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Small Cells Address the Growing Demand for Data

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The deployment of mobile broadband technologies, such as HSPA,
LTE and the availability of high performance smartphones and
tablets have created a perfect environment for high mobile data
consumption. This data consumption is projected to grow even more
due to the availability of innovative applications and emerging use
cases such as machine-to-machine (m2m) communication.
This projected growth in mobile data demand can be handled in a
number of ways:
n Migration to radio access technologies with higher spectral
efciency: Even though LTE and LTE-Advanced provide higher
spectral efciency than the earlier counterparts such as HSPA,
these technologies are reaching the theoretical limits of the
spectral efciency and cannot be relied upon for handling the
growth and demand expected for data services
n Deployment of additional spectrum: In most cases additional
spectrum is expensive, in limited supply and presents other
regulatory hurdles
n Increasing the cell density: This involves increasing the deployed
carriers at the radio interfaces of each cell site, cell splitting, and
more recently, relying on small cells within the macro cellular
Figure 1: Common use cases for small cells: (a) Capacity enhancement at hot spots (b) Coverage extension near cell boundaries
Benets of the Tellabs Small Cell Backhaul Solution
n Compact and cost efcient Cost and space optimized
network elements extending managed backhaul to small cell
n Plug and Play Self Organizing Network (SON) tools for
easy, fast and fault-free rollout with low operational costs
n Full control and visibility End-to-end provisioning, testing
and SLA management down to small cell hand-over point
a) Capacity enhancement
at so-called hot spots
Macro eNB
Small Cell eNB
b) Coverage extension near or beyond cell
coundaries at so-called not spots
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The use of small cells is becoming the preferred choice of service
providers to handle the projected growth in the mobile data demand.
The two most common cases for small cell deployment are to
provide additional capacity at hot spot areas and to provide coverage
extensions near cell boundaries. These are shown in Figure 1 (a)
and (b) respectively. In addition, small cells can be used to provide
coverage in not spots in suburban or rural settings.
The Tellabs small cell backhaul solution addresses in a
comprehensive way the different challenges that operators are
facing while trying to make the small cell business case protable.
Tellabs embraces the small cell opportunity by integrating the small
cell backhaul into the overall Tellabs Mobile Backhaul Solution.
This solution brief discusses the requirements for the deployment
of small cells in the backhaul network. While the scope of the topic
could easily be extended to cover other aspects of Heterogeneous
Networks (HetNets), this solution brief focuses on public access 3G
and LTE base stations that form a part of the operators overall radio
access network.
Last Mile Technologies
For small cells, a number of wireless and wired backhaul options
can be implemented. The wireless options include Line Of Sight
(LOS) technologies such as microwave, millimeter wave, and non
LOS technologies, such as WiFi and cellular radios. Most of these
wireless backhaul technologies can be deployed in point-point,
point-to-multipoint, ring, partial mesh and mesh congurations. The
most common wired options are point-to-point ber, copper links
and point-to-multipoint Passive Optical Networks (PON). Since most
small cells will be deployed at non-conventional locations, including
street furniture or sides of buildings, where ber availability will be
limited, the wireless options may be preferred.
Small Cell Site Topologies
As with regular mobile backhaul networks, there are various network
topologies that enable trafc to be aggregated and transported
from small cells. Figure 2 shows four different ways of building the
small cell access aggregation: point-to-point, chain, mesh and ring
Trafc aggregation at various locations within the small cell topology
enables the optimization of the last mile transport infrastructure in
terms of capacity and simplied physical connectivity, and builds in
an element of resilience, if required. As small cell sites are deployed
to increase the capacity for bursty data trafc it makes even
more business sense to use trafc aggregation at these locations.
Connections may be overbooked, for instance, and in worst case
scenarios, some low priority trafc will be dropped.
When small cell aggregation infrastructure is built, it establishes a
great foundation for additional services to be offered at the same
time and additional revenue to be generated. It is often the mobile
service providers strategic goal to converge xed services
especially business services to the mobile backhaul network to
enable new services.

Mobile Backhaul Solution

Tellabs has extensive experience in providing mobile backhaul
solutions to service providers globally, helping them to optimize
their investment in their backhaul infrastructure. The Tellabs
Mobile Backhaul Solution provides clearly dened and fully
managed connectivity between the base stations of different mobile
technologies and is the rst handover point to the core network
elements. This includes the Base Station Controller for 2G, Radio
Network Controller for 3G, or the Security Gateway or Serving
Gateway for LTE.
Macro Cell
Small Cell
Small Cell
Small Cell
Small Cell
Small Cell
Small Cell
Small Cell
Small Cell
Small Cell
Small Cell
Small Cell
Small Cell
Small Cell
Mesh Ring
Figure 2: Different small cell site aggregation topologies
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A critical part of this end-to-end solution is the demarcation point,
that is the handover point between the radio and the backhaul
domain, as close to the cell site devices as possible. Specically
for LTE transport, the goal is to provide end-to-end backhaul
connectivity from the cell site to the Security Gateway or Serving
Gateway in the Evolved Packet Core. A similar managed backhaul
connection is also required for the optional X2 interface between the
adjacent eNodeBs when the X2 interface is taken into use.
Another crucial component of the Tellabs Mobile Backhaul Solution
is the Tellabs 8000 Intelligent Network Manager that provides
the interface for managing and operating network infrastructure,
service provisioning, monitoring and troubleshooting capabilities.
The end-to-end solution provided by the Tellabs 8000 intelligent
manager enables extensive visibility for the entire S1 or X2 interface.
Advanced tools included in the Tellabs 8000 intelligent manager
also enable fast and successful network roll-outs.
This same end-to-end solution also applies to the backhaul of
mobile trafc from small cells sites. The same level of visibility and
control is required for small cell site trafc in order to minimize
the operational costs and maximize the quality of experience. A
large number of small cells, varying last mile technology options,
low capital expenditure and the need for easy installation and
maintenance, set unique challenges in the small cell environment.
In addition, this also introduces additional requirements that must
be addressed by any backhaul solution.
Demarcation between Small Cells and the Mobile
Demarcation in the context of mobile backhaul refers to a clearly
dened boundary and a handover point between the backhaul
domain and the radio access domain. In mobile networks, this
demarcation point also marks the boundary between different
organizations and their area of responsibility and management.
8000 INM
Managed Transport
Figure 3: Tellabs end-to-end managed mobile backhaul solution
From a networking perspective, the demarcation point must provide
certain organizational and operational functionality to enable efcient
processes from both.
This functionality includes:
n Management visibility of the handover point
n SLA monitoring and reporting for the service terminated at the
handover point
n Testing facilities for service verication and problem isolation
One viable approach for small cell backhaul is to utilize the same
backhaul infrastructure with the associated macro cell site. This
option is especially attractive in cases where there is ber access to
the macro site. Typically, the Tellabs macro Cell Site Gateway (mCSG)
is located at a cell site (and is normally utilized as the aggregation and
demarcation device), can also be utilized in a exible way to aggregate
trafc from the nearby small cell site, regardless of the physical
media and topology. In this case, the demarcation points for the small
cells are located at the adjacent macro site with Tellabs mCSG. The
management and visibility of the backhaul service for the S1 interface
would extend from the core network down to the macro site. This
scenario is depicted in Figure 4.
In a hub and spoke topology, the handover and demarcation point
for the small cells may be located at the macro site. In this example,
the last mile is a point-to-point connection over the available media.
Although the extended monitoring and troubleshooting capabilities
may be benecial even further down, the lack of aggregation
requirements at the small cell may not justify the deployment of a
small Cell Site Gateway (sCSG). The portfolio of Tellabs Smart Routers,
provide a variety of aggregation devices for macro sites. All of the
devices share the same level of functionality and can be managed
with the Tellabs 8000 intelligent manager. A suitable network element
variant, that fullls the needs of the service provider, can be selected
for different locations.
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Aggregation Solutions for Small Cells
Small cell topologies vary and create a new domain within the
backhaul network. In chain, ring and meshed topologies, where
one small cell acts as an aggregation point for other small cell sites,
some additional packet aggregation capabilities are required. The
connectivity between the macro site and the small cell site is no
longer a simple point-to-point connection, but requires transit through
other Small Cell Site Gateways.
This topology is shown in Figure 5. A topology with alternative trafc
paths and the need for some form of forwarding intelligence increases
the importance and value of a packet switch at the small cell sites. A
small Cell Site Gateway, which is purpose-built for small cell sites, can
be utilized to provide both the packet aggregation and an extension
of the demarcation point down to the small cell site. This approach
also extends all the management capabilities and visibility of the S1
interface down to the small cell site. An aggregation device must also
address the physical design and cost structure requirements for small
cell site backhaul. In addition, the small cell site gateway must provide
the same level of functionality as the macro Cell Site Gateways, i.e.
QoS, connectivity and synchronization capabilities.
The demarcation functionality becomes critical in leased line
scenarios where the connectivity between the small cell site and the
aggregation location is provided by a separate service provider, for
example a wholesale provider. The mobile network operator must be
able to control the trafc management and QoS functions, as well as,
monitor the network and trafc status in its own domain. Therefore, a
cell site gateway device is required at the small cell site. Additionally,
connectivity over broadband aggregation networks with varying quality
may need to be monitored more closely using a demarcation device
at the small cell site. A cost and size optimized, feature rich small
cell site gateway will be able to provide the required functionality
while strengthening the operator business case. Integration of the
Aggregation and Backhaul
Figure 4: Tellabs Small Cell Demarcation at macro Cell Site Gateway (mCSG)
8000 INM

Small Cell
Small Cell
Small Cell
Macro Cell
Demarcation point
at macro site
Various wireless technologies are available for backhauling
small cell site trafc to the macro site. However, this requires
the installation of additional wireless backhaul equipment at
locations that have space restrictions. The costs incurred by
additional devices may not be justied in the overall small cell
site deployment scenario. One option to overcome this challenge
is to integrate the wireless backhaul devices into the packet
aggregation devices. The integrated technology provides, for
example, microwave or millimeter wave based backhaul.
8000 INM

Small Cell
Small Cell
Small Cell
Macro Cell
Demarcation point
at small Site Gateway (sCSG)
Figure 5: Small Cell Aggregation with Demarcation at Small Cell Site
Additionally, wireline backhaul interfaces such as xDSL and
PON, can also be integrated into the packet switching platforms
providing similar benets. By integrating the wireless backhaul
equipment and connectivity into a common management
domain and existing backhaul infrastructure, additional savings
are provided by addressing any space and cost restrictions and
eliminating the requirement for additional devices. The end-to-
end solution enables a streamlined management process and
integrated management system infrastructure.
Flexible Connectivity Options for Small Cells
One of the main characteristics of the Tellabs Mobile Backhaul
Solution is the exibility to create a unied connectivity layer for
different types of trafc over various kinds of physical media.
Although trafc is increasingly migrating exclusively to IP, the
available and suitable underlying backhaul media will vary
depending on the location. This also applies to last mile backhaul
for small cell site trafc. Different physical media may be viable
depending on whether the small cell site is indoors or outdoors
and whether wired or wireless backhaul is available. The IP
connectivity layer that the Tellabs Mobile Backhaul Solution
requires is placed above the physical medium and offers the same
benets regardless of the underlying infrastructure.
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Tellabs small cell site gateways are all fully IP/MPLS compliant and
provide exible connectivity options including L3 and L2 alternatives.
The utilization of a uniform IP VPN based forwarding scheme from
the core to the cell site simplies the network planning, operations
and monitoring processes. In cases where the last mile topology is
point-to-point, performing IP lookup and routing at the cell site does
not inherently add value. In these cases, a Layer 2 approach utilizing
Ethernet pseudowires, Ethernet switching or MPLS-TP based Ethernet
connectivity are viable options. The L2 connections from the small
cell sites are terminated in the next aggregation device in the IP VPN
routed domain.
To compare L2 and L3 connectivity options, the overall topology
of the small cell network must be considered. In ring or partially
meshed last mile topologies, routing at the cell site aggregation
devices is benecial due to the uniform end-to-end network model
offering trafc engineering and resiliency mechanism. In addition,
a routed approach provides better trafc engineering capabilities
when, for instance, compared to Ethernet switching. The MPLS
protection schemes and the utilization of bandwidth is more efcient
than Spanning Tree based protections where some of the physical
bandwidth remains underutilized. Design must take into account
that Ethernet switched connectivity in meshed and ring topologies
poses challenges with Ethernet broadcast storm management. Due
to the optimized cost structure of the Tellabs IP/MPLS-based cell site
gateway devices, the technology choices in the last mile are dictated
more by technical and operational challenges rather than economic
Small cell mass
provisioning tools
for minimized
time to revenue
Plug-and-play -
automatic conguration
for quickcell site turnup
Conguration and
network preplannig
tools for efcient
Easy end-to-end
troubleshooting tools
to minimize site visits
24h Support
and Reporting
(SLAs) Service
Faults and
Network optimization
And planning
Network building
& documentation
Network resouce
Figure 6: Life Cycle of Backhaul Services
Operational Efciency with Tellabs

8000 Intelligent
Network Manager
LTE small cell deployments will provide more cost efcient capacity
for the mobile users. However, the operator business case becomes
especially challenging for small cell deployments. One of the key
pieces of the total cost of ownership for the mobile backhaul network
is the operational aspects. Automation of repetitive tasks with the help
of self-organizing network (SON) tools in mobile backhaul ensures fast
roll out and reduces the overall cost of the network operations. SON
capabilities include not only the provisioning of the connectivity, but
also the network planning and documentation, network monitoring,
troubleshooting, and network reconguration activities. With the
large number of cell sites required by small cell deployments, it
is imperative the operational costs related to the deployment are
The Tellabs 8000 intelligent manager is an integral component of the
Tellabs Mobile Backhaul Solution. The different management activities
within the lifecycle of the backhaul services depicted in Figure 6
are also extended to the small cell site backhaul. Due to the scale
of the cell site and small cell site deployments, the importance of
automation and tools for mass operations become even more critical.
An efcient management system ensures that the time and effort of
the deployment activities does not grow linearly with the number of
the sites to be installed.
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Starting from the planning phase of small cell deployment, the Tellabs
8000 intelligent manager provides tools for efcient processes. With
the centralized database of the Tellabs 8000 intelligent manager,
the network documentation can be included as part of the planning
activities. These include mapping tools and street views and even
cabling of the devices. The information can be included in the Tellabs
8000 intelligent manager database which then can be turned into
clear work instructions on a smartphone application available for the
eld personnel.
As the network element congurations can be created in the
Tellabs intelligent manager database without installed hardware,
the eld installation work can be planned independently from the
conguration activities. The element conguration in the database can
be performed simultaneously for a number of elements with similar
congurations using pre-designed templates and without having to
focus on individual parameters. The eld personnel do not need to
carry out any software conguration onsite as the network element
auto-conguration capabilities provide the network connectivity
information utilizing DHCP client and relay functionality. When the IP
connectivity has been auto-congured, the Tellabs 8000 intelligent
manager is notied and the pre-planned conguration from the
database is uploaded to the network element.
The installation personnel get online feedback of the success of
installations compared to pre-planned database information. After
installation, a digital picture of the completed installation with GPS
location information helps installation tracking & documentation and
possible eld service operations in the future.
Monitoring and SLA Reporting
The Tellabs Mobile Backhaul Solutions extends todays advanced
network monitoring tools to small cell backhaul.
Integrated tools provide an easy way to verify S1 and X2 end-to-end
or specic backhaul segments throughput, one-way delay, round trip
delay and delay variance before taking service in use and verifying
that the expected network SLA is still available.
On the Ethernet layer, Ethernet OAM (Y.1731 and 802.1ag) features,
like connectivity monitoring and frame loss, delay and delay variation
measurements for different QoS classes can be used to monitor
Service Level Agreements. The exible combination of L2 and L3 tools
for SLA monitoring and verication are especially important where L2
and L3 networks interconnects are crucial. This also applies to cases
where Small Cell last hops are realized as a L2 network.
Flexible Building Block Options for Backhaul
The Tellabs Mobile Backhaul Solution consists of Tellabs Smart
Routers with a uniform set of capabilities covering the different
locations and technical requirements of the network.
The Tellabs Smart Router portfolio offers a wide range of different
network elements of different sizes and cost point providing the most
optimal cost/performance ratio at all network locations including the
most demanding small cell sites. This is shown in Figure 7.
8000 INM
Small cell Access Aggregation Core Aggregation Access
Figure 7: Right-sized at the Right Place with Uniform Functionality
5. Page 6, right-hand side column: Tellabs 8000 Intelligent
Network Manager should be: Tellabs 8000 intelligent network
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. Statements herein may contain

projections or other forward-looking statements regarding future events, products, features, technology and resulting commercial or technological benets and advantages. These statements are for discussion purposes only, are subject to change and are
not to be construed as instructions, product specications, guarantees or warranties. Actual results may differ materially. The information contained herein is not a commitment, promise or legal obligation to deliver any material, code, feature or functionality.
It is intended to outline Tellabs general product direction. The development, release and timing of any material, code, feature or functionality described herein remains at Tellabs sole discretion.
2012 Tellabs. All rights reserved. 74.2534E Rev. A 09/12
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Benets of the Tellabs Small Cell Backhaul Solution
Compact and cost efcient
Small cell deployments place strict price and footprint requirements
on the aggregation devices. The Tellabs solution provides integrated
transport functionality and packet switching in compact devices at the
right cost points. This helps to minimize the OPEX and make small
cell deployments protable for the service provider.
Plug and Play
Deployment of the Tellabs small cell backhaul solution is truly plug-
and-play and elements are intelligently and automatically connected
and congured in the network once installation is complete. This
process is key for removing the dependency and coordination
between the installation and network operating teams, making the
process less labor intensive, fast and error free.
Full control and visibility
Large scale deployments of small cells present a serious and major
management system challenge. With clear demarcation points
managed within the Tellabs 8000 intelligent manager, end-to-end
visibility of the LTE S1 and X2 connectivity is provided. This enables
efcient network operations especially for SLA monitoring and trouble-
shooting, minimizing down-time and improving network availability.
Having visibility of the individual connections and the control of the
end-points provides immediate feedback of the network status. This
results in increased availability, quality of service and quality of
experience for the end-users.
Advanced management tools that have been developed in
cooperation with mobile network service providers ease the
management of large scale deployments. The right tool set enables a
quicker time to market and improves the service availability.
Despite the clear need for capacity extension in the radio interface
and the great interest in the opportunity offered by small cell
technology, actual small cell deployments are still in their infancy. This
is because of the extremely demanding requirements from both a
technical and economic perspective.
Mobile backhaul has traditionally formed a signicant portion of the
overall capital and operational expenditures for mobile networks and
this is clearly increasing with the introduction of LTE. With small cell
deployments, the cost of backhaul must be carefully managed and
although new innovative devices are evidently a critical piece of the
puzzle, all operational aspects and the integration with the rest of the
mobile backhaul network must be considered and addressed.
The Tellabs small cell backhaul solution and its Smart Routers
address in a comprehensive way the different challenges that
operators are facing while trying to make the small cell business case
protable. Tellabs embraces the small cell opportunity by integrating
the small cell backhaul into the overall Tellabs Mobile Backhaul