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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 3, ISSUE 6, JUNE 2014 ISSN 2277-8616

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Design of Welding Fixture for
Head End Sub-Assembly of Motor Case
Naveen A M, V A Girish

Abstract This paper deals with the design of the welding fixture for the head end sub-assembly of a rocket motor case. The head end
sub-assembly consists of four parts namely Y-Ring, Dome, Igniter Boss and the Fore skirt ring that have to be welded to each other with a
specified tolerance and weld quality. The material used in the manufacture of different parts of head end sub-assembly is Maraging steel
which is one of the most commonly used material in the field of aerospace. All the welding processes are carried out in the presence of the
Copper Arsenic back-up support bar to ensure the quality of weld is as per the requirement. The optimum thickness of the back-up support
bar is determined and with in-process purging facility in the copper-arsenic bar ensure sound weld. Modeling of all the parts of head end
sub-assembly and the welding fixture is carried out using UNIGRAPHICS NX8.0.
Index Terms Welding fixture, Maraging steel, Motor Case, Copper-Arsenic, Weld back-up support, head end sub-assembly.

1 INTRODUCTION
fixture is a device for locating, holding and supporting a
work piece during a manufacturing operation. Fixtures
are essential elements of production processes as they are
required in most of the automated manufacturing, inspection,
and assembly operations. Fixtures must correctly locate a
work piece in a given orientation with respect to a cutting tool
or measuring device, or with respect to another component, as
for instance in assembly or welding. Such location must be
invariant in the sense that the devices must clamp and secure
the work piece in that location for the particular processing
Operation. Fixtures are normally designed for a definite
operation to process a specific work piece and are designed
and manufactured individually.
he correct relationship and alignment between the
components to be assembled must be maintained in the
welding fixture. o do this, a fixture is designed and built to
hold, support and locate work piece to ensure that each
component is !oined within the specified limits. " fixture
should be securely and rigidly clamp the component against
the rest pads and locator upon which the work is done.
Fixtures vary in design from relatively simple tools to
expensive, complicated devices. Fixtures also help to simplify
metalworking operations performed on special equipments.
Fixtures play an important role on reducing production cycle
time and ensuring production quality, by proper locating and
balanced clamping methods #$%.herefore to reduce
production cost, fixture design, fabrication and its testing is
critical.
&enerally, all fixtures consist of the following elements'
(ocators' " locator is usually a fixed component of a
fixture. )t is used to establish and maintain the position of
a part in the fixture by constraining the movement of the
part.
*lamps' " clamp is a force actuating mechanism of a
fixture. he forces exerted by the clamps hold a part
securely in the fixture against all other external forces.
Fixture +ody' Fixture body, or tool body, is the ma!or
structural element of a fixture. )t maintains the
relationship between the fixture elements namely (ocator,
clamps, supports, and the machine tool on which the part
is to be processed.
Supports' " support is a fixed or ad!ustable element of a
fixture. ,hen severe part displacement is expected under
the action of imposed clamping and processing.
,elding fixtures for work piece comprise the usual locating
and clamping elements as used in other fixtures. -owever, the
effect of heat and prevalence of welding spatter must be taken
into account while designing hot !oining fixtures. he design
considerations for welding fixtures are given below'
.xpansion of the heated work piece and resulting
distortion should not affect proper location, clamping,
loading and unloading. here should be adequate
clearance between the work piece and locators to permit
expansion, contraction and distortion of the work piece
without !amming the fixture. -andles sub!ected to heating
should be made of insulating materials such as wood.
,elding spatter should not be allowed to fall on the
threaded parts of the clamping elements. he parts near
the welding area should not to be threaded.
Spatter grooves must be provided below the line of
welding to prevent the work piece from getting welded to
the base plate.
*are should be taken to check that the !oined work piece
do not get locked in the fixture after welding.
For work piece requiring welding from a number of sides,
a provision for easy tilting or rotating the fixture should
be made to ease welding from the various sides.
o protect the weld from the atmosphere, the purging
facility can be designed.
"

Naveen A M is currently pursuing masters degree program in Tool
engineering in RVCE, Bangalore /-09448588886.
.0mail' naveenandanur@gmail.com

V A Girish is currently Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical
Engineer, RVCE, Bangalore
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o have rapid cooling to achieve less defects in weld, the
backup bar facility must be designed.1*opper0"rsenic bar
has been used in this paper2
2 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKET SYSTEM
Solid rocket systems are used extensively in situations in
which the total impulse is known in advance and restart is not
required. Structurally, a solid rocket motor 1see Fig. $2 consists
of the solid propellant grain itself, the liner, whose primary
purpose is to provide an adhesive bond between the
propellant grain and the case insulation3 the case insulation
which provides thermal protection to the case from
combustion products and also structurally supports the
propellant grain with the motor case. "ny one of these
structural elements may become the weakest link in the
propellant grain structure. " rocket motor case is used only
for a short duration during flight#4%.

Fig 1 *ross0section of a typical rocket motor' 1"2 chamber3 1+2
head end dome3 1*2 no55le3 162 igniter3 1.2 no55le convergent
portion3 1F2 no55le divergent portion3 1&2 port3 1-2 inhibitor3
1)2 no55le throat insert3 172 lining3 182 insulation3
1(2 propellant3 192 no55le exit plane31:2 S);* system3
1O2 segment !oint.

-ead end sub0assembly is a part of motor case is as shown in
the Fig 4. )t consists of four main parts 1$2 <0=ing1shown in
Fig.>2, 142 6ome1shown in fig.?2 ,1@2 )gniter boss1shown in
fig.A2 and the 1>2 fore0skirt ring 1shown in fig.B2 which have to
be welded together with a specified tolerance and quality. )t is
the main part of the motor case where the actual initial
ignition to produce the thrust in the rocket motor case takes
place. )t is made up of 9araging steel material. )t is one of the
most popular material used in the aerospace field. he cad
model of the -ead end sub0assembly is as shown in fig 4.
)n order to keep in track with the tolerance and the quality
of weld a proper welding fixture has to be designed. he
copper0arsenic back0up support bar with purging facility
which blows out the hot gas with the influence of high
pressurised inert gas blown into the groove machined exactly
below the weld line 1a tiny hole is provided for heat to escape
during welding2 is used in order to maintain the quality of the
weld by rapid cooling. he heat evolved during the welding is
taken by the copper0arsenic bar due to its property of high
thermal conductivity and the provided purging holes will
make way for the heat to escape into the atmosphere#@%.


Fig 2 -ead .nd Sub0"ssembly
3 LITERATURE REVIEW
Siva Sankara =a!u = et. al #>% have reported the material
properties of the maraging steel and :i6) #B% has been used to
work on the welding and its weld parameters of maraging
steel.
9 * 9ittal et al #@% have experimented successfully on
the &"1&as ungsten "rc2 welding of maraging steel using
the copper back0up plate with the purging facility to analy5e
the fracture toughness.
9.;arul et al #?% have examined the effect of welding
fixture to prevent the weld distortion, which are very much
taken into consideration while designing the welding fixture.
-ui ,ang et al #A% have reported the direct impact of
fixture on the product manufacturing quality, productivity
and cost. he methodology of building a fixture has been
reported, which will be a guideline to design the welding
fixture.
)ain +oyle et al #C% have stated the basic fixture design
principle, the flow chart of the design steps to design the weld
fixture has been stated and @040$ principle of location has been
explained in this paper that has been considered while
designing the fixture.
"ccording to -.. Sanche5 and 9. .strems. F, the final
precision with which work piece are formed strongly depends
on good design and correct operation of fixtures #D%. he main
errors introduced by fixtures are related to positioning,
indentation and structural deformation that has been reported
in this paper.
/atricio. F. 9ande5 et al #$E% has given the different types
of welding techniques and their parameters that are used in
the "eronautical industry. he paper has been studied and the
required weld parameters have been extracted before
designing the fixture.
F. Sikstrom et al #$$% reported in his paper the influence of
the clamping force on the structural integrity of the &",
welded work piece. he paper has been studied and
considerable clamping force calculations have to be carried
out in designing of the welding fixture.
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=. Scott Funderburk #$4% has reported the key concepts in
welding operation and in his paper the expression for heat
input has been stated.
&. =. Stoeckinger et al #$@% have conducted a successful
experiments on computeri5ed prediction of heat distribution
in welding tool and they have used the expressions of
thermodynamics to arrive at the heat transfer efficiency and
heat energy.
4 METHODOLOGY
he design of the welding fixture for head end assembly is
carried out as per the flow chart given in fig@.
Fig 3 Flow *hart to design the fixture
)n this flow chart, the initial step starts with the material
information ,machine specifications,geometric dimensions and
tolerances required to be achived on the component , and
different parts of the head end sub0assembly and their cad
drawings which are modeled using the software
F:)&="/-)*S :G C.E.
+efore the design of the welding fixture the fixture
requirements have to be considered.
Some of the requirements are stated below
&eneric requirement' "bstract sub0requirement examples.
/hysical' he fixture must be physically capable of
accommodating the work piece geometry and weight. he
fixture must allow access to the work piece features to be
machined.
olerance' he fixture locating tolerance should be
sufficient to satisfy part design tolerances.
*onstraining' he fixture shall ensure work piece stability
1i.e., ensure that work piece force and moment
equilibrium are maintained2. he fixture shall ensure that
the fixtureHwork piece stiffness is sufficient to prevent
deformation from occurring that could result in design
tolerances not being achieved.
"ffordability' he fixture cost shall not exceed desired
levels. he fixture assemblyHdisassembly times shall not
exceed desired levels. he fixture operation time shall not
exceed desired levels.
*ollision prevention' he fixture shall not cause tool path
fixture collisions to occur. he fixture shall cause work
piecefixture collisions to occur 1other than at the
designated locating and clamping positions2.he fixture
shall not cause fixturefixture collisions to occur 1other
than at the designated fixture component connection
points2.
Fsability' he fixture weight shall not exceed desired
levels. he fixture shall not cause surface damage at the
work pieceHfixture interface. he fixture shall provide
tool guidance to designated work piece features. I he
fixture shall ensure error0proofing1i.e., the fixture should
prevent incorrect insertion of the work piece into the
fixture2. he fixture shall facilitate chip shedding1i.e., the
fixture should provide a means for allowing machined
chips to flow away from the work piece and fixture2#C%.
4.1 MARAGING STEEL
9araging steels are leading members of the ultra high
strength steel family and derive their superior properties like
high strength and toughness due to a combination of two solid
state reactions' 9"= J "&.):& meaning martensitic
transformation and subsequent ageing. hese steels are
primarily based on the Fe:i system. he composition is so
balanced that on cooling from the austenitic region it
transforms to soft martensite and on ageing, precipitation of K
inter0metallic compounds occurs on a fine scale to increase
strength. hese steels have attracted material scientists and
aerospace structural designers because of their unique
strength0toughness combination, ease of fabrication and heat
treatment, good weld ability and minimum dimensional
distortion. .ighteen percent of :i maraging steel is the most
widely used ultra0high tensile strength maraging steels. )t is
classified into 904EE,904?E, 90@EE and90@?E grades
according to their E.4L proof stress levels, namely 4EE, 4?E,
@EE and @?E ksi. ,eld ability is one of the most important
properties of ultra0high tensile strength steels and
consequently steels with poor weldability cannot be applied to
practical use. he weldability of $CL :i maraging steel differs
greatly from that of the other martensitic ultra0high tensile
strength steels in that the former does not need preheating or
post0heating, has little hardening in the heat affected 5one and
produces few cracks during welding. )n addition, the ageing
temperature after welding is low, and therefore the
contraction on ageing is very little #4%.
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he compostion used in head end sub0assembly is 96:0
4?E which has a composition of $CL:i and the properties of
96:04?E is as stated below#$>%'
6ensity' C.$ gHcm 1E.4D lbHin2
Specific heat, mean for E$EE * 1@44$4 F2' C$@ 7Hkg 8
9elting point' 4,?B? F, $,>$@ *
hermal conductivity' 4?.? ,Hm 8
9ean coefficient of thermal expansion' $$.@$E
A

<ield tensile strength' typically $,E@E4,>4E 9/a
Fltimate tensile strength' typically $.A4.? &/a
&rades exist up to @.? &/a
.longation at break' up to $?L
8
)*
fracture toughness' up to $B? 9/a m
$
4

<oungMs modulus' 4$E &/a 1@E,EEE,EEE psi2
Shear modulus' BB &/a 1$$,4EE,EEE psi2
+ulk modulus' $>E &/a 14E,EEE,EEE psi2
-ardness 1aged2' ?E -=* 1grade 4?E23 ?> -=* 1grade @EE23
?C -=* 1grade @?E2
4.2 DESIGN OF WELDING FIXTURE
he given information about the head end sub0assembly are as
given below'
Table-1 Input information
Fig 4 Igniter boss Fig 5 Dome
Fig 6 Y-Ring Fig 7 Fore Skirt Ring

The models of the above mentioned parts of the head end
sub assembly are given below from fig > to fig B. he optimum
procedure of sequential of welding process using the designed
welding fixture has been established as shown in the above
table 2 gives clear cut information:
able02 Sequence of weld
he model of the welding fixture for the head end sub0
assembly is shown in the fig C. his fixture is casted with
aluminium considering the casting does not have a ma!or
effect due to the temperature rise because of the welding.
Since, the heat evolved during welding is thrown out as soon
as it is produced because of the purging facility provided
under the weld bead. he critical part of the casting is the
profile. his casted round profile has to match the profile of
the dome , <0=ing and also some part of the igniter boss.
-ence, the fixture has to be inspected to match this profile to
produce the required accuracy and tolerance of the
Fig C ,elding Fixture
welding on the components of head end sub0assembly. his
has been stated in one of the paper by 9. .strems et al. #$?%
that the dimensional accuracy of the welding fixture has a
direct impact on the dimensional accuracy of the part being
welded. -ence, to have a control over the required accuracy of
Manual TIG welding
Welding Process
& Specifications
To be established in-house
Tolerances
Required
Onl about !"#
rd
to !"$
th
of the fine
class%General Geo&etrical tolerances-IS
'!(') at *arious locations
-ead .nd Sub "ssembly
*omponent =aw
9aterial
Form
Si5e of =aw 9aterial
196:04?E2
a. )gniter boss Forging O644E x )6D? x >?
b.6ome /ress
Formed
Sheet
B.4 x BEE x BEE
c.<0ring Forging O6>4E x )6@$? x
C?(ong
d. Fore Skirt ring Forging O6>4E x
)6@>Ex@E(ong

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the welding fixture is carefully casted and inspected before it
is finali5ed to use as a welding fixture.
4.3 ARSENIC COPPER WELD BACUP
+ackup supports are used for welding of significant
thickness for easy penetration control where welding is
carried out from one side only. he role of backup support is
also essential to protect the under bead from atmospheric
oxidation. his is achieved by gas purging and ensures that
the under bead is smooth and of high quality. he backup
support can be divided into three categories depending on
type of welding'
$. +ack0up support for (
4. +ack0up support for cir
@. +ack0up support for planetary welding
he width 1w2 of the back support is the sum of the
distance between two clamps, width of pressure exerting are
of the clamps and additional width to hold the !oint properly.
"dditional rigidity to the back support is provided by
peripheral aluminum "lloy or mild steel ring, which is lighter
in weight. "ll the above categories of back support can be sub
divided on the basis of type of grooves provided.



he selection of grooves'
he groove type 1)2 is selected for large diameter cream and
l0seam welding where the shell thickness 1skinH component
thickness2 is not less than >mm and under bead to be Flushed
with parent material. he groove width is a variable factor
with respect to the sheet 1component2 thickness.
he groove type 1ii2 is selected for small diameter planetary
1circular2 welding where under bead need not have to be
flushed to parent material. he groove width and depth are
variable factors.
SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 3, ISSUE 6, JUNE 2014
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and inspected before it
ARSENIC COPPER WELD BACUP
+ackup supports are used for welding of significant
thickness for easy penetration control where welding is
carried out from one side only. he role of backup support is
tial to protect the under bead from atmospheric
oxidation. his is achieved by gas purging and ensures that
the under bead is smooth and of high quality. he backup
support can be divided into three categories depending on
for (0seam welding
up support for cir0seam welding
up support for planetary welding
he width 1w2 of the back support is the sum of the
distance between two clamps, width of pressure exerting area
of the clamps and additional width to hold the !oint properly.
"dditional rigidity to the back support is provided by
peripheral aluminum "lloy or mild steel ring, which is lighter
in weight. "ll the above categories of back support can be sub
the basis of type of grooves provided.

he groove type 1)2 is selected for large diameter cream and
seam welding where the shell thickness 1skinH component
thickness2 is not less than >mm and under bead to be Flushed
with parent material. he groove width is a variable factor
the sheet 1component2 thickness.
he groove type 1ii2 is selected for small diameter planetary
1circular2 welding where under bead need not have to be
flushed to parent material. he groove width and depth are
he groove type 1iii2 is
where the purging call from both top and bottom faces of
weld, and the gas used is "rgon 1specific gravity is $.AD
kgHchum2. he groove width depth and radius are variable
factors with respect to the sheet thickness

,ith reference to the papers #$4% and #$@%, the expressions
are extracted from these papers and are used in the
determining the mass of the back
specific heat of both 9araging steel and *opper "rsenic.

*alculation For Finding Out he
he weld parameters have to be established by doing
,eld trials on the test specimens
carried out before proceeding with the actual process of
welding the components. hese iterations are carried out and
the results of each iteration is documented and the feasible
weld parameter among the different iteration is
proceed with the actual component welding using welding
fixture.
he results of all the iterations that have been carried out on
the test specimen has been shown in the below table
table the optimum welding parameters of the TIG wel
established and it is further used.
`able @ ,elding parameters iterations
he feasible one out of the above iteration is taken and
the theoretical calculation for the same is carried out below'
,elding parameters'
;oltage, . N $4 ;
*urrent, ) N $CE "mps
ravel speed, vN4CE mmHmin N>.AA mmHs
-eat )nput #-%'
)n an arc welding, the total heat energy -, generated by power
source is given by
-N.)H; in 7Hmm
,here,
.N;oltage N $4;
)N*urrent N $CE"
;Nravel Speed
N4CEmmHmin
N4CEHAE
N >.AA mmHs

Therefore, the heat input:
-= 1$4 x$CE2H >.AA
HN >A4.C? 7Hmm

UNE 2014 ISSN 2277-8616
280
he groove type 1iii2 is generally deployed to "* weld
where the purging call from both top and bottom faces of
weld, and the gas used is "rgon 1specific gravity is $.AD
kgHchum2. he groove width depth and radius are variable
factors with respect to the sheet thickness
eference to the papers #$4% and #$@%, the expressions
are extracted from these papers and are used in the
determining the mass of the back0up support bar using the
specific heat of both 9araging steel and *opper "rsenic.
For Finding Out he 9ass Of ,eld +ack Fp ool'
he weld parameters have to be established by doing
cimens. he number of iterations are
carried out before proceeding with the actual process of
welding the components. hese iterations are carried out and
the results of each iteration is documented and the feasible
weld parameter among the different iteration is finali5ed to
proceed with the actual component welding using welding
he results of all the iterations that have been carried out on
the test specimen has been shown in the below table. In this
table the optimum welding parameters of the TIG welding is also
established and it is further used.

able @ ,elding parameters iterations
out of the above iteration is taken and
the theoretical calculation for the same is carried out below'
*urrent, ) N $CE "mps
ravel speed, vN4CE mmHmin N>.AA mmHs
arc welding, the total heat energy -, generated by power
7Hmm

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Let Hn be the actual heat transferred to the work piece
considering small electrical losses in arc. Then,
Hn N 1f$ x . x )2Hv
N f$ x -
,here, f$ N -eat transfer efficiency
N E.B for )& ,elding (considered as 70% efficient)
-
n
N E.B x >A4.C?
-
n
N@4>

7Hmm
-eat .nergy Fsed o 9elt 9araging Steel 1-m2:
The expression for heat energy is given by:
-m N#-f 1m0o2%,H(
,here,
-f N -eat of fusion
N$$4Ax$E
@
7Hkg 1for 904?E2
* NSpecific heat of weld metal
N E.C$@ x $E
@
7Hkg 1for 904?E2
mN9elting temperature of base metal
N $>$@
E
*
o N temperature of base metal prior to weld
N 4E
E
*
, N ,eight of the deposited weld metal
N "(
,here,
"NCross sectional "rea of weld beam
N $>.?B mm
4
1from bead cross0section2
(N (ength of weld metal deposited
N 4 x x r N x d
,here,
d N 6iameter of the component to be welded.
( N x >$C.>
N $@$>.>> mm
N 6ensity of weld metal 1904?E2
N C.$ x $E
@
8gHm
@

, N "(
N E.$?? 8g
herefore,
-m N#-fJ* 1m0o2% ,H( in 7Hmm
-m N #O$$4A x $E
@
JE.C$@ x $E
@
1$>$@04E2P% x E.$?? H $@$>.>>
-m N 4AA.?> 7Hmm
-eat dissipated to component and tool is given by the
expression:
QN -n+ -m
N ?B.>? 7Hmm
"lso,
Q N-eat absorbed by component J -eat absorbed by tool.
Q N 1m * d2
904?E
J 1m * d2
"s *u

N -
1904?E2
J -
back

,here,
9
904?E
Nmass of maraging steel,
,here effective heat transfer is taking place
*
904?E
N Specific heat of 9araging Steel
N C$@ 7H8g8 (derived using the J-MAT PRO)
For Arsenic-Copper,
9
back
N 9ass of back up bar
*
back
N Specific heat of back up bar N @CE 7H8g8
dt N *hange )n emperature Of +ack Fp +ar

9ass Of 9araging Steel 1m
904?E
2 is found out using a relation,
9 1
904?E
2 N x ;
,here,
N 6ensity of 904?E
; N ;olume N " x L
N H> 1>$C.>
4
0>$@.>
4
2 x E.$?,
,here,
( N $?Emm, effective heat transfer length
9 1
904?E
2N E.E$?C 8g

-eat "bsorbed +y /art (-) i.e Maraging Steel

1-
:et
2 N 1m * d2
904?E
N @@??.B 7

For unit length, 1-
part
2 N 1-
:et
2 H1 x >$C.> 2 N 4.?? 7Hmm

-eat "bsorbed +y "rsenic *opper +ack Fp +ar
:ow,
-
back
N Q 1-2
904?E

H
back
N m
back
x @CE x 1$$@0@C)
m
back
= H
back
/ (380 x 75 )
+ack Fp 9ass, m
back
N 4.?025 8g

*onsidering the weld parameter the mass of the backup tool
is approximated as 4.58gs. =ise in temp in back up tool is D@
E

and hence it is recommended not to touch the backup tool
after welding. "llow the tool to cool and then disassemble the
tool set up used for welding.
From the above calculations, it can be concluded that for
$4; R $CE", a minimum of 4.?04?8g of back0Fp mass is
sufficient to dissipate the heat satisfactorily. +ut, the thickness
will be very less, arising the strength R rigidity concerns.
-ence, a nominal 4Emm thick minimum is sufficient to
address the thermal as well as strength requirements as for the
calculations.
4.4 MINIMUM GAP BETWEEN WELD EDGE
AND CLAMP EDGE
he thickness of the weld between each of the parts is
?.ABmm. using this thickness value the minimum gap between
the weld edge and the clamping edge has to be determined
using below expressions.
"n examination of bead shape1weld pool2, welded with
direct polarity shows the bead width d to a depth of
penetration p relationship of the form'
d N$.Bp
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d N $.B x ?.AB
d N D.A@ mm
his is the normal polarity for )& process.
)t t is the thickness of the material to be welded, then the
safe gap 1a2 between one edge of weld bead to the clamp is
$.4?t.
-ence,
=equired gap to =- clamp N $.4? x ?.AB N B.EC m
=equired gap to (- clamp N $.4? x ??.AB N B.ECmm
he distance between the clamps for 6* direct
polarity weld N d J 4a
-ere, t N ?.ABmm
herefore the distance between the clamps for direct 16*2
polarity weld N D.A@ J 4SB.EC
N 4@.BD approximately 4> mm
hereby, the minimum gap between the clamp edg
weld edge is half of the total distance i.e 4>H4 N $4mm.
4.5 WELD SETUPS
$
st
,eld set0up
he first weld setup in the sequence stated in the above
able04 is <0=ng to 6ome and the setup of fixture for the
is as shown in the sequential figures below
In this setup all the welding parameters, minimum gap between
the clamp and the weld edge has been considered as per the arrived
results in the earlier stage of this paper.
he profile of the fixture helps in positioning of the <
and 6ome.
Step $' /lace the <0=ing on the fixture and clamp it
Step 4' /lace the dome on the fixture

SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 3, ISSUE 6, JUNE 2014
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IJSTR2014
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his is the normal polarity for )& process.
is the thickness of the material to be welded, then the
safe gap 1a2 between one edge of weld bead to the clamp is
=equired gap to =- clamp N $.4? x ?.AB N B.EC m
=equired gap to (- clamp N $.4? x ??.AB N B.ECmm
for 6* direct

herefore the distance between the clamps for direct 16*2
N 4@.BD approximately 4> mm
hereby, the minimum gap between the clamp edge and the
weld edge is half of the total distance i.e 4>H4 N $4mm.
he sequence stated in the above
=ng to 6ome and the setup of fixture for the same
below
In this setup all the welding parameters, minimum gap between
the clamp and the weld edge has been considered as per the arrived
he profile of the fixture helps in positioning of the <0=ing
=ing on the fixture and clamp it.
Step @' *lamp the 6ome using clamp plate.
Step >' ,eld <0=ing to 6ome
he component after weld is as shown
4
nd
,eld set0up
"s per the next sequence in the able
needs to be welded to the pre
and the weld setup to weld this sequence is as shown in the
figures below'
Step$' /lace the )gniter +oss.
Step 4' *lamp the igniter boss and the pre
<0=ing.
UNE 2014 ISSN 2277-8616
282
@' *lamp the 6ome using clamp plate.
6ome.
r weld is as shown below'
per the next sequence in the able04, the )gniter boss
needs to be welded to the pre0welded <0=ing and the 6ome
and the weld setup to weld this sequence is as shown in the
Step$' /lace the )gniter +oss.












er boss and the pre0welded 6ome
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOL



Step 3: Weld Dome Y-Ring to Igniter Boss.
@
rd
,eld set0up
Fntil this part the welding fixture had enough
flexibility to weld with the "rsenic *opper back
bar. )n this setup, providing a back0up support needed a
special design to fit into the gap between the upper surface
the <0=ing and the (ower surface of the fore skirt ring is
approximately about >Emm. -ence, designing a support back
up is a challenge and the figure below shows the exact
problem.
o tackle this problem ,design of a collapsible type of back
up support "rsenic *opper ring that has been fastened to the
fore skirt ring before the weld setup and after the welding
operation the fasteners are removed to e!ect out the
the "rsenic *opper back0up support . his arrangement
shown in the below figure and is the step $ for the @
weld.
Step $' Fastening the collapsible back0up support to the Fore
Skirt =ing.
he 406 drawings of these collapsible back
has been shown below'


SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 3, ISSUE 6, JUNE 2014
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IJSTR2014
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Fntil this part the welding fixture had enough
flexibility to weld with the "rsenic *opper back0up support
up support needed a
n the upper surface of
he (ower surface of the fore skirt ring is
approximately about >Emm. -ence, designing a support back0
figure below shows the exact
a collapsible type of back0
been fastened to the
fore skirt ring before the weld setup and after the welding
operation the fasteners are removed to e!ect out the pieces of
up support . his arrangement
$ for the @
rd
setup of
up support to the Fore
6 drawings of these collapsible back0up support ring





Fig. D +ottom half






Fig11 Ejecting halvesof the ring
he 40d drawings are relative to each other as the fig. D shows
the bottom half of the back0
to the top half which is shown in the fig. $E and in the fig. $$
the e!ection of this collapsible backup support is designed
removing this is easier since there is a straight edge at one end
of each of the aligning single
when assembling and is removed first when the collapsible
ring has to be disassembled.
Step 4' /lace the Fore Skirt ring with the collapsible back
fastened on the pre0welded <
Step @' *lamp the Fore Skirt =ing using the clamp plate and
the thrust pad.
Step >' he final welded head end sub
the figure below.
UNE 2014 ISSN 2277-8616
283
Fig. $E op hal
11 Ejecting halvesof the ring
d drawings are relative to each other as the fig. D shows
0up support ring which is aligned
to the top half which is shown in the fig. $E and in the fig. $$
the e!ection of this collapsible backup support is designed
removing this is easier since there is a straight edge at one end
ach of the aligning single part and this pair is aligned last
when assembling and is removed first when the collapsible
ring has to be disassembled.
Fore Skirt ring with the collapsible back0up
welded <0=ing 6ome and )gniter +oss.
Fore Skirt =ing using the clamp plate and
Step >' he final welded head end sub0assembly is as shown in
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOL


5 ACHIEVING THE TOLERANCE
he specified tolerances on the head end sub
shown in the figure 12.
o achieve the above tolerances as mentioned in the figure,
the top surface of the )gniter +oss is provided with extra
material which is machined parallel to the bottom surface of
the <0=ing and the inner radius of the igniter boss is also
provided with extra material and this surface is machined in
Fig $4 olerances stated on the component
such a way that it is perpendicular to the top surface of the
fore skirt ring after the whole welding operation is finished.
6 RESULTS AND CONCLUSION
)n this paper, the welding fixture for head end sub
assembly is designed successfully and in this process of
designing
he modeling of each parts of the head end sub
assembly and the welding fixture is carried out
better visual reali5ation of the components, this
modeling of the parts is modeled
package F:)&="/-)*S :G C.E.
his method of modeling the parts evolves the better
analysis towards the tolerances on the
fixture design.
he calculations using the thermal aspects
copper and the maraging steel enabled us to arrive at the
optimum mass of the back0up support bar
found to be 4.?@4?kg and this ensures that the heat
evolved during the welding of the !oint is a
towards the backup support ring and the mass of this
back up support is calculated in order to sustain this hot
gas without much of a thermal expansion.
he minimum gap between the clamp and weld edge is
found to be $4mm and this has been followed in the
design practice of the welding fixture and at the bottom
of clamp plate the arsenic copper
provide the support so that there is no effect of clamping
force on the part head end sub0assembly.
he sequence of the welding operations
and is found to be one of the optimum sequence in this
head end sub0assembly welding. he each weld setups
are stated and are briefed using the figures at each step
of welding using the welding fixture.
he design of the collapsible backup support ring for
welding the fore0skirt ring with the y
successfully executed in this whole design of welding
SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 3, ISSUE 6, JUNE 2014
`
IJSTR2014
www.ijstr.org
5 ACHIEVING THE TOLERANCE
he specified tolerances on the head end sub0assembly are
rances as mentioned in the figure,
is provided with extra
is machined parallel to the bottom surface of
and the inner radius of the igniter boss is also
with extra material and this surface is machined in
Fig $4 olerances stated on the component
such a way that it is perpendicular to the top surface of the
operation is finished.
6 RESULTS AND CONCLUSION
)n this paper, the welding fixture for head end sub0
assembly is designed successfully and in this process of
he modeling of each parts of the head end sub0
ixture is carried out for the
reali5ation of the components, this
modeling of the parts is modeled using the software
his method of modeling the parts evolves the better
analysis towards the tolerances on the parts and also the
sing the thermal aspects of the arsenic
enabled us to arrive at the
up support bar, which was
and this ensures that the heat
elding of the !oint is absorbed
towards the backup support ring and the mass of this
back up support is calculated in order to sustain this hot
gas without much of a thermal expansion.
clamp and weld edge is
and this has been followed in the
design practice of the welding fixture and at the bottom
of clamp plate the arsenic copper backup bar will
provide the support so that there is no effect of clamping
assembly.
he sequence of the welding operations is established
and is found to be one of the optimum sequence in this
assembly welding. he each weld setups
are stated and are briefed using the figures at each step
sing the welding fixture.
he design of the collapsible backup support ring for
skirt ring with the y0ring has been
whole design of welding
fixture.
he geometric tolerances that are specified on the head
end sub0assembly are very tight and hence this specified
tolerance can be achieved upto an extent using the
designed welding fixture. Since, in this case the
probability of re!ection or rework will be more
compared with the probability of acceptance a specif
method under section > will provide the more
probability towards the acceptance than re!ection.
-ence, this method
specified tolerance.
Refferences
#$% S. Selvakumar *lamping Force Optimi5ation For 9inimum
6eformation of ,orkpiece by 6ynamic "nalysis of ,orkpiece
Fixture system ))S: $C$C0>D?4.
#4% ". Subhanand =ao , &. ;enkata =ao , +. :ageswara =ao
(ong0Seam 9ismatch on the +urst /ressure of 9araging Steel =ocket
9otor *ases .ngineering Failure "nalysis $4 14EE?2 pp @4?
#@% 9. *. 9ittal, +. =. &hose "n "nalysis of Fracture oughness in the
-"T of &" ,elded 9araging Steel
Supplement , :ovember $DCD,pp >?B
#>% Siva Sankara =a!u =, 8arun 8umar <, /ragathi 8umar &
and "nalysis of 9otor *asing by Fsing F.9 echnique
)SS:' 44>D0CD?C, ;olume04,)ssue
#?% 9. ;arul , -. F. 9u5afferoglu, F. *. apici
Fixtures on ,elding 6istortion
Feb 4EEB ,pp ?$$0?$>.
#A% -ui ,ang , <iming 18evin2 =ong
For *omputer "ided ,elding Fixture 6esign
*omputer0"ided 6esign >E14EEC2 pp. $$4$
#B% $C percent :ickel 9araging Steels .ngineering properties
/ublication :o. >>$D by :ickel 6evelopment )nstitute.
#C% )ain +oyle , <iming =ong , 6avid *. +rown
of *urrent *omputer0aided Fixture 6esign "pproachesU ,
=obotics and *omputer )ntegrated 9anufacturing 4B 14E$$2 pp.$
#D% -. . Sanche5 "nalysis and *ompensation of /ositional and
6eformation .rrors Fsing )ntegrated Fixturing "nalysis in Flexible
9achining /arts Springer0
4EEA.
#$E% /atricio F. 9ende5 :ew rends )n ,elding in the "eronauti
)ndustry, 9assaachusetts )nstitute of echnology, *ambridge , 9"
E4$@D, FS", pp $0$?.
#$$% F. Sikstrom , ". 8. *hristiansson , +. (ennartson
Forces on 6istortion in &as ungsten "rc ,elding
and 9odelling "pproach
..ngineering 9anufacture pp. $>E
#$4% =. Scott Funderburk *oncepts of welding Operation
#$@% &. =. Stoeckinger, =. ". *alabrese and =. F. 9enaul
/rediction of -eat 6istribution in ,elding ooling
"nnual meet at 6etroit during "pril 4>
#$>% www.wikipedia.comHmaragingsteel
#$?% 9. .strems, -. . Sanche5 and F.Faura
6imensional "ccuracy in 9achining /rocesses
4EE@,pp@C>0@DE.


UNE 2014 ISSN 2277-8616
284
he geometric tolerances that are specified on the head
assembly are very tight and hence this specified
tolerance can be achieved upto an extent using the
designed welding fixture. Since, in this case the
probability of re!ection or rework will be more
compared with the probability of acceptance a specified
method under section > will provide the more
probability towards the acceptance than re!ection.
can be opted for achieving the
*lamping Force Optimi5ation For 9inimum
orkpiece by 6ynamic "nalysis of ,orkpiece0
>D?4. )6OS) 4E$E. pp C>E0C>A
". Subhanand =ao , &. ;enkata =ao , +. :ageswara =ao .ffect of
Seam 9ismatch on the +urst /ressure of 9araging Steel =ocket
Failure "nalysis $4 14EE?2 pp @4?0@@A.
"n "nalysis of Fracture oughness in the
-"T of &" ,elded 9araging Steel ,elding =esearch
Supplement , :ovember $DCD,pp >?B0>A$.
Siva Sankara =a!u =, 8arun 8umar <, /ragathi 8umar & 6esign
and "nalysis of 9otor *asing by Fsing F.9 echnique )7."
4,)ssue0@, February 4E$@ pp BE0B>.
9. ;arul , -. F. 9u5afferoglu, F. *. apici he .ffect of ,elding
Fixtures on ,elding 6istortion 7"99., ;olume 4E ,)ssue $04, 7an0
-ui ,ang , <iming 18evin2 =ong *ase +ased =easoning 9ethod
For *omputer "ided ,elding Fixture 6esign, .(S.;).=,
"ided 6esign >E14EEC2 pp. $$4$0$$@4.
$C percent :ickel 9araging Steels .ngineering properties
/ublication :o. >>$D by :ickel 6evelopment )nstitute.
)ain +oyle , <iming =ong , 6avid *. +rown " =eview and "nalysis
aided Fixture 6esign "pproachesU , .(S.;).=,
)ntegrated 9anufacturing 4B 14E$$2 pp.$0$4.
"nalysis and *ompensation of /ositional and
Fsing )ntegrated Fixturing "nalysis in Flexible
0;erlag (ondon (imited , pp. 4>$04?4, 7an
:ew rends )n ,elding in the "eronautic
, 9assaachusetts )nstitute of echnology, *ambridge , 9"
F. Sikstrom , ". 8. *hristiansson , +. (ennartson =ole of Fixture
Forces on 6istortion in &as ungsten "rc ,elding an .xperimental
and 9odelling "pproach proc. )9ech. ;ol.44? /art +'7
..ngineering 9anufacture pp. $>E0$>C.,"ugust 4E$E.
*oncepts of welding Operation
&. =. Stoeckinger, =. ". *alabrese and =. F. 9enaul *omputeri5ed
/rediction of -eat 6istribution in ,elding ooling paper based on >C
th

"nnual meet at 6etroit during "pril 4>04C.Science direct pp $>04A, 7an $DBE.
www.wikipedia.comHmaragingsteel
9. .strems, -. . Sanche5 and F.Faura )nfluence of Fixtures on
"ccuracy in 9achining /rocesses springer0