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CoolingCooling PoultryPoultry inin TropicalTropical ClimatesClimates

Poultry Poultry in in Tropical Tropical Climates Climates Hongwei Xin, Professor Director of Egg Industry Center

Hongwei Xin, Professor Director of Egg Industry Center

Iowa State University

Director of Egg Industry Center Iowa State University *>40.0癈 40.0 38.0 36.0 34.0 32.0 30.0
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OutlineOutline

Brief overview of U.S. poultry production systems Poultry responses to thermal environment Poultry cooling options in tropical climates

Pad-fan cooling with tunnel ventilation High-pressure fogging Low-pressure sprinkling

ModernModern PoultryPoultry ProductionProduction

• Faster growth rate or egg productivity

• Higher growth potential

• More balanced nutrition

• Higher stocking density

• Environmentally controlled

More balanced nutrition • Higher stocking density • Environmentally controlled More susceptible to thermal stress!

More susceptible to thermal stress!

More balanced nutrition • Higher stocking density • Environmentally controlled More susceptible to thermal stress!
More balanced nutrition • Higher stocking density • Environmentally controlled More susceptible to thermal stress!
More balanced nutrition • Higher stocking density • Environmentally controlled More susceptible to thermal stress!
Broiler Broiler Houses Houses • Typically 20,000 - 30,000 birds, 0.75 ~ 0.9 ft 2

BroilerBroiler HousesHouses

• Typically 20,000 - 30,000 birds, 0.75 ~ 0.9 ft 2 /bird (12~14 birds/m 2 )

• New bedding or build-up litter

• Growth period: 6 – 8 wks

• Brooders + space heaters

• Evaporative cooling pads, high-pressure fogging, or low- pressure sprinkling

• Natural or tunnel ventilation

Turkey Turkey Houses Houses • 10,000 - 15,000 birds • New or build-up litter •

TurkeyTurkey HousesHouses

• 10,000 - 15,000 birds

• New or build-up litter

• Growth period: 12 wk (hen) – 20 wk (tom)

• Natural or mechanical vent

- 15,000 birds • New or build-up litter • Growth period: 12 wk (hen) – 20
- 15,000 birds • New or build-up litter • Growth period: 12 wk (hen) – 20

HighHigh--riserise LayerLayer HouseHouse

• Typically 80,000 – 125,000 hens

• In-house manure storage (~1 yr)

• Manure scraped or direct drop

House House • Typically 80,000 – 125,000 hens • In-house manure storage (~1 yr) • Manure
House House • Typically 80,000 – 125,000 hens • In-house manure storage (~1 yr) • Manure

ManureManure--BeltBelt LayerLayer HouseHouse

• Typically 100,000 -125,000 hens per house

• Manure removed daily to semi-weekly; improved indoor air quality

• On/off farm manure storage or composting

house • Manure removed daily to semi-weekly; improved indoor air quality • On/off farm manure storage
house • Manure removed daily to semi-weekly; improved indoor air quality • On/off farm manure storage
house • Manure removed daily to semi-weekly; improved indoor air quality • On/off farm manure storage

Cage-free Layer House

Cage-free Layer House • 5,000 -10,000 hens per house • Littered flooring, nest boxes, perches, dust-
Cage-free Layer House • 5,000 -10,000 hens per house • Littered flooring, nest boxes, perches, dust-
Cage-free Layer House • 5,000 -10,000 hens per house • Littered flooring, nest boxes, perches, dust-

• 5,000 -10,000 hens per house

• Littered flooring, nest boxes, perches, dust- bathing area

Poultry Responses to Thermal Environment

HeatHeat--WaveWave DevastationDevastation

Heat Heat - - Wave Wave Devastation Devastation A scene from 1995 Heat Wave in Iowa

A scene from 1995 Heat Wave in Iowa

ConsequenceConsequence ofof VentilationVentilation FailureFailure

Consequence Consequence of of Ventilation Ventilation Failure Failure

PathwaysPathways ofof AnimalAnimal HeatHeat DissipationDissipation

Radiative heat loss

Air movement

Respiratory heat loss

Convective heat loss

Air movement Respiratory heat loss Convective heat loss Conductive heat loss HL c o n d

Conductive heat loss

HL cond + HL conv + HL rad = Sensible Heat Loss (SHL)

GeneticGenetic AdaptationAdaptation toto HotHot ClimateClimate

Genetic Genetic Adaptation Adaptation to to Hot Hot Climate Climate

FeatherlessFeatherless && NakedNaked NeckNeck ChickensChickens

Featherless Featherless & & Naked Naked Neck Neck Chickens Chickens More heat tolerant!
Featherless Featherless & & Naked Naked Neck Neck Chickens Chickens More heat tolerant!
Featherless Featherless & & Naked Naked Neck Neck Chickens Chickens More heat tolerant!

More heat tolerant!

EnvironmentalEnvironmental FactorsFactors AffectingAffecting AnimalAnimal HeatHeat DissipationDissipation

Surrounding temperatures SHL

Air (convective) Ceiling/roof or wall (radiative) Floor (conductive)

Air Velocity SHL Humidity or vapor pressure LHL

CombinedCombined EffectsEffects ofof TemperatureTemperature andand HumidityHumidity onon LivestockLivestock && PoultryPoultry

Temperature-Humidity Index (THI)

THI = aT db + bT wb

(b = 1-a)

Animal Species

a

b

Cattle

0.35

0.65

G-F pigs

0.65

0.35

Laying hens

0.60

0.40

Hen turkeys

0.74

0.26

Tom turkeys

0.64

0.36

Body Temperature Rise of 2.8 kg Broilers at Different Temp & Humidity Conditions

5.0 41×26.1 4.5 41×19.4 38×26.1 4.0 38×19.4 3.5 3.0 35×26.1 2.5 2.0 35×19.4 1.5 1.0
5.0
41×26.1
4.5
41×19.4
38×26.1
4.0
38×19.4
3.5
3.0
35×26.1
2.5
2.0
35×19.4
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
Body Temperature Rise ( o C)

Exposure Time (min)

CombinedCombined EffectsEffects ofof AirAir Temperature,Temperature, HumidityHumidity andand VelocityVelocity

Temperature-Humidity Velocity Index (THVI) THVI = (aT db + bT wb )V c

For broilers (2.8 kg):

THVI =

0.85T db + 0.15T wb

V 0.058

Homeostasis Zones of 2.8-kg Broilers Subjected to Acute Heat Exposure

Emergency 240 Danger 210 Alert 180 150 Normal 120 90 60 30 0 32 33
Emergency
240
Danger
210
Alert
180
150
Normal
120
90
60
30
0
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
Thermal Exposure Time (min)

THVI ( o C)

[(0.85t db + 0.15t wb )/V 0.058 ]

ΔCBT thresholds: 1.0 (normal), 2.5 (alert), 4.0 (danger), & >4.0 o C (emergency)

VentilationVentilation RatesRates forfor PoultryPoultry

 

Cold

Mild

Hot

Species

Unit

 
 

m

3 hr -1 unit -1

Broilers

0 - 7 d > 7 d Layers

head

0.07

0.34

0.68

kg

0.4

1.9

3.7

kg

0.4

1.9

3.7 – 5.6

Turkeys

Poults

head

0.34

1.2

1.7 – 6.8

Growers

kg

0.3

1.3

3.0

AirAir FlowFlow PatternPattern InIn PoultryPoultry HousesHouses

Cross Ventilation

Air stream
Air stream

Tunnel Ventilation

Flow Pattern Pattern In In Poultry Poultry Houses Houses Cross Ventilation Air stream Tunnel Ventilation Air
Flow Pattern Pattern In In Poultry Poultry Houses Houses Cross Ventilation Air stream Tunnel Ventilation Air
Flow Pattern Pattern In In Poultry Poultry Houses Houses Cross Ventilation Air stream Tunnel Ventilation Air
Flow Pattern Pattern In In Poultry Poultry Houses Houses Cross Ventilation Air stream Tunnel Ventilation Air
Flow Pattern Pattern In In Poultry Poultry Houses Houses Cross Ventilation Air stream Tunnel Ventilation Air
Flow Pattern Pattern In In Poultry Poultry Houses Houses Cross Ventilation Air stream Tunnel Ventilation Air
Flow Pattern Pattern In In Poultry Poultry Houses Houses Cross Ventilation Air stream Tunnel Ventilation Air
Flow Pattern Pattern In In Poultry Poultry Houses Houses Cross Ventilation Air stream Tunnel Ventilation Air

Air stream

Air stream
Flow Pattern Pattern In In Poultry Poultry Houses Houses Cross Ventilation Air stream Tunnel Ventilation Air

TunnelTunnel VentilatedVentilated BroilerBroiler HouseHouse

Tunnel Ventilated Ventilated Broiler Broiler House House Air stream To increase cooling effect by hel ping
Tunnel Ventilated Ventilated Broiler Broiler House House Air stream To increase cooling effect by hel ping
Tunnel Ventilated Ventilated Broiler Broiler House House Air stream To increase cooling effect by hel ping

Air stream

Air stream
Ventilated Broiler Broiler House House Air stream To increase cooling effect by hel ping birds dissipate
Ventilated Broiler Broiler House House Air stream To increase cooling effect by hel ping birds dissipate
Ventilated Broiler Broiler House House Air stream To increase cooling effect by hel ping birds dissipate
Ventilated Broiler Broiler House House Air stream To increase cooling effect by hel ping birds dissipate
Ventilated Broiler Broiler House House Air stream To increase cooling effect by hel ping birds dissipate

To increase cooling effect by helping birds dissipate body heat faster

EffectEffect ofof AirAir VelocityVelocity asas AffectedAffected byby VentilationVentilation ModeMode CrossCross vs.vs. TunnelTunnel

A broiler barn with a dimension of 12 x 121 m (40 x 400 ft) and a drop-ceiling height of 3 m (10 ft). Determine the average air velocity through the house if cross or tunnel ventilation is used to ventilate the barn at 170,000 m 3 /hr (100,000 CFM) air flow.

V =

For cross ventilation:

Q

/hr (100,000 CFM) air flow. V = For cross ventilation: Q A Q = 170,000 m

A

Q = 170,000 m 3 /hr

A = 121 x 3 = 363 m 2

 

V

= 170,000/363 = 468 m/hr =

0.13

m/s

For tunnel ventilation:

A = 12 x 3 = 36 m 2

 

V

= 170,000/36 = 4722 m/hr =

1.31

m/s

Effective Temperature vs. Air Velocity for Broiler Chickens

Temperature vs. Air Velocity for Broiler Chickens 40 36 Air temp = 90F Air temp =
40 36 Air temp = 90F Air temp = 32 C 32 28 (1.5, 25)
40
36
Air temp = 90F
Air temp = 32 C
32
28
(1.5, 25)
24
20
16
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
Air Velocity,
m/s
Effective Temperature, C

Poultry Cooling Options

I.I. PadPad--andand--FanFan CoolingCooling

Evaporative Cooling Process

Evaporative Cooling Process Hi T Lo RH EC Pad 85% RH Saturation Line 20% RH Lo

Hi T

Lo RH

EC Pad

Evaporative Cooling Process Hi T Lo RH EC Pad 85% RH Saturation Line 20% RH Lo
85% RH Saturation Line 20% RH Lo T Wet-bulb line Hi RH 15°C 2 1
85% RH
Saturation Line
20% RH
Lo T
Wet-bulb line
Hi RH
15°C
2
1
18°C
30°C

Dry-bulb Air Temperature

Humidity Ratio

0.01070

0.00525

kg/kg

da

kg/kg da

BroilerBroiler BarnBarn withwith TunnelTunnel VentilationVentilation andand EvaporativeEvaporative CoolingCooling PadsPads

Barn Barn with with Tunnel Tunnel Ventilation Ventilation and and Evaporative Evaporative Cooling Cooling Pads Pads

Pad-Fan Evaporative Cooling

Before_Temp After_Temp Diff 40 20 35 30 15 25 20 10 15 10 5 5
Before_Temp
After_Temp
Diff
40
20
35
30
15
25
20
10
15
10
5
5
0
0
7/11
7/18
7/25
8/1
8/8
8/15
Air Temperature, o C
Temperature Reduction, o C

Date, m/d

II.II. CoolingCooling byby HighHigh--PressurePressure FoggingFogging InletInlet oror InsideInside AirAir

CoolingCooling LayingLaying HensHens byby FoggingFogging InletInlet AirAir

Cooling Cooling Laying Laying Hens Hens by by Fogging Fogging Inlet Inlet Air Air
Cooling Cooling Laying Laying Hens Hens by by Fogging Fogging Inlet Inlet Air Air

HighHigh--PressurePressure FoggingFogging SystemSystem

High High - - Pressure Pressure Fogging Fogging System System

Temp.Temp. ReductionReduction byby InletInlet FoggingFogging

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 T o_max - T i_max ( o
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
T o_max - T i_max ( o C)

07/03 07/10 07/17 07/24 07/31 08/07 08/14 08/21 08/28 09/04

Date of 1999 (month/day)

WeeklyWeekly Avg.Avg. HenHen--DayDay EggEgg ProductionProduction

100% Standard at TN 90% 80% 70% Measured (fit) 60% 50% HDEP during 7/1 -
100%
Standard at TN
90%
80%
70%
Measured (fit)
60%
50%
HDEP during 7/1 - 9/2:
40%
Measured = 84.0 ± 2.1%
30%
20%
Standard = 85.8 ± 1.3%
10%
0%
Hen-day Egg Production

42

44

46

48

50

52

54

56

58

60

62

1-Jul

15-

29-

12-

26-

9-

23-

7-

21-

4-

18-

Jul

Jul

Aug

Aug

Sep

Sep

Oct

Oct

Nov

Nov

Hen Age (week) and Date of 1999

III.III. CoolingCooling BroilersBroilers byby SurfaceSurface WettingWetting

ISUISU ExperimentExperiment FacilityFacility

ISU ISU Experiment Experiment Facility Facility

Determination of Cooling Need

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40.0

 

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32.0

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40.0

 

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38.0

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Factorial combination of t db = 35, 38, & 41 o C; t dp =19 & 26 o C; V = 0.2, 0.7, & 1.2 m/s

Body & Surface Temp Profiles of Cooled vs. Non-cooled Broilers

48 Thermal Condition: 38 o C tdb, 46 34% RH, and 0.2 m/s V 44
48
Thermal Condition: 38 o C tdb,
46
34% RH, and 0.2 m/s V
44
42
40
38
36
34
32
30
tb-Trt
tb-Ctrl
ts-Trt
ts-Ctrl
28
0
30
60
90
120
150
180
Bird Body and Surface Temp. ( o C)
Bird Body and Surface Temp ( o C)

Exposure Time (min)

48

46

44

42

40

38

36

34

32

30

28

Thermal Condition: 38 o C tdb, 34% RH, and 0.7 m/s V tb-Trt tb-Ctrl ts-Trt
Thermal Condition:
38 o C tdb, 34% RH, and 0.7 m/s V
tb-Trt
tb-Ctrl
ts-Trt
ts-Ctrl
0
30
60
90
120
150
180

Exposure Time(min)

Body Temp Rise of 2.8-kg Broilers Cooled by Surface Wetting (Trt) or Not (Ctrl)

5.0 4.5 Ctrl Trt 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 4.7 4.4 2.0 3.9 3.8 3.6 3.3
5.0
4.5
Ctrl
Trt
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
4.7
4.4
2.0
3.9
3.8
3.6
3.3
1.5
3 .0
2.7
2 .4
2 .4
2 .3
2 .2
1.0
2.0
1.7
1.5
0.5
0 .8
0.0
tdb(35)
tdb(38)
tdb(41)
V(1.2)
V(0.7)
V(0.2)
tdp(19.4)
tdp(26.1)
o C)
Body temperature rise (

Therm al Condition

IV.IV. CoolingCooling LayingLaying HensHens byby PartialPartial SurfaceSurface WettingWetting (PSW)(PSW)

Commercial High-Rise Layer House

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Ctrl

Cooled

EffectsEffects ofof PSWPSW onon HensHens (Lab(Lab Test)Test)

Response

Control

Sprinkling

Mortality (%)

100

40

Survival time (min)

141

210 (>480)

Avg T b rise ( o C)

2.9

2.8 (1.8)

Max T b rise ( o C)

5.7

5.3 (3.7)

Lethal BHL ( o C-hr)

6.6

10.0

Numbers in parentheses are for survived birds.

FieldField VerificationVerification ofof PSWPSW

Field Field Verification Verification of of PSW PSW T/RH logger Sprinkling: when T a >32 o
T/RH logger
T/RH logger

Sprinkling: when T a >32 o C; 15 s per 15 min

EffectEffect ofof PSWPSW onon EggEgg ProductionProduction (eggs(eggs perper 1,0001,000 hens)hens)

Tier Location

Regimen

Top

2 nd

3 rd

Bottom

Overall

Sprinkle

697 a

746 c

748 c

707 a

724 x

Control

660 b

726 d

739 c,d

695 a

705 y

a, b, c, d: P<0.05

x, y: P<0.01

PSW increased egg production by 2.6 % overall and 5.6% for the top tier.

Eggshell

Integrity

No sign of blue dye penetration through shell

Control

Sprinkling

No sign of blue dye penetration through shell Control Sprinkling Top tier 2 n d tier

Top tier

2 nd tier

3 rd tier

Bottom tier

ClosureClosure

Sufficient ventilation capacity is essential to minimizing animal heat stress.

Properly utilizing available ventilation capacity is equally important to maximizing the benefits of forced ventilation.

For a given ventilation rate, tunnel ventilation yields higher air velocity and thus provides more cooling to the animals than crosswise ventilation.

ClosureClosure

Pad-and-fan, high-pressure fogging, or surface wetting may be used to alleviate animal heat stress.

Pad-and-fan and fogging systems are effective under warm and dry climates cool – using more water.

Surface wetting is effective under warm/dry or warm/humid conditions – using less water; but may be limited by physical configuration of the barns.

… to serve the egg industry through sustained cooperative research, extension and education. Egg Industry
… to serve the egg industry through sustained cooperative research, extension and education. Egg Industry
… to serve the egg industry through sustained cooperative research, extension and education. Egg Industry

… to serve the egg

industry through sustained cooperative research, extension and education.

through sustained cooperative research, extension and education. Egg Industry Center http://www.ans.iastate.edu/EIC

Egg Industry Center

through sustained cooperative research, extension and education. Egg Industry Center http://www.ans.iastate.edu/EIC

http://www.ans.iastate.edu/EIC