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Residual soils are found in many parts of the world.

Like other soils, they are used extensively in

construction, either to build upon, or as construction material. They are formed when the rate of rock
weathering is more rapid than transportation of the weathered particles by e.g., water, gravity and wind,
which results in a large share of the soils formed remaining in place. The soils typically retain many of
the characteristics of the parent rock. In a tropical region, residual soil layers can be very thick,
sometimes extending to hundreds of meters before reaching un-weathered rock. Unlike the more
familiar transported sediment soil, the engineering properties and behaviour of tropical residual soils
may vary widely from place to place depending upon the rock of origin and the local climate during their
formation; and hence are more difficult to predict and model mathematically. Despite their abundance
and significance our knowledge and understanding of these soils is not as extensive as that of
transported sediment soil.

Soil that remains at the place of formation is called residual soil. It is usually formed from
chemical or physical weathering and eventually covers the parent rock. the characteristics of
residual soil depends on the that of the parent rock.
The weathered pieces of rocks that have been carried by several agents like wind and water and
finally breaks down into further small pieces to settle down is called transported soil. They are
very fertile as they consist of minerals from a variety of transported rocks.
What is Soil?
Soil is one of the three major natural resources, alongside air and water. It is one of the
marvellous products of nature and without which there would be no life.
Soil is made up of three main components minerals that come from rocks below or nearby,
organic matter which is the remains of plants and animals that use the soil, and the living
organisms that reside in the soil.
The proportion of each of these is important in determining the type of soil that is present. But
other factors such as climate, vegetation, time, the surrounding terrain, and even human activities
(eg. farming, grazing, gardening etc.), are also important in influencing how soil is formed and the
types of soil that occur in a particular landscape.
Soil can form from the rocks below, or from rocks a very long distance away - perhaps being
carried by wind or water. The glaciers of the last ice age acted as giant bulldozers pushing truly
huge amounts of soil along as they grew and dropping the soil as they melted.

What is soil?
Soil is a mixture of broken rocks and minerals, living organisms, and decaying organic
matter called humus. Humus is dark, soft and rich in nutrients. Soil also includes air and
Organisms in the soil need air and water to survive. Having these essential materials -
air, water, and organic matter - makes it possible for plants, bacteria, fungi and small
animals like earthworms and insects to live in the soil.
All the living things in the soil, plus essential materials that these organisms use to
survive, form the soil ecosystem. Scientists study the soil ecosystem because they
want to understand how organisms relate to one another and to the environment that
surrounds them.
Soil is the mixture of minerals, organic matter, gases, liquids and a myriad of organisms that can
support plant life. It is a natural body that exists as part of the pedosphere and it performs four
important functions: it is a medium for plant growth; it is a means of water storage, supply and
purification; it is a modifier of the atmosphere; and it is a habitat for organisms that take part in
decomposition and creation of a habitat for other organisms.
Soil is considered the "skin of the earth" with interfaces between
the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere.
Soil consists of a solid phase
(minerals and organic matter) as well as a porous phase that holds gases and
Accordingly, soils are often treated as a three-state system.

Soil is the end product of the influence of the climate, relief (elevation, orientation, and slope of
terrain), biotic activities (organisms), and parent materials (original minerals) interacting over
Soil continually undergoes development by way of numerous physical, chemical and
biological processes, which include weathering with associated erosion.
Most soils have a density between 1 and 2 g/cm
Little of the soil of planet Earth is older than
the Pleistocene and none is older than theCenozoic,
although fossilized soils are preserved
from as far back as the Archean.

Soil science has two main branches of study: Edaphology and Pedology. Pedology is focused on
the formation, description (morphology), and classification of soils in their natural
whereas Edaphology is concerned with the influence of soils on organisms. In
engineering terms, soil is referred to as regolith, or loose rock material that lies above the 'solid
Soil is commonly referred to as "earth" or "dirt"; technically, the term "dirt" should be
restricted to displaced soil.

As soil resources serve as a basis for food security, the international community advocates for its
sustainable and responsible use through different types of Soil Governance.

Additional tools
Soil is defined as the top layer of the earths crust. It is formed by mineral particles, organic matter,
water, air and living organisms. It is in fact an extremely complex, variable and living medium. As soil
formation is an extremely slow process, soil can be considered essentially as a non-renewable
resource. The interface between the earth, the air and the water soil performs many vital functions:
food and other biomass production, storage, filtration and transformation of many substances
including water, carbon, nitrogen. Soil has a role as a habitat and gene pool, serves as a platform for
human activities, landscape and heritage and acts as a provider of raw materials. It contains around
twice the amount of carbon in the atmosphere and three times the amount to be found in
vegetation. These functions are worthy of protection because of their socio-economic as well as
environmental importance.
Soil is, however, increasingly degrading, both in the EU and at global level. Erosion, loss of organic
matter, compaction, salinisation, landslides, contamination, sealing have negative impacts on
human health, natural ecosystems and climate, as well as on our economy. Soil degradation has not
only transboundary effects, it also comes with high costs. Problems linked to soil degradation need
to be dealt with beyond the areas that are degraded. In addition, the reduction in environmental
services as a result of a loss of national soil capital must be compensated by increased pressures on
remaining soils or on the soils of other territories.
At the moment, only a few EU Member States have specific legislation on soil protection. Soil is not
subject to a comprehensive and coherent set of rules in the Union. Existing EU policies in areas such
as agriculture, water, waste, chemicals, and prevention of industrial pollution do indirectly
contribute to the protection of soils. But as these policies have other aims and scope of action, they
are not sufficient to ensure an adequate level of protection for all soils in Europe.
The continued unsustainable use of soils is compromising the Union's domestic and international
biodiversity and climate change objectives. For all these reasons, the Commission adopted a Soil
Thematic Strategy (COM(2006) 231) on 22 September 2006 with the objective to protect soils across
the EU. While the Commission in May 2014 decided towithdraw the proposal for a Soil Framework
Directive, the Seventh Environment Action Programme, which entered into force on 17 January 2014,
recognises that soil degradation is a serious challenge. It provides that by 2020 land is managed
sustainably in the Union, soil is adequately protected and the remediation of contaminated sites is
well underway and commits the EU and its Member States to increasing efforts to reduce soil
erosion and increase soil organic matter and to remediate contaminated sites.