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Chapter I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

Introduction
Computer technology has become a vital part of todays teaching and learning
process. Teachers should be equipped enough with the rapid changes and latest trend in
education. Through the years, education continuously seeks the innovation of a new
teaching approach as well as the teaching strategies that equalize the teaching and
learning process to the challenges and opportunities of the unfolding global world.
In the area of teaching and learning of HEKASI V, many teachers have developed
the misconception that the textbooks and other printed materials are the only acceptable
instructional materials. The traditional way of teaching first introduced this kind of
misconception that teacher focused only in the textbook and discussion on the given topic
and thats the reason why the previous generation of students learned from reading the
textbook, listening to teachers and analyzing primary source of documents.
Nowadays, Students can plug into computers to do drill and practice that are not
so different from workbooks. Teachers can use multimedia technology to give more
colorful, stimulating lectures. Many schools in the Philippines and other parts of the
world are using computer technology to strengthen the teaching and learning process in
the classroom. It is also one of the most powerful instructional materials that contribute to
positive student learning outcomes if properly managed and taken care by educators.
And one of it is through Power plugs transition a material that is produced by
programming a lesson passing through Microsoft PowerPoint. The Power Plugs series
forms an industry-leading line of PowerPoint add-ons that energize PowerPoint
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presentations and can grab student's attention like nothing else we've seen. With this
presentation software for PowerPoint, a teacher can be able to create professional-
quality, exciting PowerPoint presentations in no time flat. That's the key to winning over
skeptical audiences, convincing cautious customers, impressing stubborn bosses or even
entertaining a room full of impatient students.
According to Salvanera (2004) it only needs a teacher to bring it to life, to put it
into a context and to relate the lesson into the real world. After all this learning material is
just another tool that allows the teacher to think. And through this the art of transmitting
knowledge will be more effective because it is not enough for the teachers to have a wide
understanding and information regarding the subject. It is really important to consider the
instructional materials to be used because an appropriate instructional material will lead
to an effective teacher-learners interaction. It can help ease the task of the teachers and
facilitate better learning outcomes for the learners.
Furthermore, it also offers the potentiality to create and implement highly
engaging and effective environment to support a wide variety of learning goals. This will
help teachers and learners act cooperatively with one goal of making a teaching-learning
situation a challenging and knowledgeable one.

Background of the Study
PowerPoint is the most popular presentation software application among teachers
and students. Each year educators across the nation spend some part of their summer
attending professional development workshops or college courses in an effort to bring the
latest techniques and teaching methods to their classrooms. Technology is a tool that has
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become the topic of many professional seminars and something that teachers are learning
to use and add to their academic toolbox. The teacher as a key person in a classroom is
directly involved in the new trend of learning aids because they play an important role in
the school system, for on their shoulders lie the responsibility of implementing the
curriculum into concrete experiences. As a future teacher, we should know the
instructional material needed in the classroom and the quality of teaching with the use of
Power plugs transition passing through Power Point Presentation.
The researcher conducted the study at Southern Luzon State University
Laboratory School located at Lucban, Quezon where computers are accessible. However,
the use of computer aided instruction especially the power plugs transition through
Microsoft power point presentation in Hekasi subject is not yet introduced. It was the
primary reason why the researcher became motivated to know the acceptability of the
said material in constructing the knowledge through the use of this modern instructional
material.
Statement of the Problem
This study was primarily concern with the development, of E-material with Power
plugs transition application in some selected topics in Hekasi among Grade V pupils at
Laboratory Elementary school, school year 2010-2011.
Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:
1. What kind of e-material with power plugs transition application can be developed in
Hekasi?
2. What is the perceived level of acceptability of the Power Plugs Transition among
Grade V pupils of Hekasi in terms of the following questions:
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2.1 Accuracy of Material
2.2 Clarity of Material
2.3 Appeal to Target Users
2.4 Originality in Presentation
2.5 Screen layout
2.6 Text
2.7 Color
2.8 Graphics
2.9 Transition

Significance of the Study
The study would be of great help to the teachers to gain new insights on how to
improve the teaching-learning process. It would encourage our teachers to attend training
program so they can uplift the educational performances in their institution. It would also
assist our teachers to get a wide idea on how they can present their lesson more
effectively.
The development of PowerPoint lesson presentation with the use of Power plugs
transition has potential advantages to the pupils, teachers and future researcher since that
computer learning experiences would likely arouse the interest of the students to learn.
While the teachers can improve their skills in content and medium of instruction that
would give them access to materials and approaches.
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Moreover, the result of this study would serve as additional information for future
researcher who wished to conduct further study on the use of computer aided material in
facilitating and administering concepts and ideas in the new trend of teaching.

Scope and Limitation
This study primarily dealt with the acceptability of the developed Power plugs
transition in Hekasi V at SLSU Laboratory Elementary School Lucban, Quezon. The
respondents of this study were 32 pupils from Grade V Gladiola, composed of 21 males
and 11 females. The topics were Ang Batas Militar at ang Saligang Batas 1973, Sa
ilalim ng Batas Militar and Ang Pamahalaan sa Bagong Republika. To determine the
level of acceptability of the instructional material a thirty three statement questionnaire
was constructed and administered after the presentation.


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Chapter II

RELATED LITERATURES AND STUDIES

Today distinct modern technologies have been a part of ever changing world.
Technological advancement is continuously moving for the attainment of modern
instructional materials in education and it allows student to assimilate and apply
knowledge.

Related Literature
Multimedia software has become an essential part of todays teaching and
learning process. While many interactive multimedia software programs certainly exist,
PowerPoint is one the most widely available and used programs today. In the late 1990s,
several studies indicated that students found PowerPoint-based lectures more interesting
than traditional lectures.
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Whether used for teacher-led presentations or student-led
projects such as digital storytelling, reports, or instructional gaming, presentation
software can help organize and enhance the delivery of content across curriculum areas
while accommodating students of various ages, cultures, and learning styles. PowerPoint
format is easy to edit and can be adapted to any student population.

(http://www.educause.edu/)
According to NIIT (2004), using Computer Aided Education (CAE) students can
state and explain the basic concepts in the subjects easily and can participate in
discussion of advanced concepts related to the subject content. Using visualization
techniques computer graphics images are created. As the information in the world
explodes, teachers find difficult to absorb all the developments and keeping students
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abreast of new advances is particularly important in scientific fields. It is much easier to
update one computer program that will be used in thousands of classroom than to update
the working knowledge of thousands of teachers now in those classrooms. (http://www.
Scribd.com)
In addition, PowerPoint is a wonderful tool for learning in both a student and
teacher-directed situation. It can add a new dimension to learning allowing teachers to
explain abstract concepts, while accommodating all learning styles. Used properly,
PowerPoint can be one of the most powerful tools for disseminating information.
(http://www.teach-nology.com/tutorials/powerpoint/). When it comes to enhancing
learning blackboards are good, overheads are better, but Power point is the best. Power
point is the great tool for learning. And it is a lot of thing but it shouldnt take the place of
well- polished traditional methods of teaching and learning (http://www.teach-
nology.com/tutorials/powerpoint/).
Moreover, whenever the teacher taught with some of the learning aids, their
students get more stimulated because the learning aids help them to become more
attentive. In addition, students positive attitude generate more interest for the lesson they
teach. As a result, students participate in class activity. PowerPoint is a high-powered
software tool used for presentation information in a dynamic slide show format. Text
charts, graphs, sound effects and video are just some of the elements power point can
incorporate into your presentation with ease. Whether its a classroom lesson, a parents
group meeting or a teachers seminar power point shows you how to make powerful
impression on your audience.
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Furthermore, teachers can use presentation software to create and organize
effective presentations for small groups, entire classes and web-based viewing. Students
may use presentation software to create presentations to demonstrate what they have
learned in a given subject area. Presentations are consider for capturing the learning
process of a period of time (http://www.saskschools.com)
Likewise, this shows that instructional material can enhance learning. Modern
instruments and devices made by technology serve as the most effective instructional
materials that can be used in teaching. Teaching with old and traditional devices may no
longer be effective and appropriate for the current time. Thus, it is necessary for all
educators to alter manner by which they teach into something captivating. By this, an
improvement will be developed not just for the learner but also on the part of the teacher
as well.
Additionally, Ornstien (1990) stated that the instructional aide must be suited to
the objective or purpose whether it is subject matter mastery, skills improvement or
valuing. As educators, we must note that electronic media are increasingly
supplementing, even replacing traditional printed material in school. Although materials
and media can stimulate and maintain student interest, they are not meant merely to
entertain the students.
As stated by Eggleston (2005), the slide presentation maximizes the audience
retention of the subject matter. The phrase a picture is worth a thousand words has
existed since the New York post discovered the value of visuals in the news business.
This remains true to this day. Simple, clear, concise visual images, briskly paced and
sprinkled with attention-grabbing graphics will lend support to spoken words. This leaves
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the audience with a positive attitude toward the presenter and the material. Aiding note-
taking (and thus facilitating study) is another purported advantage of using PowerPoint
(Cook, 1998). Parks (1999) reported that students liked the lecture outline and graphs on
the screen, and that the PowerPoint presentation had a positive influence on students.
Harrison (1999) argued that PowerPoint enhances instruction and motivates students to
learn. (http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/technology_education/60247/2)
In a review of literature on the use of color in teaching, Dwyer and Lamberski
(1983) concluded that when color is central to the ideas and concepts being presented and
the students pay attention, the use of color improves learning
(http://www.newhorizons.org/strategies/technology/front_tech.htm)
According to Pytel (2006) the color of a room or a computer screen can change
the atmosphere of a room and behavior. Colors send signals to the brain without us even
thinking about it. Some are soothing, some are not. Some help us focus, some are
distracting. Dunn and Dunn have found that pale yellow and almond seem to be the best
colors for not irritating anyone. These colors would be a good general color for school
hallways. Light pink and rose are very soothing colors. They would be very suitable for a
BD classroom, Behavior Disorder, or a Kindergarten room where activity is high. Some
basketball teams paint the opponent's locker room pink hoping to "calm" them before the
game. Some jails are painted pink. Creativity seems to be inspired by the color green. An
art room would be the choice for green as well as a creative writing classroom. Blue is
the color of academics. A science or math room would be a good candidate for this color.
Light blue could also be a good overall classroom color. It is also soothing and computer
screens are often light blue for a good reason.
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Similarly, when bright or irritating colors are used on computers, students are not
able to work without fidgeting, work for shorter lengths of time and become more
aggressive toward each other. Computer screens, especially in BD, Behavior Disorder,
rooms and for ADHD students, should be pale blue or pale pink. Orange, Yellow and
Red, these are often called Hot Dog colors. Bright yellow excites the brain and body.
This may be a great color for an exercise room but not a bedroom or study hall. The color
orange seems to agitate. Painting a bedroom orange would probably keep the child awake
longer at night. Putting two siblings into an orange bedroom would probably result in
them not sleeping and fighting, as well. Orange would probably be the worst color to
paint a school cafeteria. Red often triggers hunger. The colors are used for fast food
restaurant signs such as KFC, Hardees, McDonald's, Pizza Hut, Burger King and
convenience stores they have red colors on their roofs, buildings and signs. You may not
have been hungry until you looked at the sign. Suddenly, you have the urge for a shake,
fries and a burger. That is not a coincidence. (http//:www.suite101color-and-learning-
a3246.htm)
This indicates that color affects our brains, bodies, how we learn and how we
behave. And through the use of slide presentation it can make an opportunity to use right
color for an effective learning of the student.
Furthermore, well-designed animations may help students learn faster and easier.
They are also excellent aid to teachers when it comes to explaining difficult subjects. The
difficulty of subjects may arise due to the involvement of mathematics or imagination.
With the aid of computer animations, learning and teaching might become easier, faster
and amusing (http://www. Educational animation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.htm)
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Related Studies
As stated by Salvanera (2004), instructional material should be developed and
validated in our present age of modern technology to ensure attainment to the educational
goal. And in selecting appropriate instructional aide, a teacher must consider right
learning activities. Although learning materials as well as media can stimulate and
motivate learners, they need to understand what they are going to learn and what
experiences they would encounter with new learning materials and subsequent activities.
Generally students are receptive to new ideas especially if they are properly guided. She
also stated that it is not enough for teachers to have a wide understanding and information
about the subject matter to be taught. There should be an art on how to transmit that
knowledge to the learners more effectively. She also stressed that instructional materials
should be developed and validated in our present age of modern technology to ensure
attainment of the educational goal.
Chavez (2005) expressed that changes were made in the curriculum at all levels of
instruction and she pointed out that it is an added responsibility for the teachers to select,
organize and present lesson in a developmental manner tailored to the objectives of the
subject and to the needs of the student at the same time of instruction. He also stated that
computer assisted instructional material in the form of PowerPoint presentation can
develop and improved students performance in Analytic Geometry. This can be relied
upon the users positive response.
The research conducted by Calucin and Casio (2007), showed that the
PowerPoint presentation captivates the viewers interest, that the PowerPoint are worth of
time, effort and expenses because it can really stimulate greater knowledge and interest of
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the pupils towards the subject. And because of its layout and manner of presentation, it
stimulates the interest of the users in the subject, which the PowerPoint enables the user
to develop critical thinking and problem solving through its questions. They also stated
that other subject areas can also use PowerPoint as an instructional material to facilitate
self-learning and to lighten the teachers task of guiding their pupils to understand
concepts. Other self-instructional material may be developed, adapted to the needs of the
pupils not only for better learning of specific topics but also for enhancement in the
whole course.
According to Monares (2008) with the used of instructional materials teachers can
be better and easier to deliver lessons to their pupils and community as well. The
administrators can gain insights on learning more adequately with ease and accuracy.
According to Tordecilla (2007), society is moving into higher level of modernity
because of technological advancement and specifically evolution. There are variety of
modern devices, instruments and other new inventions existing. As the technology
improves, educational capabilities increase correspondingly. Education is always to be
conceived along the same antiquated lines of a mere transmission of knowledge. People
need technology to meet quality and competent education. She conducted that the use of
PowerPoint presentation in teaching allows a variety of learning experiences for the
students on the study of the given topic. Based on the result of her study, she also claimed
that the PowerPoint presentation promotes perception and understanding. It motivates
and arouses interesting thus, many students find studying as interesting. The result of the
study implies that the presentation makes teaching more effective because it captures the
fascination of students. It has a great advantage to the user.
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Findings also coincide to the study of Durante and Ramirez (2009) Power point is
one of the latest instructional materials that can be used by the teachers in presenting the
lesson with its features, teaching and learning process will become more pleasing and
effective.
According to Bergin, et al., (1996) sited by Racoma visualization tools can be
used in a variety of teaching situations. The student can be a passive viewer of
information and an active participant in the visualization process. He indicates that active
engagement on the part of the students lead to higher motivation and better integration
and retention of content.The automation of visual images saves time and it also reduces
errors and increase the clarity if classroom presentation. Bergin further stated that comic,
films, audio-visual aide and other such devices may the effect of catching the attention of
the learner.
According to Pairo (1998) as cited by Racoma (2006), the appropriate use of
visuals can enhance recall and understanding of material, increase interest and motivation
and promote critical thinking. Because memory involves separate but interacting storage
systems for verbal information and non-verbal images, it is not surprising that multimedia
which involves presenting information via two or more delivery media (e.g sound and
video disc) can enhance learning verbal input alone is likely to be stored in both verbal
and non-verbal systems.
Hoover and Telgs (2002) point of view as cited by Castillo (2008) that a good
slide presentation is essential in teaching, the proper development and used of visuals to
successful teaching. When the content is properly presented it will promote better
comprehension.
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Enal (2005) showed that the use of computer assisted instructional material which
used appropriate screen layout has positive effect of improving the learning of the
students.
With all the latest offerings of technology in education, methods of teaching have
been improved. The emergence of computer assisted instruction in electronic
instructional material provides a better opportunity for students and teachers to uplift the
level of learning to the fullest. But this could only be possible if both the student and
teacher will play their part in the teaching and learning process.
The use of instructional material in the lesson presentation helps the teacher to get
the attention of students to promote better learning. However the choice of appropriate
instructional material should be taken into consideration. It should have the attributes that
would jive with the students interest. Moreover, it should contemplate the basics of an
effective instructional material and should match the learning objective because student
learning become more effective when clear, varied, appropriate and meaningful
instructional material is provided by the teacher. If there is no instructional material, the
students will be bored in the subject. Thus, they are not motivated to learn.

Conceptual Framework

Based on the related literatures and studies, the researcher conceptualizes the
importance of new instructional material through power plugs transition in a form of
power point. This instructional tool can enhance the student skills and competencies in
Hekasi subject. This learning tool is a great help not only on a part of students but also to
the teachers. To those students especially to those who have gaps in understanding some
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lesson, this material enables them to acquire what they needed to understand so that they
can be able to cope up with the lesson. This study would provide ideas and information
on how both teachers and students can enhance their effective involvement in the
teaching and learning process through the use of power point presentation with the
application of power plugs transition.


















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Process
1. Planning
2. Developing the
instructional
material
3. Preparation of
acceptability test
4. Presentation
and revision of
the research
material
Output
Developed
Power plugs
transition
through Power
point lesson
presentation
Research Paradigm



















Figure 1 Modified Input-Process-Output (IPO) Model of Acceptability of the
developed Power plugs transition in Hekasi V.
Input

1. Reading books, journals, and browsing the internet
2. Consultation and interview with the experts
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Figure 1 shows the Input-Process-Output (IPO) model of the acceptability of the
developed Power plugs transition in Hekasi V.
For the Input it involves browsing reading materials such as books, magazines,
periodical, journal and unpublished thesis; surfing the internet and consultation and
interviews with the experts for the conceptualization of the study.
The Process comprises of planning, developing the instructional material,
preparation of acceptability test and presentation and revision of the research material.
The outputs of the study are the developed Power plugs transition through
PowerPoint lesson presentation.

Definition of Terms
For better understanding of the study, the following terms were defined
operationally.
Accuracy of Material refers to the arrangement, correctness and clear illustrations of the
lesson.
Appeal to target user refers to the viewers interest on how they acquire the lesson
through the developed instructional material.
Clarity of Material refers to the clearness and consistency of the lesson using power
plugs transition.
Graphics refers to the pictures used in the developed instructional material.
Hekasi Heograpiya , Kasaysayan at Sibika, refers to the subject offered to Grade V
students, the respondents of the study.
Instructional Material refers to any tools used during the teaching process.
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Level of Acceptability refers to the level of acceptance and suitability of the developed
instructional material.
Originality in presentation refers to the uniqueness of ideas that is somewhat different
from other instructional material.
Power plugs transition refers to the presentation software for Power point.
Power point refers to the software used in presenting the lesson encoded in the slides
which will be viewed through crystal diode (LCD) projection.
Presentation refers to the collection of slides being viewed.
Screen layout refers to the design, effects and layout of the instructional material. It
includes Text, Color, Graphics, and Transition
Transition refers to the animation and changeover of the slides.





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Chapter III

METHODOLOGY

This chapter discusses the procedures and materials considered in the conduct of
the study. This includes locale of the study, research design, population and sampling
research instrumentation, development and acceptability of the Power plugs transition in
Hekasi V and statistical treatment.

Locale of the Study
The study was conducted in Southern Luzon State University Laboratory
Elementary School in Lucban, Quezon.

Research Design
The study used a descriptive type of research because it dealt with the process of
developing an instructional material. In order to obtain reliable outcomes, the researcher
used questionnaire as the main instrument in gathering the needed data.

Population and Sampling
The respondents involved in the study were 32 Grade V pupils of SLSU
Laboratory Elementary School. It was composed of 21 males and 11 females. The
researcher used convenience sampling.



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Research Instrumentation
The researcher prepared lesson about Ang Batas Militar at ang Saligang Batas
1973, Sa ilalim ng Batas Militar and Ang Pamahalaan sa Bagong Republika and
formulated the instructional material and questionnaire. The researcher administered
questionnaires to determine the acceptability of the Power plugs Transition through
PowerPoint lesson presentation. There are 33 statements pertaining to the acceptability of
the material and it was patterned from the instrument of Salvanerra and Chavez. The
following procedures were used:

A. Development and Acceptability of Power Plug Transition in Hekasi V.

1. Identification of the Topic
The researcher requested the teacher in Hekasi to furnish the topics
that are included in the development of the instructional material. They
were the following: Ang Batas Militar at ang Saligang Batas 1973, Sa
ilalim ng Batas Militar and Ang Pamahalaan sa Bagong Republika.

2. Development of PowerPoint Lesson Presentation
The researcher gathered the necessary information about the topics
and arranged it in slides. Then the researcher gathered illustrations and
selected design for the presentation.


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3. Development of the Instructional Material
The researcher prepared the draft of the lessons and the
questionnaire for the level of acceptability of the instructional material.
Then it was presented to the research adviser. Some corrections and
revisions were made by the research adviser. After the approval of the
content the researcher started to gather illustration and design the slide of
the Power Point presentation. Then it was presented in electronic format to
the research adviser. The research adviser approved the proposed Power
Point lesson presentation.
After the approval of the proposed instructional material, the
researcher asked the assistance of some Hekasi teachers to do the face
validation of the instructional material with regards to content. The
researcher presented the proposed instructional material through electronic
form and it was then approved.

4. Administration of Materials and Questionnaires for Level of
Acceptability.
The researcher prepared criteria for the level of acceptability of the
instructional material. The proposed PowerP,oint lesson presentations
were presented to the Grade V Pupils of SLSU Laboratory School. The
researcher asked permission from the principal to use the Audio-Visual
room (AVR) and the LCD Projector for the conduct of the study. After the
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presentation of all the lessons, the researcher administered questionnaires
to evaluate the level of acceptability of the proposed instructional material.

Data Gathering Procedure
The researcher asked permission from the principal of SLSU Laboratory School
through a letter to conduct the study. The proposed instructional material was used by the
Hekasi teacher for three days. Then the researcher guided the students in answering the
questionnaire for the level of acceptability. The data gathered were recorded, tabulated
and analyzed.

Statistical Treatment
To determine the level of acceptability of the instructional material, weighted
arithmetic mean was employed by the researcher. The formula used is:
WM = 4f + 3f + 2f +1f
N
Where:
WM = Weighted Mean
f = Frequency
N = Number of respondents
The weighted mean obtained were interrupted in terms of the following category:

Point Score Interval Range Descriptive Rating
4 3.25-4.00 Strongly Acceptable (SA)
3 2.50-3.24 Acceptable (A)
2 1.75-2.49 Fairly Acceptable (FA)
1 1.00-1.74 Not Acceptable (NA)