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Procesos Industriales Orgnicos I C. Aguilar Q.

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CINETICA









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Rate Equation





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Ammonia Synthesis

Ammonia is a major product of the chemical industry. Already at the beginning of the nineteenth
century its synthesis was the subject of much research. The Industrial Revolution and the related
growth of the population generated a large demand for nitrogen fertilizers.

Le Chateliers principle indicates that ammonia formation is favored at high pressure. Convinced of
his principle, Le Chatelier had his assistant compress a mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen to a very
high pressure, and then apply an electrical spark. An explosive reaction occurred which killed the
assistant, and was the result of a faulty experimental procedure whereby air was permitted to mix
with the nitrogenhydrogen mixture





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Another example shows the importance of adsorption strength in ammonia synthesis. In this case
the activity of the first transition metal row was measured (Fig. 5-14).
Metals on the left bind N2 too strongly, and those on the right, too weakly. Exactly the right
binding strength was found for iron, the classical ammonia catalyst. The influence of the electronic
structure of the metal and hence its position in the periodic table is also demonstrated by other
reactions










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FOTOCATALISIS

SEMICONDUCTORES


Fig. 5-29 Intrinsic semiconductor with excitation energy
Metals that favor the adsorption of oxygen have five, seven, eight, or ten d electrons.
The order of preference is:

Therefore the corresponding p-type semiconductors Cu2O, Ag2O, MnO, and PtO are highly
effective catalysts for the activation of oxygen.


In n-type semiconductors, metal ions having one, two, or five d electrons are advantageous for the
adsorption of oxygen. The following series was determined experimentally:

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Accordingly, n-type semiconductors like V2O5, MoO3, WO3, Cr2O3, and TiO2 are effective
oxidation catalysts.












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