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DIANA

Finite Element Analysis

Users Manual

Release Notes
Release 9.4.4

TNO DIANA

BV

ii
DIANA Finite Element Analysis
Users Manual release 9.4.4
Release Notes
Edited by: Jonna Manie
Published by:
TNO DIANA bv
Delftechpark 19a, 2628 XJ Delft, The Netherlands.
Phone: +31 88 34262 00
Fax: +31 88 34262 99
E-mail: info@tnodiana.com
Web page: tnodiana.com

Trademarks.
Diana is a registered trademark of TNO DIANA bv. FemGV, FemGen, FemView
are trademarks of Femsys Ltd. CADfix is a registered trademark of TranscenData Europe Limited. Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
PostScript, Acrobat and Acrobat Reader are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems, Inc. AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk Inc. DXF is a trademark
of Autodesk Inc. ACIS is a registered trademark of Spatial Technology Inc. CADDS
and Pro/ENGINEER are registered trademarks of Parametric Technology Corporation. CATIA is a registered trademark of Dassault Systemes S.A. IGES is a trademark
of IGES Data Analysis, Inc. Parasolid is a registerd trademark of UGS Corporation.
PATRAN is a registered trademark of MSC Software Corporation. The X Window
System is a trademark of M.I.T. unix is a registered trademark of UNIX Systems Laboratories, Inc. Intel is a registered trademark of Intel Corporation. SUN and Solaris
are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. HP is a registered
trademark of Hewlett-Packard Company. All other brand names, product names or
trademarks belong to their respective holders.

First edition, December 5, 2011.


Copyright 2011 by TNO DIANA bv, all rights reserved. No part of this publication
may be reproduced in any form by print, photoprint, microfilm or any other means,
without the prior written permission of the publisher.
The information in this document is subjected to change without notice and should
not be construed as a commitment by TNO DIANA bv. TNO DIANA bv assumes
no responsibility for any errors that may appear in this document.
The Diana system is the sole property of TNO DIANA bv. Software materials made
available are solely for use at a single site; they are not to be distributed to others
without prior written permission of TNO DIANA bv.

This document was prepared with the LATEX Document Preparation System.
December 5, 2011 First ed.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

Contents
Preface
1 Analysis Capabilities
1.1 DIANA 9.4 . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1.1
Element Library . . .
1.1.2
Material Library . . .
1.1.3
Analysis Procedures .
1.2 DIANA 9.4.2 . . . . . . . . . .
1.2.1
Element Library . . .
1.2.2
Material Library . . .
1.2.3
Analysis Procedures .
1.3 DIANA 9.4.3 . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.1
Element Library . . .
1.3.2
Material Library . . .
1.3.3
Analysis Procedures .
1.3.4
Application Modules .
1.4 DIANA 9.4.4 . . . . . . . . . .
1.4.1
Element Library . . .
1.4.2
Material Library . . .
1.4.3
Analysis Procedures .
1.4.4
Application Modules .

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2 Pre- and Postprocessing


2.1 DIANA 9.4 . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.1
Working with iDIANA
2.1.2
FX+ for DIANA . . . .
2.2 DIANA 9.4.3 . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.1
Working with iDIANA
2.3 DIANA 9.4.4 . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3.1
FX+ for DIANA . . . .

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Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

December 5, 2011 First ed.

iv

CONTENTS
3 Users Manual
3.1 Volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Distribution Formats . . . . . . . .
3.2.1
HTML for On-line Access .
3.2.2
Portable Document Format
3.3 Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . .

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4 Incompatibilities
4.1 DIANA 9.4 . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.1
Batch Commands . . .
4.1.2
Element Library . . . .
4.1.3
Material Library . . . .
4.1.4
Analysis Procedures . .
4.1.5
Working with iDIANA
4.2 DIANA 9.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.1
Analysis Procedures . .
4.3 DIANA 9.4.3 . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.1
Element Library . . . .
4.3.2
Material Library . . . .
4.3.3
Analysis Procedures . .
4.4 DIANA 9.4.4 . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4.1
Batch Commands . . .
4.4.2
Element Library . . . .
4.4.3
Material Library . . . .
4.4.4
Analysis Procedures . .

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Bibliography

35

Index

37

December 5, 2011 First ed.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

Preface
In this document, the new features of Diana-9.4.4 are presented. The major
new analysis capabilities in Diana-9.4.4 compared to Diana-9.3 are summarized in Chapter 1. Adaptations with respect to the pre- and postprocessing
capabilities are given in Chapter 2. The arrangement of the Diana-9.4.4 Users
Manual is described in Chapter 3. Finally, in Chapter 4 the incompatibilities of
Diana-9.4.4 compared to Diana-9.3 are given.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

December 5, 2011 First ed.

vi

December 5, 2011 First ed.

Preface

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

Chapter 1

Analysis Capabilities
1.1

DIANA 9.4

1.1.1

Element Library

1.1.1.1

Sliding Connection

Beam elements can now have sliding connections at one or more end nodes. To
model a sliding connection Diana doubles the translation degree of freedom in
the corresponding nodes. For more information, see the input item SLIDE in
Volume Element Library.
1.1.1.2

Plane Stress Elements

A new family of three-dimensional plane stress elements, sometimes called threedimensional membrane elements, have been made available for modeling canvas
structures or geogrids. These elements may be used in combination with simple
stress dependent materials [ 1.1.2.12]. The elements can be applied for modeling a curved structure and can not be used in combination with geometrical
nonlinear analysis in this version of Diana. For more information, see T9GME,
Q12GME, CT18GM and CQ24GM in Volume Element Library.
1.1.1.3

Infinite Shell

Next to the quadratic infinite shell element CL9PE a linear infinite shell element
L6PE has been made available in Diana. Furthermore, the distributed bending
moment mzz based on circumferential stresses can now be calculated and output
via the STRESS DISMOM command in addition to the distributed bending moment
mxx based on axial stresses for infinite shell elements. For more information,
see L6PE and CL9PE in Volume Element Library.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

December 5, 2011 First ed.

Analysis Capabilities
1.1.1.4

Axisymmetric Shell

Next to the quadratic axisymmetric shell element CL9AX a linear axisymmetric shell element L6AXI has been made available in Diana. Furthermore, the
distributed bending moment mzz based on circumferential stresses can now be
calculated and output via the STRESS DISMOM command in addition to the distributed bending moment mxx based on axial stresses for axisymmetric shell
elements. For more information, see L6AXI and CL9AX in Volume Element Library.
1.1.1.5

Curved Shell Elements

Curved shell elements may now be connected eccentrically to their nodes. The
eccentricity must be defined in the nodal element xyz directions. If only one
value is specified for each eccentricity direction, then the eccentricities are the
same for all element nodes. Otherwise the values for the eccentricity directions
must be specified for each element node individually. For more information, see
Eccentric Connection for curved shell elements in Volume Element Library.
1.1.1.6

LineSolid Connection

A new interface element L12IF is available in Diana to be placed between a line


and a solid element in three-dimensional configuration. This element is applicable in models for three-dimensional bond-slip analysis, typically it represents
the bond area between a reinforcement bar and its surrounding material. For
more information, see L12IF in Volume Element Library.
1.1.1.7

PointSolid Interface Elements

A new family of pointsolid interface elements has been made available. Point
solid interface elements consist of a single node at one side and a solid at the
other side of the interface. The elements can be used to connect a single node, a
point element, an end node of a line element, or even nodes of a shell or plate element to a solid element in which the node is located. The relative displacement
is calculated by interpolating the displacements of the solid element nodes to the
location of the single node and subtracting the interpolated displacements from
the displacements of the single node itself. The same interpolation functions are
used to distribute the force vector in the single node to the nodes of the solid element. This feature can be applied to model the tip stiffness of pile foundations
or (nonlinear) connections of extremities of bondslip reinforcements.
1.1.1.8

Contact Sets

The contact zones can now be split in several contact sets which do not have
mutual interaction to increase the performance of the contact evaluation. For
more information, see Contact Sets in Volume Element Library.

December 5, 2011 First ed.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

1.1 DIANA 9.4


1.1.1.9

Nodal Spring Element

A new spring element N6SPR is available in Diana to model the coupling between the three translational and three rotational degrees of freedom of this
element. The matrix spring characteristics for this element may be specified via
a generalized stressstrain relation [ 1.1.2.10]. For more information, see N6SPR
in Volume Element Library.
1.1.1.10

Distributed Translational Mass Elements

A new family of distributed translational mass elements has been made available. For two-dimensional models these distributed masse elements will be line
elements, and for three-dimensional models these distributed mass elements will
be surface elements. For more information, see Distributed Translational Mass
Elements in Volume Element Library. It will be possible to define a so-called
Westergaard mass-distribution to these elements. A Westergaard mass distribution is used to account for dynamic fluid pressure of a fluid medium to a
vibrating structure. In this distribution the masses work only in the direction
normal to the element-face and the mass values are a function of the distance
to the water-level and fluid density. For more information on the Westergaard
mass distribution, see WESTER in Volume Material Library.
1.1.1.11

BondSlip Reinforcements

Next to the standard embedded reinforcements Diana offers now bondslip reinforcements. These bondslip reinforcements are available as embedded lines
in solid elements. In this case the reinforcement bar is internally modeled as a
truss or beam elements, which are connected to the mother elements by line
solid interface elements. Bondslip reinforcements may be applied for modeling
slip of steel reinforcement in concrete of for modeling interaction of pile foundations in soil and rock. For more information, see Embedded Reinforcements
in Volume Element Library.

1.1.2

Material Library

1.1.2.1

Jointed Rock Plasticity Model

A new material model for orthotropic plasiticity is available in Diana: The


Jointed Rock model is an anisotropic elasticplastic material model that can be
used for describing stratified or jointed rock formations. The model assumes a
different stiffness in the direction normal to the stratification plane than for the
stiffness in the two directions in this plane. The orientation of the stratification is
defined by the first shear failure plane and the anistropic elastic model is defined
with respect to this plane. Two additional shear failure surfaces can be defined.
The failure criteron is based on an associated nonhardening Coulomb model
in each shear failure plane. The Jointed Rock model can be applied in plane

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

December 5, 2011 First ed.

Analysis Capabilities
stress, plane strain, axisymmetric, and solid elements. For more information,
see Jointed Rock in Volume Material Library.
1.1.2.2

Position Dependent Cohesion

For some materials the cohesion c may depend on the position of the material
in space. A typical example is soil where c may vary with the depth in the soil
layer. Diana can now also apply gradient characteristics on the DruckerPrager
plasticity model without temperature influence to model such dependency. Applying gradient characteristics was already possible on the MohrCoulomb plasticity model without temperature influence. For more information, see Mohr
Coulomb or DruckerPrager in Volume Material Library.
1.1.2.3

Total Strain Crack Models

Total Strain crack models can now be combined with direct input Kelvin chain
viscoelasticity. For more information, see Total Strain Crack Models in Volume
Material Library.
1.1.2.4

Viscoelasticity

In case indirect input of creep curves or relaxation curves is specified Diana


generates direct input of Maxwell or Kelvin Chains by a curve fit during the
evaluation of elements and their properties. In Diana-9.4.4 the equivalent direct
input of Maxwell or Kelvin Chains generated from the indirect input is written to
the standard output file file .out. For more information, see Viscoelasticity
in Volume Material Library.
1.1.2.5

Shrinkage

Specification of the concrete age at the end of the curing period is now also
possible in combination with discrete functions for shrinkage strains depending
on the element age or on the maturity. For more information, see CURAGE in
Volume Material Library.
1.1.2.6

Usersupplied Shrinkage Strain

A new user-supplied subroutine USRSHK has become available to determine the


shrinkage strain, depending on ambient variables (temperature, maturity), time,
and element age. For more information, see USRSHK in Volume Material Library.
1.1.2.7

Generalized StressStrain Diagrams

For Class-I beams elements direct multilinear relations can be formulated between the generalized stress and corresponding strain components. For more
information, see Generalized StressStrain Diagrams in Volume Material Library.
December 5, 2011 First ed.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

1.1 DIANA 9.4


1.1.2.8

Nonlinear Elastic Friction

A new interface material is available in Diana. The nonlinear elastic friction


model is a simplification of the Coulomb friction model and can only predict
nonlinear elastic behavior. For more information, see Nonlinear Elastic Friction
in Volume Material Library.
1.1.2.9

Janssen Model

For the line interface to shell elements the Janssen model has been made available. This model describes a nonlinear relation between the bending moment
and the relative rotation of both sides of the interface. The Janssen model can
be combined with Coulomb friction behavior for inplane deformations. For
more information, see Janssen model in Volume Material Library.
1.1.2.10

Matrix Spring Characteristics

For nodal spring elements [ 1.1.1.9] matrix spring characteristics may be specified via a generalized stressstrain relation. The matrix spring characteristics
represent a linear relation between the generalized forces and generalized displacements of the nodal spring element. For more information, see Matrix
Spring Characteristics in Volume Material Library.
1.1.2.11

DuncanChang Soil Model

A new soil model is available in Diana. The DuncanChang model is a simplified, practical nonlinear stressstiffness relationship for soils. This model may
be applied in a nonlinear analysis with Module nonlin. For more information,
see DuncanChang in Volume Material Library.
1.1.2.12

Simple Stress Dependent Models

For truss elements and three-dimensional membrane elements [ 1.1.1.2] a linear


elastic model may be extended with a no compression or no tension option.
In that case, in a nonlinear analysis, the principal stresses are calculated and
checked against the no compression or no-tension condition and if applicable
the stresses and stiffness in the respective principal direction is set to zero. For
more information, see Simple Stress Dependent Models in Volume Material
Library.
1.1.2.13

MohrCoulomb plasticity

The MohrCoulomb plasticity model with hardening behavior has been improved. The return mapping of the stresses at the corner points in the yield
surface is now handled more accurate and robust.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

December 5, 2011 First ed.

Analysis Capabilities
1.1.2.14

Tresca plasticity

The Tresca plasticity model with hardening behavior has been improved. The
return mapping of the stresses at the corner points in the yield surface is now
handled more accurate and robust.
1.1.2.15

Continuous Damping

Diana now offers the possibility to specify damping coefficients in element directions for node, two-dimensional line, and plane interface elements to model
continuous damping at boundaries. For more information on continuous damping for interface elements, see DAMP in Volume Material Library.
1.1.2.16

Relative Conductivity

Diana now offers the possibility to determine pressure head dependent relative conductivity by functions. The user can either specify the pressure head
conductivity function according to Gardner or by using a Frontal function next
to linear interpolation in diagrams. For more information, see Relative Conductivity and Phreatic Storeativity in Volume Material Library.
1.1.2.17

Relative Phreatic Storativity

Diana now offers the possibility to determine pressure head dependent relative
phreatic storativity by a Van Genuchten function next to linear interpolation
in diagrams. For more information, see Relative Conductivity and Phreatic
Storeativity in Volume Material Library.

1.1.3

Analysis Procedures

1.1.3.1

Phased Analysis

Diana has been extended with the possiblity to decrease the reaction forces
from deactived elements in steps for a phased structural analysis. The residual
forces of the inactive elements will act as an external load on the elements that
are active in the new phase. Note that the stiffness of the deactived elements is
not contributing in the new phase. This functionality is usefull in e.g. tunnel
excavation analysis. For more information, see the RESFOR command for phased
structural analysis in Volume Analysis Procedures.
1.1.3.2

Parallel Iterative Solver

A domain decomposition solver has been made available in Diana. This parallel iterative solver will automatically be used if the user has explicitly set the
number of decomposition domains larger than zero. For more information, see
the Solution Procedures in Volume Analysis Procedures.

December 5, 2011 First ed.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

1.1 DIANA 9.4


1.1.3.3

Center Point Output

The option CENTER is made available as a new output location for results. When
this option is activated the average over the values in integration points per fibre or surface in an element is calculated and output per element. This method
allows to reduce the size of the result files and may give nicer pictures of vectors,
symbols, and numerical values for models with many elements. For more information on center point output, see the result option CENTER in Volume Analysis
Procedures.
1.1.3.4

Deformations and Curvatures

The output of concentrated curvatures (STRAIN MOMENT) and force deformations (STRAIN FORCE) is now available for all beam elements. The results are
derived from the concentrated forces (STRESS FORCE) and concentrated moments
(STRESS MOMENT) and translated assuming linear material in the beam element.
For classII and classIII beam elements the output is only available in combination with the local coordinate system.
1.1.3.5

Internal Element Forces

Diana has been extended with internal element forces and moments in the
nodes of an element as output item. The output item ELMFOR is available for
regular linear static analysis, linear transient analysis, spectral response analysis, hybrid frequency time domain analysis and nonlinear analysis. For more
information on internal element forces, see the result item ELMFOR in Volume
Analysis Procedures.
1.1.3.6

Summed Crack Strains

The nonlinear static and transient analysis procedure has been extended with
summed crack strains as output item. The output item STRAIN CRKSUM is available for the tensor that contains the sum of the crack strains in each of the cracks
in an integration point. Summed crack strains can be output in an integration
point or in node and can be exported in local, or global coordinate system, or
as principal strains, or Von Mises strains. For more information on the summed
crack strain, see the result type CRKSUM in Volume Analysis Procedures.
1.1.3.7

Concrete Biaxial Failure Envelope

Diana has been extended with safety factors for concrete under static and dynamic loading conditions with reference to a biaxial failure envelope as output
item. The output option BIAXFE is available for regular linear static analysis,
linear transient analysis, spectral response analysis, hybrid frequency time domain analysis and nonlinear analysis. For more information on concrete biaxial
failure envelope, see the result option BIAXFE in Volume Analysis Procedures.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

December 5, 2011 First ed.

Analysis Capabilities
1.1.3.8

Shear Capacity and Hydrostatic Pressure Capacity

The output of the shearstress capacity and hydrostatic pressure capacity of


stress against MohrCoulomb failure criterion, which is an easy check for linear
soil analyses, is now available for regular linear static analysis, linear transient
analysis, spectral response analysis, hybrid frequency time doman analysis and
nonlinear analysis. For more information on shear capacity and hydrostatic
pressure capacity, see the result option CAPACI for stresses in Volume Analysis
Procedures.
1.1.3.9

Orthotropic Thermal and Concentration Expansion

Orthotropic thermal expansion and orthotropic concentration expansion can


now also be applied in nonlinear analyses. Thermal and concentration expansion
strain components can be output in both local and global directions. For more
information on output of thermal and concentration strains, see the result items
STRAIN TEMPER and STRAIN CONCEN in Volume Analysis Procedures.
1.1.3.10

Spectral Response Analysis

The spectral response analysis procedure has been extended with the Complete
Quadratic Combination (CQC) mode superposition method. In this superposition method the correlation among the modes is addressed explicitly by introducing correlation coefficients, which vary between zero and unity. These
correlation coefficients are calculated from the modal damping ratios. For more
information, see output selection option CQC for spectral response analysis in
Volume Analysis Procedures.
1.1.3.11

FluidStructure Interaction Analysis

Modules spectr (spectral response), and eigen (eigenvalue analysis) can now
be used to perform fluidstructure interaction analysis. Fluidstructure interaction analysis already could be performed using modules modal (modal frequency response), freque (direct frequency response), hftd (hybrid frequency
time domain), and nonlin (linear transient). These modules automatically recognize the fluid and the structural domain, whenever necessary. Appropriate
documentation appears in Volume Analysis Procedures and Volume Material
Library.
1.1.3.12

Dynamic Pressures

Diana has been extended with dynamic pressures of fluidstructure interface


elements as output item. The output item FSPRES is available in modal response
analysis, direct response analysis, and nonlinear transient analysis. For more
information on dynamic pressures of fluidstructure interface elements, see the
result item FSPRES in Volume Analysis Procedures.

December 5, 2011 First ed.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

1.1 DIANA 9.4


1.1.3.13

Userdefined Derived Results

For linear elastic analysis Diana allows the user to provide a usersupplied subroutine for the definition of derived results based on the primary crosssection
forces and bending moments in beams, or based on the primary distributed
forces and distributed moments in plate or shell elements. This mechanism allows users to define their own specific design checks and integrate these checks
in the Diana postprocessors. Scalar derived results can be output as tabulated
results or being transferred to iDiana or FX+. For more information on user
defined derived results, see the result options USSRBE and USSRSH in Volume
Analysis Procedures.
1.1.3.14

Staggered Analysis

Staggered analysis can now also be performed with linearly interpolated structural elements next to quadratically interpolated structural elements. Note that
the elements in the flowstress domain that are linearly interpolated stay linearly
interpolated also in the potential flow analysis. The elements in the flowstress
domain that are quadratically interpolated, however, are converted to linearly
interpolated elements in the potential flow analysis. For more information and
available element types for staggered analysis, see Staggered Analysis in Volume Analysis Procedures.
1.1.3.15

Nodal Flows

Diana has been extended with nodal flows as output item for heat transfer
and groundwater flow analysis. Three types of flows are available for output:
Reaction flow in all nodes with a fixed temperature or fixed pressure potential,
residual flow, also called outofbalance flow, and externally applied flow. For
more information on nodal flows, see the result item FLOW in Volume Analysis
Procedures.
1.1.3.16

Pressure Gradient

Diana has been extended with the gradient of the potential field as output
item. The pressure gradient is a vector element result for groundwater flow
analysis. For more information on the pressure gradient output, see the result
item PRESSU GRADIE in Volume Analysis Procedures.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

December 5, 2011 First ed.

10

Analysis Capabilities

1.2

DIANA 9.4.2

1.2.1

Element Library

1.2.1.1

Curved Shell Elements with Drilling Rotation

A new class of curved shell elements with drilling rotation has been created
by enhancing the existing linear and quadratic curved shell elements with an
additional rotation z , the drilling rotation. In applications where the elements
are nearly coplanar in the nodes, the use of shell elements with drilling rotation
is very attractive because they avoid an illcondition of the assembled global
stiffness matrix. For more information, see the new T18SH, Q24SH, CT36S, CQ48S,
CT36L, and CT48L elements in Volume Element Library.
1.2.1.2

Fluid-Structure Interface Elements

Next to the quadratic and quadraticlinear fluidstructure interface elements


linear fluid structure interface elements have been made available in Diana.
The BL4S2 element is a fluidstructure line interface element to be placed between the edges of two-dimensional linear structural elements and two-dimensional linear flow elements. BQ12S4 and BT9S3 elements are fluidstructure plane
interface elements to be placed between the faces of linear solid (three-dimensional) structural elements and three-dimensional linear flow elements. For more
information, see BL4S2, BQ12S4, and BT9S3 in Volume Element Library.

1.2.2

Material Library

1.2.2.1

D-min Soil Model

A new simple soil model is available in Diana: The Dmin model is a stepwise
linear elastic isotropic model in which every load step the Youngs modulus and
Poissons ratio are adapted. In this model the elastic parameters are defined
as function of the relative difference of the stress at the beginning of the load
step to the failure stress criterion. In a load step the material parameters are
kept constant and therefore, this model does not need iterations. The Dmin
model can be applied in plane strain, axisymmetric, and solid elements. For
more information, see D-min Model in Volume Material Library.

1.2.3

Analysis Procedures

1.2.3.1

Automatic Adaptive Loading

Automatic adaptive load increments in a nonlinear analysis can now also be


used in combination with arc-length control. Furthermore, the user can limit
the number of steps taken for automatic adaptive loading. For more information,
see Automatic Adaptive Loading in Volume Analysis Procedures.
December 5, 2011 First ed.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

1.3 DIANA 9.4.3


1.2.3.2

11

D-min Soil Model Parameters

Diana has been extended with the output of model parameters for the new
Dmin soil model [ 1.2.2.1]. The output option DMIN is available for output of
the reduction factor and safety factor of the new Dmin soil model in nonlinear
analysis. For more information on output of D-min model parameters, see the
result option DMIN in Volume Analysis Procedures.
1.2.3.3

Elastic and Plastic Relative Displacements

For Coulomb friction in interface elements, output of elastic and plastic relative
displacement has been made available in nonlinear analysis. For more information on output of elastic and plastic relative displacement, see the output results
of nonlinear static and transient analysis in Volume Analysis Procedures.
1.2.3.4

Linear Constraints for Flow Analysis

Flow analysis has been extended with general linear constraints. Table EQUAL
has been replaced by the more general table TYINGS, which was already available for structural and coupled analysis. For more information on linear constraints for flow analysis, see Input for Potential Flow Analysis in Volume
Analysis Procedures.

1.3

DIANA 9.4.3

1.3.1

Element Library

1.3.1.1

Beam Elements

For Class-I beam elements it is now also possible to specify an arbitrary crosssection with a number of quadrilateral (not necessarily rectangular!) zones. For
class-I beams the zone information is used to compute the moments of inertia Iz ,
Iy , Iyz , and It . Note that average torsional shear stresses for class-I beams can
only be computed during post-processing if the torsional rigidity Wt is specified.
For more information, see the section on arbitrary cross-sections in the chapter
on beam elements in Volume Element Library.
1.3.1.2

Embedded Reinforcements

The Korea Road & Transport AssociationBRG2K highway bridge design standard can now also be used for preprocessing of prestress for post-tensioned reinforcement in bars and line-shaped grids (grids in plane strain or axisymmetry),
next to the already existing European CEB-FIP 1990 model code. For more
information, see Preprocessing of Post-tensioning in Volume Element Library.

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12

Analysis Capabilities

1.3.2

Material Library

1.3.2.1

Nonlinear Elasticity

The uniaxial nonlinear elasticity model, which sets a unique nonlinear relation
between stress and strain, may now also be input for bar and grid reinforcements.
For more information, see Nonlinear Elasticity in Volume Element Library.
1.3.2.2

Modified MohrCoulomb

The Modified MohrCoulomb model has been extended with an option to couple the plastic hardening of both friction yield surface and cap yield surface.
Furthermore, the return mapping of stresses to the yield surface has been updated. For more information, see Modified MohrCoulomb in Volume Material
Library.
1.3.2.3

Total Strain Crack Models

Diana now offers the possibility to overrule the default values for parameters n
and k of the Thorenfeldt compression curve for total strain based crack models.
This also implies that Eurocode 2 input, which requires n = 3, has become
available. For more information, see Predefined Compression Functions in
Volume Material Library.
Furthermore, Diana now offers the ability to take the Poisson effect in
cracked state into account. In a cracked state, the Poisson effect of a material
ceases to exist. Stretching of a cracked direction does no longer lead to contraction of the perpendicular directions. To model this phenomenon, an orthotropic
formulation is adapted for Poissons ratios. Similar to a damage formulation
where the secant modulus reduces after cracking, the Poissons ratios reduce at
the same pace. For more information, see Lateral Influence in Volume Material
Library.
1.3.2.4

Creep

Diana now offers the possbility to define temperature dependent creep factors k
for transient creep of concrete at elevated temperatures. For more information,
see TEMCRP in Volume Material Library.
1.3.2.5

Interface Behavior

Diana now offers the possibility to define different in plane sliding stiffnesses
for plane interface elements. The existing parameter D22 sets the relation between the shear traction tt and the shear relative displacement ut and the new
parameter D33 sets the relation between the shear traction ts and the shear relative displacement us . If no D33 is given, it is assumed to be equal to D22 .
For more information, see Interface Behavior in Volume Material Library.

December 5, 2011 First ed.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

1.3 DIANA 9.4.3


1.3.2.6

13

Solidification or Evaporation

Diana now offers the possibility to specify a second enthalpy curve for materials
that show a different capacity on cooling down and reheating than on the first
heating. The cooling and heating capacity may be specified through the ENTCOO
curve. This ENTCOO curve is defined additional to the specified ENTHAL curve.
Whenever the temperature in a point is below the maximum experienced temperature in that point, the capacity is derived from the ENTCOO instead of from
the ENTHAL curve. For more information, see the ENTCOO parameter in Volume
Material Library.

1.3.3

Analysis Procedures

1.3.3.1

Element Evaluation

Diana has been extened with an averaging procedure on the nodal normals of
all curved shell elements attached to a node if neither a predefined shape nor
explicit thickness vectors are specified for the curved shell elements, see also
[ 4.3.1.1 p. 31]. For more information on the averaging procedure on the nodal
normals of curved shell elements, see the SHELL AVERAG command in Volume
Analysis Procedures.
1.3.3.2

Geometrical Nonlinear Analysis

Geometrical nonlinear analysis using the Updated Lagrange formulation is now


also available for all curved shell elements and three-dimensional Class-III beam
elements. For more information, see Geometrical Nonlinear Analysis in Volume
Analysis Procedures.
1.3.3.3

Crack Width

The nonlinear static and transient analysis procedure has been extended with
crack width as output item. Crack width is defined as the product of the crack
bandwidth hcr and the summed crack strains of an element. Crack width can
be output in an integration point or in a node and can be exported in the local,
or the global coordinate system, or as principal crack width, or Von Mises crack
width. For more information on the crack width, see the result type CRKWDT in
Volume Analysis Procedures.
1.3.3.4

Arc-length Control

The nonlinear static and transient analysis procedure has been extended with
an option that the arc-length method will not be activated immediately, but can
become active when the model softens and its stiffness (compared to its initial
stiffness becomes smaller or equal to a user-defined value. For more information,
see the AUTARC command in Volume Analysis Procedures.

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14

Analysis Capabilities
1.3.3.5

Using User-supplied Subroutines

Diana now offers the possibility to use user-supplied subroutines from a precompiled library file. The file name of the library must contain the extension .dll
on MS-Windows systems and .so on Linux systems. For more information, see
Using User-supplied Subroutines in Volume Analysis Procedures.

1.3.4

Application Modules

1.3.4.1

Reinforcement Grid Design Checking

Diana has been extended with reinforcement grid design checking. The *DESIGN
application allows the user to perform the most important design checks with
respect to reinforcement grids in concrete structures in the same finite element
model that can be used for a nonlinear failure analysis of the structure. For
more information on reinforcement grid design checking, see the corresponding
section in Volume Application Modules.
1.3.4.2

Sequential Linear Analysis

Diana has been extended with sequential linear analysis. The *SEQLIN application performs a sequence of linear static analyses, where in a subsequent
iteration the elastic stiffness will be reduced in those elements in which the
stresses in a previous iteration were beyond a user-specified uni-axial tensile or
compressive stress-strain curve. For more information on sequential analysis,
see the corresponding section in Volume Application Modules.

1.4

DIANA 9.4.4

1.4.1

Element Library

1.4.1.1

PointPlane Connection Interface Elements

A new family of pointplane connection interface elements has been made available. Pointplane connection interface elements consist of a single node at one
side and a two-dimensional plane at the other side of the interface. The elements can be used to connect a single node, a point element, an end node of a
line element to a two-dimensional plane element in which the node is located.
The relative displacement is calculated by interpolating the displacements of
the plane element nodes to the location of the single node and subtracting the
interpolated displacements from the displacements of the single node itself. The
same interpolation functions are used to distribute the force vector in the single
node to the nodes of the plane element. This feature can be applied to model
the tip stiffness of pile foundations or (nonlinear) connections of extremities of
bondslip reinforcements.

December 5, 2011 First ed.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

1.4 DIANA 9.4.4


1.4.1.2

15

LinePlane Connection Interface Elements

A new family of lineplane connection interface elements has been made available. Lineplane connection interface elements consist of a line at one side and
a two-dimensional plane at the other side of the interface. The elements can be
used to connect a beam or a truss to a two-dimensional plane element in which
the beam or truss is located. The relative displacement is calculated by interpolating the displacements of the plane element nodes to the location of the line
nodes and subtracting the interpolated displacements from the displacements
of the line nodes itself. The same interpolation functions are used to distribute
the force vector in the line nodes to the nodes of the plane element. This feature
can be applied to model pile foundations or bondslip reinforcements.
1.4.1.3

PointShell Connection Interface Elements

A new family of pointshell interface elements has been made available. Point
shell interface elements consist of a single node at one side and a curved shell
at the other side of the interface. The elements can be used to connect a
single node, a point element, an end node of a line element to a curved shell
element in which the node is located. The relative displacement is calculated
by interpolating the displacements of the curved shell element nodes to the
location of the single node and subtracting the interpolated displacements from
the displacements of the single node itself. The same interpolation functions
are used to distribute the force vector in the single node to the nodes of the
curved shell element. This feature can be applied to model the end stiffness of
(nonlinear) connections of extremities of bondslip reinforcements.
1.4.1.4

LineShell Connection Interface Elements

A new family of lineshell interface elements has been made available. Line
shell interface elements consist of a line at one side and a curved shell at the
other side of the interface. The elements can be used to connect a beam or
a truss to a curved shell element in which the beam or truss is located. The
relative displacement is calculated by interpolating the displacements of the
curved shell element nodes to the location of the line nodes and subtracting the
interpolated displacements from the displacements of the line nodes itself. The
same interpolation functions are used to distribute the force vector in the line
nodes to the nodes of the curved shell element. This feature can be applied to
model bondslip reinforcements.
1.4.1.5

Boundary Surface Elements

Diana has been extended with boundary surface elements. These line and
surface elements replace the translational distributed mass elements and may
be applied to add mass and/or stiffness properties to an outer surface of a finite
element model. These elements may be applied either to add distributed mass

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

December 5, 2011 First ed.

16

Analysis Capabilities
to a finite element model without influencing the stiffness of the model, or to
model the free field medium in a dynamic analysis. Line boundary surface
elements are to be placed on the outer edge of a two-dimensional model or on
the upper face of a line interface element. Plane boundary surface elements are
to be placed on the outer surface of a three-dimensional model or on the upper
face of a plane interface element.
1.4.1.6

Composed Line Elements

Diana has been extended with composed line elements. Composed line elements
do not contribute to the force transfer in the finite element model, but can be
used to calculate and check the cross-section forces and bending moments in the
model. Cross-section forces and bending moment can be used to check correct
loading and boundary conditions of the model, or whether a nonlinear analysis
has reached the required accuracy. Both linear and quadratic composed line
elements are available.
1.4.1.7

BondSlip Reinforcements

Bondslip reinforcements are now also available as embedded lines in plane stress
and curved shell elements. In this case the reinforcement bar is internally modeled as a truss or beam elements, which are connected to the mother elements
by connection interface elements. Bondslip reinforcements may be applied for
modeling slip of steel reinforcement in concrete of for modeling interaction of
pile foundations in soil and rock. For more information, see Embedded Reinforcements in Volume Element Library.

1.4.2

Material Library

1.4.2.1

MohrCoulomb or DruckerPrager

For MohrCoulomb and DruckerPrager plasticity models now it is possible to


specify an optional tension cut-off surface. The tension cut-off surface limits the
tension to a cut-off value of Pt . For more information, see the TENSTR parameter
for MohrCoulomb and DruckerPrager plasticity models in Volume Material
Library.
1.4.2.2

Modified MohrCoulomb Engineering Input

A special version of the Modified MohrCoulomb model has been made available
to the user. This special version of the Modified MohrCoulomb model allows
the user to specify engineering parameters which are translated into standard parameters for the general Modified MohrCoulomb model with power-law nonlinear elastic behavior, exponential cap-hardening with Rowes dilatancy rule and
a parabolic hardening of the friction angle as function of the plastic shear-strain

December 5, 2011 First ed.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

1.4 DIANA 9.4.4

17

according to DuncanChang. For more information, see the MMC parameter in


Volume Material Library.
1.4.2.3

Total Strain Crack Models

Diana has been extended with a Total Strain crack model that switches from
the Rotating to the Fixed crack model when a principal strain in an integration
point exceeds a user-defined threshold strain. For more information on the Total
Strain crack model that switches from the Rotating to the Fixed crack model,
see the ROTFIX parameter in Volume Material Library.
Further, the Total Strain based crack models have been extended with the
following features:
Lateral cracking reduction and lateral confinement can now be used in
combination with a multi-linear diagram for compressive strength.
A multi-linear diagram is added for description of the lateral influence of
cracking.
A possibility to specify a lower bound for the lateral influence of cracking.
A multi-linear diagram is added for description of the lateral influence of
confinement.
Similar to the decrease of Poissons ratio due to cracking, the shear retention behavior can be made dependent on the cracking damage.

For more information on these features for the Total Strain crack models, see
Volume Material Library.
1.4.2.4

Classic Brick Model

Diana has been extended with the Classic Brick model, a strainbased constitutive relation for soil. Soil particles tend to continue plastic deformation in the
direction of their approach path immediately after change of the deformation
direction. The Classic Brick model captures this phenomenon, this can be explained by the analogy of a person pulling bricks on strings. In this analogy the
person corresponds with the current strain point and each brick moves in the
direction of the string, this represents a proportion of the material behavior.
For more information, see the CBRICK parameter in Volume Material Library.
1.4.2.5

Modified Two-Surface Model

Diana has been extended with the modified two-surface model, which can treat
the cyclic behavior of structural steels with the inclusion of the yield plateau. It
consists of two surfaces: the yield surface as the inner surface and the bounding
surface as the outer surface. The yield surface is always enclosed by the bounding surface and the value of the plastic modulus is determined by the proximity
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Analysis Capabilities
of the two surfaces in the course of their coupled translation and changes in size
during plastic deformation. For more information see the TWOSUR parameter in
Volume Material Library.
1.4.2.6

MenegottoPinto Plasticity

The MenegottoPinto model is a special plasticity model for the cyclic behavior
of steel. The MenegottoPinto model has the same basic expression as for the
MontiNutti model. The difference between the models is in the hardening
rule in relation to the load cycles. The MenegottoPinto model is available for
embedded reinforcements. For more information see the MENEGP parameter in
Volume Material Library.
1.4.2.7

Van Genuchten Relative Conductivity Function

Diana now offers the possibility to determine pressure head dependent relative
conductivity by a Van Genuchten function next to the Gardners coefficient function and a Frontal function. For more information, see Relative Conductivity
and Phreatic Storeativity in Volume Material Library.

1.4.3

Analysis Procedures

1.4.3.1

Prescribed Accelerations

Prescribed accelerations have been made available as loading for transient dynamic analysis (*NONLIN). Prescribed accelerations can be used for modeling
non-uniform nodal accelerations and are input in subtable ACCELE of table
LOADS. For more information, see Prescribed Accelerations in Volume Analysis Procedures.
1.4.3.2

Geometrical Nonlinear Analysis

Geometrical nonlinear analysis using the Updated Lagrange formulation is now


also available for three-dimensional membrane elements and three-dimensional
cable elements. For more information, see Geometrical Nonlinear Analysis in
Volume Analysis Procedures.
1.4.3.3

Arc-length Control

Arc-length methods may now also be used in combination with prescribed nonzero displacements. Prescribed non-zero displacements and nodal or element
loads, however, may not be applied in the same load set. For more information,
see Arc-length Control in Volume Analysis Procedures.

December 5, 2011 First ed.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

1.4 DIANA 9.4.4


1.4.3.4

19

Logging

The logging information that will be output during exection of steps for structural nonlinear analysis has been extended with cumulative reaction forces and
moments. For more information, see the REACTI command for nonlinear analysis
logging in Volume Analysis Procedures.
1.4.3.5

Damping and Inertia Forces

The linear and nonlinear transient dynamic analysis, and hybrid frequency time
domain analysis procedures have been extended with nodal and element nodal
damping and inertia forces as output item. For more information on the damping and inertia forces output, see the result items NODFOR and ELMFOR in Volume
Analysis Procedures.
1.4.3.6

Eurocode 8 Elastic and Design Spectra

For the direct frequency response, modal frequency response, and spectral response analysis procedures, frequencyload diagrams according to the elastic
response spectra and the design spectra of Eurocode 8 [7] can be used. For
more information on the Eurocode 8 spectra, see the input for table FREQLO
in Volume Analysis Procedures.
1.4.3.7

Transient Dynamic Analysis

The linear and nonlinear transient dynamic analysis procedures have been extended with the possibility to define the dynamic response due to an applied
base acceleration in a relative coordinate system with respect to the base. When
a relative coordinate system is used, no damping energy due to the base movement is added into the system when Rayleigh damping is being used. For more
information, see the RELBAC command in Volume Analysis Procedures.
1.4.3.8

Spectral Response Analysis

When the user requests superposition according to the Complete Quadratic


Combination (CQC) rule in a spectral response analysis the correlation factors
among the eigenmodes are written to the standard output file file .out.
1.4.3.9

Strength Reduction Analysis

A strength reduction method has been made available in Diana. In this strength
reduction method the strength characteristics of the structural materials are
reduced by a factor until the loss of stability, or until failure of the structure
occurs. The reciprocal of this reduction factor is identified as the factor of
safety associated with the structure under investigation. In Diana this method
is implemented as a separate module named *REDUCT. The main output of this
analysis type is the factor of safety.
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Analysis Capabilities
A typical use of this strength reduction method is the assessment of slope
stability where dominantly a Mohr-Coulomb or similar material model is used.
Therefore, cohesion (c) and/or friction angle () are reduced to asses the slope
stability. Presently in Diana Mohr-Coulomb and Drucker-Prager models are
considered for strength reduction analysis. Future extensions may include Modified Mohr-Coulomb, Hoek-Brown, and coulomb friction (for interface elements)
models.

1.4.4

Application Modules

1.4.4.1

Reinforcement Grid Design Checking

The reinforcement grid design checking application has been extended with an
option to output average values for the result items. If AVERAG is specified, for
each node in a grid and for each result component in the direction normal to
result component direction, a line with a length specified by the user is defined.
The average results over the reinforcement particles that are intersected by this
line are calculated and displayed in the node. For more information on output
results of reinforcement grid design checking, see Volume Application Modules.
1.4.4.2

Stiffness Adaptation Analysis

Stiffness adaptation analysis is a new application for calculation of crack patterns and crack openings in an efficient and user-friendly way. This new analysis
type replaces the sequential linear analysis method (*SEQLIN) which was introduced in Diana 9.4.3. De stiffness adaptation analysis performs a sequence of
nonlinear analyses in which in every iteration the stiffness is locally reduced automatically when the stress in the previous iteration was beyond the user-defined
ultimate stress-strain curve. This method is efficient for predicting cracks, plasticity onset, force distribution and deformations in serviceability limit state
analysis. For more information on stiffness adaptation analysis, see application
*STADAP in Volume Application Modules.

December 5, 2011 First ed.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

Chapter 2

Pre- and Postprocessing


2.1

DIANA 9.4

2.1.1

Working with iDIANA

2.1.1.1

Database Extensions

In version 9.4.4 the geometry data file will have a .G72 extension and the results
data files will have a .V72 and a .M72 extension. The UPDATE option converts
databases from a previous version of the FemGV pre- and postprocessor or
iDiana to iDiana-9.4.4.
2.1.1.2

Importing External Files

The CADfix library has been updated to version 7.1 SP3, supporting many new
releases of CAD programs. For more information, see the import option of the
File menu in Volume Pre- and Postprocessing.
2.1.1.3

CAD Based Reinforcements

New commands have been added to simplify reinforcement creation based on


CAD input. The following commands create reinforcements based on geometry
that was imported:
GEOMETRY TRANSFER LINE creates a reinforcement section at the location
of the specified line and adds it to a reinforcement. It is also possible to
input sets of lines that all need to be transferred to reinforcement sections
in a reinforcement.
GEOMETRY TRANSFER SURFACE creates a reinforcement section at the location of the specified surface and adds it to a reinforcement. It is also
possible to input sets of surfaces that all need to be transferred to reinforcement sections in a reinforcement.
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22

Pre- and Postprocessing


2.1.1.4

Labeling and Coloring Reinforcements

New commands have been added to visualize the Diana element types and
reinforcement particles in the result environment of iDiana:
LABEL MESH VARIANTS enables you to label all elements with the Diana element type name. Reinforcement particles are labeled with their keyword
BAR or GRID followed by their reinforcement number.
VIEW OPTIONS COLOUR VARIANTS enables you to color all regular elements
green and reinforcement particles orange.
CONSTRUCT SET APPEND VARIANTS enables you to append elements of the
specified variant, i.e. Diana element type or reinforcement, to the set.
CONSTRUCT SET REMOVE VARIANTS enables you to remove elements of the
specified variant, i.e. Diana element type or reinforcement, from the set.

2.1.1.5

Results for Surface

The RESULTS RANGE SURFACE command enables you to select surfaces for which
iDiana should display multi-surface analysis results. The option ALL to select
all surfaces is, next to plotting graphs, now also appropriate for peak values, numerical values, discs, symbols, and vector plots. This functionality was already
available in later versions of Diana-9.3.
2.1.1.6

Customize Tabulation Area

The UTILITY OPTIONS TABULATE HEADERS command enables you to control the
output of headers to printfiles or the tabulation area. This functionality was
already available in later versions of Diana-9.3.
2.1.1.7

Feedback on Geometry

The UTILITY SETUP FEEDBACK command has been extended with the option
to control the feedback while merging geometric parts. Furthermore, the use
of the UTILITY SETUP FEEDBACK MESHING MERGE DIALOG has been extended so
that it is always acted upon, regardless whether the merge is saved or not. This
functionality was already available in later versions of Diana-9.3.
2.1.1.8

Tabulate Sets

The UTILITY TABULATE SETS command has been extended with the option to
tabulate the named sets to which a certain geometry part belongs. This functionality was already available in later versions of Diana-9.3.

December 5, 2011 First ed.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

2.2 DIANA 9.4.3

2.1.2

FX+ for DIANA

2.1.2.1

Distributed Moment Load

23

FX has been extended with the possibility to apply distributed moment edge
and face loads for plate bending, flat shell, and curved shell elements. Distributed moment loading on beam elements was already available in previous
versions of FX+.
2.1.2.2

Interface Materials

FX has been extended with the possibility to define properties for interface
materials. The following interface material models are available in FX+:
Linear stiffness
Nonlinear elasticity
Discrete cracking
Crack dilatancy
Bondslip
Coulomb friction
Combined crackingshearingcrushing

2.2

DIANA 9.4.3

2.2.1

Working with iDIANA

2.2.1.1

VECTORS Color and Style of Vector Plots

When the PRESENT OPTION VECTOR MODULATE ZERO is used in combination with
a developed view, a vector scale bar will be displayed with a length of circa 5 %
of the width of the viewport with the associated value being displayed. For
more information, see VECTORS Color and Style of Vector Plots in Volume
Pre- and Postprocessing.
2.2.1.2

Importing External Files

The CADfix library has been updated to version 8.0, supporting many new
releases of CAD programs. For more information, see the import option of the
File menu in Volume Pre- and Postprocessing.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

December 5, 2011 First ed.

24

Pre- and Postprocessing

2.3

DIANA 9.4.4

2.3.1

FX+ for DIANA

2.3.1.1

Material Properties

FX has been extended with to possibility to define material properties as text


input. Using this option, the user can define material properties in FX+ that
are not available under the Isotropic and 3D Orthotropic material properties.
2.3.1.2

Reinforcement Sets

Reinforcement sets of FX+ are now also transferred to Diana. In Diana the
reinforcement sets will appear as reinforcement groups in table GROUPS.
2.3.1.3

Running DIANA

FX now offers the possibility to either directly run a Diana analysis, when no
modifications to the model are required and a Diana command file is already
available, or to define Diana analysis commands without modifying the model
in theMesh Editor, or to modify the FX+ model in the Mesh Editor. This
functionality offers the user quicker ways to start the analysis from FX+.
2.3.1.4

Center of Element and Integration Point Results

In earlier versions of Diana, apart from status results and crack patterns FX+
results were always extrapolated to the nodes of elements. In cases where constant results per elements were sufficient, this extrapolation resulted in unnecessary large result files. In other cases this extrapolation resulted in overshoots
which made it impossible for the user to check the values of the exact results
in integration points against material model limits such as yield value or tensile
strength. In this Diana version the user may specify the location parameters
NODES, INTPNT, and CENTER for the FX+ output device for results in nodes of
the element, integration point results mapped to nodes, and averaged results
per element, respectively.
2.3.1.5

Embedded Reinforcement Results

For embedded reinforcements it is now possible in FX+ to visualize the displacement results. This also implies that embedded reinforcement results can
be displayed in a deformed mesh.

December 5, 2011 First ed.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

Chapter 3

Users Manual
3.1

Volumes

The information in the Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual is collected in the same volumes as for Diana-9.3: Getting Started, Element Library, Material Library,
Analysis Procedures, Pre- and Postprocessing, FX+ for DIANA, Analysis Examples, Geotechnical Analysis, Concrete and Masonry Analysis, Application
Modules, and a Cumulative Index.

3.2

Distribution Formats

The Diana-9.4.4 distribution comes with the Users Manual in HTML and
Portable Document Format (PDF).

3.2.1

HTML for On-line Access

The HTML format is still the most popular format for hypertext documents.
To access the HTML pages you need a browser program, for instance Microsoft
Internet Explorer in a Windows environment. With a browser you have easy,
on-line and interactive access to the complete Users Manual. This format is
also accessed automatically via some Help functions of the iDiana Graphical
User Interface. As the HTML format is less suited for printing on paper we
recommend the PDF for that.

3.2.2

Portable Document Format

This format is particularly useful to printout or display parts of the manual in


the nicely typeset book style. The Acrobat Reader program by Adobe Systems
Inc. provides for a convenient access to the PDF format. You may download
this program free of charge from the Adobe web-site at http://www.adobe.com.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

December 5, 2011 First ed.

26

Users Manual
To properly view the Diana Users Manual we advise Acrobat Reader 7.0 or
later.

3.3

Compatibility

This edition of the Diana-9.4.4 manual is compatible with release 9.4.4 of the
Diana code.

December 5, 2011 First ed.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

Chapter 4

Incompatibilities
4.1

DIANA 9.4

4.1.1

Batch Commands

4.1.1.1

Command File Conversion

A utility program d94dcf comes with the Diana-9.4 release which may help
you to convert command files from Diana-9.3 to Diana-9.4. The d94dcf program works like a UNIX filter: it reads an old Diana-9.3 command file from
the standard input and writes the new file to the standard output. With file
redirection the UNIX command looks like:
d94dcf < old.dcf > new.dcf
We advise you to look carefully at the messages on the standard error file, to
see if any commands could not be converted properly. In that case you should
manually edit the new file to get correct commands.

4.1.2

Element Library

4.1.2.1

Cable Elements

If for two-dimensional cable elements the x axis coincides with the model Z
direction then y zx can not be done and the y axis is chosen in model Y
direction. In that case no longer an error message is given, but the element xyz
axes are set up as follows: x from the first to the second node, z x
y and
y zx. For more information, see ZAXIS for cable elements in Volume Element
Library.
4.1.2.2

Beam Elements

If for two-dimensional and three-dimensional beam elements the x axis coincides


with the model Z direction then y zx can not be done and the y axis is chosen
Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

December 5, 2011 First ed.

28

Incompatibilities
in model Y direction. In that case no longer an error message is given, but the
element xyz axes are set up as follows: x from the first to the second node,
z x
y and y zx. For more information, see ZAXIS for beam elements in
Volume Element Library.
4.1.2.3

Solid Elements

A new 1-point integration scheme with hourglass control is now available for the
eight-node isoparametric solid brick element HX24L. This method is based on
Flanagan and Belytschko uniform strain assumption with orthogonal hourglass
control and will replace the existing hourglass stabilization procedure. For more
information, see HX24L in Volume Element Library.
4.1.2.4

Interface Elements

The interface element L12IF was integrated using a 3-point NewtonCotes integration scheme along the longitudinal axis by default. This overintegration
may lead to oscillations in the results. Therefore, the default integration scheme
for this element has been changed to 2-point NewtonCotes along the interface
longitudinal axis.
Furthermore, the default integration scheme for the quadratic triangular plane
interface element CT36I has been changed from four to six integration points. It
turned out that, in most cases, the new default integration scheme gives more
accurate results.
4.1.2.5

General Flow Elements

The triangular general flow elements T3HT and T3AHT were integrated using a
3-point integration scheme by default. This overintegration may lead to oscillations in the results. Therefore, the default integration scheme for these elements
has been changed to 1-point area integration.
4.1.2.6

Groundwater Flow Elements

The triangular groundwater flow elements T3GW and T3AGW, and the aquifer
element T3KD were integrated using a 3-point integration scheme by default.
This overintegration may lead to oscillations in the results. Therefore, the
default integration scheme for these elements has been changed to 1-point area
integration.
4.1.2.7

Lubrication Elements

The triangular lubrication element T3RE was integrated using a 3-point integration scheme by default. This overintegration may lead to oscillations in the
results. Therefore, the default integration scheme for this element has been
changed to 1-point area integration.

December 5, 2011 First ed.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

4.1 DIANA 9.4


4.1.2.8

29

Cross-section Elements

The triangular crosssection element T3TO was integrated using a 3-point integration scheme by default. This overintegration may lead to oscillations in
the results. Therefore, the default integration scheme for this element has been
changed to 1-point area integration.

4.1.3

Material Library

4.1.3.1

HoekBrown Rock Plasticity

The HoekBrown rock plasticity model has been redefined, because the former
implementation was based on a Geological Strength Index (GSI) definition that
might be outdated. Therefore, the model is now defined such that the original
rock strength parameters can be used and the user can apply his own preference
for using a GSI modification to those parameters if required. Furthermore, the
HoekBrown failure criterion has also been redefined. For more information,
see the background theory for the HoekBrown rock plasticity model in Volume
Material Library.
4.1.3.2

Modified Maekawa Concrete Model

The Modified Maekawa Concrete model in Diana is a combination of the elasto


plastic damage model and the cracked concrete model, both defined by professor Maekawa [5]. The elastoplastic damage model is a full three-dimensional
elastoplastic model, which can only be applied for compressive failure of concrete. The cracked concrete model is a totalstrain based model that covers
both cracking and compressive failure as well as nonlinear loading. The Modified Maekawa Concrete model is initialized as elastoplastic damage model and
switches to the cracked concrete model as soon as cracks are occuring in the
model. In the previous version this check on the cracking conditions was only
performed in the direction of the highest absolute strain, whereas in this release
the check is performed in all three principal directions. This changed criterion
may lead to slightly different behavior in specific loading conditions when using
the Modified Maekawa Concrete model in Diana-9.4.4.

4.1.4

Analysis Procedures

4.1.4.1

Filos File

The structure of the Filos file, i.e. the central database for each analysis project
with Diana, has been modified for performance improvements. Therefore, Filos files of previous Diana versions are not compatible with Diana-9.4.4.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

December 5, 2011 First ed.

30

Incompatibilities
4.1.4.2

Mobile Loads

For the Dutch VOSB/VBB codes the influence in transverse direction is always
according to the applied code specified in table LOADS. Explicit specification
of the influence in transverse direction according a specific code by specifying
TRVCOD in table GEOMET is no longer possible. Furthermore, for explict input
of mobile loads the schematic truck load, specified by the LORRY command, is
no longer limited to 20 axle forces.
4.1.4.3

Out-of-balance Fluxes

The command to output the outofbalance flow in a heat transfer or groundwater flow analysis has been changed from OBFLUX to FLOW RESIDU. Next to
the outofbalance flow, also externally applied flow and reaction flow can be
output in Diana-9.4.4. For more information on nodal flows, see the result item
FLOW in Volume Analysis Procedures.

4.1.5

Working with iDIANA

4.1.5.1

Continuation Analysis

For continuation analysis in iDiana the result labels to indicate the stepnumber
have been changed from ST and the stepnumber to the active load set indicated
by LC and the load set number followed by the stepnumber. For example ST802
0 has become LC1 802.

4.2

DIANA 9.4.2

4.2.1

Analysis Procedures

4.2.1.1

Arc-length Control

The commands for loadingunloading in a nonlinear analysis have been moved


from iteration or energy based adaptive loading to arclength control. Arclength with loadingunloading control can now also be used in combination with
explicit specified steps sizes. For more information, see Arc-length Control in
Volume Analysis Procedures.
4.2.1.2

Equal Nodal Potentials

Nodes with equal nodal potential may no longer be specified in table EQUAL.
This functionality is replaced with the more general tyings functionality. Nodes
with equal potentials must be specified in subtable EQUAL of table TYINGS.

December 5, 2011 First ed.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

4.3 DIANA 9.4.3

4.3

31

DIANA 9.4.3

4.3.1

Element Library

4.3.1.1

Curved Shell Elements

If you specify neither a predefined shape nor explicit thickness vectors then
no longer a hyperbolic-parabolic shape is assumed, but Diana will apply an
averaging procedure on the nodal normals, see [ 1.3.3.1 p. 13], which are initially
determined by assuming a parabolic shape. For more information, see Curved
Shell Elements in Volume Element Library.
4.3.1.2

Grid Reinforcement

The preprocessing of grid reinforcements in plane stress, curved shell and solid
elements, now also considers those parts of the grid that do not fully intersect
an element. This makes it possible to describe edges of a reinforcement grid
that does not match the element grid much more accurately as can be seen in
Figure 4.1.

(a) old situation

(b) new situation

Figure 4.1: Preprocessing of grid reinforcements


In case the user wants that only grid reinforcement particles are defined in elements that are fully covered by a reinforcement section and not in elements
that are partly covered, the GRID FULLEL command should be specified in the
element evaluation section of an analysis. By default Diana generates reinforcement particles in elements that are either fully or partly covered by a reinforcement grid section. For more information, see Grid Reinforcement in Volume
Element Library and Element Evaluation in Volume Analysis Procedures.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

December 5, 2011 First ed.

32

Incompatibilities

4.3.2

Material Library

4.3.2.1

Position Dependency

The definition of the position dependent properties, e.g. Youngs modulus, cohesion, has been modified. In earlier versions the user-defined gradient was applied
to all integration points with the respective material. In the new Diana version
this gradient is applied only to the integration points located below the reference
point, whereas for the integration points located above the reference position
the reference value is applied. For more information, see Position Dependency
in Volume Material Library.
4.3.2.2

Hoek-Brown Rock Plasticity

The material parameters for the Hoek-Brown rock plasticity model have been
modified. The dilation coefficient in the flow function mg has been added to
obtain either an associated or a non-associated flow rule. Furthermore, a simple
tension cut-off surface can now be defined. The user also has the possibility to
overrule the parameters for the yield contour e and n. The power a is no longer
required as user input, because the power a is always equal to 0.5 in Diana.
For more information, see Hoek-Brown Rock Plasticity in Volume Material
Library.
4.3.2.3

Heat Production

The arguments of the user-supplied subroutine USRHTP have been extended to


make it possible to define the heat generation as function of the temperature,
the degree of reaction, the equivalent age, current time, totally produced heat
per unit volume after complete hydration, and the Arrhenius constant. For more
information, see user-supplied subroutine USRHTP in Volume Material Library.

4.3.3

Analysis Procedures

4.3.3.1

Iteration Method

By default, the QuasiNewton (Secant) iteration methods do not set up a new


tangential stiffness at the start of each step anymore, but the tangential stiffness
of the last iteration of the previous step is used to reduce the computational
effort. For more information, see QuasiNewton methods in Volume Analysis
Procedures.
4.3.3.2

Crack Strains

The definitions of the result items crack strains (STRAIN CRACK), summed crack
strains over all cracks (STRAIN CRKSUM), and crack width (STRAIN CRKWDT) for
total strain based crack models have slightly changed. In previous versions of

December 5, 2011 First ed.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

4.4 DIANA 9.4.4

33

Diana the crack strain cr used in the above output items was derived as:
cr = nst

(4.1)

As the user cannot output nst and may want to check whether:
tot = cr + elast

(4.2)

the crack strain cr is now defined as:


cr = nst

(4.3)

For more information, see Strains as output item for nonlinear analysis in
Volume Analysis Procedures and the background theory on total strain crack
models in Volume Material Library.

4.4

DIANA 9.4.4

4.4.1

Batch Commands

4.4.1.1

Command File Conversion

A utility program d95dcf comes with the Diana-9.4.4 release which may help
you to convert command files from Diana-9.4, Diana-9.4.2, or Diana-9.4.3 to
Diana-9.4.4. The d95dcf program works like a UNIX filter: it reads the old
Diana command file from the standard input and writes the new file to the
standard output. With file redirection the UNIX command looks like:
d95dcf < old.dcf > new.dcf
We advise you to look carefully at the messages on the standard error file, to
see if any commands could not be converted properly. In that case you should
manually edit the new file to get correct commands.
4.4.1.2

Data File Conversion

A utility program d95dat comes with the Diana-9.4.4 release which may help
you to convert data files from Diana-9.4, Diana-9.4.2, or Diana-9.4.3 to Diana-9.4.4. The d95dat program works like a UNIX filter: it reads the old
Diana data file from the standard input and writes the new file to the standard
output. With file redirection the UNIX command looks like:
d95dat < old.dat > new.dat
We advise you to look carefully at the messages on the standard error file, to see
if any data could not be converted properly. In that case you should manually
edit the new file to get correct data.
Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

December 5, 2011 First ed.

34

Incompatibilities

4.4.2

Element Library

4.4.2.1

Composed Beams

Composed beam elements are no longer available, because their functionality


is fully covered by composed line elements [ 1.4.1.6 p. 16]. The composed line
elements can be used to make compositions of truss, beam, plane stress, curved
shell, solid, and interface elements.
4.4.2.2

BondSlip Reinforcements

For bond-slip reinforcements the class-I beam elements (L6BEN and L12BE) are
replaced by class-II beam elements (L7BEN and L13BE) so that nonlinear material
models can be assigned to the bond-slip reinforcements.

4.4.3

Material Library

4.4.3.1

Crack Bandwidth

For plane strain and axisymmetric


elements the default crack
bandwidth h has

been changed from 1 to h = 2A for linear elements, and h = A for higher order elements. For truss elements the default crack bandwidth has been changed
from 1 to the element length.
4.4.3.2

Model Code Libraries

The syntax for usage of predefined concrete material properties according to the
European CEB-FIP Model Code 1990 [2], American ACI 209R-92 [1], Japan
Concrete Institute [3] (JCI), Japan Society of Civil Engineers [4] (JSCE), and
the Dutch NEN 6720 [6] code has been changed to improve consistency and userfriendliness. The syntax of all predefined concrete material properties according
to model codes is collected in Chapter 10 of Volume Material Library.

4.4.4

Analysis Procedures

4.4.4.1

Element Forces

The labels for the nodal element forces and moments (ELMFOR) have been modified. For each force or moment type a unique label is generated now, to make
it possible to have the total forces and moments as well as the element contributions and the reinforcement contributions of the nodal element forces and
moment in the same output file for iDiana.

December 5, 2011 First ed.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

Bibliography
[1] ACI. Prediction of Creep, Shrinkage, and Temperature Effects in Concrete
Structures. Tech. Rep. ACI 209R-92, American Concrete Institute, 1997.
[2] CEB-FIP. CEB-FIP Model Code 1990. Comite Euro-International du
Beton, 1993.
[3] JCI. A Proposal to the Computing Method of Crack Bandwidth due to Temperatue Stress. Research committee of temperature stress for mass concrete,
Japan Concrete Institute (JCI), Sept. 1992, pp. 3738.
[4] JSCE. Japan Concrete Specification. Tech. rep., Japan Society of Civil
Engineers, 1999. in Japanese.
[5] Maekawa, K. Nonlinear Mechanics of Reinforced Concrete. Spon Press,
2003.
[6] NEN. TGB 1990 Regulations for concrete Structural requirements and calculation methods. Tech. Rep. NEN 6720, Nederlands Normalisatie-instituut,
1995.
[7] NEN. Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance - Part 1:
General rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

December 5, 2011 First ed.

36

December 5, 2011 First ed.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

Index
Page numbers. Bold face numbers in- BT9S3 element, 10
dicate pages with formal information about
the entry, e.g., a syntax description (36).
C
Italic numbers point to an instructive example of how the concept in question might Cable elements, 27
be used (132 ). Underlined numbers refer CADfix, 21, 23
to theoretical backgrounds on the subject CAPACI option
(95).
stress, 8
CBRICK input, 17
Keywords. Sans serif type style refers CEB-FIP Model Code 1990, 34
to the interactive interface (EYE). Type- CENTER option, 7
writer style refers to the batch interface Center point, 7
CL9AX element, 2
(YOUNG).
CL9PE element, 1
Class-I beams
cross-section, 11
A
Classic Brick model, 17
Cohesion
ACCELE subtable of LOADS, 18
position dependent, 4
Acceleration
Color
modulation
prescribed, 18
vector plots, 23
ACI 209R-92 model code, 34
Complete Quadratic Combination, 8
Arc-length control, 10, 13, 18, 30
Composed beams, 34
Automatic load increments, 10
Composed line elements, 16, 34
AVERAG option, 13
Concentration strain, 8
Concrete, 12, 17
B
Concrete biaxial failure envelope, 7
Contact sets, 2
Base excitation, 19
Continuation analysis, 30
Beam elements, 11, 27
Correlation factors, 19
sliding, 1
CQ24GM element, 1
BIAXFE option
CQ48L element, 10
stress, 7
CQ48S element, 10
BL4S2 element, 10
CQC rule, 8, 19
Bond-slip
Crack bandwidth, 34
interface elements, 2, 34
CRACK option
reinforcements, 3, 16
strains, 32
Boundary surface elements, 15
Crack strains
BQ12S4 element, 10
output, 32

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

December 5, 2011 First ed.

38

INDEX
summation, 32
Crack width, 13
output, 32
Creep, 12
CRKSUM option, 7, 32
CRKWDT option, 13, 32
Cross-section analysis
elements, 29
CT18GM element, 1
CT36I element, 28
CT36L element, 10
CT36S element, 10
CURAGE input, 4
Curvature, 7
Curved shell elements, 13, 31
eccentricity, 2
grid reinforcement, 31
D
Dmin soil model, 10
reduction factor output, 11
safety factor output, 11
DAMP input, 6
Damping
continuous, 6
forces, 19
Rayleigh, 19
Database extensions, 21
Deformation, 7
Deformed mesh
reinforcements, 24
Design checking, 14, 20
*DESIGN command, 14
Design spectrum, 19
Diagram input for stressstrain, 4
DISMOM option
stress, 1, 2
Displacement control, 30
Distributed moment load, 23
Distributed translational mass elements,
3, 15
DMIN option, 11
Domain decomposition, 6
Drilling rotation
curved shell elements, 10
DruckerPrager plasticity, 4, 16
DuncanChang soil, 5

December 5, 2011 First ed.

Dynamic pressures, 8
E
Eigenvalue analysis
fluidstructure interaction, 8
Elastic response spectrum, 19
Element forces, 34
ELMFOR command, 7
EQUAL subtable of TYINGS, 30
EQUAL table, 30
Eurocode 2, 12
Eurocode 8
design spectrum, 19
elastic response spectrum, 19
Evaporation, 13
External flows
groundwater flow, 9
heat transfer, 9
F
Factor of safety, 19
Feedback, 22
File conversion, 27, 33
Filos file, 29
FLOW command, 9, 30
Flow elements
general, 28
groundwater, 28
Flows
external, 9
groundwater flow, 9
heat transfer, 9
reaction, 9
residual, 9
Fluidstructure interaction
dynamic pressures, 8
eigenvalue analysis, 8
interface elements, 10
spectral response analysis, 8
Free field medium, 15
FREQLO table, 19
Frequencyload diagram, 19
Friction
Nonlinear elastic, 5
Frontal function
relative conductivity, 6
FSPRES command, 8
Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

INDEX

39

FULLEL option, 31
FX+, 23, 24

JSCE model code, 34


K
G

Gardners coefficient, 6
Generalized stressstrain diagram, 4
Geological Strength Index, see GSI
Geometric nonlinearity, 13, 18
GRADIE option
groundwater flow, 9
GRID command
element evaluation, 31
Grid reinforcement, 31
Groundwater flow elements, 28
GROUPS table, 24
GSI, 29
H
Heat production, 32
HoekBrown rock plasticity, 29, 32
Hourglass control, 28
HX24L element, 28
Hydrostatic pressure capacity, 8
I
iDiana, 21, 23
Importing external files, 21, 23
Inertia forces, 19
Interface elements
elasticity, 12
fluidstructure interaction, 10
Janssen model, 5
material, 12, 23
structural, 28
Internal element forces, 7
J
Janssen model, 5
JCI model code, 34
Jointed Rock plasticity, 3

Kelvin Chain model, 4


L
L12IF element, 2, 28
L6AXI element, 2
L6PE element, 1

Lineplane connection interface elements,


15
Lineshell connection interface elements,
15
Linesolid connection
interfaces, 2
Logging a job
nonlinear analysis, 19
LORRY input, 30
Lubrication elements, 28
M
Maekawa model, 29
Manual, see Users Manual
Material properties
specification, 24
Matrix spring characteristics, 5
MenegottoPinto plasticity, 18
Mesh Editor, 24
MMC input, 17
Mobile load, 30
Model Code material libraries, 34
Modified MohrCoulomb plasticity
engineering input, 16
Modified two-surface model, 17
MODULATE option
vector colors, 23
MohrCoulomb plasticity, 4, 5, 16
Modified, 12, 16
Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, 8
N
N6SPR element, 3

NEN 6720 model code, 34


Nodal flows, see Flows
Nodal spring element, 3
Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

December 5, 2011 First ed.

40

INDEX
Nodes
equal potential, 30
Nonlinear elasticity, 12

Reinforcement
CAD based, 21
labeling, 22
post-tensioned, 11
sets, 24
O
Reinforcement grid design checking, 14,
20
OBFLUX command, 30
Reinforcements
Orthotropic elasticity, 8
deformed mesh, 24
Out-of-balance flows, see Residual flows
Relative conductivity
Out-of-balance fluxes, 30
groundwater flow, 6
Relative displacement
P
nonlinear analysis, 11
Relative phreatic storativity
Parallel iterative solver, 6
groundwater flow, 6
Phased analysis
RELBAC command, 19
structural, 6
Residual flows
Plane stress elements
groundwater flow, 9
grid reinforcement, 31
heat
transfer, 9
Plasticity
Response analysis
position dependent, 4
spectral, 8, 19
Pointplane connection interface elements,
Rock
14
plasticity, 29, 32
Pointshell connection interface elements,
15
Pointsolid interface elements, 2
S
Position dependency, 32
Safety factor output
cohesion, 4
nonlinear analysis, 11
plasticity, 4
*SEQLIN command, 14
Prescribed accelerations, 18
Sequential linear analysis, 14
PRESSU command
Shear capacity, 8
groundwater flow, 9
SHELL command, 13
Pressure gradient, 9
Shell elements
curved, 2, 13, 31
Q
Shrinkage, 4
Shrinkage strain
Q12GME element, 1
user-supplied subroutine, 4
Q24SH element, 10
Simple stress dependent material, 5
Quasi-Newton iteration, 32
SLIDE input, 1
Slope stability, 19
R
Soil
Classic Brick, 17
REACTI command
DuncanChang,
5
nonlinear analysis logging, 19
Solid
elements,
28
Reaction flows
grid reinforcement, 31
groundwater flow, 9
Solidification, 13
heat transfer, 9
Spectral responce analysis
*REDUCT command, 19
Fluidstructure interaction, 8
Reduction factor output
Spectral response analysis, 8, 19
nonlinear analysis, 11
December 5, 2011 First ed.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

INDEX

41

Staggered analysis, 9
Stiffness adaptation analysis, 20
Strength reduction analysis, 19
Stressstrain diagram, 4
Summed crack strains, 7
Surface results, 22
T
T18SH element, 10
T3AGW element, 28
T3AHT element, 28
T3GW element, 28
T3HT element, 28
T3KD element, 28
T3RE element, 28
T3TO element, 29
T9GME element, 1

Vector plots
color and style, 23
VECTORS option
color and style, 23
Viscoelasticity, 4
VOSB code, 30
W
WESTER input, 3
Westergaard mass distribution, 3
Z
Zone in beam element, 11

Tabulate sets, 22
Tabulation area, 22
TEMCRP input, 12
TENSTR input
DruckerPrager plasticity, 16
MohrCoulomb plasticity, 16
Thermal strain, 8
Thorenfeldt hardening, 12
Total Strain cracking, 4, 17
Transient analysis, 19
Tresca plasticity, 6
TRVCOD input, 30
TYINGS table, 11, 30
U
Updated Lagrange, 18
Users Manual, 25
User-defined derived results, 9
User-supplied subroutines, 14
USRHTP user-supplied subroutine, 32
USRRBE option, 9
USRRSH option, 9
USRSHK user-supplied subroutine, 4
V
Van Genuchten function
relative conductivity, 18
relative phreatic storativity, 6
VBB code, 30
Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

December 5, 2011 First ed.

42

December 5, 2011 First ed.

INDEX

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

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