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Experiment No: 02

Experiment Name: Observation of a simple microwave transmitter and receiver and the effect
of passive reflector in microwave propagation.

Objective:
The main two objectives of the lab is to observed the use of microwave signals in
communication as a carrier signal and the propagation characteristics of high frequency
signals.

Theory and Methodology:
In this lab, Microwave Communications training kit ST200 will be utilized. Here a voice
signal or 1 KHz signal tone is modulated by the microwave signal and it is transmitted using
a horn antenna at the transmitter end. At the receiving end another horn antenna is used to
receive the modulated signal.

The power of the transmitting signal is controlled by the gain control knob of the transmitter
and the received signal power is also controlled by another gain control knob of the receiver.
For proper detection of the transmitted signal the two horn antennas are aligned face to face
or along a straight line such as from one antenna the other antenna is visible. The receiving
signal power is decreased when the line to line alignment of the antenna is changed by
rotating one of the antennas. Using a metal sheet as a passive reflector with proper alignment
we can also receive the transmitted power.

Polarization of the antenna: The polarization of an electromagnetic wave depends on the
direction in which the electric field of the wave lies.

Plane polarized waves: electric field varies in one plane(e.g. x-y) only: microwave antennas
radiate plane polarized waves.

Types polarized waves: Vertical (relative to the surface of earth) & horizontal plane
polarized waves

Apparatus:
1. Microwave Communication base(ScanTEK 200 work board)
2. Microwave transmitter
3. Microwave Receiver
4. Microwave probe
5. Power supply extension grid
6. Waveguide fitted with two horn antennas
7. Wide/narrow metal plates/hardboard sheet/plastic sheets
8. Two support bracket with pegs and two support bracket without pegs
9. Polarization Grille.






Experimental Data and Measurement:

Table 1:


Observation

Tx Angle
Transmitter
Rx Angle Receiver Power



Power




1. 90 5 -90 2.5

2. 90 5 -80 1.8

3. 90 5 -70 0.4

4. 90 5 -95 0.5

5. 90 5 -100 0

6. 80 5 -90 5

7. 70 5 -90 2

8. 75 5 -90 3.9

9. 95 5 -90 4

10. 100 5 -90 3

Table 2:


Observation
Tx Angle Rx Angle Dist. Between Tx and Rx Height Of Reflector

2


D

h




1. 60 -65 38 36.4cm

2. 70 -50 38 31.6cm

3. 50 -60 38 26.8cm


d x
1
x
2

h

h



tan
1
tan 2



h d
tan
1
tan
2




tan
1
tan
2



















Report:
1. In this experiment, at first the TX angle was keep constant at 90 degree and the RX angle
was changed. The Transmission Power was kept 5 mW. As the RX angle move to the
positive side means from -90 degree to -80,-70 the Receiver Power became less. As the
RX angle moved to more negative means -100 degree the receiver power became zero.
So as RX angle moved to the negative angle the receiver power drops very rapidly.
When the Rx angle was kept constant at 90 degree and the Tx angle change it was
observed that as the angle is moved to the positive side means to 95, 100 degree the
receiver power decreased more rapidly than the drop of power when moved to the
negative angle.
2.






















Discussion:
1. When the receiver horn antenna and transmitter horn antenna kept in line it was assumed
that the receive signal power is maximum. But if there is any obstacle between the two
antennas the received signal power decreases. The power decrease depends on the
obstacle. If the obstacle was thin like page then the power decreases less. But if the
obstacle is thick like a metal object than the there will a minimum reading in the received
signal.
In this experiment when a page of a notebook was placed then it was observed that there
is no change in the received power but as a metal object or our hand was placed the
received signal power drop to its minimum value.
2. If the two horn antennas in the TX and RX side do not keep in line or in the minimum
angle then there will be no received signal. But a Passive reflector can use to overcome
this problem. If a Passive reflector is used in a correct distance and move both of the
antennas then the transmit signal can reflect back to the receiver from the passive
reflector. This Passive reflector is very useful in terms of long distance transmission.

3. In digital communication systems, a repeater is a device that receives a digital signal on
an electromagnetic or optical transmission medium and regenerates the signal along the
next leg of the medium.
In the longer distance communication the transmitted signal became weak. So as the time
when its reached the receiver some of the information lost. So a repeater is used at a
distance so that the transmitted signal can again regenerate so that there is no data lost
and confirm an uninterrupted communication.
Conclusion:
In this experiment it was observed that how a microwave transmitter and receiver work and the
effect of passive reflector.
At first it was determined how the receiver signal power changes with the change of angle of
transmitter horn antenna and receiver horn antenna. It was found that as the angle changes from
the 90 degree means when both the antennas are in line the received signal power decreases. As
the TX angle moved positive the power decreases more rapidly and when the RX angle moved in
negative the power decreases more rapidly.
Then a passive reflector was used in the experiment. As the TX angle and RX angle were in such
position when there is no line of sight then a passive reflector can use to transmit the signal. Here
a metal passive reflector was used and the height was found. Though the passive reflector just
moved to right and left, there was a change in height. As from the equation of h it was
determined that the height depends on the TX and RX angle. So as this two angle was changed
the height was also changed.


Reference(s):
1. David M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, 4
th
Ed. John Wiley & Sons.
2. S. Ramo, J. R. Whinnery, and T. Van Duzer, Fields and Waves in Communication
Electronics, John Wiley & Sons,
3. What is Repeater? - Definition from Techopedia available at
http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/repeater ( last access: 24/09/2014.)