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At the end of thi !eon the t"#inee $i!! %no$ the T&"'ine A&(i!i#") #nd S&'-)te*+
A bypass connection is shown in Fig. 7-1-1. The bypass goes to the main
condenser or desalination units. A bypass valve controls flow to the condensers or
to the desalination units. The valve and piping will allow up to 25 of full steam flow
to be bypassed to the condenser or to the !esalination "nits.
A cold startup occurs when the boiler and turbine are at low temperature prior to
startup. !uring a cold startup# the bypass valves are opened to establish steam flow
from the boiler to the condenser prior to turbine startup. This procedure is called
steam dumping. $n this way# steam lines are warmed up and proper boiler conditions
established. The turbine stop and throttle valves are then opened to warm up the
%nce the turbine is at rated speed# the turbine is placed on the line. The bypass
valves are ad&usted to allow about 5 of rated steam flow to be bypassed to the
condenser. The generator is then synchroni'ed with the transmission system# and
the turbine is loaded to 5 of rated load. As the generator load increases# more
steam flow is re(uired by the turbine to maintain speed. The turbine control system
opens the turbine throttles at the same time that it closes down the bypass valves.
The total steam flow leaving the boiler is constant) the steam is &ust rerouted from
the bypass line to the turbine. This procedure ma*es the generator synchroni'ation
and initial loading controlled and smooth. This use of the bypass system during
startup is called a controlled start.
A hot startup occurs when the boiler is much cooler than the turbine prior to startup.
The bypass system is used to control steam temperature when bringing the unit
bac* into service after a short shutdown. After a short shutdown +5-, hours-# the
boiler and part of the steam piping will cool down to about 5..
F +2,.
/-# but the
turbine will stay heated because it is insulated. The turbine metal temperature will
be about 0..
F +122
/-. The turbine must not be started until the boiler steam
temperature is raised to that of the turbine metal. 3team that is cooler than the
turbine metal could cause damage such as wrapping of the blading or crac*ing of
the turbine casing if it is admitted to a hot turbine.
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1i2+ 3-1-1 T&"'ine B)-4# St#tion
$n a cold startup of the boiler# steam is bypassed to the condenser or desalination
units to create a flow of up to 25 steam through the boiler. The flow will normally
be about 5. >y doing this# boiler steam temperature can be increased until it
matches the temperature of the turbine metal. The turbine and generator can then
be started up. After the turbine-generator is loaded# the bypass closes a load
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3team is used in a power plant to perform many functions besides generating power
in the turbine-generator. :igh pressure steam is not re(uired for these functions -
low pressure steam is needed. There are two low pressure steam systems @ the
auAiliary system and the eAtraction steam system. The eAtraction steam system
provides low pressure steam to the condensate and feedwater system. The auAiliary
steam system# supplies steam for almost all other uses.
6Atraction steam is steam ta*en from the turbine after the steam has done wor*.
The latent heat of the steam is used to heat feedwater in the condensate and
feedwater system# see figures 7-1-2 and 7-1-B.
As steam passes through a turbine# the thermal energy of the steam is converted to
*inetic energy and then to mechanical energy in turning the turbine. As steam
passes through each turbine stage# it decreases in pressure and temperature. After
several stages# on both low pressure +8.4.- and high pressure +:.4.- turbines# a small
amount of steam is eAtracted. This eAtraction steam heats the feedwater being
pumped to the boiler to a temperature of about 12.
F +25.
/-. 3ince the feedwater
is hot# less fuel has to be burned to raise the temperature of the feedwater to
saturation temperature# and plant efficiency is improved.
$n a typical 5.. =5 plant# eAtraction steam is ta*en at siA different turbine stages.
Typical eAtraction steam temperatures and pressures at each stage of eAtraction are
listed below.
These eAtraction steam temperatures and pressure are full load values. At lower
loads# pressures and temperatures will be lower. The last stage eAtraction# for
instance# would change from 152
F +7.
/-# 1.5 psia +..B bar- +21 in. :g-vac- at full
load to 1.2
F +B0
/-# 1 psia +...7 bar- +22 in. :g-vac- at low load.
6ach eAtraction steam line going to a feedwater heater has a special chec* valve.
This chec* valve# called a positive chec* valve# allows steam to flow from the turbine
to the heater# but prevents reverse flow. This chec* valve protects the turbine from
damage. For eAample# when the turbine stop valves are closed# steam flow through
the turbine stops. The pressure in the turbine (uic*ly drops to e(ual the pressure in
the condenser. The new turbine pressure is lower than the pressure in the
feedwater heaters.
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1i2+ 3-1-0 T&"'ine E(t"#5tion Ste#* S)te* 6 Conden#te of L- He#te"
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$f there were no chec* valves# the water in the heaters would flash to steam and flow
bac* up through the eAtraction lines. This steam flow bac* up the eAtraction line
would overspeed the turbine and cause damage. For additional protection# the
chec* valves have either air or hydraulic closing mechanism to close the chec* valve
on a turbine trip.
The eAtraction chec* valves also close automatically if feedwater heater level is
high. This protects the turbine from water damage should the eAtraction steam line
start to fill up with water. The high water level signal will also cause a shutoff valve in
the eAtraction steam piping to close. The eAtraction chec* valves can be tested from
the control room to see that they are operating correctly. This chec* is normally
performed daily. An automatic drain valve provides even further protection. This
valve automatically opens when the shutoff valve closes. This *eeps the eAtraction
steam line free of condensation.
1i2+ 3-1-7 T)4i5#!

E(t"#5tion Ste#* Te*4e"#t&"e 6 -"e&"e
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1i2+ 3-1-8 E(t"#5tion of Non-5onden#'!e G#e f"o* L- He#te" 6 De#e"#to"
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5e have already mentioned the diaphragms that are fiAed to the turbine casing.
%bviously# each diaphragm must have an opening in the middle through which the
shaft can pass. 3imilarly# at each end of the turbine casing# an opening must be
provided for the shaft.
6ven though clearance is *ept to a minimum between the rotating shaft and the
fiAed portion# steam will try to lea* from inside the turbine to the atmosphere. $n
addition# certain parts of the turbine operate at less than atmospheric pressure. $n
such cases# air will try to lea* from the outside to the inside of the casing. To reduce
this lea*age to a minimum# a gland is provided at each end of the shaft. This is
shown in Fig. 7-1-5. The gland seal provides a resistance to the flow of steam by
throttling it through a series of labyrinth seals. The clearance between fiAed
labyrinth and rotating groove is only about ...5 inch +..125 mm-. 3team lea*age is
6ven though many labyrinth seals are provided# a small amount of steam still
manages to escape. 5e always want to recover the steam# so a lea*-off system is
provided# as shown in Fig. 7-1-,.
A chamber is provided for collecting escaping steam. From that chamber# the steam
is piped to the condenser or to some other point of lower pressure.
As we have seen previously# the pressure inside the turbine varies with load# so the
amount of steam escaping through the gland also varies. This means that gland
steam lea*-off must be controlled accordingly. The valve provided for this purpose is
called the gland steam lea*-off valve. $t can be controlled automatically or manually
by the operator.
9ote that the gland steam lea*-off is ta*en from point A. 9ear the eAtremity of the
gland# in chamber ># a small amount of vapor is collected and piped to the
atmosphere or to a gland steam condenser# where both heat and water are
recovered. +3ee Fig. 7-1-,-
The lea*age steam and air infiltration are suc*ed through the gland steam
condenser by a vacuum pump# or eAhauster. The steam is condensed and
recovered by piping it bac* to the condenser) the air is released to the atmosphere.
5ith two glands# the lea*-off system would loo* li*e the one in Fig. 7-1-7. A gland
steam seal supply has been provided from live steam sources. This is for use during
start-up# when the inside of the turbine is below atmospheric pressure.
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1i2+ 3-1-9 T&"'ine H+-+ G!#nd
1i2+ 3-1-: T&"'ine L+-+ G!#nd
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1i2+ 3-1-3 T&"'ine G!#nd Se#! S)te*
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At points where the rotor penetrates the outer cylinders# some means is needed to
prevent lea*age of air into# or steam from the cylinders. The glands# with their
labyrinth-type seal rings and the gland sealing steam system# are designed to
perform this function.
$n Figures 7-1-2 and 7-1-0 and the following# the :4 glands are those at the
eAhaust end of the :4 portion of a combined :4-$4 cylinder and those at the
eAhaust ends of a separate :4 cylinder. 8i*ewise# the $4 glands are those at
the eAhaust end of the $4 portion of a combined :4-$4 cylinder and those at
the eAhaust ends of a separate $4 cylinder. The 84 glands are those at the
eAhaust ends of an 84 cylinder.
The glands contain a number of seal strips which encircle the rotor at the
ends of each outer cylinder# clearing the rotor surface &ust enough to prevent
contact during operation. The glands are further described in separate
%n starting the turbine and at low loads +Fig. 7-1-2-# the pressure in all
turbine cylinders is below atmospheric pressure. 3ealing steam is supplied
to chamber C?D# lea*ing past the seals into the turbine on one side# and into
chamber C<D on the other. /hamber C<D is maintained at a slightly
subatmospheric pressure by the gland steam condenser. /onse(uently air
lea*s past the outer seal from the atmosphere to chamber C<D. The lea*age
steam and air miAture is removed from chamber C<D through a connection to
the gland steam condenser.
5hen the eAhaust pressure of an :4# $4# or a combined :4-$4 eAceeds 'one
C?D pressure# a reversal in flow occurs across the inner seal ring. As the
eAhaust 'one pressure increases# flow increases so that the glands for a
separate :4 become self-sealing at a approAimately 1. load and the
glands for an $4 or a combined :4-$4 become self-sealing at approAimately
25 load. At this point# steam is discharged from 'one C?D to the gland
system header. From the header# the steam flows to the 84 glands# eAcess
steam# if any# flows to the condenser through the spillover valve. $f there is
spillover# it will normally occur at high loads as shown on the heat balances
for the unit.
$n figures 7-1-2 and 7-1-0# the absolute pressures are based on a standard
atmosphere +11.7 psia- +1 *gEcm
- or +1 bar-. 3hould the plant be at a high
elevation so that correction to these pressures is desirable# determine the
applicable gauge pressures from the figures and apply this to the local
barometric pressure to obtain corrected absolute pressures for the site.
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1i2+ 3-1-; T)4i5#! Roto" G!#nd -"e&"e Dit"i'&tion .T&"'ine #t No o" Lo$ Lo#d/
1i2+ 3-1-< T)4i5#! Roto" G!#nd -"e&"e Dit"i'&tion .T&"'ine G!#nd Se!f Se#!in2/
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3ealing steam pressure to the glands is regulated by three diaphragm
actuated valves controlled by air and identified as follows @
1. :4 supply valve
2. /old reheat supply valve
B. 3pillover valve
6ach valve is e(uipped with a pressure control pilot +mounted on the valve-
and an air pressure reducing valve containing an integral filter.
The reducing valve supplies air to the control pilot at a constant pressure of
2. to 22 psig +1.B, to 1.5 bar g-. The control pilot# in turn# utili'es this air to
produce a variable output in response to pressure changes transmitted to the
pilot through a sensing line connected to the gland steam header.
The controlling regulator valve is then able to maintain sealing steam to the
glands at a pressure established by the set point of its control pilot under all
turbine operating conditions.
The control pilot of each valve senses gland steam header pressure. As
re(uired by turbine steam and load conditions# steam is supplied through the
regulating valve with the highest control pilot pressure setting providing
steam is available at the source. 9ormally# the :4 steam supply is used on
start-up# following trips and load re&ections# or at low loads when the cold
reheat supply is not available. Therefore# the :4 supply control pilot is set at
the lowest pressure setting and the cold reheat supply control pilot is set 1E2
psi +...B bar- higher.
$f the lea*age past the inner glands into chamber C?D +Figure 7-1-0- eAceeds
the amount of steam re(uired to seal the 84 turbine glands# the header
pressure will increase# the supply valve will completely close# and the
spillover valve will open dumping the eAcess steam to the condenser thereby
controlling steam pressure in the gland steam header. Therefore# the control
pilot of the spillover valve is set 1E2 psi +...B bar- above the set point of the
cold reheat supply control pilot.
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The set points +approAimate- as follows @
:4 3upply B psig ++..2 bar-
/old reheat supply B.5 psig +..21 bar-
3pillover 1 psig +..27 bar-
T#'!e 3-1-1 G!#nd Ste#* V#!=e St#t&
G!#nd He#de"
-"e&"e .-SIG/ H- S&44!) V#!=e
Co!d Rehe#t S&44!)
V#!=e S4i!!o=e" V#!=e
B +..2 bar- %pen F /ontrolling %pen /losed
B.5 +..21 bar- /losed %pen F /ontrolling /losed
1 +..27 bar- /losed /losed %pen F /ontrolling
The 84 gland desuperheater lowers the temperature of the 84 gland sealing steam
in the supply pipe before this pipe enters the condenser space. The temperature of
steam in the 84 glands is maintained in the range of 25.
F to B5.
F +121
/ to
/- to prevent possible distortion of the gland cases and damage to the turbine
rotor. !esuperheating of the steam is obtained by utili'ing the natural
desuperheating that occurs in the bare supply pipe in the condenser space
supplemented and controlled by a temperature sensitive spray system.
The temperature which actuates the spray system is sensed in one 84 gland. "sing
this system# with the temperature of steam to the desuperheater at about 5..
/- or higher gland temperatures in the range of 25.
F to B5.
F +121 to 177
can be obtained. :owever# if the temperature of steam to the desuperhater is much
below 5..
F +2,.
/- and particularly if it is close to the control range of 25.
F to
F +121 to 177
/-# the sprays will not be needed and the natural desuperheating
effect in the bare supply pipe may lower the gland temperatures below the 25.
/- limit.
The desuperheater and associated piping is shown diagrammatically on the drawing
Cpiping-steam# drain and gland diagramD. The superheated steam enters the
desuperheater where steam velocity increases in the reduced section of pipe. The
steam then passes the spray no''le where cooling water is in&ected into the high
velocity stream insuring positive atomi'ation and reduces the temperature of the
steam as the cooling water is evaporated. /ooling water from the condensate pump
enters the desuperheater through a pipe to a spray no''le located in the throat of
the desuperheater. The flow of cooling water to the spray no''le is controlled by a
diaphragm-operated valve responsive to an air signal from a pilot sensing
temperature at one of the low pressure glands. A drain is provided in the supply pipe
approAimately 5 feet +1.525 m- downstream of the spray no''le.
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7efer to Figures 7-1-2 and 7-1-0. Gone C<D is the gland lea*off 'one in which a
+slightly- sub-atmospheric pressure must be maintained. "sually a negative
pressure of ..1 psi +2.2 in. :
.- +7. mm :
%- is shown and 2 to B inches :
% +5. to
75 mm :
%- are acceptable if the system functions properly.
5hen in operation# the circulating water enters the inlet chamber of the gland
condenser# flows through the tubes in the condenser and eAists by the discharge
chamber. Halve stem lea*age and gland sealing steam lea*ing off from 'one C<D#
shown in Figures 7-1-2 and 7-1-0 are admitted into the condensing section through
the steam inlets. $t then passes over the outside of the tubes where it is condensed
and the condensate formed is removed through the shell drain. Air and other
noncondensable vapors are discharged to the atmosphere by an eAhauster. The
drain from the eAhauster case should be left open to waste at all times for removal
of condensate through an ade(uate loop seal.
3ince the pressure of the supply steam to the gland sealing system is greater than
the allowable design pressure of the system# a safety valve is incorporated into the
system to relieve eAcess pressure that could result from a malfunction of the
regulator valves.
The safety valve is a direct pressure actuated relieving valve characteri'ed by CpopD
action. $t is set to open at 1. psia +2.7 bar a- and relieve at 115 psia +7.2 bar a- the
(uantity of steam that would result from complete air failure to the gland steam
regulator valves.
This would result in steam being supplied by the fully-open :4 and cold reheat
regulator valves while the turbine is operating at load with the spillover valve to the
condenser closed.
As a further safety feature# the safety head disc will rupture at 115 psia +7.2 bar a-
relieve eAcess steam flow that would result if both regulators and bypass valves in
the system were supplying steam at their maAimum capacity.
The difference in safety valve set and relief pressures minimi'es the possibility of
rupturing the safety head disc in the event of a failure that does not involve all of the
regulator valves.
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Fig. 7-1-1, T)4i5#! 7otor ;land 4ressure !istribution Turbine at 9o or 8ow 8oads F Turbine
at :igher 8oads
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Fig. 7-1-11 T&"'ine ;land 3team 3ystem +%ne-cylinder Turbine-
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1i2+ 3-1-10 T$o-5)!inde" T&"'ine G!#nd Ste#* Se#!in2 S)te*
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1i2+ 3-1-17 G!#nd Ste#* Condene"
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1i2+ 3-1-18 G!#nd Ste#* Condene"
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The purpose of the turbine drain system is to insure against drawing water into the
turbine elements and to prevent collection of water with-in the turbine during starting#
loading# or unloading of the unit. 5ater# under such circumstances# can cause
thermal or mechanical shoc* which could result in blade brea*age# distortion of
parts# andEor rubs between the rotating and stationary parts.
!rain valves are provided in the main inlet steam piping# impulse chamber# cylinder#
and reheat inlet steam piping drain systems. The valves are operated by motors or
by air pressure controlled by a solenoid valve from some remote point. !rain lines
from the inlet pipes from the first governor valves to open together are connected to
a drain manifold bloc* with a single valved drain to the condenser. !rains from the
remaining inlet pipes are connected to a manifold bloc* containing non-clogging
orifices. A single valved drain is piped to the condenser. $n addition to the valved
drains from each :4-$4 outer cylinder base 'one# drains containing orifices are
connected to lower pressure 'ones to provide continuous draining. The
arrangement of these valves and their associated piping is shown diagrammatically
on the C3team# !rain and ;land 4iping !iagramsD# figures 7-1-15 and 7-1-1,.
$f the unit is e(uipped with an automatic drain system# the operation of the drain
valves re(uires no operator action. :owever# the operator should chec* the
indicating lights on the panel to ma*e certain they are operating correctly as
specified below. $f the automatic system should malfunction# the operator should
manually control the drain valves using the following procedure @
1. 5hen the unit is out of service# *eep the drain valves open until the turbine
parts and piping are cool.
2. %pen the drains before starting and *eep them open until the unit reaches
1. load for drains from sources upstream of the turbine re-heat stop valves
and until the unit reaches 2. load for drains from sources downstream of
the turbine interceptor valves.
B. %n normal shutdown# open the drains from sources downstream of the
interceptor valves at 2. load and drains from sources upstream of the
reheat stop valves at 1. load and below.
1. 3hould the unit trip from malfunction# open the drains immediately.
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1i2+ 3-1-19 T)4i5#! T&"'ine D"#in
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1i2+ 3-1-1: -i4in2 Ste#* T&"'ine D"#in Ae*'!)
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The eAhaust hood spray system for this unit is designed to be put in operation
automatically when the rotor speed has reached ,.. r.p.m. and continue in
operation until the unit is carrying approAimately 15 percent load. The components
which comprise this system and the function that each performs is listed below and
shown in figure 7-1-17.
The switch is usually located on the control panel and has provisions for off-manual-
automatic operation. $t should be in the automatic position during startup. =anual
operation provisions are included in case it is desirable to operate the eAhaust hood
sprays during other than the automatic mode period.
The solenoid is actuated either by a signal from the turbine control system after the
unit has reached ,.. rpm when the control switch is in the automatic position or by
manual operation of the switch. 5hen the solenoid is energi'ed# it allows the
pneumatically operated valve to open which in turn provides water from the
condensate pump to the eAhaust hood sprays.
This is a pressure switch which senses a cross-over pressure corresponding to 1.
- 15 load and deactivates the solenoid) thereby closing the eAhaust hood spray
This is an air operated valve which controls the flow of condensate to the eAhaust
hood spray no''les. $t is normally closed and is opened by air from a regulator or air
set when the solenoid valve is actuated either by automatic or manual operation of
the control switch. The operating air to the valve is regulated by a pressure
controller which is a mechanical device that utili'es air at a constant pressure and
produces a variable output in response to a pressure change applied to a sensing
element which is located on the outlet side of the control valve. This provides a
uniform flow of condensate to the spray no''les.
Air at a constant pressure of BB psig +2.21 bar- is maintained to the controller by an
air set which consists of a strainer and reducing valve.
A high pressure reducing valve is installed between the sensing device and the
controller to limit the signal to a maAimum of 1.. psig +,.2 bar-. This protects the
bourdon tube in the controller from damage.
All of the above items eAcept the control switch and the pressure switch are shown
diagrammatically on the 3team !rain and ;land 4iping !iagram. The air set
reducing valve and controller are all mounted on the control valve.
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1i2+ 3-1-13 E(h#&t Hood S4"#) S)te*
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%verheating of the eAhaust is not eApected with no load steam and full vacuum.
4oor vacuum will cause overheating as will materially less than no load steam flow
which would result if the unit were allowed to motor. $f a temperature in eAcess of
F +2.
/- is obtained# care must be ta*en to lower the temperature of the
eAhaust casing gradually by increasing load or improving the vacuum. The limiting
eAhaust casing temperature is 25.
F +12.
/-. $f this temperature is reached# the unit
should be shut down and the trouble corrected.
The eAhaust hood spray regulating valve has a bypass valve which should only by
used in the event of regulating valve failure or servicing. The by pass should only be
opened enough to maintain the calculated control pressure.
NOTE ? To prevent possible damage to the turbine it is important that the
bypass valve is not left open when operating the turbine in the range
that eAhaust hood sprays are not re(uired.
Figure 7-1-12 is a diagrammatic illustration of the method used to prevent a rapid
temperature rise when the throttle valves and the reheat stop valves close thereby
entrapping a substantial amount of high density steam in the :4 turbine.
>ecause there is no normal source of cooling steam available# air-operated
ventilating valves are provided. 5hen the governor valve emergency trip fluid is
dumped +because of a turbine trip or auAiliary governor action-# these valves open.
This causes a reverse cooling flow through the :4 blading to the condenser and
prevents eAcessive blade temperatures and possible rotor damage.
The control devices and systems are also designed so that the ventilating valves will
open on loss of electrical power.
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