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To; whom it may concern

dear xx,
in relation to our discussion regarding Serviced Apartments ( i.e Class 3 'hotel' occupancy
[where the short term occupant is not familiar with the building] ) in a building designed for Class
2 ( Residential Dwelling ) occupancy, we can summarise our general requirements for insurance
purposes as follows;

1. From a lifesafety perspective, fire detection system alarms for Hotel rooms are required to be
AS1670 systems which are monitored by the fire brigade ( considered a higher standard of fire
alarm response ) whilst, in many circumstances, residential dwellings may be permitted to have
local alarms in the apartments - which is a lower standard of fire alarm response.

2. our standards for fire sprinkler protection were developed for insurance purposes & as are
follows; ( but are similar to Australian Building codes & Australian Standard AS2118 )
Multi-unit dwellings (such as an apartment building ) are permitted to use Residential
sprinkler design - 4 sprinklers ( @ no less than 2 l/min/sq.m for approved sprinklers ). Sprinklers
may be spaced up to about 36 sq.m ( depending upon the sprinkler type & design pressure ).
Hotel/Serviced apartment occupancy similar to AS2118 Appendix A2 (l) requires Light
Hazard sprinkler design - i.e 6 @ 48 l/min = 288 l/min minimum. Normally sprinklers are spaced
no more than 21sq.m.
Hotels over 4 storeys we prefer to see an enhanced design similar to the Draft update to
AS2118 Appendix A3.1 (h) which requires Ordinary Hazard Grp1 sprinkler design - i.e 5
mm/min over 72 sq.m = 360. l/min minimum. Normally sprinklers are spaced no more than 12.3

Note; The more closely spaced the sprinklers, the higher the water density they are able to
achieve for the same pressure ( i.e a more capable system ).

This aligns reasonably well with United States NFPA standards which is acknowledged in the
Preface to AS2118 as the reference for 'special' residential sprinkler design & is also our
primary reference. NFPA has varying requirements ranging from;
2 sprinkler designs ( NFPA 13D ) for single unit dwellings
4 sprinkler design for residences below 4 storeys ( NFPA 13R )
6 sprinkler design for the residential portions of Hotel style occupancies ( which is a more
onerous requirement ) & a minimum of 4 mm/min for NFPA13 designs ( typically over 4 storeys

There is also a notable difference in the sprinkler heads recommended.
Sprinklers in apartment rooms are typically quick response type Residential sprinklers with a
small orifice ( less than 10-12mm ) & K factor of as low as 4.32 metric.
Sprinklers in Light hazard occupancies are typically sprinklers with an orifice around 10 -
12mm & K factor around 8 metric.
Sprinklers in Ordinary hazard occupancies are typically sprinklers with an orifice around
12mm & K factor around 11 metric.
Each of the different sprinkler types requires a different end head pressure to achieve their
optimum design spray coverage.

In brief, it makes sense that the requirements increase as the risk increases. This is why we are
concerned when the occupancy class changes without a commensurate increase in the fire
protection design. Of course, if the building was initially designed as a class 3 building with
proper sprinkler densities & proper monitored fire alarms we would have no insurance concerns.

A Class 2 occupancy in a Class 3 building is not a concern from a fire safety standpoint, as
Class 3 standards may be regarded as a higher standard. But vice versa does not apply.

I hope this explains the basic differences in fire protection design.