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MI NI STRY OF AVI ATI ON
AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH .COUNCIL
REPORTS AND MEMORANDA
R. & M. No. 3119
(19,922)
A.R.C. Technleal Report
The Theoretical Evaluation of
the Downwash behind Jet-Flapped Wings
By A. J. Ross, Ph. D.
LONDON: HER MAJESTY' S STATIONERY OFFICE
I96Z
P RI CE I Z$. 6d. NET
The Theoretical Evaluation of the Downwash
behind Jet-Flapped Wi ngs
By A. J . R' o s s , P h . D.
COMMUNICIATED BY THE DIRECTOR-GENERAL OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH (AIR)
MINISTRY O F SUPPLY
Reports and Memoranda No. 3H9"
J anuary, 958
Summary. The dov~nwash behind jet-flapped wings of infinite and finite span has been evaluated, using
the solutions given by Spence 1 and Maskell ~ for the flow in two and three dimensions respectively. The wing
incidence and jet deflection are assumed to be small, and the displacement of the jet is taken into account
by displacing the downwash field so that the relative distance between the jet and tailplane is correct. It is
also assumed that the spanwise loading on the finite wing is elliptic, and that the trailing vorticity is generated
at one particular chordwise position. The wake is considered to be a flat sheet, and so the effect of the rolling-up
of the wake has been neglected.
Charts are given for the functions required in the calculation of the downwash for four specific values of
jet momentum coefficient. Results have been obtained for the infinite wing and for a wing of aspect ratio 6" 0,
for various tailplane positions, and varying wing incidence, jet deflection and jet momentum coefficient.
A comparison is also made with some American experimental resuks 5 for a wing of aspect ratio 8.4, and the
agreement is good, especially when the experimental lift coefficient is used in the calculations (since it differs
considerably from the theoretical lift value, owing to the fact that the experimental wing has a blown flap).
Introduction. Whe n consi deri ng t he desi gn of a j et - f l apped ai rcraft f r om a st abi l i t y and cont rol
aspect, i t is necessary to have fai rl y accurat e i nf or mat i on concerni ng t he downwash field behi nd
t he j et - f l apped wing, part i cul arl y i n t hose, r egi ons where it is pract i cabl e t o locate t he tailplane.
The eval uat i on o f t he downwash at t he t ai l pl ane is dependent upon a knowl edge of t he st r engt h
and posi t i on of t he vort i ci t y di st ri but i ons whi ch r epr esent t he wi ng and t he jet. I n his t r eat ment
of t he flow past a wi ng wi t h a jet-flap, of i nfi ni t e span, Spencet assumes t hat t he i nci dence Of t he
wi ng and t he defl ect i on of t he .jet are small, and hence t he usual assumpt i ons of t hi n aerofoil t heor y,
i n whi ch t he wi ng and j et are repl aced by vort ex sheets i n t he di rect i on of t he free st ream, apply.
The resul t s so obt ai ned for t he vort i ci t y di st ri but i ons on t he wi ng and j et are used i n Part I t o
give t he downwash at any posi t i on relative t o t he pl ane vort ex sheet in t he f or m
8e he
wher e e = downwash angle, r = j et deflection angle, and c~ = wi ng i nci dence. However, in t he
cal cul at i on of t he downwash i nduced at a poi nt (P) in t h e field, it is necessary to allow for its
l ocat i on relative to t he actual wi ng and jet. To t he order of accuracy consi st ent wi t h t he previ ous
assumpt i ons, t hi s implies cal cul at i ng t he downwash at a poi nt whose ordi nat e relative t o t he pl ane
* R.A.E. Report Aero. 2599, received 13th March, 1958.
vortex sheets is equal to the distance of the tailplane from t he j et (as shown in Figs. l a and l b).
The functions 0e/0~- and 0e/0~ depend upon t he j et moment um coefficient Cj, and on the relative
position of t he tailplane; charts for these functions, and for the position of the jet, are given for
various specific C a values. The downwash has been evaluated for ranges of t he tailplane position,
wing incidence, j et deflection and j et moment um coefficient.
For the unswept wing of finite span, with a full-span jet-flap, considered in Part II, Maskell 2
has i nt roduced t he concept of an effective wing and j et flap of infinite span, in order to obtain
t he strength of the bound vorticity, elliptic spanwise loading being assumed. Thi s ~olution may
be used to give the cont ri but i on to the downwash from t he bound vorticity, in a similar way to that
described in Part I, but it does' not account for t he effect of the trailing vortices arising from t he
pressure gradients along t he wing and j et spans. In the case of a wing wi t hout a jet-flap, it has been
found 3 that t he downwash is very sensitive to the relative distance bet ween the tailplane and the
wake, and that the spanwise loading has more effect on the downwash than the chordwise loading,
and so the wing and its wake are replaced by a lifting line and its trailing vortices, the latter being
displaced in order to keep the tailplane at the correct height above the wake. The effect of t he
rolling-up of the wake has also been investigated 6 for a wing wi t hout a jet-flap, and it is shown that
rolling-up is not i mport ant for normal tailp'lane positions behi nd wings of large aspect ratio. The
distance e behi nd the wing at which rolling-up may be assumed to be complete is given by
e/c = k' / Ct , for a wing wi t hout a jet-flap, where k' depends upon the pl an-form and spanwise
loading of the wing. For t he j et -fl apped wing, the C~ will be greater than for the normal wing,
but k' may now be a function of C j , and will probabl y increase wi t h increasing Cj (since the bourid
vorticity on t he j et will t end to resist rolling-up), so that e/c will not decrease so quickly wi t h in-
creasing Cz~ and Cj, as might have been expected from first considerations. Thus, in order to evaluate
t he cont ri but i on to the downwash behind a j et -fl apped wing from the trailing vorticity, it is assumed
t hat the majority of t he load is carried on the wing, so that t he trailing vortices may be considered
to arise from one chordwise position on t he wing, wi t h no rolling-up taking place. The_displacement
of t he j et and trailing vortices is account ed for by taking the position of t he tailplane relative to t he
wake, and a chart is given for the downwash due to the trailing vort i ci t y. Calculated values of t he
downwash are in good agreement with the few experimental results available 5, especially if the
difference bet ween the experimental and theoretical lift coefficients is taken into account.
Theoret i cal results for the downwash on the centre-line are also given for a wing of aspect ratio
6. 0, showing variation with tailplane position, wing incidence, and j et parameters.
PART I
1. Vortex Representation of the Wing and Jet -Fl ap of Infinite Span. The wing and jet-flap of
infinite span may be represent ed in t wo dimensions by vorticity di st ri but ed on t he chordal plane
of the wing and the medi an line of the j et (assumed to be thin). The downwash relations have
been solved by SpencO, using the assumptions of thin-aerofoil theory, so that the aerofoil incidence
and j et deflection are considered to be small. The vorticity distributions and the position of the j et
are given in Fourier-series forms, with coefficients as functions of t he j et moment um coefficient Cj.
Let Uof(X ) be the vorticity distribution on the aerofoil (at incidence a to the mainstream) and
7(x) the vorticity distribution on the j et (emerging at deflection z to the extended chord-line of the
aerofoil), as shown in Fig. la. The x axis is taken parallel to t he main stream, and the z axis
vertically downwards, with the origin at the leading edge of the aerofoil. The chord of the aerofoil
2
i s t a k e n t o b e u n i t y , s o t h a t x a n d z a r e n o n - d i m e n s i o n a l . T h u s t h e v o r t e x r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e
f l o w w h i c h i s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e a s s u m p t i o n s o f t h i n a e r o f o i l t h e o r y i s as s h o w n i n F i g . l b ,
w i t h U o f ( x ) l o c a t e d o n t h e x axi s , b e t w e e n 0 a n d 1, a n d y ( x ) a l s o o n t h e x axi s , b e t w e e n 1 a n d co.
T h e n t h e e x p r e s s i o n s f or f ( x ) , 7( x) a n d z j ( x ) , t h e j e t d i s p l a c e m e n t , as o b t a i n e d f r o m R e f . 1, a r e :
F o r
0 < x < 1, x = (1 - c o s 0 ) ( 1)
f ( x ) = x- ~2r _ g l l g ( 1 - x) + A 0 1 - c o s ~ . + , ~=~A' ~ t a n g
F o r
2 ~ B o ( 1 - c s 0 ) ~ V - * B ~ ( t a n z'~ I
+ ~ / x ( 1 - . ) * z ~ + + ~ , 4 - ) .
( 2 )
< X < 0 % X ~ SBC 2 4)
( 3)
z j = r 2 ( 1 - - c o s ~ ) + A 0 l o g - s i n ~ - 2 s i n ~
+ ,~__1(4n 2 - 1} 2 c o s ~ s i n n ~ - 4 n s i n ~ c o s n ~
+ c - - - + ( B o + ) l o g - - - 2 B o s i n ~
1 + s i n ~ s i n 2
T ( 2
N
+ ,~=1 ( 4n~' 1 ) c o s
U o - * l - 4 c s S ~ l g ( t a r ~ ) + 2 . c o s a ~ 2 o A , ~ c o s n q 5 1
( 4)
+ e~ 2 c o s a ~ o B ~ C o s n ~ . ( 5)
2. The Downwash. T h e d o w n w a s h i n d u c e d b y t h e v o r t e x d i s t r i b u t i o n s Uo f ( X ) a n d y ( x ) a t
t h e p o i n t ( X , Z ) i s g i v e n b y
z ) I f l v/(*)(x -
=" - ( X7 7 ~ ) ~ q- ~ dx + O~ ( X - x) 2 + Z 2 ( 6)
t o t h e f i r s t o r d e r i n ~ a n d 7 (see F i g . l b ) .
I n o r d e r t o a p p l y t h e r e s u l t s c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e s i m p l i f i e d c o n f i g u r a t i o n ( F i g . l b ) t o t h e a c t u a l
c o n f i g u r a t i o n ( F i g . l a ) , w h e r e t h e j e t i s d i s p l a c e d a d i s t a n c e z ~ ( X ) b e l o w t h e x axi s , i t i s a s s u m e d
t h a t t h e d o w n w a s h w ( X , z ) c a l c u l a t e d f o r t h e p o i n t P ' ( X , z ) i n F i g . l b i s e q u a l t o t h e d o w n w a s h
a t t h e p o i n t P ( X , z + z j ) i n F i g . l a .
3
(78s24} a 2
A similar procedure is followed in Ref. 3, where the displacement of the wake of a finite wing
has t o be considered.
In general, t he tailplane will be located a distance H above the jet, as indicated in Fig. la, so
that to evaluate the downwash at the tailplane, i.e., at the point ( X , z j - H ) in Fig. la, we must
evaluate the downwash at the point ( X , - H ) in Fig. l b.
The position of the tailplane is usually given as the distance along and height above t he ext ended
chordline. I f l is t he distance of t he aerodynamic centre of t he tailplane behi nd the wing leading
edge, measured along the ext ended wing chord-line, and h the height above t he chord-line, when
t he chord is of length c, as shown in Fig. la, t hen t he non-dimensional co-ordinates ( X , Z ) at whi ch
t he downwash is to be evaluated are given by
l h
32 = - + - o ~ , ( Sa )
C
l h
Z = - H= - ~ - - - z j ( X) , (8b)
c
where z a may be obtained from Fig. 3 *: (or equation (4)).
For the numerical evaluation of the t wo integrals in equation (6), it is necessary to change the
variables of integration, in the first integral using equation (1) in order to avoid the infinite value
of f ( x) at the leading and trailing edges, and in the second integral using equation (3) to make t he
range of integration finite. Thus, if we write
J ' ( x ) = f ~ ( x ) T + .f2(x) ~ "l
,/(x) )
Uo - 71(x)~- + m ( x ) ~
( 9)
t hen the downwash at t he tailplane is given by
r-
U o [ f~fl (x) ~_sin0(X - x)
w = N ~ ] j o ( x - x ) ~ + N ~ ~ o +
Uo ] ['A(x) I- sin O(X - x )
+ ~ / J o ~ 2 - - ~ - z ~ ~0 +
L
s i n ~ ( X ~ x ) 1
s i n ~ r ( X - x ) ]
( l o )
wher ef i ( x) s i n0 andf ~( x) s i n0 remain finite as x and 0 t end to zero, and as x l , 0-->Tr.
Equat i on (10) may be rewritten in the ,form
w De De
Uo e = ~ - + Na ' (11)
where De~Dr and Def ~ are functions of Ca, X and Z. These have been evaluated for Cj = 0. 5,
1.0, 2. 0 and 4. 0, with 3 < X < 5 and 0 < [ Z [ < 3, the results being shown as charts in Figs.
4a to 4d.
* The suffix ~ on Cj and ~ refer to the finite-wing case considered in Part II. For infinite aspect ratio,
a t - ~ and C j e = C j in Fig. 3 and Figs. 4a to 4d, and e~ = e in Figs. 4a to 4d.
4
Thus t he pr ocedur e for t he eval uat i on of t he downwash at a given t ai l pl ane position, h/c and l/c,
and gi ven a, Cj and ~, is to calculate t he funct i ons i n t he fol l owi ng or der :
(i) X f r om equat i on (8a)
(ii) z j f r om Fig. 3
(iii) Z f r om equat i on (Sb)
(iv) 8e/8~, 8e/Sa f r om Figs. 4a to 4d
(v) e f r om equat i on (11).
I nt er pol at i on will be necessary for Cj values ot her t han 0. 5, 1. 0, 2. 0 and 4. 0, and it seems
bet t er to eval uat e e for a range of C j , and t hen to i nt erpol at e t he final result, rat her t han t o
i nt erpol at e for zj , Be~ST and 8e/Sa separately.
For large X, t he downwash is given by,
e(X, o) A'r + (B + )o~ C~, (see Ref. 1)
X - 41rX'
so t hat
and
[ 8 Cz~
8~- X 4~rX
( B o 1 T g - /
8 ~ - - X - 4rrX
as X --> oo.
I t may be not ed t hat t he val ue of Cz/(4rrX) for t he downwash far behi nd t he aerofoil is also
obt ai ned when t he aerofoil is wi t hout a jet-flap.
3. Results. The results for t he downwash behi nd an i nfi ni t e wi ng and jet-flap are shown in
Figs. 7 t o 11. I t shoul d be r emember ed t hat t he t heor y is onl y st ri ct l y valid for small a and 7, so
t hat t he use of t he met hod to obt ai n t he downwash for t he larger values of ~ and ~- mus t wai t to
be j ust i fi ed or ot herwi se unt i l experi ment al dat a are available. However, t he results shoul d i ndi cat e
t he t r ends in t he vari at i on of downwash wi t h t he vari ous paramet ers.
I n Figs. 7 and 8, t he vari at i on of t he downwash wi t h tailplane posi t i on is shown for two values
of j et deflection angle, ~, and t wo values of wi ng i nci dence, ~, for Cj = 2. 0. Fig. 7 shows t hat on
t he ext ended chord-l i ne, h/c = 0, t he downwash decreases qui t e sharpl y wi t h i ncreasi ng distance
behi nd t he wing, l/c, but when h = 2c, t he downwash is pract i cal l y const ant in each case for
3c < 1 < 5c. The results have been repl ot t ed i n Fig. 8 to show t he downwash field (i.e., cont our s
of equal downwash), i n t he t ai l pl ane region. A compar i son bet ween t he fields .for t he vari ous
and a shows t hat t he downwash is mor e sensitive to t ai l pl ane posi t i on for t he hi gher r and ~ 'values,
as mi ght be expect ed.
The resul t s for t he vari at i on of e wi t h Cj, T and ~ are given in Figs.. 9 and 10 for a represent at i ve
t ai l pl ane position, l/c = 3. 5, h/ c = 1. 5, and also for a posi t i on on t he ext ended chord-l i ne,
l/c = 3. 5, h/c = 0. I t will be not i ced in Fig. 9a t hat e does not increase l i nearl y wi t h z for a gi ven
Cj val ue (as mi ght be i mpl i ed by a glance at equat i on (11)) due to t he correct i on made to t he
downwash field for t he di spl acement of t he j et relative to t he tailplane position. Fig. 9b indicates
t hat 8e/ SCj decreases wi t h i ncreasi ng Cj. The vari at i on of downwash wi t h wi ng i nci dence is more
i mpor t ant for st abi l i t y and cont rol consi derat i ons and t he results are shown i n Figs. 10a to 10d
for r = 30 and 60 deg, and for vari ous Cj- values. Ra nge s of values of (~e/O~)~= 0 are also
i ndi cat ed on t he diagrams, and are seen to be t he same for t he t wo di fferent r values over t he same
range of Cj for a given value of h/c. Si nce (0e/0c0~= 0 increases wi t h Ca, it is not possible to
assess a maxi mum, but for Cj = 4. 0, (ae/O~)== 0 is well bel ow 1. 0 at t he t ai l pl ane and on t he
ext ended chord-l i ne, bei ng 0. 20 and 0. 35 respectively. I t also appears t hat ae/~o~ increases as
a increases, but ' t hi s is onl y not i ceabl e at t he hi gher values of Cj, and for Cj = 4. 0, ~ = 20 deg,
Oe/Oa is still less t han 0. 4 at t he ext ended chord-l i ne position.
The dependence of t he downwash on t he lift coefficient is shown in Fig. 11 as t he vari at i on of
e/Cz, wi t h C~, again for t he t wo values o f h = 0 and 1. 5c at l = 3. 5c. For a pl ai n wi ng, e/ Cz is a
const ant for a gi ven t ai l pl ane position, but Fig. 11 shows t hat t hi s is not so for a wi ng wi t h a jet-flap.
The series of ' carpet s' whi ch appear on a compl et e e/C~ vs. Cz di agram (a, Cj and r varying),
have been separat ed i nt o t he special cases of a = 0 deg, Cj = 2. 0 and r = 30 deg i n t ur n, each
wi t h t he ot her t wo paramet ers varyi ng, e.g., for C# = 2. 0, t he c ur ve s for c~ = 0 deg and ~ = 10 deg
wi t h varyi ng r and t hose for r = 30 deg and r = 60 deg wi t h var yi ng c, are shown, so t hat one
carpet appears. The curves are labelled wi t h t he value of t he const ant par amet er on t he r i ght - hand
side, and t he varyi ng par amet er on t he l ef t - hand side. For h/c = 0, it is seen t hat t he maj or i t y of
values of e/Cz, lie bet ween 1. 2 and 1. 6 deg in t he CL range 1. 0 to 8. 0, and for h/c = 1. 5, t he
l i mi t s are appr oxi mat el y 0. 7 and 1. 1 deg. I t may be ment i oned t hat i n an i nvest i gat i on of st abi l i t y
and cont rol characteristics of j et - f l apped aircraft, based on t wo- di mensi onal data, Tayl or 4 used a
const ant val ue for e/CL of 0. 025 r adn = 1. 4 deg, whi ch is of t he correct order for small val ues
of h/c. I t is i nt erest i ng to not e t hat for Cj = 2. O, e/Cz, increases wi t h C~ i f r is const ant and e~ is
increasing, but decreases as CL increases i f a is const ant and r is increasing.
The values of e/C~ for an infinite wi ng wi t hout a jet-flap, obt ai ned by relSresehting t he wi ng
by a vort ex at t he quar t er - chor d poi nt , are 1. 40 deg for h = 0 and 1. 16 deg for h = 1. 5c, t he f or mer
bei ng a good appr oxi mat i on when compar ed wi t h Fig. 11, but t he l at t er val ue is appreci abl y great er
t han t hose obt ai ned by t he present t heory, wher e t he average value of e/CL is 0. 9 deg. For large X,
t he value of e/ Cz gi ven by t hi s appr oxi mat e met hod is 1/(4rrX), i.e., it converges to t he same value
as given above i n Sect i on 2.
PART I I
1. Vortex Representation of the Wing and Jet-Flap of Finite Span. As for t he wi ng of infinite
span, t he pressure (and so velocity) di fference across t he wi ng and j et surfaces may be represent ed
by sheets of spanwi se bound vort i ci t y, but for t he finite wi ng t here is also a pressure gr adi ent
al ong t he span, whi ch gives rise to st reamwi se t rai l i ng vort i ci t y on t he wi ng and j et surfaces.
Maskell ~ has shown t hat t he di st r i but i on of bound vort i ci t y on a chordwi se section of t he finite
wi ng and j et is appr oxi mat el y t hat on a t wo- di mensi onal wi ng and j et at an effective aerofoil
i nci dence (~e) and effective j et mome nt um coefficient C f ~. Thus t he cont r i but i on to t he downwash
f r om t he bound vort i ci t y may be eval uat ed as i n Part I, usi ng Co, ~ and c~. i n place of Cj and % but
i n t hi s case t he resul t i ng downwash field mus t be displaced t hr ough t he total j et di spl acement ,
i.e., t he s um of t,he di spl acement s due t o t he t rai l i ng vortices and to t he bound vortices respectively.
I n order to eval uat e t he downwash and di spl acement i nduced by t he t rai l i ng vortices, t he assumpt i on
is made t hat t he l oadi ng is concent r at ed on and near tO t he wing, so t hat t he t rai l i ng vortices arise
f r om one chordwi se position, t aken t o be t he cent re of pressure of t he effective i nf i nke wi ng.
Since t he l oadi ng is also assumed t o be elliptic, t he i nduced downwash may be eval uat ed in t he
usual way 8.
The r epr esent at i on of t he finite wi ng is shown i n Fig. 2. Let t he ori gi n of t he non- di mensi onal
co-ordi nat es x, y , z (based on t he chor d bei ng uni t y), be t aken at t he mi d- span of t he l eadi ng edge,
and let UoF( x ) be t he bound vort i ci t y di st r i but i on on a section of t he wi ng and jet. Th e n Maskel l ~
has shown t hat UoF( x ) is appr oxi mat el y t he vort i ci t y di st r i but i on on a wi ng and j et of i nfi ni t e span
at wi ng i nci dence dee, j et mome nt um coefficient Cj e and j et defl ect i on ~-, where
Cje_ 1 cq (12)
Cj "r + dEe '
0 ~ i = dE - - dE e
Cz e (13)
- 7rA + 2Qr '
\
CL bei ng t he lift on t he finite wing.
Also
Cz = aoe "r + a1~ % + 2CjdEi, (14)
where a0e and al~ are f unct i ons of Cj~ only, whose values are gi ven in Tabl e 1, for Cj e = 0. 5,
1. 0, 2. 0 and 4. 0. Hence
aoe'r + aledE "~
dEi-- 7rA +, ale
and
)
~ A d E - aoe'r
dee - zrA ..J- ale
(15)
Thes e val ues of Cje, ae and ~- may be used in Spence' s sol ut i on t o give UoF( x ) and t he di spl acement
of t he wake due to t he bound vort i ces f r om equat i ons (1) t o (5), wi t h dE and Cj repl aced by ae and
Cj e respectively.
The t rai l i ng vortices are assumed t o arise f r om a l i ft i ng line at t he cent re of pressure of t he
effective wing, i.e., at
x = x~ = ( C~) _ b o e ' r +b l e % (16)
e aoe "r +'aledEe '
where b0e and' bl~ are funct i ons of Cj~ only, whose val ues are also given in Tabl e 1 for Cj e = 0-5,
1. 0, 2. 0 and 4. 0. For elliptic l oadi ng, t he st r engt h of t he t rai l i ng vortices is
dir"
- U0'~yy ,
4s C~
/ ' - rrA s i n0, y = - s c o s 0 , (17)
where
and s is t he semi -span of t he wing, based on t he chord bei ng uni t y.
* Thi s relation assumes that dE~= dE,o, which is not strictly true for large C 4 Values, but the approximation
is acceptable in this context.
2. The Downwash due to the Bound Vorticity. Th e downwash at t he poi nt ( X, Y, Z) due t o
t he bound vor t i ci t y on a finite wi ng and j et of span b = 2s, wi t h elliptic l oadi ng and UoF(x ) as t he
bound vor t i ci t y di st r i but i on at t he mi d- span, is
- ( x - ~)
(18)
t o t he first or der in a and r .
I n t he pl ane of s ymmet r y, Y = 0, t he downwas h becomes
wdx, o,z) = ~ ~ = 0
wh e r e y = - s cos 0, i.e.,
f ~
UoF( x ) ( X - x) si n O s si n 0 dO
0 { ( X- x ) ~ + s ~cos ~ 0 + Z2} a/ ~dx'
Le t
so t hat
Th e n
1 f ~ UoF( x) ( X - . )
w~( X, O, Z) = U~ ~=0 {( X 7 7)~ > ~- 2 ~ ) ~
S 2
( X - x) 2 + s ~ + Z ~'
k '2 = 1 - h a = ( X- x) 2 + Z ~
( X- x) ~ + s 2+ Z' "
w ~ ( x , o , z ) = U~ ~=0 { ( x - ~ -7 z~} k'~
2 s sin ~ 0 dO
I
1 - { ( X- x ) 2 + s 2 + z 2
k sin 2 0 dO
(1 - h ~ sin s 0)a= dx
al~ dx .
l V oF ( x) ( x- x) l
= 2~ ~=0 { ( X Z ~ 7 k Z 2} ~ ( E, - k'2K1) d x , (19)
wher e K 1 and E 1 are t he compl et e elliptic i nt egral s of t he first and second ki nds respect i vel y, and
equat i on (19) has been der i ved usi ng Art . 74 of Cayley' s Elliptic Functions ( Cambr i dge Uni ver s i t y
Press, 2nd Edi t i on, 1895).
Wi t hi n t he r ange (O,ov) of t he vari abl e x, t he f unct i on . ( l / h ) ( E 1 - k' ZK, ) is f ound t o have a
ma xi mum val ue of appr oxi mat el y 1 at x = X, and val ues of appr oxi mat el y 0. 5 at x = 0 and x = 2X.
Fur t he r mor e , it t ends {o zero as x t ends t o i nfi ni t y. Thus f or t he r ange of x for whi ch t he f unct i on
F ( . ) ( X - . )
( X - x) ~ + Z ~
has val ues di fferi ng si gni fi cant l y f r om zer o and over whi ch t he maj or cont r i but i on to t he i nt egral
(19) occurs, t hat is, t he r ange 0 < x < 2X*, t he f unct i on ( l / k ) ( E 1 - k'2K1) is of t he or der 1,
and so t he appr oxi mat i on is made t hat it is equal t o 1 t hr oughout t he r ange of i nt egr at i on. I t woul d,
* The fact that the remaining part of the range of integration is infinite does not invalidate this argument,
since for the numerical evaluation the part of the integral (19) over the range (l,co) of x is transformed into
F( x) ( X - x) dx
an integral over a finite range (O,rr) of ~, say. The integrand is then ( Z ~ xy)2 7k Z~ dq5 ' which is still small
in the range of ~ corresponding to x > 2X.
8
p e r h a p s , b e mo r e l ogi cal t o a d o p t a va l ue s o me wh a t l ess t h a n 1 . 0 , b u t i n v i e w of t h e f a c t t h a t
t h e d o wn wa s h d u e t o t h e t r ai l i ng v o r t i c i t y is f o u n d t o be mu c h g r e a t e r t h a n t ha t d u e t o t h e b o u n d
vor t i c i t y, t h e a p p r o x i ma t i o n ( l / k ) ( E 1 - k'ZK1) = 1 i s c o n s i d e r e d a c c e pt a bl e . T h e e r r o r i n t h e
t ot a l d o wn wa s h ar i s i ng f r o m t hi s a p p r o x i ma t i o n is e s t i ma t e d t o b e l ess t h a n 12 p e r c e n t f or
l a r g e - a s p e c t - r a t i o wi n g s ( A = 6, say) .
T h u s e q u a t i o n (19) b e c o me s
1 [ ~ U o F ( x ) ( X - x)
w,,(x,o,z) = ~ ~ = o ( X - - . - 5 ~ 7 a n & , ( 20)
wh e r e
UoF(x) = Uof(X ) on t h e wi ng, 0 < x < 1
UoF(x ) = y( x) o n t h e j e t , 1 < x < oo
a n d f ( x ) a nd y( x) ar e gi ve n b y e q u a t i o n s (2) a nd (5) wi t h Cj - Cj ~ a n d a - %, i. e. , wB( X, O, Z)
is t h e d o wn wa s h d u e t o t h e e f f e c t i ve i nf i ni t e wi ng, a nd ma y b e e v a l u a t e d as i n P a r t I.
3. The Downwash due to the Trailing Vorticity. T h e d o wn wa s h at t h e p o i n t ( X, Y , Z ) d u e t o
t h e t r ai l i ng v o r t i c i t y o f s t r e n g t h Uo(dP/dy) l yi ng i n t h e pl a ne z = 0 is
- U dyy {(x - X ) ~ + (y - Y)~ + Ze} 3/~ d x d y
~v~( x, Y, Z) = ~ .=-~ ~=*~
= - ~ U - ~ y { ( y - Y-) 7 Z ~} 1 - { ( x , - X) ~- - (y- - Y )2+ ZZ}~/2 dy
g = - - g
wh e r e x~ is gi ve n i n e q u a t i o n (16).
F r o m e q u a t i o n (17) we ha ve t h a t
d F 4sCz cos 0
U d y = U ~rA s s i n 0 '
a n d s o
" 47r=A U J o s-sTn ? { ( - Y)~ + Z 2}
X
I X - xp l
1 + { ( X - x , ) ~ + Z 2 ~ ( s c o s 0 + y)2}~/2 s s i n 0 d 0
= -A~'C~ U o f =c s O ( s c s O +r ) I _ X - x , 1
0 {(~ c os 0 + Y)~ + z ~ ) 1 + { ( x x~)2 + 2 ~ 7 ( , e os 0 + y)2)1/~ do
I n t h e pl a ne of s y mme t r y Y = O, t h e d o wn wa s h angl e d u e t o t h e t r ai l i ng v o r t i c i t y t h u s b e c o me s
~ ( x , o , z )
C~, -- go
( x - 1 ]
2 Cz 1 " cos ~0 \ s , /
- 2 f o 0 + +
2 c ~ I ( ~, 0
- - " ] T A
dO
(21)
" 9
where
and
Let
t hen
~ : _ X - x ~ , Z ( 2 2 )
~ ' ~ = s
i f
I ( ~ , 0 - - N o ( C O s 2 o + g 2 ) 1 + ( c o s 2 0 + ~ 2 + ~ 2 ) ~ a 0
= N o 1 - ( l + ~ - s i n 2 O ) l + ( l + g i + ~ _ s i n ~ 0 ) l ~ 2 d 0 .
1 1
n = 1 + [2 and k 2 - 1 + ~2 + ~2, (23)
1 1 + 1 + n s i n ~ 0 + (1 k ~sin 20) 1/2 + (1 + ns i n 2 0 ) - ~ - h 2sin 20) ~1~ dO I ( ~, 0 = U~ 0
- 2~ ~ + ~/(1 + n) ~ + 2kK~(k) + 2 ~ n k n l ( k , ~ )
1 I ~ 2 ~:
- 2 . 1 . (1 + ~2)1~2 + ~ (1 + f~ + ~2)~/2 g ~ ( k )
2 ~ : I
- 7r (1 ~2 ~2)( 1 + ~2 + ~2)1/2 H~( k, n) ~ , (24)
where Hl ( k , n ) is t he complete elliptic integral of t he t hi rd kind. A chart is given in Fig. 6 for t he
funct i on I(~:,0 , so that eT may be evaluated from equation (21).
4. Th e Di s pl ac e me nt o f t he J e t a n d Tr ai l i ng Vort i ces. As in t he case of t he wing of infinite span,
t he displacement of t he wake due to the bound vortices may be obtained from Fig. 3, using the
relationship
z ~ ( x ) = ~, ~ . ] o .~ + \ ~o~ L % . ( 2 s )
The contribution due to t he trailing vortices may be derived from t he i nduced downwash at
t he wake, since
dz~
wi = Uo d x ' (26)
where
wi = i nduced downwash at t he wake
zi = i nduced displacement of t he wake.
The value ofw~ is given by equations (21) and (24) when X = x, Y = 0, Z = 0, i.e., ~ = ( x - x2,)/s,
= 0. Thus
2C~1 I 2f l
w~(x) = Uo ~ ~ 1 + ~(1 + ~2)1/~ zq(ko) ,
where
1
k ~ - 1 + f 2,
10
and so
~ ( ~ ) = ; 2 , 1 + ( 1 - k o ~ ) ~ / ~ K ~ ( k o ) dx
Now
gi vi ng t hat
- wA x - x~ + -w (1 - k o 2 ) l / Z K~ ( h o ) ~ dk o ,
~ = = 1 - ko 2
ko 2 ,
2 _ [ ~ o
f r 31
dx
(1 - - ko2) 112 ~ ( k o ) ~ o dkO
. f i
"/7"
$
( 1 - ko2) *1~ K ~( ko) dh o
k o 2 ( 1 - k o 2 ) 1 / 2
(27)
2, ;,~,, K # o )
dko
= - ~ ! ~1 ko ~
= - ~ - o i z 0 h0~( 1 - k02si n20) 1/2
_ 2sf [' f ' s i n 0 ( - t d t ) d 0
= - w ' cos0 ( 1 - #)al ~t '
wh e r e t 2 = 1 - k02sin ~0
= - - - 2s d o s i n01 ( 1 - k 2 s i n 2 0 ) I I 2 k o s i n O + s i n 0 dO
and so equat i on (27) becomes
2s [ El (ko) ]
zr ho + 1
Czb l x - x p 2 El(ko) 2 I
z ~ ( x ) - 2wA s + - w k o w- . (28)
The f unct i on { z ~ ( X) / Cz } ( A/ b ) is shown in Fig. 5, as a f unct i on of ~ = ( X - x2o)/s.
The compl et e downwash field w ~ ( X , O, Z ) + w e ( X , O , Z ) obt ai ned f r om equat i ons (20) and (21)
mus t now be di spl aced t hr ough a di st ance z j ( X ) + z ~( X) , so t hat t he wake is i n. t he correct posi t i on
relative to t he tailplane, i.e., downwash at ( X , O~ Z + z j ( X ) + z i ( X ) )
= .~(x,o,z) + ~(x,o,z). (29)
As for t he wi ng of i nfi ni t e span, t he posi t i on of t he t ai l pl ane is given i n t er ms of l, t he di st ance
behi nd t he wi ng l eadi ng edge, and h, t he hei ght above t he ext ended chord-l i ne, and so for t he
eval uat i on of t he downwash at t he tailplane,
l h
X = - + - a , (30a)
C C
I h
Z = - H = - ~ - - - z a ( X ) - z ~ ( X ) . (30b)
C
11
The functions requi red in the analysis may be evaluated in the following order for given A, h/c,
l/c, ~, ~ and effective j et moment um coefficient Cj~. :
(i) % from equation (15) using Tabl e 1
(ii) Cj from equation (12)
(iii) CL from equation (13)
(iv) x~ from equat i on (16) using Tabl e 1
(v) X from equation (30a)
(vi) ~ from equation (22)
(vii) z j ( X) from Fig. 3
(viii) z~(~) from Fig. 5
(ix) Z from equation (30b)
(x) ~ from equation (22)
(xi) I(~,~) from Fig. 6
(xii) eT from equation (21)
(xiii) 3eB/~r, aez/Oa from Fig. 4
(xiv) eB from equation (11)
giving e = e~ + e;,.
It seems simpler to work in t erms of t he Cj~ as indicated above, and t hen to interpolate for a
requi red Cj, as it is quicker to work t hrough t he procedure for t hree Cj~ values for which azj/Or,
etc., are shown graphically, in order to find the variation of e wi t h Cj, t han to work t hrough once
wi t h the Cj~ correspondi ng to the given Cj, haying to interpolate at each step.
For large X, it is possible to obt ai n a good approximation to the downwash far behi nd t he wing
wi t hout a jet-flap, by using the relation
2CL(1 s 2 )
e(X, O, O) = ~ - \ + ~ . (31)
However, in t he present case of a wing with a jet-flap, the downwash far downst ream is affected
by t he bound vortices in t he wake, and these cont ri but e a t erm [(CzA)/{4(wA + 2Cj)}](1/X),
t he next t erms in the series being of order 1/ X ~/~ and 1/ X 2 with coefficients which are complicated
functions of the Fourier-series coefficients _d o . . . _d,~ and B0 . . . B. . Thus the approximation
to t he downwash for large X, if taken to t he same degree of accuracy as t hat in equation (31),
is too unwi el dy to be useful.
5. Results. A few American experimental results for the downwash behi nd a j et -fl apped wing
of aspect ratio 8. 4 were available, at the t i me of writing, and these are compared wi t h t he theoretical
results in Fig. 12. More general results, calculated for a wing of aspect rat i o 6. 0, are given in Figs.
13 t o 17.
In the American experiments, the wing was tested at zero incidence with Cj = 1- 6 and~ = 60 deg,
and it is seen in Fig. 12 that the experimental downwash is greater t han the theoretical values at
t he same tailplane positions. However, the experimental lift coefficient is given as 5. 2, whereas
12
t he t heoret i cal value gi ven by equat i ons (12) to (15) is 4. 2*, and so t he cal cul at i ons were r epeat ed
usi ng t he exper i ment al val ue of CL. The results obt ai ned i n t hi s way are also shown i n Fi g. 12,
and are seen t o agree ver y well wi t h t he exper i ment al curves.
The t heoret i cal results for t he downwash on t he cent re-l i ne for t he aspect -rat i o-6 wi ng are
pr esent ed in Figs. 13 to 17 in a way similar to t hat used for t he i nfi ni t e wing. The vari at i on of
downwash wi t h t ai l pl ane position, Fig. 13, is given for t he cases Cj~ = 2. 0 ( Cj = 2. 7 t o 3. 0),
-r = 30 and 60 deg, a = 0 and 10 deg. As for t he i nfi ni t e wing, t he downwash varies onl y sl i ght l y
wi t h t he di st ance behi nd t he wi ng when h = 2c. The cor r espondi ng downwash fields i n t he nei gh-
bour hood of t he t ai l pl ane are shown i n Fig. 14.
The vari at i on of t he downwash wi t h t he wi ng and j et par amet er s is again consi dered for t he
t ai l pl ane posi t i ons I = 3. 5c, h = 1-5c, and on t he ext ended chor dl i ne at I = 3. 5c, h = 0. Fig. 15
shows t he effect of var yi ng t he j et paramet ers, and i t may be seen t hat t he downwash at t he t ai l pl ane
is about hal f t hat on t he ext ended chord-l i ne. The val ues of (~e/~a)~=o deri ved f r om Figs. 16a
to 16d are f ound t o be appreci abl y l arger t han t hose obt ai ned i n Fig. 10 for t he i nfi ni t e wing, bei ng
appr oxi mat el y const ant at 0"70 for h = 0 and 0. 35 for h = 1. 5c for t he vari ous Cj values when
~- = 30 deg, and varyi ng bet ween 0. 40 and 0. 60 for h = 0 and bet ween 0. 15 and 0. 30 for h = 1. 5c
when ~- = 60 deg. Thus ae/ac~ decreases wi t h i ncreasi ng ~-, and also wi t h i ncreasi ng a and Cj, as
t he graphs show, al t hough e itself increases. However, even for t he l owest values of a, Cj and ~-
consi dered (~ = - 1 0 deg, Cj = 0. 5, ~ = 30 deg), ~e/ac~ is still well below 1. 0 at t he t ai l pl ane
position.
The carpet plots of e/ Cz against Cz (Fig. 17), are similar i n shape to t hose for t he i nfi ni t e wi ng
(Fig. 11), but t he values of e/ CL are muc h greater, bei ng bet ween 3 and 6. 5 deg for h = 0 or
bet ween 1. 5 and 3. 5 deg for h = 1.5c, i n t he C~ range 1 to 8, as compar ed wi t h t he ranges 1. 2
to 1. 6 deg for h = 0 or 0"7 to 1. 1 deg for h = 1-5c obt ai ned f r om Fig. 11. The carpet plots of
e/Cz~ for a wi ng wi t hout a j et -fl ap are also shown i n Fig. 17, t he lift bei ng equal to t hat on t he
j et - f l apped wi ng i n each case, and t he val ues of e/ C~ bei ng obt ai ned f r om t he Dat a Sheet s:
Ai rcraft 08.01.04 and 08.01.02 of t he Royal Aeronaut i cal Society. I t is seen t hat t he dat a sheet s
under est i mat e e/ Cz for t he posi t i on on t he ext ended- wi ng chord-l i ne, but at t he t ai l pl ane hei ght
of 1. 5c, t he agr eement is good for some specific combi nat i ons of values of Cj, "r and a, e.g.,
Cj = 2. 0, ~ = 10 deg, ~- = 30 and 60 deg. However, it does not seem possible t o est i mat e t he
possible error i n usi ng t he resul t s f r om t he dat a sheets for a gi ven C~, because t he paramet ers
C j , ~r and ~ affect t he downwash and lift coefficient i n di fferent ways.
Conclusions. The downwash behi nd j et -fl apped wings has been eval uat ed, usi ng t he t hi n-
aerofoil t heori es gi ven by Spence 1 and Maskel l ~, for wings of i nfi ni t e and finite span respectively,
to obt ai n ' t he st r engt h and posi t i on of t he vort ex sheets whi ch represent t he wi ng and t he j et .
Thus t he basic assumpt i ons are t hat t he wi ng i nci dence and j et defl ect i on are small, and t hat t he
finite wi ng is elliptically l oaded. I t is also assumed t hat t he t rai l i ng vort i ci t y on t he finite wi ng may
be r epr esent ed by a vort ex sheet arising f r om one chordwi se posi t i on on t he wi ng. The resul t i ng
downwash fields have t hen been di spl aced so t hat t he j et is in t he correct posi t i on relative t o t he
tailplane.
* This difference is mainly due to the use of a blown flap on the experimental model, rather than a jet-flap.
The downwash will also be different, and for the blown flap it could be calculated using the results of Ref. 7
in place of Ref. 1, i.e., Ozj/~-r, ~ez/~'r , aoe and boe must be changed. However, for the present comparison,
it is sufficient to take the difference as being due only to the increase in lift.
13
The agreement wi t h the few experimental results available is quite good, especially if the experi-
mental C~ value (which is appreciably greater t han t he theoretical valuee), is used in the calculations.
The variations of t he downwash with tailplane position, wing incidence and j et parameters follow
similar patterns for the infinite and finite wings, although t he effect of reducing t he aspect ratio
from infinity to 6. 0 is to increase the downwash by factors ranging bet ween 2 and 4 for t he con-
figurations considered. Of t he derivatives with respect to t he wing and j et parameters, ~ e / ~ is the
most imi~ortant from the point of view of aircraft stability, and it appears to be well bel ow the
critical value of 1. 0 for tailplane positions above the ext ended-wi ng chord-line. One major difference
bet ween the infinite and finite wings is noticeable here, in that ~ e / ~ increases with increasing
c~ and C j, and is nearly constant wi t h increasing ~- for the infinite wing, but it decreases as ~, Ca and 7
increase for t he wing of aspect ratio 6. 0. It is found that e/Cz~ is not a constant for a given tailplane
position, when considered as a function of C5, due to the fact that t here are three parameters
(% Cj and ~-) whi ch may be varied to obtain any given C~, and these affect t he downwash in
different ways.
No consideration has been given in thi s report to t he effect of t he rolling-up of the vort ex sheets
in the wake when the aspect ratio is finite, but some rough calculations have been made based on a
completely rol l ed-up trailing vort ex system, and those indicate that the downwash on t he centre-line
will be increased somewhat at tailplane positions near the j et when rolling-up takes place.
* The theoretical value for a blown flap is also greater than that for a jet-flap, for the same .angle of incidence
of the main wing.
14
LI ST OF SYMBOLS
l
Note. ' Infinite' refers to the infinite-span wing in Part I and to the effective infinite wing in
Part I I when the symbol occurs i nbot h Part I and Part II.
aoe
al~
hoe
A
b

Cj
CL
el ( k)
f ( x )
f ( x )
h
k, ko, n
K~(k)
l
S
8o
gO B
fog
gO
X2a
(.x. Y, z)
~CzlS'r for effective infinite wing
8Czl~c~ for effective infinite wing
8C~/~- for effective infinite wing
~C,~/O~ for effective infinite wing
Aspect ratio
Fourier-series coefficients
Wing span, based on the chord being unity
Wing chord
Jet momentum coefficient
Effective jet momentum coefficient
Lift coefficient
Complete elliptic integral of the second kind
fl~- + f2o~ (Non-dimensional vorticity on infinite wing)
Non-dimensional bound vorticity on finite wing and jet
Height of tailplane }-chord point above the extended wing chord-line
Function introduced in equation (21)
Variables for the elliptic integrals
Complete elliptic integral of the first kind
Distance of tailplane i -chord point behind the wing leading edge
Wing semi-span, based on the chord being unity
Mainstream velocity
Downwash velocity due to bound vorticity on effective wing and jet
Downwash velocity due to trailing vorticity
Induced velocity due to trailing vorticity at the wake
Complete downwash at the tailplane
Non-dimensional co-ordinates, based on the chord of the wing being unity
Distance of centre of pressure of effective infinite wing behind wing leading
edge
Displacement of infinite jet
Induced displacement of the trailing vortex sheet
Co-ordinates of point at which downwash is to be evaluated
Incidence of wing
15
(~
r(x)
UoF(y)
e = wl Uo
' 7 "
L I S T OF S Y MBOL S - - c o n t i n ' u e d
Effect i ve i nci dence of wi ng
Uo(71-c + yzo~) Vor t i ci t y on i nf i ni t e j e t
To t a l b o u n d vor t i ci t y on wi ng and j e t at any spanwi se st at i on
Angl e of downwas h, wi t h c or r e s pondi ng s ubs cr i pt s B, T,
downwa s h vel oci t y
Compl e t e el l i pt i c i nt egr al of t hi r d ki nd
Angl e of ej ect i on of t he j et rel at i ve t o wi ng c hor d
' Co- or di nat es ' i n t r o d u c e d i n equat i on (22)
as for t he
i6
No. Author
I D. A. Spence . . . .
2 E . C. MaskeU and D. A. Spence
3 H. Mul t hopp . . . . . .
4 A. S . Tayl or . . . . . .
5 R . D. Vogl er and T. R. Tur ne r . .
6 J . R. Sprei t er and A. H. Sacks . .
7 D. A. Spence . . . . . . .
REF ERENCES
Title, etc.
. . A t r eat ment of t he jet-flap by t hi n aerofoil t heory.
Proc. Roy. Soc. (A). Vol. 238. pp. 46 t o 48. 1956.
. A t heor y of t he jet-flap i n t hree-di mensi ons.
R. A. E. Repor t ( To be publ i shed. )
. . Th e calculation of downwash behi nd vdggs.
L.F.F. Vol. 15. 1938.
. . An exami nat i on of some l ongi t udi nal stability and cont r oI
pr obl ems of j et -fl ap aircraft wi t h part i cul ar reference
t o t he use of j et t hr ust and j et -fl ap deflection cont rol s.
R. A. E. Repor t ( To be publ i shed. )
. . Wi nd- t unnel investigation at l ow speeds t o det ermi ne
flow-field characteristics and gr ound i nt erference on a
model wi t h j et - augment ed flaps
N. A. C. A. Tech. Not e 4116. Sept ember, 1957.
. . ' The rol l i ng-up of t he trailing vort ex sheet and its effect
on t he downwash behi nd wings.
J.Ae.Sd. Vol. 18. No. 1. 1951.
. Th e lift on a t hi n aerofoil wi t h a j et - augment ed flap.
Aero. Quart. Vol. I X. August , 1958.
T ABL E 1
C J ~
0. 5
1. 0
2 . 0
4 . 0
2. 707
4. 026
6. 135
9. 638
7. 588
8. 605
10. 405
13. 609
I
( cq
be ~ ~ T ].e
1. 485
2. 315
3. 745
6. 307
bl~ = \ - - ~ - - ] ,
1. 898
2. 097
2. 396
2. 836
17
(7ss24) B
L t ~ , x .~
I -
g , .)
T - -
H
U . o u . o f ( , ) 1 , , @ _ - - ~ U . o , - ' ; @
/ ~ P ' C ~ , : )
t
Z
FIG. l a. Section of infinite-span wing, showi ng j e t and
tailplane positions.
Fro. l b. Vort i ci t y distributions and tailplane position
as used i n calculations.
CO
U.Q L ) ( " ~ f
d
X
p
LLo
' U . , : , F ( x . )
d ' ~)i p
a t i
T-"
cLP H
Uo~- 1
J
3
Fm. 2a. Section of finite-span wing, showi ng j et and
tailplane position.
FIG. 2b. Vort i ci t y distributions and tailplane position
on cent re-l i ne o f wing.
I
3 ' 0
?- ' 5
i ',-
. /
:, {
/ /
, s f . , .
3 ' q
C ~ =
o
f
/---' -C4~, . o
..._..---.-'-
S
Z-:r
1"5
1.0
0" 5
/ /
/
I
/
J
/ -
/ l " I
j ~ o---~w---
I 9"0
3 ~ 5
z f ~ z ~ h
FIO. 3. Charts for det ermi nat i on of j e t displacement (infinite
wing), or j et dispIacement due to bound vort i ci t y (finite wing).
19
{78824) B*
FIG. 4a.
~ P - B
C ~ e = o . 5
Chart s for det ermi nat i on of downwash of infinite wi ng ( Cj = Cj ~ = 0. 5), or downwash due t o
bound vort i ci t y of finite wi ng (Cje = 0. 5).
3. 0
Izl
2 ' 0
I'C
3"0
I I
) ' 1 2
C 3 e = I' O
i
5' 0
Fi e. 4b. Chart s for det ermi nat i on of downwash of infinite wi ng (Ca = Cje = 1. 0), or downwasl i due t o
bound vort i ci t y of finite wi ng (Cje = 1.0).
20
' - - - I
C T e = :~,o
FIG; 4c. Charts for determination of downwash of infinite wing ( Cj = C j e = 2-0), or downwash due to
bound vorticit)r of finite wing ( Cj e = 2" 0).
F I G . 4d.
C~e = 4. 0
3.o ~ 1 I
o
J
/
~ , L 4 -
o, l s
- ~ o.~
N 5-0
Charts for determination of downwash of infinite wing ( Cj = Cj e = 4.0), or downwash due to
bound vorticity of finite wing ( Cj e = 4. 0) .
21
b O
t-O
0 " 4
O.Z,
O-E
o-i I
/
0
0 0-I O.Z
J
L
f
J
J
/
J
I ' 0 I'1 I ' ~ . 1'.3.
/
1"4
I
/
J
f
/
/
O'3 )'~ 0"5
0 ' 6 0"7
J
1"5
/
J
J
" /
J
1' 7 I
0"~ 0 " 9 I ' O
Fro. 5. Chart for determination of induced displacement of jet and wake (finite wing).
b
~ I ~ I ~ 1 o . I 1 ~ 1
FIG. 6. Chart for determination of downwash due to trailing vortices (finite wing).
23
I : ~ 1 = 2 1 z l
b
e ~ = { 2 c ~ / ( ~ A ) } z ( ~ , ~) .
(78824) C
bo
, o ~
5
l f f
5 ~
' ~ : 3 d
c:4.: ~ -
~.o -. ~ . . . . . . ~ .
- a . o l
3 0 ' ~ - 0 5 0 ~ - / c
~ : 3 d
e~: I0 ~
CL:5-O~
; " O -
3
"~c= O,
5'
d
3. 0 ~. 0
( b )
I-O ,~,
~ - O - ~
5
~ : 6 d
~ : o
CL : G'~.i
" ~ : 6 0
~ : I0
3. 0 - o s o ~/ c 3 . 0 4--o s o %
( c ) ( d )
FIGS. 7a t o 7 d. Va r i a t i o n o f d o w n w a s h w i t h t a i l p l a n e p o s i t i o n
( As p e c t r at i o = oo, C j = 2 . 0 , ~- = 30 a n d 60 de g ,
= 0 a n d 10 de g) .
& O
C.
I ' 0
3 . O 4-.O
?-'C
I . O
5 ' 0
" C : 5 0 ~ ~ . : O , C- , . : ~, - EI
3 ' 0
G
~ - . o "8"/0 5 - 0
" ~ = G O ~ o~.:O~ C L : 6 . 4 - E
o
5 " 0
- - - < .
~ - o ~ / c 5"0
~t:lO~ C = : 5 ' o 3
3 " 0 4 , 0 ~ / c . 5 " 0
~ : G O ~ a ~ , : l O ~ C L : 8 " ~ -
FIG. 8. D o w n w a s h f i e l d i n r e g i o n o f t a i l p l a n e
( A s p e c t r at i o = oo, Cj = 2 - 0 , -r = 3 0 a n d 6 0 de g ,
= 0 a n d 10 de g ) .
,o'
E'
i &
' TY
J
J
/
o ~ , 0 ~ o 3 o
. /
~ 0 5 0
( O) VARI ATI ON WITH JET DEFLECTI ON C~. : 2 . 0
i
/ - - ~ c = t . s
/ I
~ . 0 3 " 0 ~ ' 0 C ~ 5.O
,o I
6 ,
5
/ f
o
o I.O
6 0
( b ) VARI ATI ON WITH JET MOMENTUM "~ = 3 0
FIGS. 9a and 9b. Var i at i on of downwash wi t h j et
par amet er s ( Aspect r at i o = oo, ~ = 0 deg, l / c = 3 "5,
h / c = 0 and 1. 5) .
26
h O
IS
O " Z . O "~ ( ~ . ~ 1 < 0 " 3 5 /
"" ~=o /
i0 o f . , 1
- i 0 0 i 0 Q
(a) g : o , - = = ~ o
. C ~ : 4 - ' 0
/
.,.~.~ .--~ C,:r : Z-'O
/
, , . , ~ . . C ~ r = 1 - 0
~ - 0 .~ ~ L
o . + s < ( ~ " + " ' ~ < o - a o ~. ~- c~=+.o
/

" 1 0 Q 0 I 0 2 0
C b ) + : , . s , '+,: : 3 o
Fins. 10a and 10b. Variation of downwash with wing incidence
(Aspect rat i o= oo, l /c = 3" 5, h/c = O and l . 5, -r = 30deg) .
/
/
f
J
/ I
/
J
/
~ ' ~ 1 i , c . . . = . o
I S " - ~ . = o , /
J J " c'T= ?-'0
/
o
Cc) + : o , m : 6 o
r - I . ~ I
1 5
- L O
I 0 ~ 0
c~= 4-.o
t O O _ O , i S < L . ~ ) < o . ~ . o ..----~
~.=o / / -
/ - " " / ~ C~ = ?.' 0
/ ~ ~ . _ ~ . / / C~= i . O
/
0 t O P-O ~k
( d ) ~ : . , s . , = : 6 o
Fins. 10c and 10d. Variation of downwash with wing incidence
(Aspect r at i o= o~, l / c= 3" 5, h/ c=Oandl ' 5, - r = 60deg) .
/
1.4 C K - - " ~ I 1'4
c .,,,..=? . ~ .
[ . o cs:l . o ~ - " ~ . ~ 6o .
Cj : 2"0 -
1.0 ~
o.~"
O.G
0.~.
0 ' 2
~=o o, I~oo
t.o ~
o . ~
O'G
0 " ~
0 ' ~
0 l Z 3 4 5 G 7 8 C L 0 I
[ ! ~ I
. g : 3 0 ~ CL CT: 2 . 0 - -
~ . ~ , : , o ~ ~ ~ , - ~ - ~ - - i ~ ` , . '
/
C:}-: ?. ' 0 ~ ~ : 0
0 ' 8
0" ,
o.4'
O.Z'
3 4 5 6 7 B CL o I ?~
1
"C : 3 0 ~ ~ : 0
I I I
4 5 G 7 8 CL
CL Z ~ . ~ 3
O , g
0,~
o . Z
o . . ~ a
o I " ~ 3
~ , . o ~ : ~ ~ ~.___c,o' ! ~ ~ < -
~ , ~ d . : O ~ Cj , : 4" O"
~ 0 o O.ro ~
0 " 4 ~ 0"4'
.~ : o ' , ~ : ,.~ o.~" c ~ : ~ . o , ~ o , . 5 - 0 . 2 ' " ~ : s o ' , ~ o , . s
I I I ~ I I I I
5 6 7 8 CL. o I Z 3 .4- 5 6 7 B CL. o I ~ 3 4 5 G 7 8 C L
Fi e . 11. Vari ati on of e/ C 5 wi t h Cz, for a, Q1 and ~- kept constant i n t urn
( Aspect ratio = oo, l /c = 3" 5, h/c = 0 and 1. 5) .
2 8
bO
',,.0
" x P ERIMEN TITj~t TH EO RY
JET DISPLACEMENT
IO ~
- ~ - I
\ k \ '~/C = 3 ' 0
, \ . ' . ~ / T H E O R E T I C A L VALUES B~SEb
ON EXPERIMENTAL C L
" , , ' x . I I
~ \ ~ E X P E R I M E N T A L VALUES
"% \ ~' ~, AT 0 ' ~ 5 ~, SEMI~PAN.
THEORE
VALUES ON ~..
, ~ ~ -
EXPERIhENT-] [-THEORY
J TET ID@~ PLACEMENT
I 0
-?, - I
~/c 4 0
\ - oE,ol I " L O E B S O
\
7"
THEORETICAL
VALUES ON ~_~
Z 3
FIG. 12. Compari s on be t we e n Ame r i c an experi ment al
data and t heoret i cal resul t s ( As pe c t ratio = 8 . 4 ,
= 0 d e g , C j = 1 . 6 , ~ - - 60 deg.
Experi ment al C5 = 5 . 2 ; The or e t i c al C~ = 4 . 20).

ZC
1 5
i o
% = B O
~ = 0
C L = Z'G7
C j = Z ' 7
5
zd
I S '
, O ,
~ = o \ % ' = 6 0
d,.= 0
C u = 5 " 5 5
'5 ~ G X = ~"7
I ' O " ~
3 . o 4 . o "6/c s . o . 3. o 4 . o ~ / c s . o
( a ) ( b)
g: o\
% = 3 0 ~ "C-- GO
~ = O" ~ = I 0 , ~ cA. = l O
C ~ CL= 4 - ' Z 5 CLING'93
I ' 0 ~
S
~ . O
1.0 ,~
2." 0 ~ ~ ~ ' - - - - - - - .
5 - 0 Lt - . o "6/c. 5 . 0 3 . 0 & . o ' 6 / c 5- o
( c ) (d)
FIGS. 13a t o 13d. Vari at i on o f do wnwa s h wi t h t ai l pl ane pos i t i on
( As pect ratio = 6 . 0 , Cj = 2 . 7 t o 3 . 0 ,
~- = 30 and 60 deg, c~ = - 0 and 10 deg) .
Go
O
2.'0 ~ ~-.-C
, . ~ -f,.
4 - - 0 ~ O S'O
" 1 : ; : 6 0 e L = O G L = 5 . 3 5
S' O 4 - . 0 "&,/c 5 ' 0 5 . o
" ~ : 5 0 e4,:O> C L : & . G 7
~- ' 0
0
3 " 0
o
4. . 0 -~/ s-o s . o 4 . 0 % s.o
" ~ : 3 0 % ~ k = I 0 ~ C t . . : q - . ~ . 5 m_.=GO~ o k = . l O , 0 L : 6 . ~ 3
FIG. 14. Downwas h field i n regi on of tai l pl ane
(Aspect ratio = 6. 0, Cj = 2 . 7 to 3" 0,
7 = 30 and 60 deg, a = 0 and 10 deg).
2.0
15 ,
io o
/
J
-C =
, / l j
5 /
O I 0 2 . 0 3 0 . 4 - 0 5 0 " c
( Q ) V A R I A T I O N WI T H J E T D E F L E C T I O N C~. = 2 " 7
/
/ ~ I s
c
15
,, L / J
s / /
Y
o
0
J
/
/
/
c
I /
J
I ' 0 Z..O 3 " 0 4 , 0 C~r 5 ' 0
..Ik
- - = . I . g
G
( b ) V A R I A T I O N WI T H J E T M O M E N T U M "12 = 3 0 '~
FIGS. 15a and 15b. Vari ati on of downwash wi t h jet
parameters ( Aspect ratio = 6. 0, a = 0 deg, l /c = 3. 5,
h/ c = 0 and 1. 5) .
Go
/ /
" l O 0
( a ) r = + o , + : o
20 D / ~
/ f
~
/ (+~ ~- o- +o
I0
" I 0 0 " I 0 a~. 2 0 0
( b ) l : = 3 o , + : , . s
FI Gs . 1 6 a a n d 1 6 b . Va r i a t i o n o f d o w n w a s h w i t h w i n g
i n c i d e n c e ( A s p e c t r a t i o = 6 . 0 , l /c = 3 "5 ,
h/c = 0 a n d 1" 5, ~- = 3 0 de g ) .
/
/
/
/
f , . /
/ + o. ++ <o.
- I 0 0
(c) + : + o , % : o
Io , 2 - 0
/
_ j o o o o i o o ~ ?.o
( d ) + C - - 6 o +, ~ = ,.S
FITS. 16c and 16d. Variation of downwash with wing
incidence (Aspect ratio = 6.0, l / c = 3.5,
h / c = 0 and 1.5, -r = 60 deg).
C~.
6 =
5
5
Z
i
0
CL
S o
#
~o
Z
O
0
"x..
d-= 0~; " ~ ' : 0
I I
CU~, VE5 FOP, %= SO =
AND C : = I' O ,~,P.E
AL MOST COI NCI DENT
"WITH TI'~0SE FOR %= 6 0 ~
AND C~ = ~. ' 0
7 ~. C L
, : / , =0 ', - - ~I =I ' S
I ? - 3 ~ 5
~ = 6 o
7 8 C u
C L
6 = ~ ~ - ~ 'I
s A _ ..-~- ~ " ~ - - - ' - - " ~ = 3 o
-. ~ _ ,~= Go o
ff ~ = 0 3
l ~ C z = ?. ' 0, ~ = 0 i o
t I I
I E 3 ~ 5 6 7 8 C L O l
0 PP~ESENT VAL UES GI VEN B Y
TI-~EOP.Y - - -1~- - - DAT A 5Et EET5
OF P.OY, AER.O. SOC.
E E
5 { y
Cz~,
c~,, ~ ~ . . . .
~ . ~ .
5" ~ - 5
~ " ~ ~ =,.:o~=10 = d . : 2 . o o __
I I *
0 i ,2. 5 ~ 5 G 7 8 C u 0 l Z 5 ~ 5 ' G 7 C L 8
E
5 D ~ ~ . . . . %c ~ = ~.. o
ok= 0 d~-- 2.0
I
x=3o ~, & o
-X-=
I I I
2. 3 .4- 5 6 7 8 C .
FIG. 17. Va r i a t i on of e/C z wi t h C~;, f or o~, Cj a nd ? ke pt c ons t a nt i n t u r n
(Aspect ratio = 6 . 0 , I /c = 3. 5, h/c = 0 a n d 1 . 5 ) .
( 78824) Wt . 5 4 ] 8 2 ] 0 K. 5 2[ 61 Hw.
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