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Estimates reveal that a substantial portion, approximately 8-10% of the total capital
expenditure of the chemical process industry is used for procurement of valves. In terms of
the number of units also, valves exceed any other piping component. ence, proper thought
should be given for the selection of valves. !he first step in the selection is to determine
exacted "hat function the valve is expected to perform after it has been installed.
#alves are installed on e$uipment%piping to perform any one of the follo"ing functions&
!he design of the valves are done in such a "ay as to perform any of the above functions.
!he type of valves used can be classified in the follo"ing categories.
1.1 'ate #alves
1.( )all #alves
1.* +lug #alves
1., +iston #alves
1.- .iaphragm #alves
1./ )utterfly #alves
1.0 +inch #alves
(.1 'lobal #alves
(.( 1eedle #alves
(.* .iaphragm #alves
(., +iston #alves
(.- +inch #alves
*.1 2hec3 #alves
,.1 4ultiply-port #alves
,.( 5lush )ottom #alves
,.* 5loat #alves
,., 5oot #alves
,.- 6ine )lind #alves
,./ 7nife 'ate #alves
!he above classification is based on functions. !he valves could also be classified based on
the type of construction. #alve manufacturers offer endless varieties of constructions. )ased
on the operation valves can be broadly classified as operated valves and self- operated and all
other other types come under operated valves.
!he valves can further be classified based on the end connections end connection. End
connection means the arrangement of attachment of the valves to the e$uipment of to the
piping. !he types of end connections are8
1.0 9cre"ed ends
(.0 9oc3et "eld ends
*.0 5langed ends
,.0 )utt "eld ends
-.0 9oc3et ends
/.0 :ater type ends
0.0 )uttress ends
!he valves could also be classified based on the materials of construction. !here can be any
number of constrictions +ossible "ith the materials of construction. It is for the piping
engineer to select the same in consolation "ith the process engineer to suit the process fluid.
!he environment in "hich the valves are installed is also to be considered for selection of
materials of construction. o"ever, the most commonly available materials are8
1.0 2ast Iron
(.0 .uctile Iron
*.0 )ron;e
,.0 'un 4etal
-.0 2arbon 9teel
/.0 9tainless 9teel
0.0 <lloy 2arbon 9teel
8.0 +oly propylene, =4:-+E =4:-.+E etc.
9.0 9pecial polymer% Elastomeric lined metals
10.0 5luoro polymer% Elastomer lined metals
11.0 'lass
1. Pressure Temer!"ure R!"#$%s
+ressure > !emperature ?ating is the maximum allo"able sustained non- shoc3
pressure at the corresponding tabulated temperature. !hese are listed in <19I ) 1/.*,
and <19I ) 1/.-.
2. C&!ss
!he valve is specified by the pressure rating of the body of the valves. !he
<merican standard specifies the follo"ing classes.
(.1 2lass 1-0@
(.( 2lass *00@
(.* 2lass ,00@
(., 2lass /00@
(.- 2lass A00@
(./ 2lass 1-00@
(.0 2lass (-00@
(.8 2lass 800@
(.A 2lass ,-00@
3. Tr#m
!he trim is comprised of 9tem, 9eat 9urfaces, )an3 9eat )ushing and other small internal
parts that normally contact the surface fluid. !he table indicates surface fluid. !he table
belo" indicates trim of common types of valves. <+I /00 specifies !rim number in table * of
the standard. It specifies the types of material, "hich can be used for the parts "ith its typical
specification and grade.
4. 'e""e( P!r"s
<ll parts, "hich come in contact "ith the service fluid, are called the "etted parts.
). '#re Dr!*#$%
!his term is used to indicate the premature erosion of the valve seat caused by excessive
velocity bet"een seat and seat disc. <n erosion pattern is left as if a "ire had been dra"n
bet"een the seat surfaces. Excessive velocity can occur "hen the valve is not closed tightly.
< :B' C:ater-Bil-'as, relatively cool li$uidsD disc is the best defense against "iredra"ing
because its resiliency ma3es it easier to close tightly. .iscs of harder material are to be closed
carefully to prevent "ire dra"ing. In 6+' 9ervice, the "ire dra"ing effect causes a threat of
anti-refrigeration. !he ice formation on the "edge "ill obstruct movement thereby increasing
the lea3 through seat further.
+. S"r!#%," T,r-u%, F&-*
!his refers to the valve in "hich the closing element is retracted entirely so that there is no
restriction of flo".
.. /u!r"er Tur$ V!&0es
!his refers to the valves "here the entire operation of valves is achieved by A0 degrees turn
of the closing element.
1. Pressure Dr-
+ressure drop is the loss of pressure through resistance across the valve "hile flo"s and is
expressed in terms of e$uivalent length in pipe diameters.
2. Us"re!m Pressure
!his is the pressure of the fluid that enters is the valve. !his is sometimes referred to as inlet
or supply pressure.
10. D-*$s"re!m Pressure
!his is the pressure of the fluid that is discharged from the valve. !his is sometimes referred
to as outlet or reduced pressure.
9ignifies E6ea3 .etection and ?epairF to ensure that the fugitive emissions standards of E+<
are met. 5ugitive emissions are the minute amount of process media that escape into the
atmospheres though gland pac3ing along valve stem.
12. LAER
9ignifies E6o"est <chievable Emission ?ateF. It is the minimum rate of fugitive emission,
"hich is achieved by deploying proper sealing arrangement.
Le!4!%e 5&!ss M!6#mum se!" &e!4!%e
2lass I
2lass II
2lass III
2lass I#
2lass #
2lass #I
< modification of any class II,
III or I# valve "here design
intent is the same as the basic
class, but by agreement bet"een
user and supplier. 1o test is
0.-% of rated valve capacity
0.1% of rated valve capacity
0.01% of rated valve capacity
- x 10 ml per minute "ater per
diameter per psi differential
as per table belo"