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PART 3

AC CIRCUITS
I. BASIC AC THEORY
1. ALTERNATING CURRENT
A current that is constantly changing in amplitude and direction
Either as a voltage switching polarity or as a current switching direction back
and forth
Advantages of AC:
Magnitude can easily be changed (stepped-up or stepped-down) with the use
of a transformer
Can be produced either single phase for light loads, two phase for control
motors, three phase for power distribution and large motor loads or si-
phase for large scale AC to !C conversion
2. AC A!E"OR#S
#a$%o Integ%ated T%a&n&ng and Rev&e' Cente% E()$*%+n&,
AC
-.2 AC CIRCUIT
Pa%a/ete%s of A(te%nat&ng S&gna(
"eriod (#) $ the time of one complete cycle in seconds%
&re'uency (f) $ the number of cycles per second ((ert))
a% * cycle+second (cps) , * (ert) (())
b% "roper operation of electrical e'uipment re'uires specific fre'uency%
c. &re'uencies lower than -. () would cause flicker when used in lighting%
/avelength (0) $ the length of one complete cycle
"ropagation 1elocity (v) $ the speed of the signal
E()$*%+n&, #a$%o Integ%ated T%a&n&ng and Rev&e' Cente%
AC CIRCUIT 3- -
"hase(2) - an angular measurement that specifies the position of a sine
wave relative to a reference
f 0
T
1
1 0
f
v
T2e S&n3so&da( ave
is the most common AC waveform that is practically generated by
generators used in households and industries
3eneral e'uation for sine wave4
a4t5 0A/s&n46t 7 + 5
where4 a(t) $ instantaneous amplitude of voltage or current at a given time(t)
A m$ maimum voltage or current amplitude of the signal
5 $ angular velocity in rad+sec
- 67f
t $ time (sec)
2 $ phase shift ( 8 or $ in degrees)
#eas3%e/ents of AC #agn&t3de
Amplitude - height as depicted on a graph over time% An amplitude
measurement can take the form of peak, peak-to-peak, average, or 9M:
'uantity%
"eak amplitude - the height of an AC waveform as measured from the )ero
mark to the highest positive or lowest negative point on a graph% Also known
as the crest amplitude of a wave%
"eak-to-peak amplitude - the total height of an AC waveform as measured
from maimum positive to maimum negative peaks on a graph% ;ften
abbreviated as <"-"<%
#a$%o Integ%ated T%a&n&ng and Rev&e' Cente% E()$*%+n&,
-.8 AC CIRCUIT
Average amplitude - the mathematical <mean< of all a waveform=s points over
the period of one cycle% #echnically, the average amplitude of any waveform
with e'ual-area portions above and below the <)ero< line on a graph is )ero%
(owever, as a practical measure of amplitude, a waveform=s average value is
often calculated as the mathematical mean of all the points= absolute values
(taking all the negative values and considering them as positive)%
Avehalf wave , .%->- Am Avesine wave , .
<9M:< stands for 9oot Mean :'uare (effective value) - a way of epressing
an AC 'uantity of voltage or current in terms functionally e'uivalent to !C%
9M:sine wave , .%?.? Am
Crest factor of an AC waveform - the ratio of its peak (crest) to its 9M: value%
&orm factor of an AC waveform - the ratio of its peak (crest) value to its
average value%
-. AC 9UANTITIES
E()$*%+n&, #a$%o Integ%ated T%a&n&ng and Rev&e' Cente%
AC CIRCUIT 3- :
a. Res&stan$e4R5
;pposes the AC current similar to !C circuits
;pposition offered by resistors
;. Rea$tan$e4,5
!epends on the AC fre'uency of the AC source which is the opposition to
current due to inductance and capacitance
Ind3$t&ve Rea$tan$e 4,L5
the property of the inductor to oppose alternating current%
,L 0 2<fL
Ind3$t&ve S3s$e=tan$e 4BL5
reciprocal of inductive reactance
BL0
L
,
1
BL 0
fL 2
1
Ca=a$&t&ve Rea$tan$e 4,$5
the property of a capacitor to oppose alternating current
,$ 0
fC 2
1
Ca=a$&t&ve S3s$e=tan$e 4BC5
reciprocal of capacitive reactance
BC 0
C
,
1
BC 0 2 fC
$. I/=edan$e 4>5
#a$%o Integ%ated T%a&n&ng and Rev&e' Cente% E()$*%+n&,
-.? AC CIRCUIT
#otal opposition to the flow of Alternating current
Combination of the resistance in a circuit and the reactances involved
> 0 R 7 @,eA > 0 I>I +
/here4 I>I 0
2 2
eA
, R + + 0 A%$tan

R
eA
,
"hasor !iagram of @mpedance
@f @ , @m

is the resulting current drawn by a passive, linear 9AC circuit from a
source voltage 1 , 1m

, then
> 0
I
!
0


/
I
/
!
0 >

>$os

7 @>s&n

0 R 7 @, 0
2 2
, R +
1
tan
R
,
/here4 >0
I/
!/
0
2 2
, R +
0 magnitude of the impedance

=
0 tan
.1

R
,
0 phase angle of the impedance
R,>$os

0active or real component of the impedance


E()$*%+n&, #a$%o Integ%ated T%a&n&ng and Rev&e' Cente%
AC CIRCUIT 3- B
, 0 >s&n

0 reactive or 'uadrature component of impedance


d. Ad/&ttan$e 4Y5
#he reciprocal of impedance
Epressed in siemens or mho (:)
Y 0
/
!
/
I

0 Y C

0 Y$os C

7 @Ys&n C

0 G 7 @B
Y 0
2 2
B G +
tan
.1
G
B
/here4 Y0
!/
I/
0
2 2
B G +
0
>
1
0magnitude of the admittance

=

C
0

0tan
.1
G
B
0 phase angle of the admittance
G0Y$os C

0conductive+conductance component
B 0 Ys&n C

0 susceptive+susceptance component
II. AC CIRCUITS
#a$%o Integ%ated T%a&n&ng and Rev&e' Cente% E()$*%+n&,
-.D AC CIRCUIT
1. AC Res&sto% C&%$3&t
Impedance(Z) = R
/ith an AC circuit like this which is purely resistive, the relationship of the voltage
and current is as shown4
1oltage (e) is in phase with the current(i)
"ower is never a negative value% /hen the current is positive (above the
line), the voltage is also positive, resulting in a power (p,ie) of a positive
value
#his consistent <polarity< of power tell us that the resistor is always
dissipating power, taking it from the source and releasing it in the form of
heat energy% /hether the current is positive or negative, a resistor still
dissipates energy%
2. AC Ind3$to% C&%$3&t
Impedance(Z) = jXL
#he most distinguishing electrical characteristics of an A circuit is that current
lags the voltage by 90 electrical degrees
E()$*%+n&, #a$%o Integ%ated T%a&n&ng and Rev&e' Cente%
AC CIRCUIT 3- E
Because the current and voltage waves are C.
o
out of phase, there are times
when one is positive while the other is negative, resulting in e'ually fre'uent
occurrences of negative instantaneous power%
Negative power means that the inductor is releasing power back to the
circuit, while a positive power means that it is absorbing power from the
circuit
#he inductor releases Dust as much power back to the circuit as it absorbs
over the span of a complete cycle%
Rev&e' 93est&on4 !etermine the opposition (E) of the inductor in the circuit below
with respect to the phase angles of voltage and current4
Solution:
XL of 10mH at 60 Hz: XL=2 fL= !"6##
I 0
L
,
E
0
7699 3
10
.
0 2.?:2?
;pposition ,
C3%%ent
!o(tage
,
.
.
.
0 6526 2
90 10

, >%?-CC
.
90
RE!IE:
#a$%o Integ%ated T%a&n&ng and Rev&e' Cente% E()$*%+n&,
-.1F AC CIRCUIT
Inductive reactance is the opposition that an inductor offers to alternating
current due to its phase-shifted storage and release of energy in its magnetic
field% 9eactance is symboli)ed by the capital letter <F< and is measured in
ohms Dust like resistance (9)%
@nductive reactance can be calculated using this formula4 FA , 67fA
#he angular velocity of an AC circuit is another way of epressing its
fre'uency, in units of electrical radians per second instead of cycles per
second% @t is symboli)ed by the lower-case 3reek letter <omega,< or 5%
@nductive reactance increases with increasing fre'uency% @n other words, the
higher the fre'uency, the more it opposes the AC flow of electrons%
-. AC Ca=a$&to% C&%$3&t
Impedance(Z) = $jX%
#he most distinguishing electrical characteristics of an A circuit is that current
leads the voltage by 90 electrical degrees
the current through a capacitor is a reaction against the change in voltage
across it
A capacitor=s opposition to change in voltage translates to an opposition to
alternating voltage in general, which is by definition always changing in
instantaneous magnitude and direction% &or any given magnitude of AC
voltage at a given fre'uency, a capacitor of given si)e will <conduct< a certain
magnitude of AC current
E()$*%+n&, #a$%o Integ%ated T%a&n&ng and Rev&e' Cente%
AC CIRCUIT 3- 11
capacitors <conduct< current in proportion to the rate of voltage change, they
will pass more current for faster-changing voltages (as they charge and
discharge to the same voltage peaks in less time), and less current for
slower-changing voltages%
the phase angle of a capacitor=s opposition to current is -C.
o
, meaning that a
capacitor=s opposition to current is a negative imaginary 'uantity
RE!IE:
Capacitive reactance is the opposition that a capacitor offers to alternating
current due to its phase-shifted storage and release of energy in its electric
field% 9eactance is symboli)ed by the capital letter <F< and is measured in
ohms Dust like resistance (9)%
Capacitive reactance can be calculated using this formula4 FC , *+(67fC)
Capacitive reactance decreases with increasing fre'uency% @n other words,
the higher the fre'uency, the less it opposes (the more it <conducts<) the AC
flow of electrons%
8. SERIES Res&sto%.Ind3$to% C&%$3&t
@mpedance(E) , R7@,L
Admittance(G) ,
L
@, R +
1
,
2 2
L
, R
L
@, R
+

&or a series resistor-inductor circuit, the voltage and current relation is


determine in itHs the phase shift% #hus , current lags the voltage by a phase
shift ( )
#a$%o Integ%ated T%a&n&ng and Rev&e' Cente% E()$*%+n&,
-.12 AC CIRCUIT
"hase shift( ) , Arctan (
R
L
,
) @ E @ ,
2 2
L
, R +
,
&
e
RE!IE:
/hen resistors and inductors are mied together in circuits, the total
impedance will have a phase angle somewhere between .
o
and 8C.
o
% #he
circuit current will have a phase angle somewhere between .
o
and -C.
o
%
:eries AC circuits ehibit the same fundamental properties as series !C
circuits4 current is uniform throughout
E()$*%+n&, #a$%o Integ%ated T%a&n&ng and Rev&e' Cente%
AC CIRCUIT 3- 1-
:. SERIES Res&sto%. Ca=a$&to% C&%$3&t

@mpedance (E) , R G @,C
Admittance (G) ,
C
@, R
1

,
2 2
,$ R
@,$ R
+
+
&or a series resistor $ capacitor circuit, the voltage and current relation is
determined by the phase shift% #hus the current leads the voltage by an
angle less than C. degrees but greater than . degrees
"hase shift ( ) , Arctan (
R
,$
) @ E @ ,
2 2
$
, R +
,
&
e
#a$%o Integ%ated T%a&n&ng and Rev&e' Cente% E()$*%+n&,
-.18 AC CIRCUIT
?. PARALLEL Res&sto% G Ind3$to%
> =a%a((e( 0
5 Y 4 $e tan Ad/&t
1
Y 0 G . @
L
where4 3 $ conductance , *+9
L
, susceptance , *+FA
> ,
I
E
, by ;hmHs Aaw
#he basic approach with regards to parallel circuits is using admittance
because it is additive
RE!IE
/hen resistors and inductors are mied together in parallel circuits (Dust as in
series circuits), the total impedance will have a phase angle somewhere
between .
o
and 8C.
o
% #he circuit current will have a phase angle somewhere
between .
o
and -C.
o
%
"arallel AC circuits ehibit the same fundamental properties as parallel !C
circuits4 voltage is uniform throughout the circuit, branch currents add to form
the total current, and impedances diminish (through the reciprocal formula) to
form the total impedance
E()$*%+n&, #a$%o Integ%ated T%a&n&ng and Rev&e' Cente%
AC CIRCUIT 3- 1:
B. PARALLEL Res&sto% G Ca=a$&to%
Y 0 G 7 @
$
where4 G $ conductance , *+9

$
, susceptance , *+FC
RE!IE
/hen resistors and capacitors are mied together in circuits, the total
impedance will have a phase angle somewhere between .
o
and -C.
o
%
Rev&e' 93est&on
*% Compute for the total impedance of the following :E9@E: 9AC circuitI
So(3t&on4
Convert individual components to their e'uivalent impedances4
#a$%o Integ%ated T%a&n&ng and Rev&e' Cente% E()$*%+n&,
-.1? AC CIRCUIT
:ince this is a series 9AC, the total impedance (Etotal) is the sum of individual
impedances
E total, E9 8 EA 8 EC
E total , ( 6J.8 D. ) 8 ( .8D6KJ%.K ) 8 (. $ D*%?-LKM)
E total , 6J.-D*%J6>>k , *%JK>?k -L.%-L.
.
ohms
Analysis4
Although impedances add in series, the total impedance for a circuit
containing both inductance and capacitance may be less than one or more of
the individual impedances, because series inductive and capacitive
impedances tend to cancel each other%
E()$*%+n&, #a$%o Integ%ated T%a&n&ng and Rev&e' Cente%
AC CIRCUIT 3- 1B
III. POER &n AC C&%$3&ts

1. APPARENT POER4S5

9epresents the rate at which the total energy is supplied to the system
Measured in volt-amperes (1A)
S 0 !%/sI%/s 0 I%/s
2
I > I

@t has two components, the 9eal "ower and the Capacitive or @nductive
9eactive "ower

Po'e% T%&ang(e
Co/=(eH Po'e%
S 0 P I @9
2. REAL POER 4P5
#he power consumed by the resistive component
Also called #rue "ower, Nseful "ower and "roductive "ower
Measured in /atts (/)
@t is e'ual to the product of the apparent power and the power factor
P 0 S$os
Po'e% "a$to%
Cosine of the power factor angle( )
Measure of the power that is dissipated by the circuit in relation to the
apparent power and is usually given as a decimal or percentage
#a$%o Integ%ated T%a&n&ng and Rev&e' Cente% E()$*%+n&,
-.1D AC CIRCUIT
Pf 0 $os
9atio of the 9eal "ower to the Apparent "ower(
S
P
)
/hen4
"f ,*%. @ is in phase with 1O resistive system
"f,lagging @ lags 1 by PO inductive system
"f , leading @ leads 1 by PO capacitive system
"f,.%. lag @ lags 1 by C.QO purely inductive
"f ,.%. lead @ leads 1 by C.QO purely capacitive
Po'e% fa$to% Ang(e ( 5
#he angle between the apparent power and the real power in the power
triangle
Aet v4t5 0 !/$os46t 7
v
5 vo(ts ! 0 !%/s v

&4t5 0 I/$os 46t 7
i

5 A I 0 I%/s
i

Instantaneo3s Po'e% 4'atts5
P4t5 0 v4t5 &4t5
P4t5 0
2
1
!/I/$os4
v
.
i
5 7
2
1
!/I/$os426t 7
v
7
i
5
Ave%age Po'e% 4'atts5
Pave 0
2
1
!/I/$os4
v
.
i
5 0 !%/sI%/s$os
where4 , phase shift between v(t) and i(t) or the phase angle of the
e'uivalent impedance
-. REACTI!E POER 49L o% 9C5
E()$*%+n&, #a$%o Integ%ated T%a&n&ng and Rev&e' Cente%
AC CIRCUIT 3- 1E
9epresents the rate at which energy is stored or released in any of the
energy storing elements(the inductor or the capacitor)
Also called the imaginary power, non-productive or wattless power
Measured in volt-ampere reactive (1ar)
/hen the capacitor and inductor are both present , the reactive power
associated with them take opposite signs since they do not store or release
energy at the same time
@t is positive for inductive power(RA) and negative for capacitive power(RC)
9 0 !%/sI%/ss&n
Rea$t&ve fa$to%
9atio of the reactive "ower to the Apparent "ower
:ine of the power factor angle( )
Rf 0 s&n
#a$%o Integ%ated T%a&n&ng and Rev&e' Cente% E()$*%+n&,
-.2F AC CIRCUIT
I!. BALANCEJ THREE PHASE SYSTE#S
Comprises of three identical single-phase systems operating at a *6.Q phase
displacement from one another% #his means that a balance three-phase
system provides three voltages(and currents) that are e'ual in magnitude
and separated by *6.Q from each other

1. CLASSI"ICATION:
T2%ee.P2aseK -.'&%e sCste/s
"rovide only one type of voltage(line to line to both single phase and three
phase loads
T2%ee.P2aseK 8.'&%e sCste/s
"rovide two types of voltages (line to line and line to neutral) to both single
phase and three phase loads%
2. BALANCEJ Y.sCste/
!LL 0 3 !LN and @A , @"
1AA and 1AS are out of phase by >.Q
-. BALANCEJ L sCste/
IL 0 3 IP and !LL 0 !LN
@A and @" are out of phase by >.Q
/here4 1AA or 1A$ line to line or line voltage
1AS or 1"$ line to neutral or phase voltage
@A - line current
@" $ phase current
Sote4 for balanced >-phase systems4
E()$*%+n&, #a$%o Integ%ated T%a&n&ng and Rev&e' Cente%
AC CIRCUIT 3- 21
IA 7 IB 7 IC 0F
!AN 7 !BN 7 !CN 0 F
!AB 7!BC 7 !CA 0 F
8. T2%ee . P2ase Po'e%
P 0 -!PIP$os 0 3 !LIL $os watts
9 0 -!PIPs&n 0 3 !LIL s&n vars
S 0 -!PIP 0 3 !LIL va
TEST YOURSEL" 3
Rev&e' 93est&ons

#a$%o Integ%ated T%a&n&ng and Rev&e' Cente% E()$*%+n&,
-.22 AC CIRCUIT
*%#he description of two sine waves that are in step with each other going through their maimum
and minimum points at the same time and in the same direction (November, 1999)
a% :ine waves in phase
b% :tepped sine waves
c% "hased sine waves
d% :ine waves in coordination
Ans'e% a% :ine waves in phase
6% #erm used for the out of phase, non-productive power associated with inductors and capacitors
(Sovember, *CC-)
a% Effective power
b% #rue power
c% 9eactive power
d% "eak envelope power
Ans'e% c% 9eactive power
>% 9efers to reactive power% (Sovember, 6..*)
a% /attless ,non productive power
b% "ower consumed in circuit R
c% "ower loss because of capacitor leakage
d% "ower consumed in wire resistance in an inductor
Ans'e% a% /attless, non productive power
K% #erm used for an out-of-phase, non-productive power associated with inductors and capacitors%
a% effective power
b% reactive power
c% peak envelope power
d% true power
Ans'e% b% reactive power
J% #he product of current and voltage in an AC circuit refers to the
a% 9eal power
b% Nseful power
c% Apparent power
d% !c power
Ans'e% c% Apparent power
-% #he distance covered or traveled by a waveform during the time interval of one complete cycle
(pril, !00")
a% &re'uency
E()$*%+n&, #a$%o Integ%ated T%a&n&ng and Rev&e' Cente%
AC CIRCUIT 3- 2-
b% /avelength
c% #ime slot
d% /ave time
Ans'e% b% /avelength
?% #he power dissipated across the resistance in an AC circuit (November, 1999)
a% real power
b% reactive power
c% apparent power
d% true power
Ans'e% a% real power
L% @t is the number of complete cycles of alternating voltage or current completed each second
(November, !00#)
a% "eriod
b% &re'uency
c% Amplitude
d% "hase
Ans'e% b% &re'uency
C% (ow many degrees are there in one complete cycleI (Sovember, 6...)
a% ?6.Q
b% >-.Q
c% *L.Q
d% C.Q
Ans'e% b% >-.Q
*.% #he impedance in the study of electronics is represented by resistance and TTTTTTTT (April,
*CCL)
a% 9eactance
b% @nductance and capacitance
c% @nductance
d% Capacitance
Ans'e% a% 9eactance
**% @t is the current that is eliminated by a synchro capacitorI (pril, !00$)
a% Magneti)ing stator
b% Aoss
c% :tator
d% 9otor
Ans'e% a% Magneti)ing stator
*6% @t is a rotating sector that represents either current or voltage in an AC circuit (November, !00#)
a% 9esistance
b% "hasor
#a$%o Integ%ated T%a&n&ng and Rev&e' Cente% E()$*%+n&,
-.28 AC CIRCUIT
c% :olar diagram
d% 1elocity
Ans'e% b% "hasor
*>% #he relation of the voltage across an inductor to its current is described as
a% leading the current by C. degrees
b% lagging the current by C. degrees
c% leading the current by *L. degrees
d% in phase with the current
Ans'e% a% leading the current by C. degrees
*K% &ind the phase angle between the voltage across through the circuit when FC is 6J ohms, 9 is
*.. ohms and FA is J. ohms% (pril, !00")
a% ?- degrees with voltage leading the current
b% *K degrees with the voltage lagging the current
c% *K degrees with the voltage leading the current
d% ?- degrees with the voltage lagging the current
Ans'e% c% *K degrees with the voltage leading the current
So(3t&on
U , arctan ( rees deg .K % *K )
*..
6J J.
=

, since the circuit is inductive voltage leads


current
*J% Calculate the period of an alternating current having an e'uation of @ ,6.sin*6.7t
a% K%*-? ms
b% L%>> ms
c% *-%-? ms
d% >>%>> ms
Ans'e% c% *-%-? ms
So(3t&on
"eriod , s *. -? % *-
-.
*
f
*
>
= =
*-% /hat do you mean by root-mean-s'uare (rms) valueI (November, 199%)
a% @t is the average value
b% @t is the effective value
c% @t is the value that causes the same heating effect as the dc voltage
d% b or c
Ans'e% d% b or c
E()$*%+n&, #a$%o Integ%ated T%a&n&ng and Rev&e' Cente%
AC CIRCUIT 3- 2:
*?% #he maimum instantaneous value of a varying current, voltage or power e'ual to *%K*K times
the effective value of a sine wave% (November, !000)
a% 9M: value
b% "eak value
c% E&&EC#@1E 1AANE
d% "eak to "eak value
Ans'e% b% "eak value
*L% @f an AC signal has a peak voltage of JJ 1, what is the average valueI (pril, !000)
a% >K%CL 1
b% -*%.J 1
c% L-%>K 1
d% >L%LC 1
Ans'e% a% >K%CL 1
So(3t&on
Ave , .* % >J
) JJ ( 6
1 6
pk
=

*C% @f an AC signal has an average voltage of *L 1, what is the rms voltageI (pril, !000)
a% *6%?6- 1
b% *C%CL. 1
c% 6J%>L. 1
d% *-%6*> 1
Ans'e% b% *C%CL. 1
So(3t&on
9M: , *%**1ave(AC signal) , *%**(*L) , *C%CL 1

6.% A 66.-volt, -.() is driving a series 9A circuit% !etermine the current if 9 , *.. ohms and 6.
m( inductance
a% 6%6A(lagging)
b% 6%. A(lagging)
c% 6%6 A(leading)
d% 6%. A(leading)
Ans'e% a% 6%6 A(lagging)
So(3t&on
@ ,

=
+
=
+
>** % K 6L % *..
66.
JK % ? D *..
66.
) m 6. )( -. ( 6 D *..
66.
,6%*C A (magnitude only), lagging because the circuit is inductive
6*% @gnoring any inductive effects, what is the impedance of 9C series capacitor made up of a J-
Milo ohm resistor and a .%>> V& capacitor at a signal fre'uency of K-J. () (Sovember, *CCC)
a% --?>. ohms
b% J?.*C ohms
c% KJ6?. ohms
d% *.?>. ohms
#a$%o Integ%ated T%a&n&ng and Rev&e' Cente% E()$*%+n&,
-.2? AC CIRCUIT
Ans'e% b% J?.*C ohms
So(3t&on
E , J-M - D

** % . .C % J-... ?* % *.> D M J-
) >> % . )( K-J. ( 6
*
= =

ohms
66% /hat is the time constant of a J..m( coil and a >>.. ohm resistor in seriesI (April, 6...)
a% .%...*J sec
b% -%- sec
c% .%..*J sec
d% .%....*J sec
Ans'e% a% .%...*J sec
So(3t&on
0 =
>
>
*. *J*J % .
>>..
*. J..
9
A

= =
6>% /hat is the relationship between fre'uency and the value of FcI (Sovember, 6..*)
a% &re'uency has no effect
b% FC varies inversely with fre'uency
c% FC varies indirectly with fre'uency
d% FC varies directly with fre'uency
Ans'e% b% FC varies inversely with fre'uency
6K% #he reactance of a 6J m( coil at J... () is which of the followingI
a% ?LJ ohms
b% ?LJ... ohms
c% *> ohms
d% .%..*> ohm
Ans'e% a% ?LJ ohms
So(3t&on
FA , 67(J...)(6J*.
->
) , ?LJ%>CL ohms
6J% #here are no transients in pure resistive circuits because they
a% ;ffer high resistance
b% ;bey ;hmHs Aaw
c% Are linear circuits
d% (ave no stored energy
Ans'e% d% (ave no stored energy
E()$*%+n&, #a$%o Integ%ated T%a&n&ng and Rev&e' Cente%
AC CIRCUITS
#a$%o Integ%ated T%a&n&ng and Rev&e' Cente%
E()$*%+n&,
-.2D
AC CIRCUIT
E()$*%+n&, #a$%o Integ%ated T%a&n&ng and
Rev&e' Cente%
AC CIRCUITS
#a$%o Integ%ated T%a&n&ng and Rev&e' Cente%
E()$*%+n&,
-.-F
AC CIRCUIT
E()$*%+n&, #a$%o Integ%ated T%a&n&ng and
Rev&e' Cente%