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Q1//In an impulse stage the mean diameter of the blade ring is 800 mm and the speed of rotation is 3000

rpm. The steam issues from the nozzles with a velocity of 300 m/s and the nozzle angle is 20. The blades
are symmetric and the blade velocity coefficient !"# is 0.8$ . %hat is the power developed in the stage when
the a&ial thrust on the blades is '(0 ).*
Solution:
s m
DN
b / $ . '2+
$0
3000 , 8 . 0 ,
$0
= = =

o
i i
s m a 20 - / 300 = =
From the velocity triangular:
$+$+ . 0
$ . '2+ 20 cos 300
20 sin , 300
cos
sin
tan =

=
o
o
i i
i i
i
b a
a

Since the blades are symmetric, then:


o
o i
3 . 33 = =
Also from the velocity triangular:
-
s m r
s m r
r
r a
o
i
i
i i i i
/ '$' '8. , 8$ . 0
/ '8.
3 . 33 sin $' . '02
sin sin
= =
=
=
=
The axial thrust is given by:
s kg m
m
m
r r m F
e e i i axial
/ .(+$ . /
'(0 3$+( . '( ,
#0 8$ . 0 ' ! 3 . 33 sin '8. 1
0 sin sin 1
=
= =
=
=


developed power the
kW
r r m Power
e e i i
8( . 3++
0 cos cos 1
=
=
Q//The nozzles of the impulse stage of a turbine receive steam at '+ bar and 3002 and discharge it at
l0bar. The nozzle efficiency is /+3 and the nozzle angle is 20. The blade speed is that re4uired for
ma&imum blade efficiency- and the inlet angle of the blades is that re4uired for entry of the steam without
shoc". The blade e&it angle is + less than the inlet angle. The blade friction factor is 0./. 2alculate for a
steam flow of '3+0 "g/h- !a# the a&ial thrust. !b# The diagram power- and !e# the diagram efficiency.
!roblems sheet '/
Sub"ect: !o#er !lant Technology
$ha%ter: Steam Turbines
&ecturer:'r( S () (Faisal
i
a
i

i
r
e

e
r
e
a
f
e
=
r
e

s
i
n

e
f
i
=
r
i

s
i
n

i
f
=
f
i
-
f
e

i
=r
i
cos
i

e
=r
e
cos
e
b
=
i
+
e
Solution:
3038.9 = kg kJ / h
'
The state *s* is in the su%erheated region
"5/"g 2/(3.' h - 2+0 T
2s 's
= =
s m h h ai
s nozz
/ $3 . (2$ # ' . 2/(3 / . 3038 ! , '000 , /+ . 0 , 2 # ! 2
2 '
= = =
For maximum efficiency:
(+ . 200
($// . 0
2
20 cos
2
cos
=
= = =
b
a
b
o
i
i

o
e
i
i i
i i
i
b a
a
3' + 3$
3$
.2./ . 0
(+ . 200
/'$ . '(+
cos
sin
tan
= =
=
= =

s m
a
r
i
i i
i
/ 2+ . 2(8
sin
sin
= =

s m k r r
i e
/ (2 . 223 , = =
s m r r
e e i i
/ 3+ . 3/2 0 cos cos 1 = + =
s m r r f
e e i i
/ 8+ . 30 0 sin sin 1 = =
N f m F
axial
+. . '' 8+ . 30 ,
3$00
'3+0
= = =
N m F
driving
'3 . '(. 3+ . 3/2 ,
3$00
'3+0
= = =
!roblems sheet 20
i
a
i

i
r
e

e
r
e
a
f
e
=
r
e

s
i
n

e
f
i
=
r
i

s
i
n

i
f
=
f
i
-
f
e

i
=r
i
cos
i

e
=r
e
cos
e
b
=
i
+
e
kW
m b developed Power
(/2 . 2/
'0 , (+ . 200 , '3 . '(.
3
=
= =


3 ( . 8$ 8$( . 0
# $3 . (2$ ! ,
3$00
'3+0
,
2
'
2/(/2
2
= = =
blade

++++++,nsolved !roblems++++++
Q1// the velocity of steam at inlet to simple impulse turbine is '000 m/s and the nozzle single is 20
o
. The
blade speed is (00 m/s and the blades are symmetrical. 6etermine the blade angle- tangential force-
diagrame power- a&ial thrust- and the diagram efficiency for frictionless blades.
If the relative velocity at e&it is reduced by friction to 803 of that at inlet- then recalculates the diagram
power- a&ial thrust- and the diagram efficiency. Ta"e mass flow rate ' "g/s .Ans#er -.(/
o
, 101/(2 3,
41(2 56, 0 3, 7/(/ 8,+ .7.(14. 56, 12(79 3, 21(28:
Q// a single row impulse turbine receive 3 "g/s of steam with velocity (2+ m/s . The blade speed ratio is
0.( and the output power is '.'.+8 "%. If the frictional losses in the moving blade amount to '(./2 "%-
determine the diagram efficiency and the blade velocity coefficient. The nozzles angle is '$
o
.
Ans#er: -1.(.8; 0(92:
Q.//a simple impulse turbine !6e 7aval turbine# is supplied with steam at '+ bar- (00
o
28superheat. The
steam e&pands in the nozzles- which have an efficiency of /03- to pressure of 'bar. 9ssuming the nozzle
angle is 20
o
- blade velocity coefficient is 0.8- and symmetrical blades: determine for ideally ma&imum blade
efficiency condition;
'.The blade speed. 2. The blade angle. 3.The power output for
hr kg m / /000 =
.
(.<et the summation of nozzle losses- useful output wor"- blade frictional losses- and leaving "inetic energy:
which must be e4ual to the isentropic enthalpy drop.
ans#-49.(90 m/s; .1(0/
o
;1092(2/56;no<<le losses:11(41 5=/5g;energy out%ut:4.9(1 5=/5g ;friction
losses:12(17 5=/5g; residual 5inetic energy:41(4 5=/5g:
Q4//The rotational8speed of an impulse turbine wheel is 3000 r.p.m. The nozzles are inclined at 20
o
and
their efficiency is 0.8/. The isentropic heat drop for the stage is '+/ "5/"g. If the blade speed ratio is 0.(-
the blade speed coefficient is 0.82- and the blade efficiency is 0..$. =ind for steam flow rate of '+ "g/s;
'. The mean blade ring diameter.
2. The power developed by the stage.
Ans#er -1(.//m, 111.( 56, :(
Q/// The nozzles of the impulse stage of turbine receive steam at '+ bar- 300
o
2 and discharge it at '0 bar.
The nozzle efficiency is /+ 3 and the nozzle angle is 20
o
. The blade speed is that re4uired for ma&imum
power and the inlet angle of the blades is that re4uired for entry of steam without shoc" .the blade e&it angle
is +
o
less than the inlet angle. The blade velocity coefficient is 0./. 2alculate for steam flow rate '3+0 "g/hr;
'. The diagram power. 2. The diagram efficiency.
Ans#er -.0(. 56 , 71(. 8 :
Q1// the steam from the nozzle of single wheel impulse turbine discharges with velocity of $00 m/s at angle
of 20
o
. The blade wheel rotates at 3000 rev/min and the mean blade radius is +/0mm. the a&ial velocity of
steam at e&it from the blade !
e
f
# is '$( m/s and the blades are symmetrical- calculate;
'. The blades angles.
2. The diagram power.
3. The diagram efficiency .
(. The blade velocity coefficient.
Ans#er -7
o
,11(. 56 , 208 ,0(299:
!roblems sheet 2'
Q2//for 6e7aval turbine of symmetrical and frictionless blades degree -derive an e&pression for blade
efficiency showing the optimum operation of blade speed ratio !b/a
i
# and the corresponding ma&imum
efficiency power.
Ans#er:
# !cos (
i
i
i
b
a
b
a
b
=
%here !
i
a
b
# is the blade speed ratio
by ma"ing
0
# !
# !
=
i
b
a
b
d
d
we find
2
cos
i
optimum
i
a
b
=
: ma&
i b

2
cos =
: power>
2
2 b m
The velocity diagram will be;
Q(7//in a single stage simple impulse turbine the steam flows ata rate of +"g/s. It has rotor of '.2m diameter
running at 3000 rpm. )ozzle angle is '8?- blade speed ratio is 0.( and velocity coefficient is 0./- outlet
angle of blade is 3? less than inlet angle. 6etermine blade angles and power developed.
Q(9// In a certain stage of an impulse turbine- the nozzle angle 20? with the plane of the wheel. The mean
diameter of the blade ring is 2.8 metres. Its develop ++"w at 2(00 rpm. =our nozzles- each of '0 mm
diameters e&pand steam isentropically from '+ bar and 2+0? 2 to 0.+ bar. The a&ial thrust is 3.+ ).
2alculate blade angle at entrance and e&it and power lost in blade friction.
!roblems sheet 22
b

i
a
b
optimum
i
a
b
ma&
b

b
mr
i
r
e
a
i
a
e

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