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UNDERSTANDING

STEAM BOILERS
LEGAL REQUIREMENTS
OF STEAM BOILERS
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SCOPE
By the end of this session the participants will
be able to understand all the legal
requirements with regard to steam boilers,
including :
HISTORY
DESIGN APPROVALS
INSTALLATION AND CERTIFICATION
PERSONS IN CHARGE
STATUTORY INSPECTIONS, AND
PENALTIES AND FEES
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HISTORY OF OSH IN MALAYSIA :
FIRST INDUSTRY IN MALAYA
Tin has been known from ancient times. Ancient peoples found that
by heating the tin mineral cassiterite (sometimes found in streams
as nuggets) in a charcoal fire, they could produce the silvery, soft
metal we know as tin.
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HISTORY OF TIN MINING
The earliest use of machinery came with the
discovery of a major tin field in Larut, Perak in
1848, and in Kinta in 1880.
Sir Hugh Low introduced the steam engines and
centrifugal pumps in Taiping in 1877.
When the railway track between Larut, Port Weld
and Taiping was completed in 1885, alluvial tin
mining using the water-wheel driven chain pump
was replaced by open cast mining using
powerful water jets driven by centrifugal pumps.
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The First Steam Engine
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THE STEAM ENGINE
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Tin mining became commercialized with the introduction of the tin
dredge in 1912, with power provided by the steam engines and
steam boilers operating at 200 psi.
THE LAST TIN DREDGE
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With the boilers came the Boiler Inspectors.
1878 : FIRST BOILER INSPECTOR IN PERAK,
appointed by the Perak Mines Department.
There were 120 boilers recorded in Perak in 1892.
1896 : SELANGOR BOILER ENACTMENT, SELANGOR
1913 : MACHINERY ENACTMENT FOR DRIVEN
MACHINERY, (FEDERATED MALAY STATES)
1924 : PENANG BOILER ENACTMENT
1937 : JOHOR BOILER ENACTMENT
HISTORY of FMA & OSHA
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HISTORY of FMA & OSHA
At the same time, steam boilers were
also used in the Palm Oil Mills
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1932 : MACHINERY ENACTMENT (AMENDMENT)
NEWREQUIREMENT : QUALIFYING EXAMS
FOR STEAM ENGINEERS AND DREDGEMASTERS
1951 : Mining machinery formed only 20% of total
work load
1953 : THE MACHINERY ORDINANCE
THE BOILER INSPECTORATE SEPARATED
FROM THE MINES DEPARTMENT
BECAME THE MACHINERY DEPARTMENT,
UNDER THE MINISTRY OF LABOUR
HISTORY of FMA & OSHA
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1967 : THE FACTORIES AND MACHINERY ACT
(MODELLED AFTER THE FACTORIES ACT, UK)
15 REGULATIONS UNDER FMA,
INCLUDING THE FACTORIES AND MACHINERY
(STEAM BOILER AND UPV) REGULATIONS,1970
1980 : FMA EXTENDED TO SABAH AND SARAWAK
1980s : REGULATIONS ON HEALTH :
LEAD, NOISE, ASBESTOS AND MINERAL DUST
HISTORY of FMA & OSHA
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OBJECTS OF FACTORIES
AND MACHINERY ACT, 1967
TO PROVIDE FOR THE CONTROL OF FACTORIES
WITH RESPECT TO MATTERS RELATING TO :
1. SAFETY, HEALTH AND WELFARE OF
PERSONS, AND
2. REGISTRATION AND INSPECTION OF
FACTORIES AND MACHINERY
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With New Industries, come
New Safety And Health Problems
Agriculture based Manufacturing based
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LIMITATIONS OF THE FMA 67
1. FMA ONLY COVERS FACTORIES, QUARRIES
AND BUILDING CONSTRUCTION SITES
2. THE REQUIREMENTS WERE PRESCRIPTIVE
3. OSH NOT COVERED BY OTHER DEPARTMENTS
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACTS
1970 : OSHA US
1974 : HASAWA, UK
1985 : OHSA, AUSTRALIA
1994 : OSHA, MALAYSIA
HISTORY of FMA & OSHA
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Objects of the OSH Act, 1994
To secure the safety, health & welfare of persons at
work
to protect persons (other than persons at work)
against hazards at a place of work,
to promote the occupational environment adaptable
to the persons physiological & psychological needs
to provide the means towards a legislative system
based on regulations and industry code of practice
in combination with the provisions of the Act
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S 15(2) Responsibilities of Employers
The provision & maintenance of
a) safe plant & system of work
b) safe use, handling, storage, transport of
material
c) information, instruction, training &
supervision
d) safe workplace, access & egress
e) safe working environment
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DESIGN APPROVALS
Steam Boiler : closed vessel in which
steam is generated under pressure greater
than atmospheric pressure, and includes
economizer and superheater.
Section 18 FMA :
1) No person shall manufacture, repair or install
machinery in such a manner that it does not
comply with the provisions of this Act and
regulations
2) No person shall import any machinery other than
transmission machinery which does not comply
with any regulations made under this Act.
Note : Machineryincludes steam boilers.
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DESIGN APPROVALS
Manufacturer Design : Max Allowable Working Pressure
DG of DOSH assigns the Authorized Safe Working
Pressure. (Reg 7 & 8, Steam Boiler and UPV Regulations
1970.)
Submit documents to the Design Section of DOSH HQ in
Putrajaya :
Design calculations to an approved code in the 2
nd
Schedule, e.g. BS 1113 (W/T), BS 2790 (F/T), ASME
Section 1, and TRD.
3 copies of detailed construction drawings, with
principal dimensions, details of materials, welding
joints and all data necessary to assign an authorised
safe working pressure.
Other details : heating surface, MCR
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DESIGN APPROVALS
Submit documents to the Design Section at DOSH
headquarters in Putrajaya : cont.
an Approved Third Party Inspecting Authority Report :
5
th
Schedule;
List of Inspecting Authorities include : Lloyds Register
of Shipping, London; Bureau Veritas, Paris; Hartford
Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Co, USA; TUV,
Germany; SGS, DNV, ABS, and recently, SIRIM QAS.
Manufacturing Data Report (MDR) from the
manufacturer of the steam boiler describing particulars
of material used, design, pressure, design code, serial
number and hydrostatic test reports, to be submitted
to DOSH officer during the fisrt inspection or
hydrostatic test.
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LOCAL MANUFACTURERS
Have to prove to DOSH that they have the
ability to produce steam boilers in terms of :
Manufacturing facilities,
Qualified technical staff who can design and
fabricate boilers according to accepted
design codes,
Quality Assurance Program, and
Welders certified by DOSH.
During fabrication : supervised and surveyed
by an approved third party Inspecting
Authority.
Repairers : comply with similar conditions
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LOCAL BOILER MAKERS
MECHMAR BOILER S/B
VICKERS HOSKINS (M) S/B
SUN SUNG LEE ENGINEERING S/B
TEPAT TEKNIK S/B
AMALGAMATED METAL CORP (M) S/B
ENCO SYSTEMS S/B
INMECH (M) S/B
ADVANCE BOILERS S/B
BOILERMECH S/B
34 COMPANIES (INCLUDING ABOVE)
REGISTERED AS BOILER / UPV REPAIRER
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FABRICATION : FIRE TUBE
Allen Ygnis
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INSTALLATION AND CERTIFICATION
No person shall buy, install, repair, modify or
sell any boiler without approval of DOSH.
(Section 17, FMA 1967).
No person shall operate a boiler without a
valid certificate of fitness (Section 19, FMA 1967)
and boiler attendant and steam engineer as
required. (Section 29, FMA 1967).
All boilers have to be opened up for
inspection before the certificate of fitness can
be renewed. (Regn 10&14, Notification, Certificate of
Fitness and Inspection Regn, 1970)
Boilers can only be repaired by approved
Boiler Repair companies after the repair
procedure has been approved by DOSH.
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13 ESSENTIAL FITTINGS
2 or more safety valves
2 water gauges
A steam pressure gauge
Main steam stop valve
A blow down valve
2 feed pumps, same output pressure
Feed check valve
A low water alarm
A low water fuel cut-out
(liquid and gaseous fuel)
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SAFETY
VALVES
SAFETY
VALVES
MAIN STEAM
STOP VALVE
MAIN STEAM
STOP VALVE
AIR COCK
AIR COCK
PRESSURE GAUGE
PRESSURE GAUGE
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PRESSURE GAUGE
PRESSURE GAUGE
What is the
pressure in
bars?
What is the
pressure in
bars?
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WATER LEVEL GAUGES
WATER LEVEL GAUGES
WATER
COCK
WATER
COCK
DRAIN
COCK
DRAIN
COCK
STEAM
COCK
STEAM
COCK
GAUGE
GLASS
GAUGE
GLASS
Which
valves
are
open?
Which
valves
are
open?
A
A
B
B
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Burner, Blow Down Valve
Burner
Blow-down valve
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FEED WATER PUMPS
Electrical
Electrical
Steam-
turbine
Steam-
turbine
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MANHOLE
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13 ESSENTIAL FITTINGS
Manufacturers name plate
Manufacturers Serial Number
Model No.
Output (MCR)
Design pressure
Hydrostatic test pressure
Date of the hydrostatic test
Third Party Surveyor
Design code
Manufacturers name and
address
(Heating surface, Maximum
evaporative capacity)
(DOSH design approval)
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A registration plate
Inspectors test pressure gauge attachment
A fusible plug in each furnace
(solid fuel only)
??
13 ESSENTIAL FITTINGS
PMD 23456
PMD 23456
PMD 23456
PMD 23456
SW PMD 234
SW PMD 234
SW PMD 234
SW PMD 234
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FUSIBLE PLUG
2
Stay bar Fusible plug
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INSTALLATION & TESTING
Application to local DOSH office for
permission to install any steam boiler.
Form JKJ 105
Layout plan, and
Copy of the design approval.
The first test : hydrostatic testing to 1.5
times design pressure (Form JKJ 127)
The second test : steam or fire test.
Setting of the safety relief valves,
Testing of the high and low water alarms
and blowdown.
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CERTIFICATE OF FITNESS
Certificate of Fitness : issued after payment
of the HT and inspection fees. Fees are
based on heating surface area.
Certificates valid for 15 months, and the local
Director may grant an extension of 3 months.
Extension of validity to 36 months only by
the Chief Inspector. Justification :
Reasons why it cannot be opened for
inspection,
Proof that it can operate safely for 36 months.
Application must be made through the local
DOSH office, 6 months in advance.
TBI RBI SSI (FMA Amendment, 2006)
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PERSONS IN CHARGE
Certificate issued by the Department under the Factories
and Machinery (Persons-In-Charge) Regulations 1970.
Steam Engineers and Engine Drivers are examined by a
panel of examiners on the operational safety of the plant.
< 500 sq ft : 2
nd
grade Engine Driver
500 2,000 sq ft : 1
st
grade ED
2K 5K sq ft : 1
st
grade ED + 2
nd
Grade VE
5K 10K sq ft : 2
nd
grade Engineer + 1
st
grade ED.
> 10K sq ft : 1
st
Grade Engineer + +
2 boilers or 2 steam engines or 1 boiler and 1 engine to
each driver. Boilers on standby not counted.
Note : Based on aggregate heating surface of steam boilers
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ENGINE DRIVER CERTIFICATE
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GRADE ONE
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PERSONS IN CHARGE
EXEMPTIONS :
An electrode boiler
A steam tube oven
A steam tube hot plate
An autoclave
Any steam boiler in which the steam
generated is retained inside the boiler
e.g. a steam jacketed vessel.
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CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY
Steam Engineer :
Not less than 21 years of age
Degree or diploma in Mechanical
Engineering
Completed qualifying workshop
service: metal turning, boiler making,
design and drawing
Has served not less than 24 months
under an engineer in operational
charge of boiler of the required size
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CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY
Exam for Engineers :
Part A : Practical Mathematics
Part B : Engineering Knowledge
Part C : Oral
Exemption from Part A & B :
Holder of a recognized degree in
Mechanical Engineering is exempted from
Parts A & B. Others may be eligible for
exemption, at the discretion of the panel.
Knowledge on safe operation of steam boiler
and allied equipment.
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CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY
Engine Driver 2
nd
Grade:
Not less than 21 years of age
Has served not less than 2 years as a
steam boiler attendant in charge of a
boiler which requires an attendant; or
Has served not less than 3 years as an
apprentice or journeyman fitter in a
steam plant or engineering workshop
Engine Driver 1
st
Grade:
Not less than 18 months as a 2
nd
grade
engine driver, working with a boiler
with a heating surface > 500 sq. ft.
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CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY
Suspension of Certificate
Sleeping while on duty
Intoxicated while on duty
Leaving machinery unattended
Failure to report any defect which may
cause danger to life or property, or
Causing damage to machinery or
injury to any person by
Careless operation of machinery or
Neglect of routine instructions, or
Neglect of use of safety appliances
provided
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Fireman : Is he a boilerman?
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Duties of Visiting Engineer
The visiting steam engineer :
Visits the boiler once every 2 weeks and
Maintains a boiler register. The boiler register
entrees must be countersigned by the owner
or occupier.
The register entrees are as follows :
Report on current condition of boiler
Details of breakdowns and repairs
Other responsibilities :
Submit report to the Chief inspector by 10
th
of
every month
Be present at annual inspections
Assist the Inspector in any investigation
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Boiler Operator
An engine driver (boiler operator) needs to
know :
About boilers in general;
Every part of the boiler, inside and outside,
including all the fittings and its functions;
How to start the boiler, how to run the boiler,
and how to shut down the boiler, and how
the boiler functions;
The essentials of water treatment;
A little bit about boiler maintenance,
Boiler house safety, and
The requirements of the law
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INSPECTION AND TESTING
HYDROSTATIC TEST
Done at site for the first time during installation
Done to check for leaks or to test its integrity,
e.g. after repairs.
Required once every 7 years. [Regn. 72.(4)]
STEAM TEST
Done at site for the first time during installation,
When the safety valve is changed
At every commisioning
ANNUAL INSPECTION
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HYDROSTATIC TEST
Spading (isolating) the boiler attachments e.g. safety
valves and water gauge, except for the feed water inlet
and blowdown valves
Use appropriate pressure gauge
Leave one vent open at the top to ensure water
pumped in completely fills the boiler
Raise pressure to design pressure. Check.
Raise pressure to 1.5 x design pressure, maintain for
at least 20 mins. Check for leaks.
Slight weeping is acceptable (expanded tubes only).
Fill in the hydrostatic test FormJ KJ 127 (newboiler).
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STEAM TEST
Warm up the boiler.
Fire the boiler adequate slow firing. Check.
Raise the pressure to the operating pressure; Check.
Increase the pressure;
Bypass the fire cut-off if necessary, to test the
pressure relief valves. The highest pressure setting
should not exceed the design pressure. Note the
seating pressure.
If provided with superheater, test the superheater
relief valve first; it should have the lowest setting.
Test the high water and low water alarms.
Ensure safe blowdown; check blowdown pit or tank.
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ANNUAL INSPECTION
The boiler has to be shut down and allowed to cool.
Water is drained and all the fittings including caps in
headers and mud drums are dismantled.
The boiler is effectively disconnected from any other
steam boiler or source of steam.
The fireside is thoroughly cleaned
The internals are cleaned as necessary - by hydrojet, and
wire brushed clear of scales and deposits
Fittings such as cocks and valves, floats and gauge
glasses are cleaned and serviced
Temporary scaffolds or ladders must be provided if
permanent ones are not available - for inspection of
remote areas
The boiler is empty, cool and dry
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FITTINGS
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Statutory Inspection
What the DOSH inspectors look for:
Signs of shell wall thinning.
Cracks at welds and at connections.
Damage to the shell by impact.
Leaking gaskets and seals.
Soundness of foundation.
Protective coatings.
Safety relief valve functions.
Alarm functions
Pressure gauge calibration
Hazards such as sumps and blowdowns.
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BOILER REGISTER
Dates the boiler was brought into and taken
out of commission
Dates cleaned, inspected, tested or repaired
Details of alterations and repairs
Every entry initialled by owner and person
making inspection, test or repair
Must be produced when requested by an
Inspector
(Inspectors comments)
(Log book)
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PENALTIES
Act /
Regn.
Section /
Regn.
Details Penalty
RM
FMA
39 (3) &
40 (4)
Not complying with notices 250 K or
5 yrs
40(3) Engineer aware of dangerous
defect, to repair or stop operation
250 K or
5 yrs
19(1) Operating without a valid
Certificate of Fitness
150 K or
3 yrs
31 Not reporting accidents and
damage to machinery
100 K or
2 yr
36(1) Installing machinery without
written approval
100 K or
2 yrs
29(1) Machinery not to be operated
without Competent Person
50 K or
1 yr
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NEW FEES as per 1 NOV 04
FEES FOR STEAM BOILERS based on HS
SQ FT SQ M OLD RM NEW RM
< 50 < 5 25.00 84.00
50 TO 100 5 TO 10 60.00 203.00
100 TO 250 10 T0 25 80.00 270.00
250 TO 500 25 TO 50 100.00 337.00
500 TO 1,000 50 TO 100 120.00 405.00
1,000 TO 2,500 100 TO 250 150.00 506.00
> 2,500 > 250 180.00 608.00
ELECTRODE BOILER, AUTOCLAVE 25.00 100.00
SUPERHEATER 20.00 80.00
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NEW FEES as per 1 NOV 04
(i) Where Pressure Vessel is under steam pressure and has a cubic capacity -
under 0.1 cubic meters RM 36
0.1 cubic meters and above but under 0.5 cubic meters 54
0.5 cubic meters and above but under 5 cubic meters 90
5 cubic meters and above but under 10 cubic meters 108
10 cubic meters and above but under 15 cubic meters 144
15 cubic meters and above 180
(ii) Where Pressure Vessel is not under steam pressure, and is not used exclusively
for starting an internal combustion engine, and has a cubic capacity -
under 0.1 cubic meters RM 20
0.1 cubic meters and above but under 0.5 cubic meters 40
0.5 cubic meters and above but under 5 cubic meters 80
5 cubic meters and above but under 10 cubic meters 100
10 cubic meters and above but under 15 cubic meters 120
15 cubic meters and above 160
(1 cu m = 35.3 cu ft)
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NEW FEES as per 1 NOV 04
(i) any hoisting machine (other than an electric passenger, goods or
service lift or mobile crane) where the aggregate kilowatt of the
prime movers installed therein is -
under 15 kilowatt RM 86
15 kilowatt and above but under 37 kilowatt 151
37 kilowatt and above but under 75 kilowatt 194
75 kilowatt and above 237
(ii) any electric passenger or goods lift where the travel of such lift is
under 30 meters RM 173
30 meters and above but under 140 meters
380
140 meters and above
483
(iii) any electric service lift
120
(i) any mobile crane
146
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NEW FEES as per 1 NOV 04
FEES FOR INSPECTION OF FACTORIES
Fees shall be charged for an inspection of a
factory (excluding inspection of machinery) at
the following rates:
i. where the working floor area is under 1,395
square meters : RM 193.00
ii. where the working floor area is 1,395 square
meters and above but under 4,650 square
meters : RM 495.00
iii. where the working floor area is in excess of
4,650 square meters : RM 873.00
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