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communication :

Communication is the activity of conveying information. Communication has been derived from
the Latin word "communis", meaning to share. Communication requires a sender, a message,
and an intended recipient
thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space.
The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the message of the
sender.
Communication is the sharing of ideas and information.
Communication is a process of transferring information from one entity to another.
Information can be a lot of different things depending on the context.


HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL COMMUNICATION :
verticle communication is communication with superiors and subordinates and horizontal
communication is communication with other departments

In a organization, verticle communication is communication between those who are on
different levels of authority within the company. Examples are: manager to employee,
general manager to managers, foreman to machine operator, head of the department to
cashiers, etc.

On the other hand, horizontal communication is communication between people on the
same level of authority. Like an organizational chart one communicates horizonilly with
people of same 'authority' with similar 'power' or grade or pay band.

In a organization, verticle communication is communication between those who are on
different levels of authority within the company. Examples are: Manager to employee,
general manager to managers, foreman to machine operator, head of the department to
cashiers, etc.
On the other hand, horizontal communication is communication between people on the
same level of authority. Like an organizational chart one communicates horizonilly with
people of same 'authority' with similar 'power' or grade or pay band.

Telecommunication :
Telecommunication is the transmission of information over significant distances to communicate.
Telecommunications includes voice, video, and Internet communications services.
ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION
There are seven elements of communication:

Source idea
Message
Encoding
Channel
Receiver
Decoding
Feedback

Let's discuss each element.

The Source idea is the process by which one formulates an idea to communicate to another party.
This process can be influenced by external stimuli such as books or radio
The source idea is the basis for the communication.

The Message is what will be communicated to another party. It is based on the source idea, but
the message is crafted to meet the needs of the audience. For example, if the message is between
two friends, the message will take a different form than if communicating with a superior.

Encoding is how the message is transmitted to another party. The message is converted into a
suitable form for transmission. The medium of transmission will determine the form of the
communication. For example, the message will take a different form if the communication will be
spoken or written.

The Channel is the medium of the communication. The channel must be able to transmit the
message from one party to another without changing the content of the message. The channel can
be a piece of paper, a communications medium such as radio, or it can be an email. The channel is
the path of the communication from sender to receiver. An email can use the Internet as a
channel.

The Receiver is the party receiving the communication. The party uses the channel to get the
communication from the transmitter. A receiver can be a television set, a computer, or a piece of
paper depending on the channel used for the communication.

Decoding is the process where the message is interpreted for its content. It also means the
receiver thinks about the message's content and internalizes the message. This step of the
process is where the receiver compares the message to prior experiences or external stimuli.

Feedback is the final step in the communications process. This step conveys to the transmitter
that the message is understood by the receiver. The receiver formats an appropriate reply to the
first communication based on the channel and sends it to the transmitter of the original message.
There are six elements of communication
1. Source
2.Stimuli
3.Message
4.Channel
5.Reciever
6. Feedback
The source is the originator of the idea which will be passed across as a message.
The stimulus is what triggers the source to present the message.
The message is the information passed acrossed.
The channel is the medium through which the message is commuicated
The receiver is the person who decodes the message
Feed back is the response of the receiver to the message

BLOCK DIAGRAM

ONE WAY AND TWO WAY COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

One way communication is when information is shared to others without a response. This would
include posting a memo for staff members to read. Two way communication involves
information being shared back and forth. Such as a staff meeting where info is given and staff
members are permitted to ask questions and give there input.
ANALOGUE AND DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

Analog
Analog signals are signals with continuous values. Analog signals are used in many
systems, although the use of analog signals has declined with the advent of cheap digital
signals.
Digital
Digital signals are signals that are represented by binary numbers, "1" or "0". The 1 and 0
values can correspond to different discrete voltage values, and any signal that doesnt
quite fit into the scheme just gets rounded off.
Digital signals are sampled, quantized & encoded version of continuous time signals which they
represent. In addition, some techniques also make the signal undergo encryption to make the
system more tolerent to the channel.
Analog
Analog systems are less tolerant to noise, make good use of bandwidth, and are easy to
manipulate mathematically. However, analog signals require hardware receivers and
transmitters that are designed to perfectly fit the particular transmission. If you are
working on a new system, and you decide to change your analog signal, you need to
completely change your transmitters and receivers.
Digital
Digital signals are more tolerant to noise, but digital signals can be completely corrupted
in the presence of excess noise. In digital signals, noise could cause a 1 to be interpreted
as a 0 and vice versa, which makes the received data different than the original data.
Imagine if the army transmitted a position coordinate to a missile digitally, and a single
bit was received in error? This single bit error could cause a missile to miss its target by
miles. Luckily, there are systems in place to prevent this sort of scenario, such as
checksums and CRCs, which tell the receiver when a bit has been corrupted and ask the
transmitter to resend the data. The primary benefit of digital signals is that they can be
handled by simple, standardized receivers and transmitters, and the signal can be then
dealt with in software (which is comparatively cheap to change).