?)
How long did they take?

11. Has anyone ever helped you when you were being harassed?
If yes, how? (Tick all applicable)
Called the Police
Confronted the harasser
Got support from people around
If no, what was their reaction?

12. Have you ever helped anyone being harassed?
Yes. Specify how.
No. Why not?

13. Do you know that there are laws against street harassment/ eve teasing?

14. Many women often take precautionary measures to ensure their safety. Please tick the
precautions you take/ your family asks you to take for your safety as a woman.(Tick all
Avoid certain public spaces. Specify which kind of places you avoid
Avoid going out alone after dark
Avoid going out alone
Avoid wearing certain clothes, which may seem provocative
Carry items such as pepper spray/ safety pins etc
I do not take any precautions as I feel safe in the city.
None of the above.

Please fill in the following information about yourself:
Educational qualification:
Colony/area where you reside:

Monthly family income (Tick one only)
Less than Rs. 5,000
Rs. 5,000 15,000
Rs. 15,000 25,000
Rs. 25,000 50,000
More than Rs. 50,000

One Response to Questionnaire on Sexual Harassment in Public Places
1. Safe Delhi Online Survey Says:
December 16th, 2006 .
[...] Have you faced sexual harassment in Delhi? Share your experience. Participate in
our online survey. [...]
B-114, Shivalik, Malviya Nagar, New Delhi 110017, India
Phone +91 11 2669 1219, +91 11 2669 1220 +91 11 2669 1220. Fax: +91 11 2669 1221
safedelhi@jagori.org . JAGORI Helpline +91 11 2669 2700 +91 11 2669 2700 . Other

Eve teasing in India: Assault or
harassment by another name
By Nidhi Dutt BBC News, Mumbai

It's an unfortunate truth that women are sexually harassed, and sometimes assaulted, the world
over. But in the Indian state of Maharashtra, there is an increasing determination to stamp out
"Eve teasing", as it is called here, for good.
It was afternoon and we had just finished filming. My colleague and I were piling into a rickshaw,
heading back to the bureau. And that's when it happened. We were suddenly surrounded by a
group of boys, barely teenagers.
At first the whole thing seemed harmless, if a little predictable - the cheery interest of a group of
bright eyed, smiling boys.
Their approach was not unusual, foreigners and cameras make for an unmissable attraction in
But it was only a matter of minutes, possibly seconds, before the smiles turned into a blur of
pawing, grabbing hands. Their indecent behaviour was punctuated by cheers, laughter and
explicit comments in Hindi.
Undercover police officers patrol the country's beaches
And that was it. I had been Eve-teased. Or as we describe it in the West, sexually harassed. In
broad daylight, on a street in a busy business district of Mumbai.
We managed to get away. Our rickshaw raced down the street in fits and bursts.
But those moments stayed with us - something unpleasant, unacceptable and from our
perspective, unforgivable had just happened.
But we also felt the irony of what had just happened.
This kind of harassment, often described in India as innocent play, is commonplace. Yet this is a
country in which the predominant Hindu religion worships female deities and claims to respect
I remembered that incident a few weeks ago, when I attended a candlelit vigil for two 20-
something young men.
Continue reading the main story
From Our Own Correspondent
Broadcast on Saturdays at 11:30 GMT on BBC Radio 4, and weekdays on BBC World Service
Listen to the BBC Radio 4 version
Download the podcast
Listen to the BBC World Service version
Explore the archive
They had been fatally stabbed while defending their female friends against a gang of Eve-
teasers. This crime took place in the evening on a crowded street full of restaurants and bars.
At the vigil, hundreds of people gathered in a park not far from where the incident took place, to
show support for the families of Keenan Santos and Reuben Fernandes.
A slideshow of photographs documenting their young lives played on a big screen. And woven
through the chords of the accompanying music were the sobs of a frail, old lady. Keenan's
grandmother was crying hysterically into her hands.
But there's more than grief to all of this. The way the investigation and legal proceedings have
unfolded has generated a lot of disquiet and shed a bright light on the failings of India's legal
One man who wants things to change is Valerian Santos, Keenan's father. In an emotional
speech at the vigil he urged the ordinary Mumbaikar to be more active in the pursuit of social
justice. To stop when they see someone being harassed, to stand up for women's rights and
name and shame those who sexually harass them.
Continue reading the main story
A misleading term
"Eve teasing" is used in India to refer to a wide variety of behaviour including molestation,
"flashing" or any verbal/physical sexual street harassment that falls short of rape.
It's an archaic term. The "Eve" part comes from the Old Testament and describing harassment
as "teasing" makes it sound almost like a mild romantic overture that should be tolerated - which
of course it should not.
Many people have protested that it is time to change this terminology. The Network of Women
in Media, India - a group of Indian women media professionals - has often voiced this demand.
But unfortunately, though some news rooms have tried to drop it, it is still used, both in the media
and in society more generally.
Sameera Khan, co-author of Why Loiter? Women & Risk on Mumbai Streets
But Mr Santos also said change must be backed up by a legal system that works with victims
and their families and not against them.
Valerian and a growing group of campaigners across the city are calling on the state government
to overhaul the way in which it deals with crimes of a sexual nature. They say that it should not
be possible, as it currently is, for the accused to come face to face with witnesses.
And neither should suspects be allowed to shave off facial hair or change their hairstyles while in
custody - also allowed. Campaigners say this makes successful identification hard and weights
justice in favour of the accused.
This shocking, violent case has made headlines across India. But it has also generated a new,
welcome conversation about the treatment of women across the country.
The government here in Maharashtra, of which Mumbai is the capital, says it will work to make
laws tougher and ensure that public areas are policed more vigilantly.
But as I've witnessed - and unfortunately experienced - it may be some time before things really
I was once told by a complete stranger: You can wear a trench coat and be covered from head to
toe in the depths of an Indian summer but a man with indecent intentions will still try his best to
ruin your day.
How to listen to From Our Own Correspondent:
BBC Radio 4: A 30-minute programme on Saturdays, 1130.
Second 30-minute programme on Thursdays, 1100 (some weeks only).
Listen online or download the podcast
BBC World Service:
Hear daily 10-minute editions Monday to Friday, repeated through the day, also available to
listen online.
Read more or explore the archive at the programme website.
A selection of your comments:
As an Indian, I'm deeply sorry for your experiences here and embarrassed about the stories
you've come across while in the country. I feel we have a long way to go as a society in terms of
learning basic public manners and how to show equal respect regardless of gender, wealth,
ethnicity, caste, or skin colour. However, the first step here is getting over denial.
AV, Mumbai, India
If you were "eve teased" in Mumbai that's rather the exception than the rule in a city where a
multitude of my female friends and relatives work late, and routinely, safely return home at 3am,
unmolested. There isn't a reporting bias - these educated women from liberal backgrounds, fully
aware of their rights, would throw a public fit if anything unseemly happened.
Jareen, Hong Kong
Being from India myself, I can say with certainty that terms such as "eve teasing" are generally
coined by the Indian media and other organisations without a proper understanding of the
"foreign" English language. Quite unintentionally, eve teasing does sound like a "mild romantic
overture". A true Hindu does respect women and does not "claim to respect women", but in a
country that tries to mimic the West, religion suddenly seems "uncool" and people do what they
Sri, London
During the times I have spent in India, I have had the misfortune to experience "eve-teasing",
from a simple wiggle of the eyebrows, to comments from a moving vehicle, down to actual sexual
assault that I was lucky to escape from . And yes, I was very modestly dressed. The issue needs
to be tackled from several angles - the attitudes leading up to the behaviour, the action (or non-
action) of bystanders and the law.
Anjali, Luton
This happens a lot in cities like Karachi, Pakistan as well. I once was walking down a not so well-
travelled street. A teenaged school girl was walking in front of me. We passed a group of 18-
something boys, who started harassing the girl. I couldn't stand the harassment so I asked them
to stop. Bad idea! I got attacked by them. I got lucky to walk away with only a black eye and
some bruises. Good thing for the girl that the group got distracted.
Imran Pirwani, Cupertino, USA
One winter in Delhi my mother and I walked to an auto stand in rush hour as traffic wasn't
moving and I was repeatedly groped by several men in the crush of the crowd in which situation
identification is impossible. There is little one can do except stab viciously with elbows and fight
down panic. My mothers' shouts and attempts to assist me had little effect in the sea of people.
Lisa, Leicester, UK
It seems as if Westerners are seen as an easy target. After having my breast grabbed while on
an indian rickshaw, I don't think the young perpetrator was expecting me to hop off the rickshaw
slap him across his face and hop back on before he could take in what had happened. Hopefully
the embarrassment it caused in front of his friends made him think twice before doing it again.
Emma, London, UK
My wife was "eve-teased" on more than one occasion during our first visit to New Delhi, even
when I was walking down the street with her. We did get revenge though, one Indian gentleman
was so preoccupied with "staring" at my wife he walked into a lamp post, much to our delight.
Rob, UK
My girlfriend was mercilessly "Eve Teased" despite always dressing modestly on a recent first
trip to Kerela in Southern India. I was with her on all the occasions it happened, which
unfortunately is no deterrent to the local male perpetrators.
Duncan, London, UK
I spent 8 months in India, and traveled from Kanya Kumari to the Himalaya in 2005/2006 and this
happened to me and the other women in the university on a daily basis, everywhere. I am not
exaggerating - everywhere, every day. And how you're dressed is not only irrelevant, it doesn't
change anything - it still happens, because it's not about sex, it's about violence.
Yoana, Sofia, Bulgaria
Why would you introduce the term "eve teasing" while acknowledging the inappropriateness of
this term in the same article? Call it what it is, harrasment.
Joseph, London, UK
Day in and day out young minds are bombarded with lecherous scenes and songs from high
budget films in which teasing girls is shown as a romantic act and therefore acceptable. Decency
and values are scoffed at as something that stands in the way of progress.
Zubair, Islamabad, Pakistan
We traveled around India on motorbikes for six months - two female riders on two bikes. We
wore rings and had to talk, very occasionally, about our "husbands" farther up the road on their
own motorbikes. We never had any problems of this type in the 10,000 miles we did all over
Kelley, Edinburgh, Scotland
I think this is part of a much wider discriminatory stance towards women in India. The practice of
female infanticide, prevalent in large parts of rural India, belies the claim that disrespecting
women is a new, urban, "secular" phenomenon.
Wikus, Cape Town, South Africa
I have been raised in India and lived there till I was 27 years old. I lived in one of the most liberal
city and experienced the sexual harrassment everytime I used the public transport (Bus, Train
and shared taxi or auto) since the age of 10. Mind that I am from an educated and upper middle
class section of India not even thinking about the people who are far more vulnerable.
SG, Columbus OH, USA
I am really sorry to hear that this happened to you in my country and I apologise for the incident.
Our society has a way to go in terms of such attitudes but you also did write about those guys in
Mumbai who were killed for trying to stop eve teasing. Please do not portray all Indian men as
the types you are writing against here. I really wish such things would not happen in my country.
Udai, New Delhi
As an Indian woman living in UK for the last couple of years, the only reason that makes me not
want to return to India is this sexual harassment. Indian men are a terrible lot. I have been
harassed on multiple occasions and not just by the "poor , un-educated" lot but even by the
educated ones. I love the anonymity of London where I don't have to deal with 10 males leering
at me,where I can ride the tubes without being groped.
Nisha, London
Because Western women are known to view dating and sex more casually, we are seen by many
in a hyper sexualized way even when dressed modestly and acting appropriately. Because of the
stigma of dating before marriage, many young Indian men are inexperienced in dating and are
sexually frustrated. This, combined with the normalization of sexual harrasment, leads to many
women becoming victims of assault.
Emily, Vancouver, Canada

The Times of India, Mumbai
Eve-teasing double-murder: Amboli girls to cite sexual harassment,
says main complainant
The author has posted comments on this articleMahafreed Irani & Sanjeev Shivadekar, TNN | Nov 6,
2011, 05.29AM IST

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MUMBAI: While the FIR and witness statements recorded in the Amboli double murder case
reportedly have no mention of eve teasing or sexual harassment, the main complainant said
that two statements expected to be recorded on Sunday will mention there was sexual
harassment before Keenan Santos , 24, and Reuben Fernandez , 29, were killed.

Santos and Fernandez were knifed on October 20 outside the Amboli Bar and Kitchen,
allegedly after they objected to women in their group being sexually harassed.

While Santos died that night itself, Reuben died on October 31. The tragedy has led to an
outcry in the city against the sexual harassment of women and for better policing.

Avinash Solanki, who was one of the seven friends in Santos's group outside the eatery, said
two women in their group, Priyanka Fernandes and a girl who left town after the attack,
would record statements with the D N Nagar police on Sunday. Fernandes, 19, was Santos's
girlfriend, while the other girl left town because she was too traumatized. Solanki told TOI
that the two girls' statements would clearly detail the sexual harassment that occurred on
October 20.

The FIR filed by the police makes no mention of eve-teasing or sexual harassment . The case
has been registered under IPC sections 302 (murder), 324 (causing hurt by dangerous
weapons) and 34 (common intention ). The FIR reportedly states that Santos and his friends
were at a paan shop when they got into an altercation with an unknown man there. The man,
Jitendra Rana, 25, was then slapped by a member of Santos's group, after which Rana
threatened revenge and left with his three friends. Rana and a gang later returned with knives
and sticks. Santos and Fernandez were knifed. The police have arrested Rana, Sunil Bodh,
20, Satish Dulhaj, 35, and Dipak Tival, 19, for the murders.

Solanki said the fight initially began because girls in their group were being sexually harassed
by Rana's group. When Santos and his friends protested, a fight broke out. Solanki said
sexual harassment was left out of the FIR because they were filing a murder case and also
wanted to protect the girls. "At that point it was an immediate decision to intentionally not
talk about the sexual harassment or eve teasing, because we wanted to protect the identity of
the girls," said Solanki. He said he gave his statement on October 21, when he still hadn't
recovered from the grief and shock of what had happened . "Besides the stress, I was worried
that the media would publicly announce the girls' names, which would cause them additional
trauma," said Solanki, himself a police informer.

There were three girls in all in Santos's group. "We have been advised and encouraged by the
D N Nagar cops to clearly mention sexual harassment instead of staying quiet and worrying
about privacy ," Solanki said. Vijay Kumar Bhoite, senior inspector , D N Nagar police, said
the police are ready to take down any sexual harassment complaint when it is made. He
added, "The third female friend has already recorded her statement , but there is no mention
of sexual harassment in it." Meanwhile, family members of two of the four accused said the
men were innocent. When TOI team visited the Valmiki Nagar slum, Dipak Tival's mother
Anitha said, "My son is innocent. Ask anyone in Valmiki Nagar, there is not a single
complaint against my son. The police can keep who is guilty, but must release the others."
She said Dipak has been sweeping at the Jogeshwari and Versova police stations. Sunil
Bodh's wife Sangeeta said, "Sunil works as a sweeper. He has no criminal record and does
not lose his temper . Why would he murder anyone?" Rana is the only one of the four men
held who doesn't live in Valmiki Nagar.

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Eve teasing: The power game
Despite the jocular connotations the term carries, eve-teasing is a serious issue.
By Tehniya S Afridi
Published: July 8, 2013
Despite the jocular connotations the term carries, eve-teasing is a serious issue.
Our chivalrous Pakistani bhais would have us believe that they are too shareef to be
guilty of sexual misconduct, but the Pakistani behns would beg to differ.
Take an average trip to the bazaar. The smooching sound, the brush past, and the outright
poking are complemented by a high dose of gawking. While the rest of the world calls it
sexual harassment, in our virtuous part of the world it is euphemistically referred to as eve-
teasing. This term stands for public or sexual harassment on the street that encompasses any
act or words by which a man makes a woman feel uncomfortable and anxious.

There is considerable overlap between sexual harassment and eve-teasing, with the main
difference lying in the intensity of the acts, eve-teasing being milder. While sexual
harassment can be preceded by a history of interaction and usually involves a known target,
eve-teasers zone in on their target on the spot and look for random opportunities. In a
majority, but not all cases, sexual harassment tends to take place in closed spaces and the
identity of the culprit is usually known; eve-teasing is generally experienced outdoors,
usually in the marketplace or on the streets, and the teaser is an unknown male. In sexual
harassment the harasser usually takes advantage of a higher rank, powerful position or
physical strength. On the other hand, eve-teasing is almost a recreational activity. It is fun
for the boys. It is a difficult crime to prove and the eve-teaser takes advantage of his gender.
Finally, in sexual harassment, the harasser and the victim tend to have an established contact,
for example boss and employee, uncle and niece, whereas in eve-teasing, it is often their first
and only encounter.
You know youre being eve-teased when you hear those wolf whistles behind you when you
go out shopping or are jabbed while getting on a bus. There are hundreds of ways to do it:
whistling, ogling, making kissing sounds, sexist and sexual comments, vulgar gestures,
stalking, inappropriate touching. In extreme cases, there can be outright flashing, assault or
extremely inappropriate acts in public.
The target can be any age and of any social background, as can be the culprit.

Given the short time span in which it can be experienced, eve-teasing is not taken as seriously
as it should by women. Actually, it has far-reaching consequences. After all, something that
has been labeled little rape by certain feminist writers cannot be mere pestering. In
Bangladesh, the non-profit organisation The Hunger Project found that eve-teasing not only
harms women, it actually has a negative effect on human and social development. According
to their findings, eve-teased girls often drop out of school to avoid their tormentors, and
because parents fear for their honour. These girls are then forced into early marriages,
which has a deep impact on maternal nutrition and health. These girls become mothers at a
younger age and give birth to babies with lower birth weights. So, this form of harassment
contributes to maintaining the low status of women. In the book Sexual Harassment:
Contemporary Feminist Perspectives, Barbara Bagilhole, who has researched and published
extensively on gender, diversity and equal opportunities, says that eve-teasing in India
reflects a gender bias in society, proving that males are dominant while females are helpless.
In eve-teasing, a man, knowing that he is stronger than the opposite sex, uses his power to
bully women. It is a power game in which the man is the predator and the woman is preyed
upon. Perhaps the most alarming thing about eve-teasing is that it is the first rung on the
ladder of sex crimes.
An eve-teased female feels weak and frustrated and may experience depression and low self-
esteem. Being harassed on the streets can prompt her to withdraw or become constantly
anxious. Dozens of girls have committed suicide in India and Bangladesh on account of eve-
teasing. These findings were corroborated by the telecommunications company in Pakistan
when it asked a research firm to explore the common problems faced by Pakistani youth,
which were then addressed in its ad campaigns. The company discovered that eve-teasing
was the most serious and widespread issue faced by young women in Pakistan and that it
hinders their chances of progress by limiting them to their homes.

At the same time, the seriousness of the issue is downplayed by the playful connotations
associated with the term eve-teasing. By referring to the victim as Eve, it is almost as if
women were temptresses bent on inciting innocent men into improper conduct. This appears
to be a chronic problem in harassment cases the victim is often made out to be culpable.
When I started talking to women and men about eve-teasing, I found that women
change their attire in response to being harassed. However, despite the generally modest attire
that is observed on the streets, there doesnt appear to be any decline in harassment. Any
woman who reports harassment always mentions what she was wearing, says Ambreen
Ajaib, who is a psychologist at the NGO Bedari. Bedari handles the issue of sexual
harassment but only about 50 to 70 women contact them per year.
In Pakistan, no proper research studies have been carried out on this topic. It is hard to even
estimate figures for sexual harassment cases. Its difficult to get exact figures because few
women have access to us and because many women believe that the fault lies with them
that a woman normally lures the man and that if she is dressed a certain way she will be
harassed, says Ajaib.
In India, organisations such as the Blank Noise Project, an anti-street-harassment initiative,
and anti-eve-teasing laws in Bangladesh are successfully playing their part in curbing this
menace. An Anti Eve Teasing Day is celebrated in Bangladesh every year to highlight the
issue. In Pakistan, theres a Protection against Harassment at the Workplace Act 2009 and
Dr Fouzia Saeed, a founding member of the Alliance Against Sexual Harassment (Aasha), is
hopeful that this law will help fight sexual harassment.
Published in The Express Tribune, Ms T, July 7
, 2013.
Like MsT on Facebook, follow @TribmagMsT on Twitter for your dose of girl talk.
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The unromantic truth about Eve-teasing
Source: Thomson Reuters Foundation - Fri, 6 Jul 2012 17:00 GMT
Author: Fiona Salter

Any views expressed in this article are those of the author and not of Thomson Reuters
In advance of the London Summit on Family Planning, the International Planned Parenthood
Federation (IPPF), convened a special Young People and Family Planning Summit to
focus on a critical factor in the debate: young people.
The IPPF event brought together key opinion formers and activists working in young
peoples sexual health . Special guests were the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for
International Development Stephen OBrien (from DFID), and Joe Cerrell (European
Director of the Gates Foundation).
IPPF Director General Tewodros Melesse and the Federations Senior Youth Adviser Doortje
Braeken were joined by three young people from Bangladesh, Nigeria and Zambia who have
direct personal experience of working peer-to-peer, in the field.
Their animated debate laid bare the complexity of the issues that will have to be addressed if
the London Summit on July 11 is to translate its principles and pledges into practice.
Family planning is more than just providing contraceptives - its also about creating the kind
of environment where women feel their rights are respected. One of the young
representatives, Mafusa from Bangladesh, raised this important issue with regard to Eve
teasing - which many of us will recognise as sexual harassment.
A worrying number of girls and women in Bangladesh have recently committed suicide in the
country to escape "Eve-teasing", a euphemism for sexual harassment. It sounds like a
romantic overture but it can range from obscenities and gestures to grabbing and physical
sexual assault.
Those who are teased become afraid to go to school and sometimes guardians do not allow
them to go to school for their safety and honour. So the drop-out rate of female students in
many schools is increasing.
In some places, schools have been shut down and exams delayed because of the problems
caused by Eve- teasing stalkers.
Another negative manifestation of the problem is the tendency of parents to push underage
daughters into early marriages so that they can escape Eve teasing. Parents think that if their
daughter has a husband, they will be safe.
Critics argue that laws which should prohibit sexual harassment are so poorly drafted that
victims get virtually no help from the law enforcement agencies. Victims can feel there is
no-one they can turn to, as Mafusa explains:
My neighbour, a 17 old college student, was being Eve-teased by a boy on her way to
The boy and his friends blocked her way and made suggestive remarks. She became angry
and protested.
But the stalker was the son of a local community leader, a powerful man.
The teasing became intolerable, she told her mother. Her mother punished her, saying that
she must have encouraged it.
The harassment continued. Her father took it up with the teasers father, the community
leader. He claimed his son was beyond reproach, polite and respectful. Its your daughter
whos a liar, he said.
When he heard she had reported him, the boy became more aggressive, even his friends
joined in. Once again the girl told her mother, this time she was slapped and reprimanded.
Then the teaser went too far, he boasted that the girl was his lover. Although it was a lie, she
felt blamed and stigmatised.
The next morning she didnt appear for breakfast. When her parents broke down the bedroom
door, she was found hanged from the ceiling fan.
Mafusa has been working with IPPFs Member Association (FPAB) to tackle the issue. They
invite boys - including known teasers - to sports, computer games and talent competitions at
the Tara Mela (FPABs youth centre) and use the opportunity to open a discussion about Eve-
The Tara Mela provides a safe environment where girls and boys can come together and
socialize in positive ways. They also arrange sessions with guardians, parents, teachers and
villagers to make them aware of the issue. The idea is that through activities and information
sessions they boys, parents, elders - will all become agents of change. Change is urgently
needed. And a name change. Eve-teasing needs to be called what it is bullying, says
A report of the meeting will appear on the day of the London Summit on Family Planning.
** This blog was written by Fiona Salter, a London-based writer at the IPPF, the worlds
largest sexual and reproductive health and rights NGO 88
Street Sexual Harassment (Eve Teasing)
Women do not ask to be sexually harassed. Excusing Street Sexual Harassment (euphemistically
called Eve Teasing) as a reaction to women being in the wrong place, at the wrong time, in the
wrong company and in the wrong attire encourages sexual crimes.


A serious crime against women is dismissed lightly by giving it a softer name, says Shoma A.
EVE-TEASING and sexual harassment both victimise women more than men, as is evident in South Asian
societies like India. The power hierarchy between the victimiser, mostly a man, and the victim, mostly a girl
or a woman, is almost the same with the former using his power over the latter within patriarchy. Is it a
gender-specific crime as is generally understood? Is there a difference in the power hierarchy implied that
sustains between the victimiser and the victim in degree or in kind between the two? Should punishments in
either case differ?
Eve-teasing violates a womans basic right to live with dignity. Will
women forever remain targets and victims of eve-teasing? Will their
rescuers continue to be unwilling martyrs to a dead cause? One needs
to explore and analyse why, irrespective of their dress, their age,
their looks, their education or profession, women are being subjected
to harassment from obscene telephone calls, stalking, and last but
not the least eve-teasing. These questions are significant against
the backdrop of the killing of two young men in Mumbai last month,
who were killed because they protested against their women friends
being insulted by four drunken men.
Shameful incidents
Twentynine-year-old Reuben Fernandez and 24-year-old Keenan
Santos were brutally stabbed by these men. These murders have
raised the hackles of citizens on a national scale.
In July this year, two persons of a family were allegedly killed and two
others injured in a clash for opposing eve-teasing at Harphali village
in Palwal district, Haryana. Layak Ram and his nephew Naveen were
killed while Shashi and Gambeer were critically injured in a clash,
which erupted when Ram accused a neighbourhood boy of eve-
teasing his daughter.
In April, 1998, Elvis Mukherjee of Kolkata, studying for his higher secondary
exams, was murdered because he had protested against a bunch of eve-
teasers. His killers are still at large. On July 6, 2002, in Sodepur, near Kolkata,
eve-teasers chopped off three fingers of a 55-year-old tea vendor when he
protested against some boys, who always teased girls getting off the train at
Sodepur railway station to go to college.
"Eve-teasing is just a euphemism for sexual harassment or molestation, where
the woman is bullied by unwelcome remarks, comments, gestures or other acts
that are sexual in nature. It is only when people are unclear in their minds or
scared of the perceived consequences that they would keep quiet and let the
perpetrator continue with and become a victim of it. Women should stand up in
such situations than subject themselves to physical or psychological pain," says
Dr Sanjay Chugh, practicing psychiatrist, New Delhi.
Faulty mindset
Women are often criticised for inviting molesters by way of their seductive
way of dressing up and make-up. But this theory collapses in the face of eve-
teasing of rustic, illiterate and poor village women who do not dress seductively.
What does seductive dressing mean? Who decides what is seductive dressing
and what is not? Womens rights activist Maitreyee Chatterjee says that even a
burqa cannot guarantee safety. "Section 354 of the Indian Penal Code, which
mentions the arrest of a culprit for attempt to outrage the modesty of a woman,
does not have any condition about the victims dress. Any sexual advance that offends the dignity of women
should be considered rape."

Twentynine-year-old Reuben Fernandez
and 24-year-old Keenan Santos were
brutally stabbed by four drunken men in
Mumbai because they protested against
their women friends being insulted by
those goons

Women are often criticised for
inviting molesters by wearing
seductive dresses. This
theory, however, collapses
since poor village women, who
do not dress seductively, are
also harassed
Filmmaker Anindita Sarbadhikari says that eve-teasing and
molestation are acts of perversion. "It is foolish to think that
molesters get turned on by the victims dress. Then why are
there so many rapes in Islamic countries?"
Like rape, molestation and sexual harassment, eve-teasing is
generally understood in feminist theory to be an expression
not of unbridled lust and desire, but of power.
Women in Bangalore constantly face leers from passers-by,
taxi and rickshaw drivers. In buses, groping is common. Once,
when a woman yelled at the person touching her, she was
thrown off the bus! This fear does not exist only for women,
who use public transport or walk. You can get teased even in
your self-driven car, if you have to stop to change a flat tyre.
Not funny
Anugyan Nag, filmmaker and Junior Research Fellow at the
College of Art and Aesthetics, Jawaharlal Nehru University,
says, "I believe there is a very thin line between sexual
harassment and eve-teasing because no matter what men say
about eve-teasing being a little fun; it is as heinous as sexual harassment, for it causes mental agony,
social humiliation and forces one to ostracise oneself out of fear.
Bandana Dutta, consultant psychologist, Winthrob Hospital, Guwahati, insists that eve-teasing and sexual
harassment lie along the same continuum as both victimise girls and women by ridiculing and humiliation.
"Eve-teasing is generally resorted to by a group of people, who might not know the woman they are
victimising. It may be verbal or non-verbal. But in some cases, feeling and touching could also happen.
Sexual harassment began at the workplace and later extended beyond the work environment. It is gender-
specific to women in India but not in the western world. Sexual harassment is more specific and direct. It
may be in the form of words, sending dirty text messages, obscene pictures, innuendo, suggestive remarks
and sometimes, direct sexual attack. When eve-teasing transcends the verbal and becomes physical, it goes
beyond eve-teasing and becomes sexual harassment," she says.
The remedy
A remedy suggested by some senior police officers of Bangalore seems to be quite rational and effective at
the same time. "Whipping them black and blue," they suggest, adding, "Besides offering the victim instant
justice, it would also help the legal system from getting clogged with cases where most often than not, the
culprit is let off."
In Delhi, policewomen pose as women commuters and pull up men when they attempt to molest or tease
them. But problems may arise if this action of pretence by the policewomen is seen as entrapment. Women
constables in Kolkatas Salt Lake area are also functioning as undercover agents from the Bidhan Nagar
(north) police station by acting as decoys. Three young woman constables were able to round up a total of
60 offenders within the first month in April 2007 of their operation. All the offenders, say the policewomen,
were between 18 and 28.
An officer posted at Bidhan Nagar P.S., Kolkata, thinks that laws against eve-teasing are not stringent.
"There is no law that can bring them to task," he says. "They are penalised with a meagre fine ranging from
Rs 10 to Rs 100 or three days imprisonment in lieu of the fine. Until proper and more stringent punishment
is meted out, one cannot stop this," he adds.
When women protest against violence to their person by men, other women, social groups or the
machineries of the government, they are again victimised.
The eyes of the man who accosts a woman with evil intentions will be extracted, wrote Chanakya in the
Arthashastra, while defending the rule of Chandragupta Maurya. Two hundred years later, the woman is not
spared the evil intentions of men. Their eyes are hardly the only offending organs of their body used to
insult a woman.
The victim/complainant should go to the nearest police station and file an FIR within the mandatory rules
She should take note that the FIR is written down in the register and take the registration number or ask
for a receipt of the same
It is then the duty of the police to investigate into the incident vide the constitutional powers it has at its

Activists are waking up to the seriousness of the
problem and are trying to sensitise society Photo:
Manas Ranjan Bhui
It is advisable to consult a lawyer before registering the FIR

In the Indian Penal Code, the word eve-teasing does not exist. Eve-teasing is an attitude, a behaviour
pattern that is construed as an insult and an act of humiliation of the female sex. However, recourse to
certain sections of the IPC can be taken by victims of eve-teasing.
Section 298 (A) and (B) of the Indian Penal Code sentences a man found guilty of making a girl or
woman the target of obscene gestures, remarks, songs or recitation for a maximum tenure of three
months. Section 292 of the IPC clearly spells out that showing pornographic or obscene pictures, books or
slips to a woman or girl draws a fine of Rs 2,000 with two years of rigorous imprisonment for first-time
offender. In case of repeated offence, when and if proved, the offender will be slapped with a fine of Rs 5,
000 with five years imprisonment.
Under Section 509 of the IPC, obscene gestures, indecent body language and acidic comments directed
at any woman or girl carries a penalty of rigorous imprisonment of one-year or a fine or both.

Saturday, December 17, 2011

A serious crime against women is dismissed lightly by giving it a softer name,
says Shoma A. Chatterji
EVE-TEASING and sexual harassment both victimise women
more than men, as is evident in South Asian societies like
India. The power hierarchy between the victimiser, mostly a
man, and the victim, mostly a girl or a woman, is almost the
same with the former using his power over the latter within
patriarchy. Is it a gender-specific crime as is generally
understood? Is there a difference in the power hierarchy
implied that sustains between the victimiser and the victim in
degree or in kind between the two? Should punishments in
either case differ?
Guiding force
Dev Anand-starrer Guide effectively juxtaposes modern
sensibility against age-old belief and prejudice, and
desire against disillusionment. The film is a case study
of Bollywood's 'success formula'
IN the midst of volumes of accolades, the media is showering on the one and only Dev Anand following his
passing away, it would be in context to reflect on the best film he gifted to Indian cinema from his
production banner Navketan Films.
How to be a sensible party animal this festival season
It is always a great idea to be safe than sorry while enjoying a party. Keep these do's and don'ts
in mind, writes Smiti Munwani
HOW are you going to say goodbye to 2011 and welcome the first rays of 2012? Maybe huddled in your
blanket in front of the TV watching the world celebrate or partying with a small group of friends. If you are
the partying kind then the New Year could herald a lot more to cheer about. The start of the year generally
sees party animals warm up to clink the glasses. Are you fully equipped for all the action that is about to


THIS ABOVE ALL: Unanswered questions about Islam
by Khushwant Singh
GOOD MOTORING: New cars on the block
by H. Kishie Singh
WEBSIDE HUMOUR: Helpless creature
Compiled by Sunil Sharma

by Karuna Goswamy
Campus Sexual Violence

Data on Campus Sexual Violence

College women have an even higher rate of sexual victimization than most woman in
the United Statesseveral national studies have indicated that 5% of college
females experience rape within an academic year (Kilpatrick, Resnick, Ruggiero,
Conoscenti, & McCauley, 2007; Mohler-Kuo, Dowdall, Koss, & Wechsler, 2004)).
Women within the typical age bracket of college students, ages 20 to 24, also
experience the largest per capita rate of nonfatal intimate partner violence (Catalano,
2007) and the highest rate of stalking (Baum, Catalano, Rand, & Rose, 2009).

The National College Women Sexual Victimization Study used a national sample of
4,446 women who were attending a 2- or 4-year college or university. It reported 35
incidents of rape per year for every 1,000 female students at an institution of higher
education (Fisher, Cullen, & Turner, 2000). For a campus with 10,000 women, this
would mean 350 rapes or more during an academic year. In addition to rape, this
study found that the incidents of other forms of sexual violence (sexual coercion,
unwanted sexual contact and threats of sexual victimization) ranged from 9.5 to 66.4
per 1,000 female students.

Who are the Perpetrators?
Nine out of ten of the rape victims in the National College Women Sexual
Victimization Study knew their offendersmost often they were their boyfriends, ex-
boyfriends, classmates, friends, acquaintances, or co-workers. Another survey
indicated that three out of four sexual assault victims knew their offender (Hart,
2003). Among college students, 13% of completed, 35% of attempted, and 23% of
threatened rapes took place while on a date (Fisher, Cullen, & Turner, 2000).
Clearly, the vast majority of rapes on campus are perpetrated by someone known to
the victims rather than by strangers.

Back to Top

Risk Factors for Sexual Victimization of College Students
Numerous risk factors, including those briefly summarized below, are associated
with sexual victimization of college students. This summary is meant only to identify
key risk factors that may contribute to sexual victimization. How these factors
contribute to sexual victimization are detailed in the cited references. Note that most
studies cited focus on women rather than men due to the high rates of sexual assault
of college women.

Victims are never responsible for sexual assaults perpetrated against them. The
presence of one or more risk factors does not cause or justify sexual assault.
Perpetrators must be held fully accountable for their actions.

Prior Victimization
Women who experience a sexual assault while attending college, as well as those
who have been sexually assaulted prior to college, are at risk for further victimization
during their college careers (Fisher, Cullen & Turner, 2000). Similarly, women who
have a history of dating violence are more at risk for sexual violence while in college
(American College Health Association, 2004).

Alcohol and Drug Use
Given the widespread use of alcohol in college social settings, it is no surprise that a
majority of sexual assaults of college women involve alcohol consumption, by either
or both the victims and perpetrators (Abbey, 2002; Abbey et al., 1996; Koss et al.,
1987; Presley et al., 1997; as cited in Mohler-Kuo et al., 2004). One study found that
at least half of all acquaintance rapes took place after the perpetrator, the victim or
both had been drinking (Tjaden & Thoennes, 2006). Attending a college where
heavy drinking is the norm (where more than 50 percent of students "binge drink")
has been related to increased risk of alcohol-involved sexual assault (Mohler-Kuo et
al., 2004; Norris, 2008). Heavy drinking puts victims at risk for more severe sexual
assaults (Abbey, Clinton-Sherrod, McAuslan, Zawacki, & Buck, 2003). Drug use has
also been associated with increased risk of sexual assault, especially sexual assault
while intoxicated (Mohler-Kuo et al., 2004). There is a strong connection between
alcohol consumption and drug-facilitated rape. One study found that 84.9 percent of
drug-facilitated sexual assaults were preceded by the victim's voluntary alcohol
consumption (Lawyer et al, 2010).

See Norris (2008) and Abbey (2008) for a discussion of the multiple, complex ways
that alcohol contributes to sexual assault perpetration and victimization. Alcohol does
not cause someone to be a sex offender or a victim. It can, however, reduce the
inhibitions of offenders and render their victims helpless.

Class Rank and Age
College students are at an increased risk of sexual victimization during their first
weeks of school (sometimes referred to by campus prevention programs as the "Red
Zone"). There is also a greater risk of sexual victimization for freshmen and
sophomores than for juniors and seniors. One study found that during their first four
semesters at college, 84 percent of women experienced sexually coercive
experiences (Gross et al., 2006). In addition, underage women are more likely to
experience sexual assault than those 21 and over (Mohler-Kuo et al., 2004).

Living Environment
Sexual assaults occur both on and off campus, in the victims' living quarters and
other living quarters and at fraternities, bars, nightclubs and work settings (Fisher,
Cullen & Turner, 2000). Research suggests that students who live in sorority houses
or belong to sororities have an increased risk for sexual victimization (Copenhaver &
Grauerholz, 1991; Franklin, 2010; Kalof, 1993; Mohler-Kuo et al., 2004; Tyler, Holt &
Whitbeck, 1998).

Greek Affiliation
As indicated above, there is some evidence that being a member of a sorority
increases the risk of sexual victimization. Fraternity members and student athletes
are more likely than any other men on campus to commit a sexual assault (Murnen &
Kohlman, 2007). Fisher, Cullen and Turner (2000) found that of the rapes reported
by students surveyed in their study, 10.3 percent occurred in a fraternity house.

Race/ Ethnicity
White women and Native Americans appear to be most at-risk for rape on a college
campus while Asian-Americans have the lowest risk (Tjaden & Theonnes, 2006).
However, white women are less likely to experience physically forced or threatened
forcible rapes than women of other ethnicities or races (Mohler-Kuo et al., 2004).

Consensual Sexual Experiences
There is a correlation between the number of sex partners a college woman has had
and an increased risk for being sexually assaulted, especially when intoxicated
(Tyler, Hoyt, & Whitbeck, 1998; Parks et al., 2008). One study (Parks et al, 2008)
indicates that "women who have more consensual sexual partners are more likely to
encounter a sexually aggressive individual and are more likely to experience sexual
victimization." At the same time, women who increased their drinking are more likely
to be behaviorally and cognitively impaired and less likely to recognize, avoid or
defend against sexual aggression (Science Daily, 2008).

Back to Top

Sexual Harassment on College Campuses
Sexual harassment is a widespread problem on college campuses. The American
Association of University Women Education Foundation estimates that two-thirds of
college students have an experience with sexual harassment by the end of
their college career (Hill & Silva, 2005).

Victim Reactions
The emotional trauma associated with sexual harassment can lead student victims to
have difficulty concentrating, have lower grades, be absent and withdraw from
classes, change majors and drop out of school (Sexual Harassment Support, 2011).

Sexual Harassment Laws that Apply to Students
Sexual harassment is a civil rights violation of federal and state discrimination laws in
qualifying settings. The law applicable in educational settings is Title IX of the
Education Amendment of 1972. The amendment prohibits sexual harassment in
schools and colleges that receive federal funding. Additionally, employed college
students may be protected by federal or state laws if sexual harassment occurs at
their workplaces.

What Can Victims on College Campuses Do?
Victims should become familiar with the sexual harassment policies and
grievance/complaint procedures of the college/university and file a report
accordingly. This information is most likely found in each campus's student
handbook. Once familiar with the policy, students can then choose whether to report
the sexual harassment or bring the matter to the attention of a higher authority on
campus. Some policies may require that a report be made within a certain amount of
time, so it is important that victims familiarize themselves with these policies as early
as possible.

Back to Top

Reporting Sexual Assaults on College Campuses
Note that the following information is not presented as legal advice, but as basic

Options for Reporting
Generally, college students have two reporting options. It is their decision whether or
not to report.

Reporting a sexual assault to local law enforcement activates the criminal justice
system, which can potentially provide protection to victims, case investigation and,
with sufficient evidence, prosecution of the offenders. (Office on Violence Against
Women, 2004).
Reporting a sexual assault to the campus judicial system allows the
college/university the opportunity to investigate the case and potentially take action
that could result in disciplinary action against the offender.
It is important for college victims to understand that reports to the local criminal
justice system and campus judicial system are separate. Campus policies differ, so
students will need to find out the specific procedure on their campus. Any report of a
sexual assault on a campus should initiate an investigation that is reviewed by the
campus judicial system and has the potential for a campus-related judiciary action,
such as expulsion. Victims should also understand that, although there is no statute
of limitations in reporting a sexual assault in the criminal justice system, reporting to
the campus may have time limits depending on the nature of the incident.

On some campuses, reporting the assault activates both the criminal justice system
and the campus judicial system. On other campuses, victims have to report the
assault to both the campus and local law enforcement to activate both systems.

Students who report may also wish to consider seeking a private attorney to
advocate on their behalf in a criminal case or during campus judicial system

Special Note Regarding the Collection of Evidence and Not Initially Reporting
the Assault to Law Enforcement
Victims can go to a licensed medical facility within about 96 hours of the assault for
potential evidence to be collected through a forensic medical examination without
reporting the assault to law enforcement (if it is a non-mandatory reporting situation).
If a victim chooses to have a forensic medical examination but does NOT want to
initiate or participate in any investigation relating to the sexual assault, the forensic
evidence is collected and stored at Marshall University Forensic Center (MUFSC). It
is important to note that if liquid samples were collected as a part of the toxicology kit
(blood and urine), the samples will have a limited life span and will degrade over
time. All samples collected as a part of the rest of the examination (swabs, etc) will
have an unlimited lifespan if collected and dried properly.

Should the decision be made later to initiate an investigation in a non-reported case,
the victim would need to contact law enforcement and provide the kit tracking
number for law enforcement to be able to secure the sex crime evidence collection
kit from MUFSC.

If an investigation has not been initiated within 18 months from its time of collection,
the evidence collection kit will be categorized as "non-active." Samples collected as
part of the forensic medical examination in "non-active" kits may be used for training
purposes once all identifying information has been removed. After the 18 month time
period, if the "non-active" sex crime evidence collection kit has not been used for
training purposes, the victim can still request that an investigation be initiated. There
is no statute of limitations on reporting a sexual assault in West Virginia.

Back to Top

Civil Legal and Other Remedies
As has been noted, very few college student sexual assault victims report their
victimization (Fisher, Daigle, Cullen & Turner, 2003). Some of the common reasons
include fear of retaliation by perpetrators and others in the community, fear of
rejection by family/friends/acquaintances, self-blame and unwillingness to deal with
the humiliation, loss of privacy and negativity they perceive would accompany a
report (Office on Violence Against Women, 2004). Given this reluctance to report, it
is important for victims to know other available options.

Civil legal options (e.g., to pursue monetary compensation for losses suffered),
either in place of or in addition to criminal/campus judicial system actions. Civil legal
options may be influenced by state statute of limitations.
Non-legal services available to help victims heal, both on-campus and in the
community (most of which are not influenced by reporting decisions; with one
exception: access to West Virginia Crime Victim Compensation funds). For example,
a student victim may want counseling or assistance in transferring to a different on-
campus residence or out of a class she attends with the offender. Local rape crisis
centers provide free and confidential services to students.

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Campus Sexual Assault Victims' Bill of Rights
A related federal amendment, the Campus Sexual Assault Victims' Bill of Rights, was
passed in 1992. This amendment required schools to provide certain basic rights to
survivors of sexual assaults on campuses (Center for Public Integrity, 2010). These
rights include (Center for Public Integrity, 2010):

Giving alleged victims and assailants equal opportunity to have others present in
disciplinary proceedings and equal notification of the outcome of such proceedings;
Notifying alleged victims of counseling services and their right to pursue legal
ramifications through local law enforcement; and
Notifying alleged victims of their option to change classes or dormitory assignments
to avoid contact with alleged assailants.

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Abbey, A. (2008). Alcohol and Sexual Violence Perpetration. Harrisburg, PA:
VAWnet, a project of the National Resource Center on Domestic
Violence/Pennsylvania Coalition Against Domestic Vio lence. See

Abbey, A. (2002). Alcohol-related sexual assault: A common problem among college
students. J. Stud. Alcohol, 14, 118-128.

Abbey, A., Clinton-Sherrod, A., McAuslan, P., Zawacki, T., & Buck, P. (2003). The
relationship between the quantity of alcohol consumed and the severity of sexual
assault committed by college men. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18, 813-833.

Abbey, A., Ross, L., McDuffie, D. & McAuslan, P. (1996). Alcohol and dating risk
factors for sexual assault among college women. Psychology of Women Quarterly,
20, 147-169.

American College Health Association (2004). National College Health Assessment:
Reference Group Executive Summary. Baltimore, MD: American College Health

Baum, K., Catalano, S., Rand, M. & Rose, K. (2009). Stalking victimization in the
United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice
Statistics. Through http://www.ncvc.org/sr.

Catalano, S. (2007). Intimate Partner Violence in the United States. Washington, DC:
U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Center for Public Integrity (2010). Reporter's toolkit: Investigating sexual assault
cases on your campus. Retrieved from:

Copenhaver, S. & Grauerholz, E. (1991). Sexual victimization among sorority
women: Exploring the links between sexual violence and institutional practices. Sex
Roles, 24(1-2), 31-41.

Fisher, B., Cullen, F. & Turner, M. (2000). The Sexual Victimization of College
Women. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.

Fisher, B., Daigle, L., Cullen, F., & Turner, M. (2003). Reporting sexual victimization
to the police and others: Results from a national-level study of college women.
Criminal Justice and Behavior, 30(1), 6-38.

Franklin, C. (2010). Physically forced, alcohol-induced, and verbally coerced sexual
victimization: Assessing risk factors among university women. Journal of Criminal
Justice, 30(2), 149-159.

Gross, A., Winslett, A., Roberts, M. & Gohm, C. (2006). An examination of sexual
violence against college women. Violence Against Women, 12(3), 288300.

Hart, T. (2003). Violent victimization of college students. Washington, DC: U.S.
Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Hill, C. & Silva, E. (2004). Drawing the line: Sexual harassment on campus.
Washington, DC: American Association of University Women Education Foundation.

Kalof, L. (1993). Rape supportive attitudes and sexual victimization experiences of
sorority and nonsorority women. Sex Roles, 29, 767-780.

Karjane, H., Fisher, B. & Cullen, F. (2005). Sexual assault on campus: What colleges
and universities are doing about it. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice,
National Institute of Justice.

Kilpatrick, D., Resnick, H., Ruggiero, K., Conoscenti, L., & McCauley, J. (2007). Drug
Facilitated, incapacitated and forcible rape: A national study. Charleston, SC:
National Crime Victims Research and Treatment Center.

Koss, M., Gidycz, C. & Wisniewski, N. (1987). The scope of rape: Incidence and
prevalence of sexual aggression and victimization in a national sample of higher
education students. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55(2), 162170.

Lawyer, S., Resnick, H., Bakanic, V., Burkett, T. & Kilpatrick, D. (2010). Forcible,
drug-facilitated and incapacitated rape and sexual assault among undergraduate
women. Journal of American College Health, 58(5), 453-460.

Mohler-Kuo, M., Dowdall, G., Koss, M. & Wechsler, H. (2004). Correlates of rape
while intoxicated in a national sample of college women. Journal of Studies on
Alcohol, 65, 37-45.

Murnen, S. & Kohlman, M. (2007). Athletic participation, fraternity membership, and
sexual aggression among college men: A meta-analytic review. Sex Roles, 57, 145-

Norris, J. (2008). The Relationship Between Alcohol Consumption and Sexual
Violence. Harrisburg, PA: VAWnet, a project of the National Resource Center on
Domestic Violence/Pennsylvania Coalition Against Domestic Violence. See

Office on Violence Against Women (2004). A national protocol for sexual assault
medical forensic examinations (adults/ adolescents). Washington DC: U. S.
Department of Justice.

Parks, K., Romosz, A., Bradizza, C. & Hsieh, Y. (2008). A dangerous transition:
Women's drinking and related victimization from high school to the first year at
college. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 69, 65-74.

Presley, C., Meilman, P., Cashin, J. & Leichliter, J. (1997). Alcohol and Drugs on
American College Campuses: Issues of Violence and Harassment. Carbondale, IL:
Core Institute, Southern Illinois University.

Science Daily (2008). Drugs and Abuse: Dangerous Transition from High School to
College for Women. See

Clery Center for Security On Campus (2010). Summary of the Jeanne Clery Act.
Retrieved from: Clery Center for Security On Campus

Sexual Harassment Support. (2011). Effect of sexual harassment/what is sexual
harassment and why is it so difficult to confront. Retrieved from:

Tjaden, P., & Thoennes, N. (2006). Extent, nature, and consequences of rape
victimization: Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey.
Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.

Tyler, K., Hoyt, D. & Whitbeck, L. (1998). Coercive sexual strategies. Violence and
Victims, 13(1), 47- 61.

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