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Concentric Tube Heat Exchangers

Prepared for Dr. Kunal Karan, Chemical Engineering, Queens ni!ersit"


Chee #$%& 'aborator" Pro(ects )
*rida" +arch $,, #--#
Abstract
Established heat transfer theor" can be used to accuratel" predict heat transfer
coefficients for a concentric tube heat exchanger. Kingston Po.er Plant alleged Hot and
Cold Engineering did not properl" design their heat exchanger and it .as found that HCE
estimations on heat transfer coefficient .as .ithin #./$.$0 of the obser!ed !alues. )n
this report, the !alidit" of the heat exchangers calculations are !erified using an apparatus
consisting of a concentric tube heat exchanger identical to the one used at KPP that .as
e1uipped .ith flo. !al!es and thermocouples to measure the performance of the heat
exchanger. )n conclusion, HCE properl" designed the CTH2 and KPP should attempt to
diagnosis their problem .ith their heat exchanger at their site.
3uthor& 4ohn 5tephenson, Team K
'ab group members& 4enn" Du, Team K
6ebecca +c7alters, Team K
Introduction
)n nearl" e!er" engineering operation there usuall" exists a large arra" of heat
exchangers. The" are used to change the temperatures of a fluid stream b" passing
another fluid close to the desired temperature. The simplest design is a concentric tube
heat exchanger 8CTH29. )t consists of a small inner tube surrounded b" larger outer tube.
The construction of the CTH2 allo.s the rapid exchange of heat b" :eeping the t.o
fluids separated b" a relati!el" thin conducti!e metal tube.
Hot ; Cold Engineering Compan" installed a concentric tube heat exchanger at the
Kingston Po.er Plant. The plant is currentl" using this heat exchanger to cool a stream of
hot .ater to belo. <,*. nfortunatel" their CTH2 is not lo.ering the hot .ater
temperature sufficientl" and the chief engineer at the plant is alleging that our engineers
did not properl" design the e1uipment.
The goal of this report is to determine if the obser!ed o!erall heat transfer co=efficient is
reasonabl" close to the co=efficient calculated b" our senior design engineers. )f this is the
case, then it can be sho.n that the calculations made b" our design engineers .ere
realistic and the problems encountered at the po.er plant are not a result of negligence b"
HCE. 3 CTH2 that is identical in e!er" respect to the one installed at the po.er plant
.ill be used to gather experimental data on the heat exchanger. The Chemical
Engineering department at Queen ni!ersit"s has graciousl" allo.ed our engineering
team to perform re1uired experimental testing on our CTH2 using one of their facilities
located in Dupuis Hall, 6oom ##>.
Theory
Heat transfer b" conduction or con!ection, Q, in an" s"stem is proportional to the
temperature difference, T, bet.een the t.o passing streams and slo.ed b" resisti!e
properties, R, of the materials that the energ" must permeate through as sho.n in
E1uation $.
R
T
Q

=
E1uation $
)n a heat exchanger calculations it is con!enient to modif" this e1uation to express the
resisti!e properties as a function of A, the area of the heat exchanger, and U, the o!erall
heat transfer co=efficient.
T UA Q =
E1uation #
)n a heat exchanger, heat is transferred bet.een the bul: of the hot fluid and the bul: of
the cold fluid. )n the absence of fouling on the tubes present in the heat exchanger there
exist three thermal resistances. There exists a con!ecti!e thermal resistance through the
boundar" la"er formed bet.een the outside surface of the inside pipe and the bul: of the
fluid flo.ing through the outside pipe, $?hoAo. There is a conducti!e thermal resistance
through the outside and inside surface of the inside pipe, ln 8Do?Di9 ? #Lkw. *inall" there
#
is a con!ecti!e thermal resistance through the boundar" la"er formed bet.een the inside
surface of the inside pipe and the bul: of the fluid flo.ing through the inside pipe, $?hiAi.
kw is the conducti!it" of the .all, Do is the outside diameter of the inside pipe, Di is the
inside diameter of the inside pipe, L is the length of the pipe, Ao is the outside area of the
inside pipe, Ai is the inside area of the inside pipe, hi is the inside film heat transfer
coefficient, and finall", ho is the outside film heat transfer coefficient. To calculate the
o!erall resistance, R, it is (ust the sum of the three indi!idual R !alues as sho.n in
E1uation /. 8Karan, #--#9
o o w
i o
i i
A h L k
D D
A h UA
R
$
#
9 ? ln8 $ $
+ + = =

E1uation /
The !alues of all the !ariables are :no.n, except for the film heat transfer coefficients.
To understand ho. this is calculated, @usselt numbers must be explained. )t is a
dimensionless number that represents temperature gradient at the surface of the pipe. A"
finding an empirical method of calculating Nu for the geometries in the heat exchanger
and b" rearranging E1uation B .e can sol!e for h to find R and hence Uest. +an"
empirical correlations exist for finding @usselt numbers. To find the @usselt number for
flo. inside of a pipe E1uation , is used. *or flo. inside of the space bet.een t.o pipes
E1uation C is used. Ho.e!er, .e must pa" attention to the diameter .e use to calculate
the 6e"nolds and @usselt number. @o longer is fluid flo.ing through a circular pipe, it is
flo.ing through the area bet.een t.o pipes. E1uation > illustrates ho. to calculate the
e1ui!alent diameter, Deq, for that geometr". 8Perr" et. al, $<C/9 )t should be noted that the
Prandtl number for an" fluid can be loo:ed up in a reference such as Perr"s Handboo: or
calculated from the fluid properties through its definition, PrDCp?:f 8)ncropera ; De.itt,
#--#9
f
k
hL
Nu =
E1uation B 8)ncropera ; De.itt, #--#9
$B . - /// . - % . -
9 8 Pr 6e -#/ . -
wall
bulk
Nu

=
E1uation , 8Perr" et. al, $<C/9
,/ . -
,
, /// . - % . -
9 8 Pr 6e -# . -
tube o
shell i
D
D
Nu =
E1uation C 8Perr" et. al, $<C/9
tube o
tube o shell i
eq
D
D D
D
,
#
,
#
,
9 8
=
E1uation > 8Perr" et. al, $<C/9
Ho.e!er, as one mo!es along the profile of a concentric tube heat exchanger, the T
!aries as each fluid changes temperature. The rate that the temperature changes from the
inlet to the outlet of each stream depends on the arrangement of the heat exchanger. T.o
different configurations are possible. )n one scenario, the cool fluid can run parallel to the
hot fluid in .hich case the heat exchanger is said to be in a co=current arrangement.
/
3lternati!el" the cool fluid can run in an opposite direction to the hot fluid in .hich case
it is in a counter=current arrangement. 3 corrected T is calculated for the t.o
arrangements and is called the log=mean temperature difference, Tlm. 8E1uation %9 )f the
arrangement is co=current E1uation < is used to calculate T$ and T#, if the arrangement
is counter=current E1uation $- is used. 8)ncropera ; De.itt, #--#9
9 ? ln8
$ #
$ #
T T
T T
T
lm


=
E1uation %& Calculation Tlm

=
=
o c o h
i c i h
T T T
T T T
, , #
, , $
E1uation <& Co=current flo.

=
=
i c o h
o c i h
T T T
T T T
, , #
, , $
E1uation $-& Counter=current flo.
To sol!e for Uexp the approach is !er" simple. 7ith this corrected temperature difference,
E1uation # is modified to loo: li:e E1uation $$. Then .e use our first principles to find
the heat transferred through the tube of the heat exchanger, Q, using E1uation $$. *inall"
use both e1uations, substitute for .hat is :no.n and sol!e for Uexp 8E1uation $/9.
lm
T UA Q =
E1uation $$
9 8
, , i c o c p c c
T T C m Q =
E1uation $#
lm o t
i c o c p c
T L D
T T C V
U

=
,
, ,
exp
9 8

E1uation $/
B
Experimental Procedure
*igure $. Photograph of E1uipment 8courtes" of 5te!e Hodgson9
The e1uipment used for this report is located in Dupuis Hall 6oom ##> 8*igure $9. )t
consists of three heat exchangers. 3t the top there is a long, concentric tube heat
exchanger identical to the one installed at the Kingston Po.er Plant and the same used in
this experiment. En the bottom there are t.o shell and tube heat exchangers that .ere not
used for this experiment. The temperatures of the .ater entering and lea!ing the heat
exchanger are measured b" thermocouples and the flo. rates of hot and cold .ater are
measured b" flo. meters. 3ll !alues are sho.n on the digital control panel sho.n on the
right of the figure.
Outline of Procedure for Co-Current Flow
$. Turn on the digital control panel
#. Epen cold .ater stream. Close !al!es F$#, F#/, F$$, F##. Epen !al!es F-#
8main .ater inlet9 and F/$.
/. Epen hot .ater stream. Close !al!es F/,, F/#. Epen !al!es F-$ 8main .ater
inlet9, F-B, F/B and F//.
B. +onitor the temperature of the cold .ater in and cold .ater out using
thermocouples C and $. +onitor the temperature of the hot .ater in and hot .ater
out using thermocouples , and #. se the flo. meter on the panel to read hot and
cold .ater flo. rates.
,. 5elect a fixed turbulent hot .ater flo. rate and !ar" cold .ater for B runs. 5elect
a fixed turbulent cold .ater flo. rate and !ar" hot .ater for B runs. Far" both for
B runs.
C. Close F-$ and F-# to stop .ater flo.
,
Outline of Procedure for Co-Current Flow
$. Epen cold .ater stream. Close !al!es F$#, F#/, F$$ and F##. Epen !al!es F-#
8main .ater inlet9, F/$.
#. Epen hot .ater stream. Close !al!es F/B and F//. Epen !al!es F-$ 8main .ater
inlet9, F-B, F/, and F/#.
/. +onitor the temperature of the cold .ater in and cold .ater out using
thermocouples C and $. +onitor the temperature of the hot .ater in and hot .ater
out using thermocouples / and B. se the flo. meter on the panel to read hot and
cold .ater flo. rates.
B. 5elect a fixed turbulent hot .ater flo. rate and !ar" cold .ater for B runs. 5elect a
fixed turbulent cold .ater flo. rate and !ar" hot .ater for B runs. Far" both for B
runs.
,. Close !al!es F-$ and F-# to stop .ater flo.
C. Turn off digital control panel
Safety
5afet" goggles .ere .orn at all times b" all members of the team.
Permission to use the e1uipment .as obtained from the lab super!isor
3ll experimental .or: .as super!ised
*ire exits .ere noted
@o materials 8e.g. toxic, flammable, corrosi!e9 or e1uipment re1uiring other
safet" precautions .ere handled.
esults ! "iscussion
3ll data collected from the experimental procedure .as placed into a spreadsheet and
using a spreadsheet that had been designed b" 6. Cre.s. This spreadsheet calculates the
tube=side and shell=side film heat transfer co=efficient. Then it uses this data to calculate
Uest. +odifications to this spread sheet .ere made to allo. it to calculate emp and to
!erif" that Cp is not a strong function of T, .hich if it .as could alter the calculation of
Prandtl numbers.and of Q. )t .as found that Cp remains nearl" constant around $
Atu?lbmG* o!er the range of temperatures that the data .as collected at. *inall" using the
outside area of the tube, and calculations of Q as summariHed b" E1uation $/. The
calculations are nearl" tri!ial in nature and outlined in more detail in the spreadsheet.
*igure # .as made to illustrate ho. close of a fit the estimated !alues of the heat
exchanger co=efficient and the experimental !alues .ere. 3s can be seen, the relationship
follo.s a nice straight line .ith a slope of $.- and an 6
#
D -.<%. These !alues, sho.ing a
nice trend, are hard to translate into tangible terms. 5o, the percentage difference of exp
from est .as calculated for each trial, a!eraged and the <,0 confidence inter!al ta:en. )t
.as found that the a!erage difference of t.o the 1uantit" .as #./$.$0. +eaning that
this small !ariation in heat transfer co=efficients could not ha!e led to the poor
performance experienced at the KPP, this !ariation could ha!e onl" introduced one or t.o
degrees *ahrenheit of uncertaint" o!er a cooling range of ,-=$--*. )t is possible that the
poor performance of KPPs heat exchanger is a result of fouling on the pipes from the
C
'a:e Entario .ater that it dra.s. 'a:e Entario .ater is 1uite hard and KPP should tr" to
flush their heat exchanger .ith dilute acid to remo!e an" calcium build=up.
The slope in *igure / is $.-< and the graph sho.s that more heat is being transferred
from the hot .ater than from the cold .ater. The difference can be easil" explained. The
hot .ater is not onl" exchanging heat .ith the cold .ater as it runs through the shell, but
it is exchanging heat to the atmosphere. 3s expected, and in e!er" case, Qh is greater than
Qc.
3s can be seen in *igure B the heat transfer co=efficient drops as the 6e"nolds number of
the inside and outside area of the heat exchanger increases. This sho.s that the heat
exchange becomes less efficient as the flo. rates increase. Quantitati!el" more heat ma"
be exchanged bet.een the fluids, but the temperature change of the t.o fluids, Tlm, is
lessened in E1uation $$.
Conclusions and ecommendations
The logic behind the calculations used b" Hot and Cold Engineering to find the heat
transfer co=efficient in the concentric tube heat exchanger installed at KPP is (ustified.
The a!erage difference of predicted and experimental 1uantities .as 1uite small for
calculations of this :ind, #./$.$0.
)t is possible that the poor performance .ith the KPPs concentric tube heat exchanger
ma" be due to fouling on the pipes. The KPP dra.s hard .ater from 'a:e Entario and
this could ha!e lead to the fouling. KPP should tr" to flush their heat exchanger .ith
dilute acid to remo!e an" calcium build=up.
>
eferences
Cre.s, 6, #---. IHeat Exchanger Excel 5preadsheetJ,
http&??info.chee.1ueensu.ca?CHEE#$%?'abs?Heat0#-Exchanger?5tudent
0#-=0#-H2.xls
De @e!ers, @oel, $<<$. I*luid +echanics for chemical engineersJ, #
nd
Edition,
+cKra.=Hill, @L
)ncropera, *.P. and De7itt, D.P., #--#. M*undamentals of Heat and +ass TransferM, 4ohn
7ile" ; 5ons, ,
th
Edition, Chapter $$
Karan, Kunal, #--#. MHeat ExchangerM,
http&??info.chee.1ueensu.ca?CHEE#$%?'abs?Heat0#-Exchanger?heatex.htm
Perr", 6.H., C.H. Chilton and 5.D. Kir:patric:, $<C/. MChemical EngineersN Handboo:,M
B
th
Edition, +cKra.=Hill, @.L.
%