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Users Manual

Release Notes

Release 9.4.4

TNO DIANA

BV

ii

DIANA Finite Element Analysis

Users Manual release 9.4.4

Release Notes

Edited by: Jonna Manie

Published by:

TNO DIANA bv

Delftechpark 19a, 2628 XJ Delft, The Netherlands.

Phone: +31 88 34262 00

Fax: +31 88 34262 99

E-mail: info@tnodiana.com

Web page: tnodiana.com

Trademarks.

Diana is a registered trademark of TNO DIANA bv. FemGV, FemGen, FemView

are trademarks of Femsys Ltd. CADfix is a registered trademark of TranscenData Europe Limited. Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

PostScript, Acrobat and Acrobat Reader are registered trademarks of Adobe Systems, Inc. AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk Inc. DXF is a trademark

of Autodesk Inc. ACIS is a registered trademark of Spatial Technology Inc. CADDS

and Pro/ENGINEER are registered trademarks of Parametric Technology Corporation. CATIA is a registered trademark of Dassault Systemes S.A. IGES is a trademark

of IGES Data Analysis, Inc. Parasolid is a registerd trademark of UGS Corporation.

PATRAN is a registered trademark of MSC Software Corporation. The X Window

System is a trademark of M.I.T. unix is a registered trademark of UNIX Systems Laboratories, Inc. Intel is a registered trademark of Intel Corporation. SUN and Solaris

are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. HP is a registered

trademark of Hewlett-Packard Company. All other brand names, product names or

trademarks belong to their respective holders.

Copyright 2011 by TNO DIANA bv, all rights reserved. No part of this publication

may be reproduced in any form by print, photoprint, microfilm or any other means,

without the prior written permission of the publisher.

The information in this document is subjected to change without notice and should

not be construed as a commitment by TNO DIANA bv. TNO DIANA bv assumes

no responsibility for any errors that may appear in this document.

The Diana system is the sole property of TNO DIANA bv. Software materials made

available are solely for use at a single site; they are not to be distributed to others

without prior written permission of TNO DIANA bv.

This document was prepared with the LATEX Document Preparation System.

December 5, 2011 First ed.

Contents

Preface

1 Analysis Capabilities

1.1 DIANA 9.4 . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.1

Element Library . . .

1.1.2

Material Library . . .

1.1.3

Analysis Procedures .

1.2 DIANA 9.4.2 . . . . . . . . . .

1.2.1

Element Library . . .

1.2.2

Material Library . . .

1.2.3

Analysis Procedures .

1.3 DIANA 9.4.3 . . . . . . . . . .

1.3.1

Element Library . . .

1.3.2

Material Library . . .

1.3.3

Analysis Procedures .

1.3.4

Application Modules .

1.4 DIANA 9.4.4 . . . . . . . . . .

1.4.1

Element Library . . .

1.4.2

Material Library . . .

1.4.3

Analysis Procedures .

1.4.4

Application Modules .

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2.1 DIANA 9.4 . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.1.1

Working with iDIANA

2.1.2

FX+ for DIANA . . . .

2.2 DIANA 9.4.3 . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2.1

Working with iDIANA

2.3 DIANA 9.4.4 . . . . . . . . . . .

2.3.1

FX+ for DIANA . . . .

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iv

CONTENTS

3 Users Manual

3.1 Volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2 Distribution Formats . . . . . . . .

3.2.1

HTML for On-line Access .

3.2.2

Portable Document Format

3.3 Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . .

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4 Incompatibilities

4.1 DIANA 9.4 . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.1.1

Batch Commands . . .

4.1.2

Element Library . . . .

4.1.3

Material Library . . . .

4.1.4

Analysis Procedures . .

4.1.5

Working with iDIANA

4.2 DIANA 9.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . .

4.2.1

Analysis Procedures . .

4.3 DIANA 9.4.3 . . . . . . . . . . .

4.3.1

Element Library . . . .

4.3.2

Material Library . . . .

4.3.3

Analysis Procedures . .

4.4 DIANA 9.4.4 . . . . . . . . . . .

4.4.1

Batch Commands . . .

4.4.2

Element Library . . . .

4.4.3

Material Library . . . .

4.4.4

Analysis Procedures . .

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Bibliography

35

Index

37

Preface

In this document, the new features of Diana-9.4.4 are presented. The major

new analysis capabilities in Diana-9.4.4 compared to Diana-9.3 are summarized in Chapter 1. Adaptations with respect to the pre- and postprocessing

capabilities are given in Chapter 2. The arrangement of the Diana-9.4.4 Users

Manual is described in Chapter 3. Finally, in Chapter 4 the incompatibilities of

Diana-9.4.4 compared to Diana-9.3 are given.

vi

Preface

Chapter 1

Analysis Capabilities

1.1

DIANA 9.4

1.1.1

Element Library

1.1.1.1

Sliding Connection

Beam elements can now have sliding connections at one or more end nodes. To

model a sliding connection Diana doubles the translation degree of freedom in

the corresponding nodes. For more information, see the input item SLIDE in

Volume Element Library.

1.1.1.2

A new family of three-dimensional plane stress elements, sometimes called threedimensional membrane elements, have been made available for modeling canvas

structures or geogrids. These elements may be used in combination with simple

stress dependent materials [ 1.1.2.12]. The elements can be applied for modeling a curved structure and can not be used in combination with geometrical

nonlinear analysis in this version of Diana. For more information, see T9GME,

Q12GME, CT18GM and CQ24GM in Volume Element Library.

1.1.1.3

Infinite Shell

Next to the quadratic infinite shell element CL9PE a linear infinite shell element

L6PE has been made available in Diana. Furthermore, the distributed bending

moment mzz based on circumferential stresses can now be calculated and output

via the STRESS DISMOM command in addition to the distributed bending moment

mxx based on axial stresses for infinite shell elements. For more information,

see L6PE and CL9PE in Volume Element Library.

Analysis Capabilities

1.1.1.4

Axisymmetric Shell

Next to the quadratic axisymmetric shell element CL9AX a linear axisymmetric shell element L6AXI has been made available in Diana. Furthermore, the

distributed bending moment mzz based on circumferential stresses can now be

calculated and output via the STRESS DISMOM command in addition to the distributed bending moment mxx based on axial stresses for axisymmetric shell

elements. For more information, see L6AXI and CL9AX in Volume Element Library.

1.1.1.5

Curved shell elements may now be connected eccentrically to their nodes. The

eccentricity must be defined in the nodal element xyz directions. If only one

value is specified for each eccentricity direction, then the eccentricities are the

same for all element nodes. Otherwise the values for the eccentricity directions

must be specified for each element node individually. For more information, see

Eccentric Connection for curved shell elements in Volume Element Library.

1.1.1.6

LineSolid Connection

and a solid element in three-dimensional configuration. This element is applicable in models for three-dimensional bond-slip analysis, typically it represents

the bond area between a reinforcement bar and its surrounding material. For

more information, see L12IF in Volume Element Library.

1.1.1.7

A new family of pointsolid interface elements has been made available. Point

solid interface elements consist of a single node at one side and a solid at the

other side of the interface. The elements can be used to connect a single node, a

point element, an end node of a line element, or even nodes of a shell or plate element to a solid element in which the node is located. The relative displacement

is calculated by interpolating the displacements of the solid element nodes to the

location of the single node and subtracting the interpolated displacements from

the displacements of the single node itself. The same interpolation functions are

used to distribute the force vector in the single node to the nodes of the solid element. This feature can be applied to model the tip stiffness of pile foundations

or (nonlinear) connections of extremities of bondslip reinforcements.

1.1.1.8

Contact Sets

The contact zones can now be split in several contact sets which do not have

mutual interaction to increase the performance of the contact evaluation. For

more information, see Contact Sets in Volume Element Library.

1.1.1.9

A new spring element N6SPR is available in Diana to model the coupling between the three translational and three rotational degrees of freedom of this

element. The matrix spring characteristics for this element may be specified via

a generalized stressstrain relation [ 1.1.2.10]. For more information, see N6SPR

in Volume Element Library.

1.1.1.10

A new family of distributed translational mass elements has been made available. For two-dimensional models these distributed masse elements will be line

elements, and for three-dimensional models these distributed mass elements will

be surface elements. For more information, see Distributed Translational Mass

Elements in Volume Element Library. It will be possible to define a so-called

Westergaard mass-distribution to these elements. A Westergaard mass distribution is used to account for dynamic fluid pressure of a fluid medium to a

vibrating structure. In this distribution the masses work only in the direction

normal to the element-face and the mass values are a function of the distance

to the water-level and fluid density. For more information on the Westergaard

mass distribution, see WESTER in Volume Material Library.

1.1.1.11

BondSlip Reinforcements

Next to the standard embedded reinforcements Diana offers now bondslip reinforcements. These bondslip reinforcements are available as embedded lines

in solid elements. In this case the reinforcement bar is internally modeled as a

truss or beam elements, which are connected to the mother elements by line

solid interface elements. Bondslip reinforcements may be applied for modeling

slip of steel reinforcement in concrete of for modeling interaction of pile foundations in soil and rock. For more information, see Embedded Reinforcements

in Volume Element Library.

1.1.2

Material Library

1.1.2.1

Jointed Rock model is an anisotropic elasticplastic material model that can be

used for describing stratified or jointed rock formations. The model assumes a

different stiffness in the direction normal to the stratification plane than for the

stiffness in the two directions in this plane. The orientation of the stratification is

defined by the first shear failure plane and the anistropic elastic model is defined

with respect to this plane. Two additional shear failure surfaces can be defined.

The failure criteron is based on an associated nonhardening Coulomb model

in each shear failure plane. The Jointed Rock model can be applied in plane

Analysis Capabilities

stress, plane strain, axisymmetric, and solid elements. For more information,

see Jointed Rock in Volume Material Library.

1.1.2.2

For some materials the cohesion c may depend on the position of the material

in space. A typical example is soil where c may vary with the depth in the soil

layer. Diana can now also apply gradient characteristics on the DruckerPrager

plasticity model without temperature influence to model such dependency. Applying gradient characteristics was already possible on the MohrCoulomb plasticity model without temperature influence. For more information, see Mohr

Coulomb or DruckerPrager in Volume Material Library.

1.1.2.3

Total Strain crack models can now be combined with direct input Kelvin chain

viscoelasticity. For more information, see Total Strain Crack Models in Volume

Material Library.

1.1.2.4

Viscoelasticity

generates direct input of Maxwell or Kelvin Chains by a curve fit during the

evaluation of elements and their properties. In Diana-9.4.4 the equivalent direct

input of Maxwell or Kelvin Chains generated from the indirect input is written to

the standard output file file .out. For more information, see Viscoelasticity

in Volume Material Library.

1.1.2.5

Shrinkage

Specification of the concrete age at the end of the curing period is now also

possible in combination with discrete functions for shrinkage strains depending

on the element age or on the maturity. For more information, see CURAGE in

Volume Material Library.

1.1.2.6

shrinkage strain, depending on ambient variables (temperature, maturity), time,

and element age. For more information, see USRSHK in Volume Material Library.

1.1.2.7

For Class-I beams elements direct multilinear relations can be formulated between the generalized stress and corresponding strain components. For more

information, see Generalized StressStrain Diagrams in Volume Material Library.

December 5, 2011 First ed.

1.1.2.8

model is a simplification of the Coulomb friction model and can only predict

nonlinear elastic behavior. For more information, see Nonlinear Elastic Friction

in Volume Material Library.

1.1.2.9

Janssen Model

For the line interface to shell elements the Janssen model has been made available. This model describes a nonlinear relation between the bending moment

and the relative rotation of both sides of the interface. The Janssen model can

be combined with Coulomb friction behavior for inplane deformations. For

more information, see Janssen model in Volume Material Library.

1.1.2.10

For nodal spring elements [ 1.1.1.9] matrix spring characteristics may be specified via a generalized stressstrain relation. The matrix spring characteristics

represent a linear relation between the generalized forces and generalized displacements of the nodal spring element. For more information, see Matrix

Spring Characteristics in Volume Material Library.

1.1.2.11

A new soil model is available in Diana. The DuncanChang model is a simplified, practical nonlinear stressstiffness relationship for soils. This model may

be applied in a nonlinear analysis with Module nonlin. For more information,

see DuncanChang in Volume Material Library.

1.1.2.12

elastic model may be extended with a no compression or no tension option.

In that case, in a nonlinear analysis, the principal stresses are calculated and

checked against the no compression or no-tension condition and if applicable

the stresses and stiffness in the respective principal direction is set to zero. For

more information, see Simple Stress Dependent Models in Volume Material

Library.

1.1.2.13

MohrCoulomb plasticity

The MohrCoulomb plasticity model with hardening behavior has been improved. The return mapping of the stresses at the corner points in the yield

surface is now handled more accurate and robust.

Analysis Capabilities

1.1.2.14

Tresca plasticity

The Tresca plasticity model with hardening behavior has been improved. The

return mapping of the stresses at the corner points in the yield surface is now

handled more accurate and robust.

1.1.2.15

Continuous Damping

Diana now offers the possibility to specify damping coefficients in element directions for node, two-dimensional line, and plane interface elements to model

continuous damping at boundaries. For more information on continuous damping for interface elements, see DAMP in Volume Material Library.

1.1.2.16

Relative Conductivity

Diana now offers the possibility to determine pressure head dependent relative conductivity by functions. The user can either specify the pressure head

conductivity function according to Gardner or by using a Frontal function next

to linear interpolation in diagrams. For more information, see Relative Conductivity and Phreatic Storeativity in Volume Material Library.

1.1.2.17

Diana now offers the possibility to determine pressure head dependent relative

phreatic storativity by a Van Genuchten function next to linear interpolation

in diagrams. For more information, see Relative Conductivity and Phreatic

Storeativity in Volume Material Library.

1.1.3

Analysis Procedures

1.1.3.1

Phased Analysis

Diana has been extended with the possiblity to decrease the reaction forces

from deactived elements in steps for a phased structural analysis. The residual

forces of the inactive elements will act as an external load on the elements that

are active in the new phase. Note that the stiffness of the deactived elements is

not contributing in the new phase. This functionality is usefull in e.g. tunnel

excavation analysis. For more information, see the RESFOR command for phased

structural analysis in Volume Analysis Procedures.

1.1.3.2

A domain decomposition solver has been made available in Diana. This parallel iterative solver will automatically be used if the user has explicitly set the

number of decomposition domains larger than zero. For more information, see

the Solution Procedures in Volume Analysis Procedures.

1.1.3.3

The option CENTER is made available as a new output location for results. When

this option is activated the average over the values in integration points per fibre or surface in an element is calculated and output per element. This method

allows to reduce the size of the result files and may give nicer pictures of vectors,

symbols, and numerical values for models with many elements. For more information on center point output, see the result option CENTER in Volume Analysis

Procedures.

1.1.3.4

The output of concentrated curvatures (STRAIN MOMENT) and force deformations (STRAIN FORCE) is now available for all beam elements. The results are

derived from the concentrated forces (STRESS FORCE) and concentrated moments

(STRESS MOMENT) and translated assuming linear material in the beam element.

For classII and classIII beam elements the output is only available in combination with the local coordinate system.

1.1.3.5

Diana has been extended with internal element forces and moments in the

nodes of an element as output item. The output item ELMFOR is available for

regular linear static analysis, linear transient analysis, spectral response analysis, hybrid frequency time domain analysis and nonlinear analysis. For more

information on internal element forces, see the result item ELMFOR in Volume

Analysis Procedures.

1.1.3.6

The nonlinear static and transient analysis procedure has been extended with

summed crack strains as output item. The output item STRAIN CRKSUM is available for the tensor that contains the sum of the crack strains in each of the cracks

in an integration point. Summed crack strains can be output in an integration

point or in node and can be exported in local, or global coordinate system, or

as principal strains, or Von Mises strains. For more information on the summed

crack strain, see the result type CRKSUM in Volume Analysis Procedures.

1.1.3.7

Diana has been extended with safety factors for concrete under static and dynamic loading conditions with reference to a biaxial failure envelope as output

item. The output option BIAXFE is available for regular linear static analysis,

linear transient analysis, spectral response analysis, hybrid frequency time domain analysis and nonlinear analysis. For more information on concrete biaxial

failure envelope, see the result option BIAXFE in Volume Analysis Procedures.

Analysis Capabilities

1.1.3.8

stress against MohrCoulomb failure criterion, which is an easy check for linear

soil analyses, is now available for regular linear static analysis, linear transient

analysis, spectral response analysis, hybrid frequency time doman analysis and

nonlinear analysis. For more information on shear capacity and hydrostatic

pressure capacity, see the result option CAPACI for stresses in Volume Analysis

Procedures.

1.1.3.9

now also be applied in nonlinear analyses. Thermal and concentration expansion

strain components can be output in both local and global directions. For more

information on output of thermal and concentration strains, see the result items

STRAIN TEMPER and STRAIN CONCEN in Volume Analysis Procedures.

1.1.3.10

The spectral response analysis procedure has been extended with the Complete

Quadratic Combination (CQC) mode superposition method. In this superposition method the correlation among the modes is addressed explicitly by introducing correlation coefficients, which vary between zero and unity. These

correlation coefficients are calculated from the modal damping ratios. For more

information, see output selection option CQC for spectral response analysis in

Volume Analysis Procedures.

1.1.3.11

Modules spectr (spectral response), and eigen (eigenvalue analysis) can now

be used to perform fluidstructure interaction analysis. Fluidstructure interaction analysis already could be performed using modules modal (modal frequency response), freque (direct frequency response), hftd (hybrid frequency

time domain), and nonlin (linear transient). These modules automatically recognize the fluid and the structural domain, whenever necessary. Appropriate

documentation appears in Volume Analysis Procedures and Volume Material

Library.

1.1.3.12

Dynamic Pressures

elements as output item. The output item FSPRES is available in modal response

analysis, direct response analysis, and nonlinear transient analysis. For more

information on dynamic pressures of fluidstructure interface elements, see the

result item FSPRES in Volume Analysis Procedures.

1.1.3.13

For linear elastic analysis Diana allows the user to provide a usersupplied subroutine for the definition of derived results based on the primary crosssection

forces and bending moments in beams, or based on the primary distributed

forces and distributed moments in plate or shell elements. This mechanism allows users to define their own specific design checks and integrate these checks

in the Diana postprocessors. Scalar derived results can be output as tabulated

results or being transferred to iDiana or FX+. For more information on user

defined derived results, see the result options USSRBE and USSRSH in Volume

Analysis Procedures.

1.1.3.14

Staggered Analysis

Staggered analysis can now also be performed with linearly interpolated structural elements next to quadratically interpolated structural elements. Note that

the elements in the flowstress domain that are linearly interpolated stay linearly

interpolated also in the potential flow analysis. The elements in the flowstress

domain that are quadratically interpolated, however, are converted to linearly

interpolated elements in the potential flow analysis. For more information and

available element types for staggered analysis, see Staggered Analysis in Volume Analysis Procedures.

1.1.3.15

Nodal Flows

Diana has been extended with nodal flows as output item for heat transfer

and groundwater flow analysis. Three types of flows are available for output:

Reaction flow in all nodes with a fixed temperature or fixed pressure potential,

residual flow, also called outofbalance flow, and externally applied flow. For

more information on nodal flows, see the result item FLOW in Volume Analysis

Procedures.

1.1.3.16

Pressure Gradient

Diana has been extended with the gradient of the potential field as output

item. The pressure gradient is a vector element result for groundwater flow

analysis. For more information on the pressure gradient output, see the result

item PRESSU GRADIE in Volume Analysis Procedures.

10

Analysis Capabilities

1.2

DIANA 9.4.2

1.2.1

Element Library

1.2.1.1

A new class of curved shell elements with drilling rotation has been created

by enhancing the existing linear and quadratic curved shell elements with an

additional rotation z , the drilling rotation. In applications where the elements

are nearly coplanar in the nodes, the use of shell elements with drilling rotation

is very attractive because they avoid an illcondition of the assembled global

stiffness matrix. For more information, see the new T18SH, Q24SH, CT36S, CQ48S,

CT36L, and CT48L elements in Volume Element Library.

1.2.1.2

linear fluid structure interface elements have been made available in Diana.

The BL4S2 element is a fluidstructure line interface element to be placed between the edges of two-dimensional linear structural elements and two-dimensional linear flow elements. BQ12S4 and BT9S3 elements are fluidstructure plane

interface elements to be placed between the faces of linear solid (three-dimensional) structural elements and three-dimensional linear flow elements. For more

information, see BL4S2, BQ12S4, and BT9S3 in Volume Element Library.

1.2.2

Material Library

1.2.2.1

A new simple soil model is available in Diana: The Dmin model is a stepwise

linear elastic isotropic model in which every load step the Youngs modulus and

Poissons ratio are adapted. In this model the elastic parameters are defined

as function of the relative difference of the stress at the beginning of the load

step to the failure stress criterion. In a load step the material parameters are

kept constant and therefore, this model does not need iterations. The Dmin

model can be applied in plane strain, axisymmetric, and solid elements. For

more information, see D-min Model in Volume Material Library.

1.2.3

Analysis Procedures

1.2.3.1

used in combination with arc-length control. Furthermore, the user can limit

the number of steps taken for automatic adaptive loading. For more information,

see Automatic Adaptive Loading in Volume Analysis Procedures.

December 5, 2011 First ed.

1.2.3.2

11

Diana has been extended with the output of model parameters for the new

Dmin soil model [ 1.2.2.1]. The output option DMIN is available for output of

the reduction factor and safety factor of the new Dmin soil model in nonlinear

analysis. For more information on output of D-min model parameters, see the

result option DMIN in Volume Analysis Procedures.

1.2.3.3

For Coulomb friction in interface elements, output of elastic and plastic relative

displacement has been made available in nonlinear analysis. For more information on output of elastic and plastic relative displacement, see the output results

of nonlinear static and transient analysis in Volume Analysis Procedures.

1.2.3.4

Flow analysis has been extended with general linear constraints. Table EQUAL

has been replaced by the more general table TYINGS, which was already available for structural and coupled analysis. For more information on linear constraints for flow analysis, see Input for Potential Flow Analysis in Volume

Analysis Procedures.

1.3

DIANA 9.4.3

1.3.1

Element Library

1.3.1.1

Beam Elements

For Class-I beam elements it is now also possible to specify an arbitrary crosssection with a number of quadrilateral (not necessarily rectangular!) zones. For

class-I beams the zone information is used to compute the moments of inertia Iz ,

Iy , Iyz , and It . Note that average torsional shear stresses for class-I beams can

only be computed during post-processing if the torsional rigidity Wt is specified.

For more information, see the section on arbitrary cross-sections in the chapter

on beam elements in Volume Element Library.

1.3.1.2

Embedded Reinforcements

The Korea Road & Transport AssociationBRG2K highway bridge design standard can now also be used for preprocessing of prestress for post-tensioned reinforcement in bars and line-shaped grids (grids in plane strain or axisymmetry),

next to the already existing European CEB-FIP 1990 model code. For more

information, see Preprocessing of Post-tensioning in Volume Element Library.

12

Analysis Capabilities

1.3.2

Material Library

1.3.2.1

Nonlinear Elasticity

The uniaxial nonlinear elasticity model, which sets a unique nonlinear relation

between stress and strain, may now also be input for bar and grid reinforcements.

For more information, see Nonlinear Elasticity in Volume Element Library.

1.3.2.2

Modified MohrCoulomb

The Modified MohrCoulomb model has been extended with an option to couple the plastic hardening of both friction yield surface and cap yield surface.

Furthermore, the return mapping of stresses to the yield surface has been updated. For more information, see Modified MohrCoulomb in Volume Material

Library.

1.3.2.3

Diana now offers the possibility to overrule the default values for parameters n

and k of the Thorenfeldt compression curve for total strain based crack models.

This also implies that Eurocode 2 input, which requires n = 3, has become

available. For more information, see Predefined Compression Functions in

Volume Material Library.

Furthermore, Diana now offers the ability to take the Poisson effect in

cracked state into account. In a cracked state, the Poisson effect of a material

ceases to exist. Stretching of a cracked direction does no longer lead to contraction of the perpendicular directions. To model this phenomenon, an orthotropic

formulation is adapted for Poissons ratios. Similar to a damage formulation

where the secant modulus reduces after cracking, the Poissons ratios reduce at

the same pace. For more information, see Lateral Influence in Volume Material

Library.

1.3.2.4

Creep

Diana now offers the possbility to define temperature dependent creep factors k

for transient creep of concrete at elevated temperatures. For more information,

see TEMCRP in Volume Material Library.

1.3.2.5

Interface Behavior

Diana now offers the possibility to define different in plane sliding stiffnesses

for plane interface elements. The existing parameter D22 sets the relation between the shear traction tt and the shear relative displacement ut and the new

parameter D33 sets the relation between the shear traction ts and the shear relative displacement us . If no D33 is given, it is assumed to be equal to D22 .

For more information, see Interface Behavior in Volume Material Library.

1.3.2.6

13

Solidification or Evaporation

Diana now offers the possibility to specify a second enthalpy curve for materials

that show a different capacity on cooling down and reheating than on the first

heating. The cooling and heating capacity may be specified through the ENTCOO

curve. This ENTCOO curve is defined additional to the specified ENTHAL curve.

Whenever the temperature in a point is below the maximum experienced temperature in that point, the capacity is derived from the ENTCOO instead of from

the ENTHAL curve. For more information, see the ENTCOO parameter in Volume

Material Library.

1.3.3

Analysis Procedures

1.3.3.1

Element Evaluation

Diana has been extened with an averaging procedure on the nodal normals of

all curved shell elements attached to a node if neither a predefined shape nor

explicit thickness vectors are specified for the curved shell elements, see also

[ 4.3.1.1 p. 31]. For more information on the averaging procedure on the nodal

normals of curved shell elements, see the SHELL AVERAG command in Volume

Analysis Procedures.

1.3.3.2

also available for all curved shell elements and three-dimensional Class-III beam

elements. For more information, see Geometrical Nonlinear Analysis in Volume

Analysis Procedures.

1.3.3.3

Crack Width

The nonlinear static and transient analysis procedure has been extended with

crack width as output item. Crack width is defined as the product of the crack

bandwidth hcr and the summed crack strains of an element. Crack width can

be output in an integration point or in a node and can be exported in the local,

or the global coordinate system, or as principal crack width, or Von Mises crack

width. For more information on the crack width, see the result type CRKWDT in

Volume Analysis Procedures.

1.3.3.4

Arc-length Control

The nonlinear static and transient analysis procedure has been extended with

an option that the arc-length method will not be activated immediately, but can

become active when the model softens and its stiffness (compared to its initial

stiffness becomes smaller or equal to a user-defined value. For more information,

see the AUTARC command in Volume Analysis Procedures.

14

Analysis Capabilities

1.3.3.5

Diana now offers the possibility to use user-supplied subroutines from a precompiled library file. The file name of the library must contain the extension .dll

on MS-Windows systems and .so on Linux systems. For more information, see

Using User-supplied Subroutines in Volume Analysis Procedures.

1.3.4

Application Modules

1.3.4.1

Diana has been extended with reinforcement grid design checking. The *DESIGN

application allows the user to perform the most important design checks with

respect to reinforcement grids in concrete structures in the same finite element

model that can be used for a nonlinear failure analysis of the structure. For

more information on reinforcement grid design checking, see the corresponding

section in Volume Application Modules.

1.3.4.2

Diana has been extended with sequential linear analysis. The *SEQLIN application performs a sequence of linear static analyses, where in a subsequent

iteration the elastic stiffness will be reduced in those elements in which the

stresses in a previous iteration were beyond a user-specified uni-axial tensile or

compressive stress-strain curve. For more information on sequential analysis,

see the corresponding section in Volume Application Modules.

1.4

DIANA 9.4.4

1.4.1

Element Library

1.4.1.1

A new family of pointplane connection interface elements has been made available. Pointplane connection interface elements consist of a single node at one

side and a two-dimensional plane at the other side of the interface. The elements can be used to connect a single node, a point element, an end node of a

line element to a two-dimensional plane element in which the node is located.

The relative displacement is calculated by interpolating the displacements of

the plane element nodes to the location of the single node and subtracting the

interpolated displacements from the displacements of the single node itself. The

same interpolation functions are used to distribute the force vector in the single

node to the nodes of the plane element. This feature can be applied to model

the tip stiffness of pile foundations or (nonlinear) connections of extremities of

bondslip reinforcements.

1.4.1.2

15

A new family of lineplane connection interface elements has been made available. Lineplane connection interface elements consist of a line at one side and

a two-dimensional plane at the other side of the interface. The elements can be

used to connect a beam or a truss to a two-dimensional plane element in which

the beam or truss is located. The relative displacement is calculated by interpolating the displacements of the plane element nodes to the location of the line

nodes and subtracting the interpolated displacements from the displacements

of the line nodes itself. The same interpolation functions are used to distribute

the force vector in the line nodes to the nodes of the plane element. This feature

can be applied to model pile foundations or bondslip reinforcements.

1.4.1.3

A new family of pointshell interface elements has been made available. Point

shell interface elements consist of a single node at one side and a curved shell

at the other side of the interface. The elements can be used to connect a

single node, a point element, an end node of a line element to a curved shell

element in which the node is located. The relative displacement is calculated

by interpolating the displacements of the curved shell element nodes to the

location of the single node and subtracting the interpolated displacements from

the displacements of the single node itself. The same interpolation functions

are used to distribute the force vector in the single node to the nodes of the

curved shell element. This feature can be applied to model the end stiffness of

(nonlinear) connections of extremities of bondslip reinforcements.

1.4.1.4

A new family of lineshell interface elements has been made available. Line

shell interface elements consist of a line at one side and a curved shell at the

other side of the interface. The elements can be used to connect a beam or

a truss to a curved shell element in which the beam or truss is located. The

relative displacement is calculated by interpolating the displacements of the

curved shell element nodes to the location of the line nodes and subtracting the

interpolated displacements from the displacements of the line nodes itself. The

same interpolation functions are used to distribute the force vector in the line

nodes to the nodes of the curved shell element. This feature can be applied to

model bondslip reinforcements.

1.4.1.5

Diana has been extended with boundary surface elements. These line and

surface elements replace the translational distributed mass elements and may

be applied to add mass and/or stiffness properties to an outer surface of a finite

element model. These elements may be applied either to add distributed mass

16

Analysis Capabilities

to a finite element model without influencing the stiffness of the model, or to

model the free field medium in a dynamic analysis. Line boundary surface

elements are to be placed on the outer edge of a two-dimensional model or on

the upper face of a line interface element. Plane boundary surface elements are

to be placed on the outer surface of a three-dimensional model or on the upper

face of a plane interface element.

1.4.1.6

Diana has been extended with composed line elements. Composed line elements

do not contribute to the force transfer in the finite element model, but can be

used to calculate and check the cross-section forces and bending moments in the

model. Cross-section forces and bending moment can be used to check correct

loading and boundary conditions of the model, or whether a nonlinear analysis

has reached the required accuracy. Both linear and quadratic composed line

elements are available.

1.4.1.7

BondSlip Reinforcements

Bondslip reinforcements are now also available as embedded lines in plane stress

and curved shell elements. In this case the reinforcement bar is internally modeled as a truss or beam elements, which are connected to the mother elements

by connection interface elements. Bondslip reinforcements may be applied for

modeling slip of steel reinforcement in concrete of for modeling interaction of

pile foundations in soil and rock. For more information, see Embedded Reinforcements in Volume Element Library.

1.4.2

Material Library

1.4.2.1

MohrCoulomb or DruckerPrager

specify an optional tension cut-off surface. The tension cut-off surface limits the

tension to a cut-off value of Pt . For more information, see the TENSTR parameter

for MohrCoulomb and DruckerPrager plasticity models in Volume Material

Library.

1.4.2.2

A special version of the Modified MohrCoulomb model has been made available

to the user. This special version of the Modified MohrCoulomb model allows

the user to specify engineering parameters which are translated into standard parameters for the general Modified MohrCoulomb model with power-law nonlinear elastic behavior, exponential cap-hardening with Rowes dilatancy rule and

a parabolic hardening of the friction angle as function of the plastic shear-strain

17

Volume Material Library.

1.4.2.3

Diana has been extended with a Total Strain crack model that switches from

the Rotating to the Fixed crack model when a principal strain in an integration

point exceeds a user-defined threshold strain. For more information on the Total

Strain crack model that switches from the Rotating to the Fixed crack model,

see the ROTFIX parameter in Volume Material Library.

Further, the Total Strain based crack models have been extended with the

following features:

Lateral cracking reduction and lateral confinement can now be used in

combination with a multi-linear diagram for compressive strength.

A multi-linear diagram is added for description of the lateral influence of

cracking.

A possibility to specify a lower bound for the lateral influence of cracking.

A multi-linear diagram is added for description of the lateral influence of

confinement.

Similar to the decrease of Poissons ratio due to cracking, the shear retention behavior can be made dependent on the cracking damage.

For more information on these features for the Total Strain crack models, see

Volume Material Library.

1.4.2.4

Diana has been extended with the Classic Brick model, a strainbased constitutive relation for soil. Soil particles tend to continue plastic deformation in the

direction of their approach path immediately after change of the deformation

direction. The Classic Brick model captures this phenomenon, this can be explained by the analogy of a person pulling bricks on strings. In this analogy the

person corresponds with the current strain point and each brick moves in the

direction of the string, this represents a proportion of the material behavior.

For more information, see the CBRICK parameter in Volume Material Library.

1.4.2.5

Diana has been extended with the modified two-surface model, which can treat

the cyclic behavior of structural steels with the inclusion of the yield plateau. It

consists of two surfaces: the yield surface as the inner surface and the bounding

surface as the outer surface. The yield surface is always enclosed by the bounding surface and the value of the plastic modulus is determined by the proximity

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

18

Analysis Capabilities

of the two surfaces in the course of their coupled translation and changes in size

during plastic deformation. For more information see the TWOSUR parameter in

Volume Material Library.

1.4.2.6

MenegottoPinto Plasticity

The MenegottoPinto model is a special plasticity model for the cyclic behavior

of steel. The MenegottoPinto model has the same basic expression as for the

MontiNutti model. The difference between the models is in the hardening

rule in relation to the load cycles. The MenegottoPinto model is available for

embedded reinforcements. For more information see the MENEGP parameter in

Volume Material Library.

1.4.2.7

Diana now offers the possibility to determine pressure head dependent relative

conductivity by a Van Genuchten function next to the Gardners coefficient function and a Frontal function. For more information, see Relative Conductivity

and Phreatic Storeativity in Volume Material Library.

1.4.3

Analysis Procedures

1.4.3.1

Prescribed Accelerations

Prescribed accelerations have been made available as loading for transient dynamic analysis (*NONLIN). Prescribed accelerations can be used for modeling

non-uniform nodal accelerations and are input in subtable ACCELE of table

LOADS. For more information, see Prescribed Accelerations in Volume Analysis Procedures.

1.4.3.2

also available for three-dimensional membrane elements and three-dimensional

cable elements. For more information, see Geometrical Nonlinear Analysis in

Volume Analysis Procedures.

1.4.3.3

Arc-length Control

Arc-length methods may now also be used in combination with prescribed nonzero displacements. Prescribed non-zero displacements and nodal or element

loads, however, may not be applied in the same load set. For more information,

see Arc-length Control in Volume Analysis Procedures.

1.4.3.4

19

Logging

The logging information that will be output during exection of steps for structural nonlinear analysis has been extended with cumulative reaction forces and

moments. For more information, see the REACTI command for nonlinear analysis

logging in Volume Analysis Procedures.

1.4.3.5

The linear and nonlinear transient dynamic analysis, and hybrid frequency time

domain analysis procedures have been extended with nodal and element nodal

damping and inertia forces as output item. For more information on the damping and inertia forces output, see the result items NODFOR and ELMFOR in Volume

Analysis Procedures.

1.4.3.6

For the direct frequency response, modal frequency response, and spectral response analysis procedures, frequencyload diagrams according to the elastic

response spectra and the design spectra of Eurocode 8 [7] can be used. For

more information on the Eurocode 8 spectra, see the input for table FREQLO

in Volume Analysis Procedures.

1.4.3.7

The linear and nonlinear transient dynamic analysis procedures have been extended with the possibility to define the dynamic response due to an applied

base acceleration in a relative coordinate system with respect to the base. When

a relative coordinate system is used, no damping energy due to the base movement is added into the system when Rayleigh damping is being used. For more

information, see the RELBAC command in Volume Analysis Procedures.

1.4.3.8

Combination (CQC) rule in a spectral response analysis the correlation factors

among the eigenmodes are written to the standard output file file .out.

1.4.3.9

A strength reduction method has been made available in Diana. In this strength

reduction method the strength characteristics of the structural materials are

reduced by a factor until the loss of stability, or until failure of the structure

occurs. The reciprocal of this reduction factor is identified as the factor of

safety associated with the structure under investigation. In Diana this method

is implemented as a separate module named *REDUCT. The main output of this

analysis type is the factor of safety.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

20

Analysis Capabilities

A typical use of this strength reduction method is the assessment of slope

stability where dominantly a Mohr-Coulomb or similar material model is used.

Therefore, cohesion (c) and/or friction angle () are reduced to asses the slope

stability. Presently in Diana Mohr-Coulomb and Drucker-Prager models are

considered for strength reduction analysis. Future extensions may include Modified Mohr-Coulomb, Hoek-Brown, and coulomb friction (for interface elements)

models.

1.4.4

Application Modules

1.4.4.1

The reinforcement grid design checking application has been extended with an

option to output average values for the result items. If AVERAG is specified, for

each node in a grid and for each result component in the direction normal to

result component direction, a line with a length specified by the user is defined.

The average results over the reinforcement particles that are intersected by this

line are calculated and displayed in the node. For more information on output

results of reinforcement grid design checking, see Volume Application Modules.

1.4.4.2

Stiffness adaptation analysis is a new application for calculation of crack patterns and crack openings in an efficient and user-friendly way. This new analysis

type replaces the sequential linear analysis method (*SEQLIN) which was introduced in Diana 9.4.3. De stiffness adaptation analysis performs a sequence of

nonlinear analyses in which in every iteration the stiffness is locally reduced automatically when the stress in the previous iteration was beyond the user-defined

ultimate stress-strain curve. This method is efficient for predicting cracks, plasticity onset, force distribution and deformations in serviceability limit state

analysis. For more information on stiffness adaptation analysis, see application

*STADAP in Volume Application Modules.

Chapter 2

2.1

DIANA 9.4

2.1.1

2.1.1.1

Database Extensions

In version 9.4.4 the geometry data file will have a .G72 extension and the results

data files will have a .V72 and a .M72 extension. The UPDATE option converts

databases from a previous version of the FemGV pre- and postprocessor or

iDiana to iDiana-9.4.4.

2.1.1.2

The CADfix library has been updated to version 7.1 SP3, supporting many new

releases of CAD programs. For more information, see the import option of the

File menu in Volume Pre- and Postprocessing.

2.1.1.3

CAD input. The following commands create reinforcements based on geometry

that was imported:

GEOMETRY TRANSFER LINE creates a reinforcement section at the location

of the specified line and adds it to a reinforcement. It is also possible to

input sets of lines that all need to be transferred to reinforcement sections

in a reinforcement.

GEOMETRY TRANSFER SURFACE creates a reinforcement section at the location of the specified surface and adds it to a reinforcement. It is also

possible to input sets of surfaces that all need to be transferred to reinforcement sections in a reinforcement.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

22

2.1.1.4

New commands have been added to visualize the Diana element types and

reinforcement particles in the result environment of iDiana:

LABEL MESH VARIANTS enables you to label all elements with the Diana element type name. Reinforcement particles are labeled with their keyword

BAR or GRID followed by their reinforcement number.

VIEW OPTIONS COLOUR VARIANTS enables you to color all regular elements

green and reinforcement particles orange.

CONSTRUCT SET APPEND VARIANTS enables you to append elements of the

specified variant, i.e. Diana element type or reinforcement, to the set.

CONSTRUCT SET REMOVE VARIANTS enables you to remove elements of the

specified variant, i.e. Diana element type or reinforcement, from the set.

2.1.1.5

The RESULTS RANGE SURFACE command enables you to select surfaces for which

iDiana should display multi-surface analysis results. The option ALL to select

all surfaces is, next to plotting graphs, now also appropriate for peak values, numerical values, discs, symbols, and vector plots. This functionality was already

available in later versions of Diana-9.3.

2.1.1.6

The UTILITY OPTIONS TABULATE HEADERS command enables you to control the

output of headers to printfiles or the tabulation area. This functionality was

already available in later versions of Diana-9.3.

2.1.1.7

Feedback on Geometry

The UTILITY SETUP FEEDBACK command has been extended with the option

to control the feedback while merging geometric parts. Furthermore, the use

of the UTILITY SETUP FEEDBACK MESHING MERGE DIALOG has been extended so

that it is always acted upon, regardless whether the merge is saved or not. This

functionality was already available in later versions of Diana-9.3.

2.1.1.8

Tabulate Sets

The UTILITY TABULATE SETS command has been extended with the option to

tabulate the named sets to which a certain geometry part belongs. This functionality was already available in later versions of Diana-9.3.

2.1.2

2.1.2.1

23

FX has been extended with the possibility to apply distributed moment edge

and face loads for plate bending, flat shell, and curved shell elements. Distributed moment loading on beam elements was already available in previous

versions of FX+.

2.1.2.2

Interface Materials

FX has been extended with the possibility to define properties for interface

materials. The following interface material models are available in FX+:

Linear stiffness

Nonlinear elasticity

Discrete cracking

Crack dilatancy

Bondslip

Coulomb friction

Combined crackingshearingcrushing

2.2

DIANA 9.4.3

2.2.1

2.2.1.1

When the PRESENT OPTION VECTOR MODULATE ZERO is used in combination with

a developed view, a vector scale bar will be displayed with a length of circa 5 %

of the width of the viewport with the associated value being displayed. For

more information, see VECTORS Color and Style of Vector Plots in Volume

Pre- and Postprocessing.

2.2.1.2

The CADfix library has been updated to version 8.0, supporting many new

releases of CAD programs. For more information, see the import option of the

File menu in Volume Pre- and Postprocessing.

24

2.3

DIANA 9.4.4

2.3.1

2.3.1.1

Material Properties

input. Using this option, the user can define material properties in FX+ that

are not available under the Isotropic and 3D Orthotropic material properties.

2.3.1.2

Reinforcement Sets

Reinforcement sets of FX+ are now also transferred to Diana. In Diana the

reinforcement sets will appear as reinforcement groups in table GROUPS.

2.3.1.3

Running DIANA

FX now offers the possibility to either directly run a Diana analysis, when no

modifications to the model are required and a Diana command file is already

available, or to define Diana analysis commands without modifying the model

in theMesh Editor, or to modify the FX+ model in the Mesh Editor. This

functionality offers the user quicker ways to start the analysis from FX+.

2.3.1.4

In earlier versions of Diana, apart from status results and crack patterns FX+

results were always extrapolated to the nodes of elements. In cases where constant results per elements were sufficient, this extrapolation resulted in unnecessary large result files. In other cases this extrapolation resulted in overshoots

which made it impossible for the user to check the values of the exact results

in integration points against material model limits such as yield value or tensile

strength. In this Diana version the user may specify the location parameters

NODES, INTPNT, and CENTER for the FX+ output device for results in nodes of

the element, integration point results mapped to nodes, and averaged results

per element, respectively.

2.3.1.5

For embedded reinforcements it is now possible in FX+ to visualize the displacement results. This also implies that embedded reinforcement results can

be displayed in a deformed mesh.

Chapter 3

Users Manual

3.1

Volumes

The information in the Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual is collected in the same volumes as for Diana-9.3: Getting Started, Element Library, Material Library,

Analysis Procedures, Pre- and Postprocessing, FX+ for DIANA, Analysis Examples, Geotechnical Analysis, Concrete and Masonry Analysis, Application

Modules, and a Cumulative Index.

3.2

Distribution Formats

The Diana-9.4.4 distribution comes with the Users Manual in HTML and

Portable Document Format (PDF).

3.2.1

The HTML format is still the most popular format for hypertext documents.

To access the HTML pages you need a browser program, for instance Microsoft

Internet Explorer in a Windows environment. With a browser you have easy,

on-line and interactive access to the complete Users Manual. This format is

also accessed automatically via some Help functions of the iDiana Graphical

User Interface. As the HTML format is less suited for printing on paper we

recommend the PDF for that.

3.2.2

the nicely typeset book style. The Acrobat Reader program by Adobe Systems

Inc. provides for a convenient access to the PDF format. You may download

this program free of charge from the Adobe web-site at http://www.adobe.com.

26

Users Manual

To properly view the Diana Users Manual we advise Acrobat Reader 7.0 or

later.

3.3

Compatibility

This edition of the Diana-9.4.4 manual is compatible with release 9.4.4 of the

Diana code.

Chapter 4

Incompatibilities

4.1

DIANA 9.4

4.1.1

Batch Commands

4.1.1.1

A utility program d94dcf comes with the Diana-9.4 release which may help

you to convert command files from Diana-9.3 to Diana-9.4. The d94dcf program works like a UNIX filter: it reads an old Diana-9.3 command file from

the standard input and writes the new file to the standard output. With file

redirection the UNIX command looks like:

d94dcf < old.dcf > new.dcf

We advise you to look carefully at the messages on the standard error file, to

see if any commands could not be converted properly. In that case you should

manually edit the new file to get correct commands.

4.1.2

Element Library

4.1.2.1

Cable Elements

If for two-dimensional cable elements the x axis coincides with the model Z

direction then y zx can not be done and the y axis is chosen in model Y

direction. In that case no longer an error message is given, but the element xyz

axes are set up as follows: x from the first to the second node, z x

y and

y zx. For more information, see ZAXIS for cable elements in Volume Element

Library.

4.1.2.2

Beam Elements

with the model Z direction then y zx can not be done and the y axis is chosen

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

28

Incompatibilities

in model Y direction. In that case no longer an error message is given, but the

element xyz axes are set up as follows: x from the first to the second node,

z x

y and y zx. For more information, see ZAXIS for beam elements in

Volume Element Library.

4.1.2.3

Solid Elements

A new 1-point integration scheme with hourglass control is now available for the

eight-node isoparametric solid brick element HX24L. This method is based on

Flanagan and Belytschko uniform strain assumption with orthogonal hourglass

control and will replace the existing hourglass stabilization procedure. For more

information, see HX24L in Volume Element Library.

4.1.2.4

Interface Elements

The interface element L12IF was integrated using a 3-point NewtonCotes integration scheme along the longitudinal axis by default. This overintegration

may lead to oscillations in the results. Therefore, the default integration scheme

for this element has been changed to 2-point NewtonCotes along the interface

longitudinal axis.

Furthermore, the default integration scheme for the quadratic triangular plane

interface element CT36I has been changed from four to six integration points. It

turned out that, in most cases, the new default integration scheme gives more

accurate results.

4.1.2.5

The triangular general flow elements T3HT and T3AHT were integrated using a

3-point integration scheme by default. This overintegration may lead to oscillations in the results. Therefore, the default integration scheme for these elements

has been changed to 1-point area integration.

4.1.2.6

The triangular groundwater flow elements T3GW and T3AGW, and the aquifer

element T3KD were integrated using a 3-point integration scheme by default.

This overintegration may lead to oscillations in the results. Therefore, the

default integration scheme for these elements has been changed to 1-point area

integration.

4.1.2.7

Lubrication Elements

The triangular lubrication element T3RE was integrated using a 3-point integration scheme by default. This overintegration may lead to oscillations in the

results. Therefore, the default integration scheme for this element has been

changed to 1-point area integration.

4.1.2.8

29

Cross-section Elements

The triangular crosssection element T3TO was integrated using a 3-point integration scheme by default. This overintegration may lead to oscillations in

the results. Therefore, the default integration scheme for this element has been

changed to 1-point area integration.

4.1.3

Material Library

4.1.3.1

The HoekBrown rock plasticity model has been redefined, because the former

implementation was based on a Geological Strength Index (GSI) definition that

might be outdated. Therefore, the model is now defined such that the original

rock strength parameters can be used and the user can apply his own preference

for using a GSI modification to those parameters if required. Furthermore, the

HoekBrown failure criterion has also been redefined. For more information,

see the background theory for the HoekBrown rock plasticity model in Volume

Material Library.

4.1.3.2

plastic damage model and the cracked concrete model, both defined by professor Maekawa [5]. The elastoplastic damage model is a full three-dimensional

elastoplastic model, which can only be applied for compressive failure of concrete. The cracked concrete model is a totalstrain based model that covers

both cracking and compressive failure as well as nonlinear loading. The Modified Maekawa Concrete model is initialized as elastoplastic damage model and

switches to the cracked concrete model as soon as cracks are occuring in the

model. In the previous version this check on the cracking conditions was only

performed in the direction of the highest absolute strain, whereas in this release

the check is performed in all three principal directions. This changed criterion

may lead to slightly different behavior in specific loading conditions when using

the Modified Maekawa Concrete model in Diana-9.4.4.

4.1.4

Analysis Procedures

4.1.4.1

Filos File

The structure of the Filos file, i.e. the central database for each analysis project

with Diana, has been modified for performance improvements. Therefore, Filos files of previous Diana versions are not compatible with Diana-9.4.4.

30

Incompatibilities

4.1.4.2

Mobile Loads

For the Dutch VOSB/VBB codes the influence in transverse direction is always

according to the applied code specified in table LOADS. Explicit specification

of the influence in transverse direction according a specific code by specifying

TRVCOD in table GEOMET is no longer possible. Furthermore, for explict input

of mobile loads the schematic truck load, specified by the LORRY command, is

no longer limited to 20 axle forces.

4.1.4.3

Out-of-balance Fluxes

The command to output the outofbalance flow in a heat transfer or groundwater flow analysis has been changed from OBFLUX to FLOW RESIDU. Next to

the outofbalance flow, also externally applied flow and reaction flow can be

output in Diana-9.4.4. For more information on nodal flows, see the result item

FLOW in Volume Analysis Procedures.

4.1.5

4.1.5.1

Continuation Analysis

For continuation analysis in iDiana the result labels to indicate the stepnumber

have been changed from ST and the stepnumber to the active load set indicated

by LC and the load set number followed by the stepnumber. For example ST802

0 has become LC1 802.

4.2

DIANA 9.4.2

4.2.1

Analysis Procedures

4.2.1.1

Arc-length Control

from iteration or energy based adaptive loading to arclength control. Arclength with loadingunloading control can now also be used in combination with

explicit specified steps sizes. For more information, see Arc-length Control in

Volume Analysis Procedures.

4.2.1.2

Nodes with equal nodal potential may no longer be specified in table EQUAL.

This functionality is replaced with the more general tyings functionality. Nodes

with equal potentials must be specified in subtable EQUAL of table TYINGS.

4.3

31

DIANA 9.4.3

4.3.1

Element Library

4.3.1.1

If you specify neither a predefined shape nor explicit thickness vectors then

no longer a hyperbolic-parabolic shape is assumed, but Diana will apply an

averaging procedure on the nodal normals, see [ 1.3.3.1 p. 13], which are initially

determined by assuming a parabolic shape. For more information, see Curved

Shell Elements in Volume Element Library.

4.3.1.2

Grid Reinforcement

The preprocessing of grid reinforcements in plane stress, curved shell and solid

elements, now also considers those parts of the grid that do not fully intersect

an element. This makes it possible to describe edges of a reinforcement grid

that does not match the element grid much more accurately as can be seen in

Figure 4.1.

In case the user wants that only grid reinforcement particles are defined in elements that are fully covered by a reinforcement section and not in elements

that are partly covered, the GRID FULLEL command should be specified in the

element evaluation section of an analysis. By default Diana generates reinforcement particles in elements that are either fully or partly covered by a reinforcement grid section. For more information, see Grid Reinforcement in Volume

Element Library and Element Evaluation in Volume Analysis Procedures.

32

Incompatibilities

4.3.2

Material Library

4.3.2.1

Position Dependency

The definition of the position dependent properties, e.g. Youngs modulus, cohesion, has been modified. In earlier versions the user-defined gradient was applied

to all integration points with the respective material. In the new Diana version

this gradient is applied only to the integration points located below the reference

point, whereas for the integration points located above the reference position

the reference value is applied. For more information, see Position Dependency

in Volume Material Library.

4.3.2.2

The material parameters for the Hoek-Brown rock plasticity model have been

modified. The dilation coefficient in the flow function mg has been added to

obtain either an associated or a non-associated flow rule. Furthermore, a simple

tension cut-off surface can now be defined. The user also has the possibility to

overrule the parameters for the yield contour e and n. The power a is no longer

required as user input, because the power a is always equal to 0.5 in Diana.

For more information, see Hoek-Brown Rock Plasticity in Volume Material

Library.

4.3.2.3

Heat Production

make it possible to define the heat generation as function of the temperature,

the degree of reaction, the equivalent age, current time, totally produced heat

per unit volume after complete hydration, and the Arrhenius constant. For more

information, see user-supplied subroutine USRHTP in Volume Material Library.

4.3.3

Analysis Procedures

4.3.3.1

Iteration Method

tangential stiffness at the start of each step anymore, but the tangential stiffness

of the last iteration of the previous step is used to reduce the computational

effort. For more information, see QuasiNewton methods in Volume Analysis

Procedures.

4.3.3.2

Crack Strains

The definitions of the result items crack strains (STRAIN CRACK), summed crack

strains over all cracks (STRAIN CRKSUM), and crack width (STRAIN CRKWDT) for

total strain based crack models have slightly changed. In previous versions of

33

Diana the crack strain cr used in the above output items was derived as:

cr = nst

(4.1)

As the user cannot output nst and may want to check whether:

tot = cr + elast

(4.2)

cr = nst

(4.3)

For more information, see Strains as output item for nonlinear analysis in

Volume Analysis Procedures and the background theory on total strain crack

models in Volume Material Library.

4.4

DIANA 9.4.4

4.4.1

Batch Commands

4.4.1.1

A utility program d95dcf comes with the Diana-9.4.4 release which may help

you to convert command files from Diana-9.4, Diana-9.4.2, or Diana-9.4.3 to

Diana-9.4.4. The d95dcf program works like a UNIX filter: it reads the old

Diana command file from the standard input and writes the new file to the

standard output. With file redirection the UNIX command looks like:

d95dcf < old.dcf > new.dcf

We advise you to look carefully at the messages on the standard error file, to

see if any commands could not be converted properly. In that case you should

manually edit the new file to get correct commands.

4.4.1.2

A utility program d95dat comes with the Diana-9.4.4 release which may help

you to convert data files from Diana-9.4, Diana-9.4.2, or Diana-9.4.3 to Diana-9.4.4. The d95dat program works like a UNIX filter: it reads the old

Diana data file from the standard input and writes the new file to the standard

output. With file redirection the UNIX command looks like:

d95dat < old.dat > new.dat

We advise you to look carefully at the messages on the standard error file, to see

if any data could not be converted properly. In that case you should manually

edit the new file to get correct data.

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

34

Incompatibilities

4.4.2

Element Library

4.4.2.1

Composed Beams

is fully covered by composed line elements [ 1.4.1.6 p. 16]. The composed line

elements can be used to make compositions of truss, beam, plane stress, curved

shell, solid, and interface elements.

4.4.2.2

BondSlip Reinforcements

For bond-slip reinforcements the class-I beam elements (L6BEN and L12BE) are

replaced by class-II beam elements (L7BEN and L13BE) so that nonlinear material

models can be assigned to the bond-slip reinforcements.

4.4.3

Material Library

4.4.3.1

Crack Bandwidth

elements the default crack

bandwidth h has

been changed from 1 to h = 2A for linear elements, and h = A for higher order elements. For truss elements the default crack bandwidth has been changed

from 1 to the element length.

4.4.3.2

The syntax for usage of predefined concrete material properties according to the

European CEB-FIP Model Code 1990 [2], American ACI 209R-92 [1], Japan

Concrete Institute [3] (JCI), Japan Society of Civil Engineers [4] (JSCE), and

the Dutch NEN 6720 [6] code has been changed to improve consistency and userfriendliness. The syntax of all predefined concrete material properties according

to model codes is collected in Chapter 10 of Volume Material Library.

4.4.4

Analysis Procedures

4.4.4.1

Element Forces

The labels for the nodal element forces and moments (ELMFOR) have been modified. For each force or moment type a unique label is generated now, to make

it possible to have the total forces and moments as well as the element contributions and the reinforcement contributions of the nodal element forces and

moment in the same output file for iDiana.

Bibliography

[1] ACI. Prediction of Creep, Shrinkage, and Temperature Effects in Concrete

Structures. Tech. Rep. ACI 209R-92, American Concrete Institute, 1997.

[2] CEB-FIP. CEB-FIP Model Code 1990. Comite Euro-International du

Beton, 1993.

[3] JCI. A Proposal to the Computing Method of Crack Bandwidth due to Temperatue Stress. Research committee of temperature stress for mass concrete,

Japan Concrete Institute (JCI), Sept. 1992, pp. 3738.

[4] JSCE. Japan Concrete Specification. Tech. rep., Japan Society of Civil

Engineers, 1999. in Japanese.

[5] Maekawa, K. Nonlinear Mechanics of Reinforced Concrete. Spon Press,

2003.

[6] NEN. TGB 1990 Regulations for concrete Structural requirements and calculation methods. Tech. Rep. NEN 6720, Nederlands Normalisatie-instituut,

1995.

[7] NEN. Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance - Part 1:

General rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings.

36

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Index

Page numbers. Bold face numbers in- BT9S3 element, 10

dicate pages with formal information about

the entry, e.g., a syntax description (36).

C

Italic numbers point to an instructive example of how the concept in question might Cable elements, 27

be used (132 ). Underlined numbers refer CADfix, 21, 23

to theoretical backgrounds on the subject CAPACI option

(95).

stress, 8

CBRICK input, 17

Keywords. Sans serif type style refers CEB-FIP Model Code 1990, 34

to the interactive interface (EYE). Type- CENTER option, 7

writer style refers to the batch interface Center point, 7

CL9AX element, 2

(YOUNG).

CL9PE element, 1

Class-I beams

cross-section, 11

A

Classic Brick model, 17

Cohesion

ACCELE subtable of LOADS, 18

position dependent, 4

Acceleration

Color

modulation

prescribed, 18

vector plots, 23

ACI 209R-92 model code, 34

Complete Quadratic Combination, 8

Arc-length control, 10, 13, 18, 30

Composed beams, 34

Automatic load increments, 10

Composed line elements, 16, 34

AVERAG option, 13

Concentration strain, 8

Concrete, 12, 17

B

Concrete biaxial failure envelope, 7

Contact sets, 2

Base excitation, 19

Continuation analysis, 30

Beam elements, 11, 27

Correlation factors, 19

sliding, 1

CQ24GM element, 1

BIAXFE option

CQ48L element, 10

stress, 7

CQ48S element, 10

BL4S2 element, 10

CQC rule, 8, 19

Bond-slip

Crack bandwidth, 34

interface elements, 2, 34

CRACK option

reinforcements, 3, 16

strains, 32

Boundary surface elements, 15

Crack strains

BQ12S4 element, 10

output, 32

38

INDEX

summation, 32

Crack width, 13

output, 32

Creep, 12

CRKSUM option, 7, 32

CRKWDT option, 13, 32

Cross-section analysis

elements, 29

CT18GM element, 1

CT36I element, 28

CT36L element, 10

CT36S element, 10

CURAGE input, 4

Curvature, 7

Curved shell elements, 13, 31

eccentricity, 2

grid reinforcement, 31

D

Dmin soil model, 10

reduction factor output, 11

safety factor output, 11

DAMP input, 6

Damping

continuous, 6

forces, 19

Rayleigh, 19

Database extensions, 21

Deformation, 7

Deformed mesh

reinforcements, 24

Design checking, 14, 20

*DESIGN command, 14

Design spectrum, 19

Diagram input for stressstrain, 4

DISMOM option

stress, 1, 2

Displacement control, 30

Distributed moment load, 23

Distributed translational mass elements,

3, 15

DMIN option, 11

Domain decomposition, 6

Drilling rotation

curved shell elements, 10

DruckerPrager plasticity, 4, 16

DuncanChang soil, 5

Dynamic pressures, 8

E

Eigenvalue analysis

fluidstructure interaction, 8

Elastic response spectrum, 19

Element forces, 34

ELMFOR command, 7

EQUAL subtable of TYINGS, 30

EQUAL table, 30

Eurocode 2, 12

Eurocode 8

design spectrum, 19

elastic response spectrum, 19

Evaporation, 13

External flows

groundwater flow, 9

heat transfer, 9

F

Factor of safety, 19

Feedback, 22

File conversion, 27, 33

Filos file, 29

FLOW command, 9, 30

Flow elements

general, 28

groundwater, 28

Flows

external, 9

groundwater flow, 9

heat transfer, 9

reaction, 9

residual, 9

Fluidstructure interaction

dynamic pressures, 8

eigenvalue analysis, 8

interface elements, 10

spectral response analysis, 8

Free field medium, 15

FREQLO table, 19

Frequencyload diagram, 19

Friction

Nonlinear elastic, 5

Frontal function

relative conductivity, 6

FSPRES command, 8

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

INDEX

39

FULLEL option, 31

FX+, 23, 24

K

G

Gardners coefficient, 6

Generalized stressstrain diagram, 4

Geological Strength Index, see GSI

Geometric nonlinearity, 13, 18

GRADIE option

groundwater flow, 9

GRID command

element evaluation, 31

Grid reinforcement, 31

Groundwater flow elements, 28

GROUPS table, 24

GSI, 29

H

Heat production, 32

HoekBrown rock plasticity, 29, 32

Hourglass control, 28

HX24L element, 28

Hydrostatic pressure capacity, 8

I

iDiana, 21, 23

Importing external files, 21, 23

Inertia forces, 19

Interface elements

elasticity, 12

fluidstructure interaction, 10

Janssen model, 5

material, 12, 23

structural, 28

Internal element forces, 7

J

Janssen model, 5

JCI model code, 34

Jointed Rock plasticity, 3

L

L12IF element, 2, 28

L6AXI element, 2

L6PE element, 1

15

Lineshell connection interface elements,

15

Linesolid connection

interfaces, 2

Logging a job

nonlinear analysis, 19

LORRY input, 30

Lubrication elements, 28

M

Maekawa model, 29

Manual, see Users Manual

Material properties

specification, 24

Matrix spring characteristics, 5

MenegottoPinto plasticity, 18

Mesh Editor, 24

MMC input, 17

Mobile load, 30

Model Code material libraries, 34

Modified MohrCoulomb plasticity

engineering input, 16

Modified two-surface model, 17

MODULATE option

vector colors, 23

MohrCoulomb plasticity, 4, 5, 16

Modified, 12, 16

Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, 8

N

N6SPR element, 3

Nodal flows, see Flows

Nodal spring element, 3

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

40

INDEX

Nodes

equal potential, 30

Nonlinear elasticity, 12

Reinforcement

CAD based, 21

labeling, 22

post-tensioned, 11

sets, 24

O

Reinforcement grid design checking, 14,

20

OBFLUX command, 30

Reinforcements

Orthotropic elasticity, 8

deformed mesh, 24

Out-of-balance flows, see Residual flows

Relative conductivity

Out-of-balance fluxes, 30

groundwater flow, 6

Relative displacement

P

nonlinear analysis, 11

Relative phreatic storativity

Parallel iterative solver, 6

groundwater flow, 6

Phased analysis

RELBAC command, 19

structural, 6

Residual flows

Plane stress elements

groundwater flow, 9

grid reinforcement, 31

heat

transfer, 9

Plasticity

Response analysis

position dependent, 4

spectral, 8, 19

Pointplane connection interface elements,

Rock

14

plasticity, 29, 32

Pointshell connection interface elements,

15

Pointsolid interface elements, 2

S

Position dependency, 32

Safety factor output

cohesion, 4

nonlinear analysis, 11

plasticity, 4

*SEQLIN command, 14

Prescribed accelerations, 18

Sequential linear analysis, 14

PRESSU command

Shear capacity, 8

groundwater flow, 9

SHELL command, 13

Pressure gradient, 9

Shell elements

curved, 2, 13, 31

Q

Shrinkage, 4

Shrinkage strain

Q12GME element, 1

user-supplied subroutine, 4

Q24SH element, 10

Simple stress dependent material, 5

Quasi-Newton iteration, 32

SLIDE input, 1

Slope stability, 19

R

Soil

Classic Brick, 17

REACTI command

DuncanChang,

5

nonlinear analysis logging, 19

Solid

elements,

28

Reaction flows

grid reinforcement, 31

groundwater flow, 9

Solidification, 13

heat transfer, 9

Spectral responce analysis

*REDUCT command, 19

Fluidstructure interaction, 8

Reduction factor output

Spectral response analysis, 8, 19

nonlinear analysis, 11

December 5, 2011 First ed.

INDEX

41

Staggered analysis, 9

Stiffness adaptation analysis, 20

Strength reduction analysis, 19

Stressstrain diagram, 4

Summed crack strains, 7

Surface results, 22

T

T18SH element, 10

T3AGW element, 28

T3AHT element, 28

T3GW element, 28

T3HT element, 28

T3KD element, 28

T3RE element, 28

T3TO element, 29

T9GME element, 1

Vector plots

color and style, 23

VECTORS option

color and style, 23

Viscoelasticity, 4

VOSB code, 30

W

WESTER input, 3

Westergaard mass distribution, 3

Z

Zone in beam element, 11

Tabulate sets, 22

Tabulation area, 22

TEMCRP input, 12

TENSTR input

DruckerPrager plasticity, 16

MohrCoulomb plasticity, 16

Thermal strain, 8

Thorenfeldt hardening, 12

Total Strain cracking, 4, 17

Transient analysis, 19

Tresca plasticity, 6

TRVCOD input, 30

TYINGS table, 11, 30

U

Updated Lagrange, 18

Users Manual, 25

User-defined derived results, 9

User-supplied subroutines, 14

USRHTP user-supplied subroutine, 32

USRRBE option, 9

USRRSH option, 9

USRSHK user-supplied subroutine, 4

V

Van Genuchten function

relative conductivity, 18

relative phreatic storativity, 6

VBB code, 30

Diana-9.4.4 Users Manual Release Notes

42

INDEX