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Passage 1
The first navigational lights in the New World were probably lanterns hung at harbor entrances. The
first lighthouse was put up by the Massachusetts Bay Colony In 17 on !ittle Brewster Island at the
entrance to Boston "arbor. #aid for and $aintained by light dues levied on ships% the original beacon was
blown up in 177. By then there were only a do&en or so true lighthouses in the colonies. !ittle over a century
later% there were 7'' lighthouses.
The first eight erected on the West Coast in the 1()'*s featured the sa$e basic New +ngland design,
a Cape Cod dwelling with the tower rising fro$ the center or standing close by. In New +ngland and
elsewhere. though. lighthouses reflected a variety of architectural styles. -ince $ost stations in the Northeast
were built on roc.y e$inences% enor$ous towers were not the rule. -o$e were $ade of stone and bric.%
others of wood or $etal. -o$e stood on pilings or stilts, so$e were fastened to roc. with iron rods. /arther
south. fro$ Maryland through the /lorida 0eys% the coast was low and sandy. It was often necessary to build
tall towers there 1 $assive structures li.e the $a2estic Cape "atteras% North Carolina lighthouse% which was
lit in 1(7'. 3t 14' feet% it is the tallest bric. lighthouse in the country.
Not withstanding differences in appearance and construction% $ost 3$erican lighthouses shared
several features, a light% living 5uarters% and so$eti$es a bell6or% later% a foghorn7. They also had so$ething
else in co$$on, a .eeper and. usually. the .eeper8s fa$ily. The .eeper8s essential tas. was tri$$ing the
lantern 8Nic. in order to $aintain a steady bright fla$e. The earliest .eepers ca$e fro$ every wal. of life9
they were sea$en. /ar$ers% $echanics% rough $ill hands9and appoint$ents were often handed out by local
custo$s co$$issioners as political plu$s. 3fter the ad$inistration of lighthouses was ta.en over in 1(): by
the ;nited -tates !ighthouse ('<
% an agency of the Treasury =epart$ent% the .eeper corps gradually
beca$e highly professional.
1. What is the best title for the passage.
637 The !ighthouse on !ittle Brewster Island
6B7 The !ife of a !ighthouse 0eeper
6C7 +arly !ighthouses in the ;nited -tates
6=7 The Modern #rofession of !ighthouse 0eeping
2. Why does the author $ention the Massachusetts Bay Colony>
637 It was the head5uarters of the ;nited -tates !ighthouse Board.
6B7 Many of the tallest lighthouses were built there.
6C7 The first lantern wic.s were developed there.
6=7 The first lighthouse in North 3$erica was built there.
3. It can be inferred fro$ the passage that light9houses in the Northeast did not need high towers because
637 ships there had high $asts
6B7 coastal waters were safe
6C7 the coast was straight and unobstructed
6=7 the lighthouse were built on high places
4. 3ccording to the passage. where can the tallest bric. lighthouse in the ;nited -tates be found>
637 !ittle Brewster Island 6B7 The /lorida 0eys
6C7 Cape "atteras 6=7 Cape Cod
5. In line 14% to which of the following does the word ?They? refer>
637 !ighthouses 6B7 =ifferences 6C7 @uarters 6=7 /eatures
6. It can be inferred fro$ the passage that the Treasury =epart$ent% after assu$ing control of the lighthouses% i$proved
which of the following>
637 The training of the lighthouse .eepers 6B7 The sturdiness of the lighthouses
6C7 The visibility of the lights 6=7 The locations of the lighthouses
7. Where in the passage does the author tell how lighthouses in the Northeast were fastened to the surrounding roc.>
637 !ines <9A 6B7 !ine 1: 6C7 !ines 1A91) 6=7 !ine 14
Passage 2
"o$ing pigeons are placed in a training progra$ fro$ about the ti$e they are twenty9eight days of
age. They are taught to enter the loft through a trap and to eBercise above and around the loft% and gradually
they are ta.en away for short distances in wic.er bas.ets and released. They are then eBpected to find their
way ho$e in the shortest possible ti$e.
In their training flights or in actual races% the birds are ta.en to prearranged distant points and released
to find their way bac. to their own lofts. Cnce the birds are liberated% their owners% who are standing by at the
ho$e lofts% anBiously watch the s.y for the return of their entries. -ince ti$e is of the essence% the speed with
which the birds can be induced to enter the loft trap $ay $a.e the difference between gaining a win or a
second place.
The head of a ho$ing pigeon is co$paratively s$all% but its brain is one 5uarter larger than that of the
ordinary pigeon. The ho$ing pigeon is very intelligent and will persevere to the point of stubbornness so$e
have been .nown to fly a hundred $iles off course to avoid a stor$.
-o$e ho$ing pigeon eBperts clai$ that this bird is gifted with a for$ of built9in radar that helps it find
its own loft after hours of flight% for hidden under the head feathers are two very sensitive ears% while the
sharp% pro$inent eyes can see great distances in dayti$e.
Why do ho$ing pigeons fly ho$e> They are not uni5ue in this inherent s.ill, it is found in $ost
$igratory birds% in bees% ants% toads% and even turtles% which have been .nown to travel hundreds of $iles to
return to their ho$es. But in the ani$al world. the ho$ing pigeon alone can be trusted with its freedo$ and
trained to carry out the $issions that people de$and.
1. What is the purpose of the passage>
637 To convince the reader to buy a ho$ing pigeon
6B7 To infor$ the reader about ho$ing pigeons and their training
6C7 To protect ho$ing pigeons against the threat of eBtinction
6=7 To encourage the owners of ho$ing pigeons to set the birds free
2. 3ccording to the passage% what happens to ho$ing pigeons when they are about a $onth old>
637 They are .ept in a trap. 6B7 They enter their first race.
6C7 They begin a training progra$. 6=7 They get their wings clipped and $ar.ed.
3. In line (% when the author states that the owners ?anBiously watch the s.y? there is the i$plication that the owners
637 want their pigeon to win the race
6B7 are sending radar signals to their pigeons
6C7 do not .now whether the race began on ti$e
6=7 do not trust the rules set down by the 2udges
4. 3ccording to the passage% what is the difference between a ho$ing pigeon and an ordinary one>
637 The span of the wings 6B7 The shape of the eyes
6C7 The teBture of the feathers 6=7 The si&e of the brain
5. The author $entions all of the following at tributes that enable a ho$ing pigeon to return ho$e +DC+#T
637 instinct 6B7 air sacs 6C7 sensitive ears 6=7 good eyes
6. In line 1% the pronoun ?it? refers to which of the following>
637 Eadar 6B7 Bird 6C7 !oft 6=7 /or$
7. Why does the author $ention bees% ants% toads% and turtles in the last paragraph>
637 To describe so$e unusual .inds of pets
6B7 To $easure distances traveled by various ani$als
6C7 To co$pare their ho$e9finding abilities with those of ho$ing pigeons
6=7 To interest the reader in learning about other ani$als
Passage 3
Central #ar.% e$erging fro$ a period of abuse and neglect% re$ains one of the $ost popular
attractions in New For. City% with half a $illion out9of9towners a$ong the $ore than < $illion people who visit
the par. yearly. 3bout 1) $illion individual visits are $ade each year.
-u$$er is the season for softball% concerts% and -ha.espeareG fall is stunningG winter is wonderful for
sledding% s.ating% and s.iingG and springti$e is the loveliest of all. It was all planned that way.
3bout 1<' years ago /rederic !aw Cl$sted and his collaborator Calvert HauB sub$itted their
landscaping plan for a rectangular parcel two $iles north of the town8 s center. The barren swa$py tract%
ho$e for s5uatters and a bone9boiling wor.s that $ade glue% was reported as 8a pestilential spot where
$ias$ic odors taint every breath of air.?It too. 1 years for wor.ers with pic.aBes and shovels to $ove )
$illion cubic feet of earth and roc.% and to plant half a $illion trees and shrubs% $a.ing a tribute to nature9a
ro$antic nineteenth9century perception of nature.
What eBists today is essentially Cl$sted and HauB8s plan. with $ore trees% buildings% and asphalt.
!andscape architects still spea. reverently of Cl$sted8s genius and foresight% and the sensitive visitor can
see the effects he sought.
1. With what sub2ect is the passage $ainly concerned>
637 The lives of Cl$sted and HauB
6B7 New For. City8s tourist industry
6C7 +Ba$ples of nineteenth9century art in New For. City
6=7 The develop$ent of Central #ar.
2. 3ccording to the passage. which is the prettiest ti$e of year in Central #ar.>
637 Winter 6B7 -pring 6C7 -u$$er 6=7 /all
3. It can be inferred that the rectangular parcel $entioned in line 4 is
637 the site of Central #ar. 6B7 a gift presented to New For.
6C7 a s.yscraper in New For. 6=7 the proposed design for Central #ar.
4. 3ccording to the passage. before Cl$sted and HauB began their wor.% the area now occupied by Central #ar. was
637 a ro$antic place 6B7 an infertile% $arshy space
6C7 a green and hilly par. 6=7 a baseball field
5. It can be inferred fro$ the passage that today8s landscape architects praise Cl$sted for his
637 enthusias$ for sport
6B7 s.ill at designing factories
6C7 concern for New For.8s ho$eless people
6=7 foresight in anticipating New For.8s urbani&ation
6. Where in the passage does the author $ention unpleasant s$ells>
637 !ines 19< 6B7 !ines )97 6C7 !ines 1'91: 6=7 !ines 1)91
Passage 4
The difference between a li5uid and a gas is obvious under the conditions of te$perature and pressure
co$$only found at the surface of the +arth. 3 li5uid can be .ept in an open container and fills it to the level of
a free surface. 3 gas for$s no free surface but tends to diffuse throughout the space availableG it $ust
therefore be .ept in a closed container or held by a gravitation field% as in the case of a planet8s at$osphere.
The distinction was a pro$inent feature of early theories describing the phases of $atter. In the nineteenth
century% for eBa$ple. one theory $aintained that a li5uid could be ?dissolved? in a vapor without losing its
identity. and another theory held that the two phases are $ade up of different .inds of $olecules,
li5uidons and gasons. The theories now prevailing ta.e a 5uite different approach by e$phasi&ing what
li5uids and gases have in co$$on. They are both for$s of $atter that have no per$anent structure% and
they both flow readily. They are fluids.
The funda$ental si$ilarity of li5uids and gases beco$es clearly apparent when the te$perature and
pressure are raised so$ewhat. -uppose a closed container partially filled with a li5uid is heated. The li5uid
eBpands% or in other words beco$es less denseG so$e of it evaporates. In contrast% the vapor above the
li5uid surface beco$es denser as the evaporated $olecules are added to it. The co$bination of te$perature
and pressure at which the densities beco$e e5ual is called the critical point. 3bove the critical point the li5uid
and the gas can no longer be distinguishedG there is a single% undifferentiated fluid phase of unifor$ density.
1. Which of the following would be the $ost appropriate title for the passage>
637 The #roperties of Iases and !i5uids 6B7 "igh Te$perature Jones on the +arth
6C7 The Beginnings of Modern #hysics 6=7 New Containers for /luids
2. 3ccording to the passage% the difference between a li5uid and a gas under nor$al conditions on +arth is that the li5uid
637 is affected by changes in pressure 6B7 has a per$anent structure
6C7 for$s a free surface 6=7 is considerably $ore co$$on
3. It can be inferred fro$ the passage that the gases of the +arth8s at$osphere are contained by
637 a closed surface 6B7 the gravity of the planet
6C7 the field of space 6=7 its critical point
4. 3ccording to the passage% in the nineteenth century so$e scientists viewed li5uidons and gasons as
637 fluids 6B7 dissolving particles
6C7 heavy $olecules 6=7 different types of $olecules
5. 3ccording to the passage% what happens when the te$perature is increased in a closed container holding a li5uid>
637 The li5uid and gas phases beco$e $ore si$ilar.
6B7 The li5uid and the gas beco$e less dense.
6C7 The container eBpands.
6=7 The li5uid evaporates out of the container.
6. 3ccording to the passage% which of the following is the best definition of the critical point>
637 When the te$perature and the pressure are raised
6B7 When the densities of the two phases are e5ual
6C7 When the pressure and te$perature are co$bined
6=7 When the container eBplodes
Passage 5
!ucinda Childs8s spare and orderly dances have both $ystified and $es$eri&ed audiences for $ore
than a decade. !i.e other so9called ?post$odern? choreographers. Childs sees dance as pure for$ "er
dances are $athe$atical eBplorations of geo$etric shapes% and her dancers are eBpressionless% genderless
instru$ents who etch intricate patterns on the floor in precisely ti$ed. repetitive se5uences of relatively
si$ple steps. The develop$ent of Childs8s career% fro$ its beginning in the now legendary Kudson =ance
Theater. paralleled the develop$ent of $ini$alist art% although the choreographer herself has ta.en issue
with those critics who describe her wor. as $ini$alist. In her view% each of her dances is si$ply ?an intense
eBperience of intense loo.ing and listening%? in addition to perfor$ing with her troupe% the !ucinda Childs
=ance Co$pany. Childs has appeared in the avant9garde opera Einstein on the Beach, in two of Broadway
plays% and in the fil$s Jeonne d'Iman by Marie Ki$ene& and 21:12 Piano Bor.
3s a little girl% Childs had drea$ed of beco$ing an actress. -he appeared regularly in student
productions throughout her school years% and when she was about eleven she began to ta.e dra$a lessons.
it was at the suggestion of her acting coach that the youngster% who was% by her own ad$ission. ?clu$sy%
shapeless% and on the heavy side.? enrolled in a dancing class 3$ong her early teachers were "anya "ol$.
the dancer and choreographer who introduced the Wig$an syste$ of $odern dance instruction to the ;nited
-tates% and "elen Ta$iris% the Broadway choreographer. #leased with her pupil8s progress. Ms. Ta$iris
eventually as.ed the girl to perfor$ onstage. 3fter that eBhilarating eBperience% !ucinda Childs ?wasn8t sure
LsheM even wanted to be an actress any$ore.
1. What is the passage $ainly about>
637 Mini$alist art 6B7 Mathe$atical for$s
6C7 3 choreographer 6=7 Broadway plays
2. The word ?its? in line refers to
637 career 6B7 develop$ent
6C7 steps 6=7 the Kudson =ance Theater
3. The wor. of !ucinda Childs has been co$pared to which of the following>
637 3vant9garde opera 6B7 The Wig$an syste$
6C7 Eealistic dra$a 6=7 Mini$alist art
4. In which artistic field did Childs first study
637 #ainting 6B7 =ance 6C7 =ra$a 6=7 /il$