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German Reich
Deutsches Reich
Military occupation

19451949 / 1990







The C-Pennant
Post-Nazi German occupation borders and territories in
1947.
Areas in beige were out of the control of the Allied
Control Council, those east of the OderNeisse line were
temporarily attached to Poland and the USSR (by the
Potsdam Agreement), pending Final German Peace
Treaty; that in the west formed the Saar Protectorate.
Berlin is the quadripartite area shown within the red
Soviet zone. Bremen consists of the two yellow
American exclaves in the green British zone.
Capital
Berlin (de jure)
Frankfurt
(American
zone)
Allied-occupied Germany
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Allied powers who defeated Nazi Germany in World War
II asserted governmental authority over all territory of the
German Reich which lay west of the OderNeisse line, having
formally abolished the German government of Adolf Hitler. (See
1945 Berlin Declaration.) The four powers divided Germany
into four occupation zones for administrative purposes. This
division was ratified at the Potsdam Conference (17 July to 2
August 1945). In Autumn 1944 the United States, United
Kingdom, and Soviet Union had agreed on the zones by the
London Protocol. The powers detached the German eastern
territories, lying east of the Oder-Neisse line, from Germany and
awarded it to Poland and the USSR, resulting in the "shifting
westward" of Poland's borders back to as they were before
1722. In the closing weeks of fighting in Europe, United States
forces had pushed beyond the agreed boundaries for the future
zones of occupation, in some places by as much as 200 miles
(320 km). The so-called line of contact between Soviet and
American forces at the end of hostilities, mostly lying eastward
of the July 1945-established inner German border was
temporary. After two months in which they had held areas that
had been assigned to the Soviet zone, U.S. forces withdrew in
the first days of July 1945.
[1]
Some have concluded that this was
a crucial move that persuaded the Soviet Union to allow
American, British, and French forces into their designated
sectors in Berlin, which occurred at roughly the same time (July
1945), although the need for intelligence gathering (see
Operation Paperclip) may also have been a factor.
Contents
1 Territories annexed by Germany 1938-1945
2 The zones of occupation
2.1 American Zone of Occupation
2.2 British Zone of Occupation
2.3 French Zone of Occupation
2.4 Soviet Zone of Occupation
2.5 Minor zones
2.5.1 Belgian zone
2.5.2 Luxembourgish zone
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Bad
Oeynhausen
(British zone)
Baden-Baden
(French zone)
East Berlin
(Soviet zone)
Political structure Military occupation
Governors (1945)
- UK zone F. Mar.
Montgomery
- French zone Gen. Lattre de
Tassigny
- US zone Gen. Eisenhower
- Soviet zone Marshal G.K.
Zhukov
Historical era Cold War
- Surrender May 8, 1945
- Allied Control Council July 5, 1945
-
Saar Protectorate
a
December 15, 1947
- Federal Republic of
Germany May 23, 1949
- German Democratic
Republic
b
October 7, 1949
-
Final Settlement
c
September 12, 1990
Currency
Reichsmark
(194548)
Rentenmark
(194548)
Deutschmark
(W: 194849)
d
Deutschmark
(E: 194849)
e
Saar mark
(Saar: 194748)
Saar franc
(Saar: 194859)
a. Joined the Federal Republic of Germany (West
Germany) on January 1, 1957.
b. Reunited Germany by joining the Federal Republic of
Germany on October 3, 1990.
c. German reunification took place on October 3, 1990.
3 Berlin
4 Other German territory
5 Governance and the emergence of two German states
6 Occupation policy
7 Insurgency
8 Expulsion policy
9 Military governors and commissioners
9.1 American Zone
9.2 British Zone
9.3 French Zone
9.4 Soviet Zone
10 See also
11 References
12 External links
Territories annexed by Germany
1938-1945
All territories annexed by Germany before the war from Austria
and Czechoslovakia were returned to these countries. The
Memelland, annexed by Germany from Lithuania before the
war, was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1945 and given to the
Lithuanian SSR. All territories annexed by Germany during the
war from Belgium, France, Luxembourg, Poland, and
Yugoslavia were returned to those countries.
The zones of occupation
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d. The western Allied zones of Germany and the
western sectors of Berlin.
e. The Soviet zone of Germany and sector of Berlin.
The four sectors of the Allied occupation of Berlin and
exclaves.
The Allied zones of occupation in post-war Germany, highlighting the
Soviet zone (red), the inner German border (black line), and the zone
from which American troops withdrew in July 1945 (purple). The
provincial boundaries are those of pre-Nazi Weimar Germany, before
the present Lnder (federal states).
American Zone of Occupation
The American zone consisted of Bavaria and Hesse in Southern Germany, and the northern portions of the present-
day German state of Baden-Wrttemberg. The ports of Bremen (on the lower Weser River) and Bremerhaven (at
the Weser estuary of the North Sea) were also placed under American control because of the American request to
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Road sign delimiting the British zone
of occupation in Berlin, 1984
have certain toeholds in Northern Germany. The headquarters of the American military government was the former
IG Farben Building in Frankfurt am Main.
Beginning in May 1945, many of the American combat troops and airmen in and around Germany were sent back
to the United States based on their Advanced Service Rating Scores. Some of the experienced officers and non-
commissioned officers were selected to be sent to the Pacific Theater of Operations for the proposed Invasion of
Japan, but most of those men who had served the longest in combat were discharged from the U.S. Army, the
Army Air Forces, and the U.S. Navy upon their returns home. Following the surrender of the Japanese Empire in
mid-August 1945 by its acceptance of the Potsdam Declaration a higher percentage of soldiers, airmen, and
sailors were granted their final discharges from service. The signing of the surrender of Japan took place on
September 2, 1945 officially ending hostilities in World War II in the Pacific, but active combat within the Pacific
theater had ended weeks earlier.
British Zone of Occupation
The Canadian Army was tied down in surrounding the Netherlands until
the Germans there surrendered on May 5, 1945 just two days before
the final surrender of the Wehrmacht in Western Europe to U.S. General
Dwight D. Eisenhower. After the liberation of the Netherlands and the
conquest of northern Germany by the British Army, the bulk of the
Canadian Army returned home, leaving northern Germany to be
occupied by the British Army and (around Bremen and Bremerhaven) by
the U.S. Army.
Then in July 1945, the British Army withdrew from small slices of
Germany that had previously been agreed to be occupied by the Soviet
Army. The Control Commission for Germany - British Element
(CCG/BE) ceded some slices of its area of occupation to the Soviet
Union specifically the Amt Neuhaus of Hanover and some exclaves and fringes of Brunswick, for example, the
County of Blankenburg and exchanged some villages between British Holstein and Soviet Mecklenburg by the
Barber-Lyashchenko Agreement.
Within the British Zone of Occupation, the CCG/BE re-established the German state of Hamburg, but with borders
that had been drawn by Nazi Germany in 1937. The British also created the new German states of Schleswig-
Holstein emerging in 1946 from the Prussian Province of Schleswig-Holstein; Lower Saxony the merger of
Brunswick, Oldenburg, and Schaumburg-Lippe with the state of Hanover in 1946; and North Rhine-Westphalia
the merger of Lippe with the Prussian provinces of the Rhineland (norther part) and Westphalia during 1946
1947. Also in 1947, the German state Free Hanseatic City of Bremen became an exclave of the American Zone of
Occupation located within the British Zone.
In 1946, the Norwegian Brigade Group in Germany had 4000 soldiers in Hannover.
French Zone of Occupation
Despite its being one of the Allied Powers, the French Republic was not granted an occupation zone in Germany at
first because of concerns over the great historical animosity between France and Germany. Also the French Army
had carried out a minor role within the alliance, as compared with the armies, navies, and air forces of the United
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French forces in front of the
Reichstag, Berlin 1946.
Pink: portions of Germany east of the
Oder-Neisse line attached to Poland
(except for northerly East Prussia and
the adjoining Memel Territory, not
shown here, which were joined
directly to the Soviet Union.) Red: the
Soviet Occupation zone of Germany.
Kingdom, the only one fighting throughout all the war, the United States (since 1941), and the Soviet Union (also
since 1941).
On the other hand, throughout World War II in Europe, the leader of the Free French forces, Charles de Gaulle,
persistently argued in favor of the role of France in post-war Europe.
Finally, both the British government and the American government
recognized the role of France during World War II in Europe (but not in
the Pacific Theater). These two powers of occupation in Germany
agreed to give some western parts of their Zones of Occupation to the
French Army. This agreement created a French Zone of Occupation in
westernmost Germany. This zone consisted of two barely-contiguous
areas of Germany along the French border that met at just a single point
along the Rhine River.
The Saargebiet, at first a part of the French zone, was disentangled from
the French zone on 16 February 1946. By 18 December 1946 customs
controls were established between the Saar area and allied occupied
Germany. The French zone ceded several times further adjacent municipalities to the Saar (mid-1946, early 1947,
early 1949).
Included in the French zone was the town of Bsingen am Hochrhein, a German exclave separated from the rest of
the country by a narrow strip of neutral Swiss territory. The Swiss government agreed to allow limited numbers of
French troops to pass through its territory in order to maintain law and order in Bsingen.
Soviet Zone of Occupation
The Soviet occupation zone incorporated Thuringia, Saxony, Saxony-
Anhalt, Brandenburg, and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The Soviet
Military Administration in Germany was headquartered in Berlin-
Karlshorst.
Minor zones
Belgian zone
The Belgian Zone formed part of the British Zone, forming a corridor
from the Belgian-German border to the edge of the Soviet zone, and
including the town of Cologne.
[2]
It was initially under British command,
but the Belgians were given autonomy from 1946. The Belgian Forces in
Germany (FBA-BSD) were created from former soldiers of the Free
Belgian Brigade Piron, and was commanded by Jean-Baptiste Piron.
Luxembourgish zone
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The Supreme Commanders of the
Four Powers on June 5, 1945 in
Berlin: Bernard Montgomery, Dwight
D. Eisenhower, Georgy Zhukov, and
Jean de Lattre de Tassigny.
From November 1945, the Luxembourgish army was allocated a zone within the French sector.
[3]
The
Luxembourgish 2nd infantry battalion was garrisoned in Bitburg and the 1st battalion was sent to Saarburg.
[3]
The
final Luxembourgish troops in Germany, in Bitburg, left in 1955.
[3]
Berlin
While located wholly within the Soviet zone, because of its symbolic
importance as the nation's capital and seat of the former Nazi
government, the city of Berlin was jointly occupied by the Allied powers
and subdivided into four sectors. Berlin was not considered to be part of
the Soviet zone.
Other German territory
In 1945 Germany east of the Oder-Neisse line (Farther Pomerania, the
New March, Silesia, and southerly East Prussia) was attached to Poland
and the northern portion of East Prussia became the newly formed
Kaliningrad Oblast within the Soviet Union. A small area west of the
Oder, near Szczecin, also fell to Poland. Most German citizens residing in these areas were subsequently
expropriated and expelled. Returning refugees, who had fled from war hostilities were denied return.
The Saargebiet, an important area of Germany because of its large deposits of coal, was turned into the Saar
protectorate. The Saar was disengaged from the French zone on 16 February 1946. In the speech Restatement of
Policy on Germany on 6 September 1946 the U.S. Secretary of State James F. Byrnes stated the U.S.' motive in
detaching the Saar from Germany as "The United States does not feel that it can deny to France, which has been
invaded three times by Germany in 70 years, its claim to the Saar territory."
By 18 December 1946 customs controls were established between the Saar and Allied occupied Germany. Most
German citizens residing in the Saar area were allowed to stay and keep their property. Returning refugees, who
had fled from war hostilities, were allowed to return, especially refugees who had fled the Nazi dictatorship were
invited and welcomed to return to the Saar.
The protectorate was a state, nominally independent of Germany and France, but with its economy integrated into
that of France. The Saar territory was enlarged on the expense of the French zone in mid-1946, early 1947 (when
61 municipalities were returned to the French zone), and in early 1949. On 15 November 1947 the French
currency became legal tender in the Saar Protectorate, followed by the full integration of the Saar into the French
economy (customs union as of 23 March 1948). In July the Saar population was stripped its German citizenship
and became of Sarrois nationality.
Governance and the emergence of two German states
The original Allied plan to govern Germany as a single unit through the Allied Control Council broke down in
19461947 due to growing tensions between the Allies, with Britain and the US wishing cooperation, France
obstructing any collaboration in order to unwind Germany into many independent states, and the Soviet Union
unilaterally implementing from early on elements of its political-economic system (mass expropriations of land,
nationalisation of businesses). Another dispute was the absorption of post-war expellees. While the UK, the US,
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and the Soviet Union had agreed to accept, house, and feed about six million expelled German citizens from former
eastern Germany and four million expelled and denaturalised Czechoslovaks, Poles, Hungarians, and Yugoslavs of
German ethnicity in their zones, France generally had not agreed to the expulsions approved by the Potsdam
agreement (a decision made without input from France). Therefore France strictly refused to absorb war refugees
who were denied return to their homes in seized eastern German territories or destitute post-war expellees who had
been expropriated there, into the French zone, let alone into the separated Saar protectorate.
[4]
However, the
native population, returning after Nazi-imposed removals (e.g., political and Jewish refugees) and war-related
relocations (e.g., evacuation from air raids), were allowed to return home in the areas under French control. The
other Allies complained that they had to shoulder the burden to feed, house, and clothe the expellees who had to
leave their belongings to Poles and Soviets.
In practice, each of the four occupying powers wielded government authority in their respective zones and carried
out different policies toward the population and local and state governments there. A uniform administration of the
western zones evolved, known first as the Bizone (the American and British zones merged as of 1 January 1947)
and later the Trizone (after inclusion of the French zone). The complete breakdown of east-west allied cooperation
and joint administration in Germany became clear with the Soviet imposition of the Berlin Blockade that was
enforced from June 1948 to May 1949. The three western zones were merged to form the Federal Republic of
Germany in May 1949, and the Soviets followed suit in October 1949 with the establishment of the German
Democratic Republic (GDR).
In the west, the occupation continued until 5 May 1955, when the General Treaty (German: Deutschlandvertrag)
entered into force. However, upon the creation of the Federal Republic in May 1949, the military governors were
replaced by civilian high commissioners, whose powers lay somewhere between those of a governor and those of
an ambassador. When the Deutschlandvertrag became law, the occupation ended, the western occupation zones
ceased to exist, and the high commissioners were replaced by normal ambassadors. West Germany was also
allowed to build a military, and the Bundeswehr, or Federal Defense Force, was established on 12 November
1955.
A similar situation occurred in East Germany. The GDR was founded on 7 October 1949. On 10 October the
Soviet Military Administration in Germany was replaced by the Soviet Control Commission, although limited
sovereignty was not granted to the GDR government until 11 November 1949. After the death of Joseph Stalin in
March 1953, the Soviet Control Commission was replaced with the office of the Soviet High Commissioner on 28
May 1953. This office was abolished (and replaced by an ambassador) and (general) sovereignty was granted to
the GDR, when the Soviet Union concluded a state treaty (Staatsvertrag) with the GDR on September 20, 1955.
On 1 March 1956, the GDR established a military, the National People's Army (NVA).
Despite the grants of general sovereignty to both German states in 1955, full and unrestricted sovereignty under
international law was not enjoyed by any German government until after the reunification of Germany in October
1990. Though West Germany was generally independent, the Allies maintained some responsibilities for West
Germany. At the same time, East Germany was a satellite state of the Soviet Union. The provisions of the Treaty on
the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany, also known as the "Two-plus-Four Treaty," granting full sovereign
powers to Germany did not become law until 15 March 1991, after all of the participating nations had ratified the
treaty. As envisaged by the Treaty, the last Occupation troops departed from Germany when the Russian presence
was terminated in 1994.
A 1956 plebiscite ended the French administration of the Saar protectorate, and it joined the Federal Republic as
Saarland on 1 January 1957, being its 10th state.
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American propaganda poster, using
images of concentration camp victims
to warn against "fraternization".
The city of Berlin was not part of either state and continued to be under Allied occupation until the reunification of
Germany in October 1990. For administrative purposes, the three western sectors of Berlin were merged into the
entity of West Berlin. The Soviet sector became known as East Berlin and while not recognized by the Western
powers as a part of East Germany, the GDR declared it its capital (Hauptstadt der DDR).
Occupation policy
General Eisenhower ensured a strict non-fraternization policy was
enforced throughout all commands of allied occupation troops in
Germany. However, this policy was relaxed in stages. By June 1945 the
prohibition on speaking with German children was made less strict. In
July it became possible to speak to German adults in certain
circumstances. In September the whole policy was completely dropped
in Austria and Germany.
Nevertheless due to the large numbers of Disarmed Enemy Forces being
held in Rheinwiesenlagers throughout western Germany, the Americans
and the British not the Soviets used armed units of Feldgendarmerie
to maintain control and discipline in the camps. In June 1946, these
German military police units became the last Wehrmacht troops to
surrender their arms to the western powers.
By December 1945 over 100,000 German civilians were interned as
security threats and for possible trial and sentencing as members of
criminal organizations.
The food situation in occupied Germany was initially very dire. By the
spring of 1946 the official ration in the American zone was no more than 1275 calories per day, with some areas
probably receiving as little as 700. In the British zone the food situation was dire, as found during a visit by the
British (and Jewish) publisher Victor Gollancz in October and November 1946. In Dsseldorf the normal 28-day
allocation should have been 1,548 calories including 10 kilograms (22 lb) of bread, but as there was limited grain
the bread ration was only 8.5 kilograms (19 lb). However as there was only sufficient bread for about 50% of this
called up ration, the total deficiency was about 50%, not 15% as stated in a ministerial reply in the British
Parliament on 11 December. So only about 770 calories would have been supplied, and he said the German winter
ration would be 1,000 calories as the recent increase was largely mythical. His book includes photos taken on the
visit and critical letters and newspaper articles by him published in several British newspapers; The Times, The
Daily Herald, The Manchester Guardian, etc.
[5]
Some occupation soldiers took advantage of the desperate food situation by exploiting their ample supply of food
and cigarettes (the currency of the black market) to get to the local German girls as what became known as frau
bait (The New York Times, June 25, 1945). Some soldiers still felt the girls were the enemy, but used them for sex
nevertheless.
[6]
The often destitute mothers of the resulting children usually received no child support. In the earliest stages of the
occupation, U.S. soldiers were not allowed to pay maintenance for a child they admitted having fathered, since to
do so was considered "aiding the enemy". Marriages between white U.S. soldiers and Austrian women were not
permitted until January 1946, and with German women until December 1946.
[6]
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The children of black American soldiers, commonly called Negermischlinge
[7]
("Negro half-breeds"), comprising
about three percent of the total number of children fathered by GIs, were particularly disadvantaged because of
their inability to conceal the foreign identity of their father. Black soldiers were reluctant to admit to fathering such
children since this would invite reprisals, and even in the cases where a soldier was willing to take responsibility,
until 1948 the U.S. Army prohibited interracial marriages.
[7]
The mothers of the children would often face
particularly harsh ostracism.
[8]
Between 1950 and 1955 the Allied High Commission for Germany prohibited "proceedings to establish paternity or
liability for maintenance of children."
[7]
Even after the lifting of the ban West German courts had little power over
American soldiers.
In general, the British authorities were less strict than the Americans about fraternization, whereas the French and
Soviet authorities were more strict.
While Allied servicemen were ordered to obey local laws while in Germany, soldiers could not be prosecuted by
German courts for crimes committed against German citizens except as authorized by the occupation authorities.
Invariably, when a soldier was accused of criminal behavior the occupation authorities preferred to handle the
matter within the military justice system. This sometimes led to harsher punishments than would have been available
under German law in particular, U.S. servicemen could be executed if court-martialed and convicted of rape.
[8]
See United States v. Private First Class John A. Bennett, 7 C.M.A. 97, 21 C.M.R. 223 (1956).
Insurgency
The last Allied war advances into Germany and Allied occupation plans were affected by rumors of Nazi plans for
insurgency (the Nazi Werwolf plan), and successful Nazi deception about plans to withdraw forces to
Alpenfestung redoubt. This base was to be used to conduct guerrilla warfare, but the rumors turned out to be
false. It has been estimated that no Allied deaths can be reliably attributed to any Nazi insurgency.
[9]
Expulsion policy
The Potsdam conference, where the victorious Allies drew up plans for the future of Germany, noted in article XIII
of the Potsdam Agreement on August 1, 1945 that "the transfer to Germany of German populations (...) in Poland,
Czechoslovakia[,] and Hungary will have to be undertaken"; "wild expulsion" was already going on.
Hungary, which had been allied with Germany and whose population was opposed to an expulsion of the German
minority, tried to resist the transfer. Hungary had to yield to the pressure exerted mainly by the Soviet Union and by
the Allied Control Council.
[10]
Millions of people were expelled from former eastern territories of Germany,
Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and elsewhere to the occupation zones of the UK, USA, and USSR, which
agreed in the Potsdam Agreement to absorb the post-war expellees into their zones. Many remained in refugee
camps for a long time. Some Germans remained in the Soviet Union and used for forced labor for a period of
years.
France was not invited to the Potsdam Conference. As a result, it chose to adopt some decisions of the Potsdam
Agreements and to dismiss others. France maintained the position that it did not approve post-war expulsions and
that therefore it was not responsible to accommodate and nourish the destitute expellees in its zone. While the few
war-related refugees who had reached the area to become the French zone before July 1945 were taken care of,
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the French military government for Germany refused to absorb post-war expellees deported from the East into its
zone. In December 1946, the French military government for Germany absorbed into its zone German refugees
from Denmark, where 250,000 Germans had found a refuge from the Soviets by sea vessels between February
and May 1945.
[4]
These clearly were war-related refugees from the eastern parts of Germany however, and not
post-war expellees.
Military governors and commissioners
American Zone
Military governors
1. May 8, 1945 November 10, 1945 General Dwight D. Eisenhower
2. November 11, 1945 November 25, 1945 General George S. Patton (acting)
3. November 26, 1945 January 5, 1947 Joseph T. McNarney
4. January 6, 1947 May 14, 1949 General Lucius D. Clay
5. May 15, 1949 September 1, 1949 Lt. General Clarence R. Huebner (acting)
High commissioners
1. September 2, 1949 August 1, 1952 John J. McCloy
2. August 1, 1952 December 11, 1952 Walter J. Donnelly
3. December 11, 1952 February 10, 1953 Samuel Reber (acting)
4. February 10, 1953 May 5, 1955 James Bryant Conant
British Zone
Military governors
1. May 22, 1945 April 30, 1946 Field Marshal The Viscount Montgomery
2. May 1, 1946 October 31, 1947 Air Chief Marshal Sir William Sholto Douglas (later Lord Douglas)
3. November 1, 1947 September 21, 1949 General Sir Brian Hubert Robertson (later Lord Robertson)
High commissioners
1. September 21, 1949 June 24, 1950 General Sir Brian Hubert Robertson
2. June 24, 1950 September 29, 1953 Sir Ivone Kirkpatrick
3. September 29, 1953 May 5, 1955 Sir Frederick Hoyer Millar (later Lord Inchyra)
French Zone
Military commander
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May 1945 July 1945 Army General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny
Military governor
July 1945 September 21, 1949 Army General Marie Pierre Knig
High commissioner
September 21, 1949 May 5, 1955 Andr Franois-Poncet
Soviet Zone
Military commander
April 1945 June 9, 1945 Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov
Military governors
1. June 9, 1945 April 10, 1946 Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov
2. April 10, 1946 March 29, 1949 Vasily Danilovich Sokolovsky
3. March 29, 1949 October 10, 1949 Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov
Chairman of the Soviet Control Commission
October 10, 1949 May 28, 1953 Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov
High commissioners
1. May 28, 1953 July 16, 1954 Vladimir Semyonovich Semyonov
2. July 16, 1954 September 20, 1955 Georgy Maksimovich Pushkin
See also
References
1. ^ What Is to Be Done? (http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,852310,00.html) Time, July 9, 1945
2. ^ Brll, Christoph. Entre ressentiment et r-ducation, LArme belge dOccupation et les Allemands, 1945-1952
Allied-administered Austria
Interzonal traffic
Werwolf (short-lived resistance movement)
History of Germany since 1945
Advanced Service Rating Score
Allied-occupied Austria
Allied occupation of Japan
Allied occupation of Libya
Occupation of the Rhineland
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Wikimedia Commons has
media related to
Category:Allied occupation
of Germany.
(http://www.cegesoma.be/docs/media/chtp_beg/chtp_23/chtp23_003_Brull.pdf) (PDF). CEGES-SOMA.
3. ^
a

b

c
"L'Arme luxembourgeoise aprs la libration (1944-1967)"
(http://www.armee.lu/historique/armee_apres_liberation-debut.php). Arme.lu. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
4. ^
a

b
Cf. the report of the Central State Archive of Rhineland-Palatinate on the first expellees arriving in that state in
1950 from other German states in the former British or American zone: "Beyond that [the fact, that until France
took control of her zone west only few eastern war refugees had made it into her zone] already since summer
1945 France refused to absorb expellee transports in her zone. France, who had not participated in the Potsdam
Conference, where the expulsions of eastern Germans had been decided, and who therefore did not feel
responsible for the ramifications, feared an unbearable burden for its zone anyway strongly smarting from the
consequences of the war." N.N., Vor 50 Jahren: Der 15. April 1950. Vertriebene finden eine neue Heimat in
Rheinland-Pfalz (http://www.landeshauptarchiv.de/index.php?id=485&printView=1), on: Rheinland-Pfalz
Landesarchivverwaltung (http://www.landeshauptarchiv.de/), retrieved on 4 March 2013.
5. ^ Gollancz, Victor (1947). In Darkest Germany. Victor Gollancz, London. pp. 116, 1256.
6. ^
a

b
Biddiscombe, P. (2001). "Dangerous Liaisons: The Anti-Fraternization Movement in the U.S. Occupation
Zones of Germany and Austria, 19451948". Journal of Social History 34 (3): 611647.
doi:10.1353/jsh.2001.0002 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1353%2Fjsh.2001.0002).
7. ^
a

b

c
Children of the Enemy (http://www.spiegel.de/international/spiegel/0,1518,456835,00.html) by Mary
Wiltenburg and Marc Widmann, Der Spiegel, 2007-01-02
8. ^
a

b
Hitchcock, William I. (2008). The Bitter Road to Freedom. Free Press, New York.
9. ^ Benjamin, Daniel (2003-08-29). "Condi's Phony History" (http://www.slate.com/id/2087768/). Slate magazine.
Archived (http://web.archive.org/web/20080720000642/http://slate.com/id/2087768/) from the original on July 20,
2008. Retrieved 2008-07-08.
10. ^ The Expulsion of the German Communities from Eastern Europe at the End of the Second World War
(http://cadmus.iue.it/dspace/bitstream/1814/2599/1/HEC04-01.pdf) Steffen Prauser and Arfon Rees, European
University Institute, Florence, Department of history and civilization
External links
Post-World War II commanders/governors of Germany
(http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Germany.html)
The short film A DEFEATED PEOPLE (1946)
(https://archive.org/details/gov.archives.arc.36087) is available
for free download at the Internet Archive [more]
Allied-occupied Germany (https://archive.org/details/gov.archives.arc.39159) is available for free
download at the Internet Archive [more]
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Allied-occupied_Germany&oldid=625844017"
Categories: Former polities of the Cold War Former countries in Europe
9/28/2014 Allied-occupied Germany - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allied-occupied_Germany 13/13
States and territories established in 1945 States and territories disestablished in 1949
World War II occupied territories Dwight D. Eisenhower Allied occupation of Germany
British military occupations French military occupations
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