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Single phase

Power Transformer
1 Course Code EE341 Dr. Eng. M.Dessouki
Chapter 2_Part1
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Again Important Note
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Introduction
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Transformers are adapted to numerous engineering
applications and may be classified in many ways:

Power level (from fraction of a volt-ampere (VA) to
over a thousand MVA),
Application (power supply, impedance matching,
circuit isolation),
Frequency range (power, audio, radio frequency (RF))
Voltage class (a few volts to about 750 kilovolts)
Cooling type (air cooled, oil filled, fan cooled, water
cooled, etc.)
Purpose (distribution, rectifier, arc furnace, amplifier
output, etc.).



Transformer- Introduction

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Power transmission







Importance of Transformers:
Main: to transfer electrical energy over long distances (from
power plants to load centers)
In modern power system electric energy is generated at
voltages between 12 to 25 kV, Transformers step up voltage
between 110 kV to 1200 kV for transmission over long
distances with very small losses




Transformer- Introduction

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Then Transformers step down to 33 kV or 24 kV for local
distribution & finally supply safely homes, offices & factories at
voltages as low as 230 V, as 1 phase and 400 V as 3 phase


Transformer- Introduction

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Basic components of single phase transformer
N
1
N
2
Supply
Load
Primary winding Secondary winding
Laminated iron core

Transformer- Construction

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Winding connected to source named "Primary
Winding connected to load named Secondary
The primary winding is connected to the incoming power supply.
The secondary winding is connected to the driven load.
The two windings of an isolation transformer are linked together
by the magnetic field.


Transformer- Construction

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2. step-down
turns ratio > 1
VS < VP
IS > IP
Based on TURNS RATIO:
1. step-up
turns ratio < 1
VS > VP
IS < IP

Transformer- Types

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1. air core
-- inside area of coil is empty
-- inefficient induction
2. open core
-- ferromagnetic material
inside coils
--|B = |induction

Transformer- Types

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3. closed core
-- ferromagnetic ends connected
-- | B = | induction
4. shell
-- lazy square eight
-- overlap of coils on same
ferromagnetic core

Transformer- Types

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Single phase transformer construction
A) Core type B) Shell type

Transformer- Construction

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i
e
1

v
1 v
2
e
2
The emf which induced in transformer
primary winding is known as self induction
emf as the emf is induced due to to flux
which produced by the winding itself.
While the emf which induced in transformer
secondary winding is known as mutual
induction emf as the emf is induced due to
to flux which produced by the other
winding.
Acording to Faradays Law, the emf which induced in the primary winding is:
e
1
=
dt
d
N
|
1
Since the flux is an alternating flux: t e | | sin
max
=
dt
t d
N e
) sin (
max
1 1
e |
=
t N e e | cos
max 1
=

Transformer- Operation

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i
e
1

v
1 v
2
e
2
where,
t f N e e t | cos ) 2 (
max 1 1
= t E e cos
1 max
=
f N E t | 2
max 1 1 max
=
f N
E
E
rms max 1
1 max
1
44 . 4
2
| =
Similarly it can be shown that,
f N E
rms max 2 2
44 . 4 | =
a
N
N
f N
f N
E
E
= = =
2
1
max 2
max 1
2
1
44 . 4
44 . 4
|
|
a is transformation ratio
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The voltage ratio of induced voltages on the primary to secondary
windings is equal to the turn ratio of the winding turn number of the
primary winding to the winding turn number of the secondary winding.
Therefore the transformers can be used to step up or step down voltage
levels by choosing appropriate number their winding turns. In power
system its necessary to step up the output voltage of a generator which
less than 30kV to up 500kV for long distance transmission. High voltage
for long distance power transmission can reduce current flow in the
transmission lines, thus line losses and voltage drop can be reduced.
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1- Ideal Transformer
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2
N
E
m 1
1
e u
=
2
N
E
m 2
2
e u
=
Current, voltages and flux in an unloaded ideal transformer
Winding resistances are zero, no leakage inductance and
iron loss
Magnetization current generates a flux that induces
voltage in both windings
N
1
N
2
u
m
I
m
V
1
E
1
E
2
= V
2
Transformer- Ideal Transformer
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Loaded transformer
i

V
1

E
2
E
1

V
2
Z
L

I
2

2

N
1

N
2

1

When a load is connected to the secondary output terminals of a
transformer as shown , a current I
2
flows into the load and into
transformer secondary winding N
2
. The current I
2
which flowing in
N
2
produces flux
2
which opposite by Lenzs law- to the main
magnetic flux in the transformer core. This will weaken or slightly
reduce the main flux to .

Transformer- Ideal Transformer
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The reduction of main flux by Faradays law- could also reduce the induced voltage
in primary winding E
1
. Consequently E
1
is now smaller than the supply voltage V
1
, then
the primary current would be increased due to that potential differences. Therefore on
loaded transformer, the primary current has an additional current of I
1
.

The extra current I
1
which flowing in the primary winding N
1
produces flux
1
which
naturally react according to Lenzs law, demagnetize the flux
2
. Therefore the net
magnetic flux in the core is always maintained at original value, it is the main flux
(the flux which produced by the magnetizing current).
The magneto motive force (mmf) source N
2
I
2
at the secondary winding produces flux

2
, while the mmf N
1
I
1
produces flux
1
. Since the magnitude of
1
equal to
magnitude of
2
and the reluctance seen by these two mmf sources are equal, thus
N
1
I
1
= N
2
I
2
Transformer- Ideal Transformer
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Currents and fluxes in a loaded ideal transformer
Loaded transformer
E
2
Load
V
2
I
2
u
2
u
1
u
m
I
m
+ I
1
V
1
E
1
Transformer- Ideal Transformer
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Turn ratio
If the primary winding has N
1
turns and secondary winding has
N
2
turns, then:


The input and output complex powers are equal


Functional description of a transformer:

When a = 1 Isolation Transformer
When | a | < 1 Step-Up Transformer Voltage is increase from
Primary side to secondary side
When | a | > 1 Step-Down Transformer Voltage is decreased
from Primary side to secondary side


Transformer- Ideal Transformer
1
2
2
1
2
1
I
I
E
E
N
N
a = = =
* *
I E S S I E
2 2 2 1 1 1
= = =
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Transformer Rating
Practical transformers are usually rated based on:
Voltage Ratio (V
1
/V
2
) which gives us the turns-ratio
Power Rating, small transformers are given in Watts (real power)
and Larger ones (Power Transformers) are given in kVA (apparent
power)

Equivalent circuit:













Equivalent circuit of an ideal transformer





I
2
I
1
= I
2
/a

E
2
= V
2
V
1
= E
1
= a E
2
V
1
E
1
T
Transformer- Ideal Transformer
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Transferring impedances through a transformer

2
2 2
2
2
1
1
1
I
V
I
V
I
V
Z a
a
a
=
|
.
|

\
|
= =
load
a Z Z
2
1
=
V
ac
Z
load
T
V
1
V
2
I
1
I
2
Transformer- Ideal Transformer
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V
ac
/a
Z
load
V
2
I
2
b) Equivalent circuit when primary
source is transferred to secondary side
and ideal transformer eliminated
V
ac
a
2
Z
load
V
1
I
1
a) Equivalent circuit when secondary
impedance is transferred to primary side
and ideal transformer eliminated
Thvenin equivalents of transformer circuit
Transformer- Ideal Transformer