Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 21

1

Shivani Gupta



PTTLS (Level 4)
ASSIGNMENT



Student Name Shivani Gupta
Course Name Preparing to Teach in Life Long Learning Sector
Level 4
Module Code City and Guilds 7303
Module Leader: Dale P Hunter












2
Shivani Gupta
Question 1: Review what your role, responsibility and boundaries would be as
a teacher in terms of the teaching/training cycle?
A Quality teacher is one who is enthusiastic, well organised with full subject
knowledge. She should know how to manage the group of learners, manage
activity and manage the learning. A teacher has various roles responsibilities
and boundaries through which she can be a best evaluator. The following is the
diagram which states the best teaching and training cycle









Teaching and training cycle

The elaboration of the above cycle is as follow:
i. Identifying Needs: It signifies any special needs, preferred
learning style, learners motivation, learners background and most
of all learners requirement.

ii. Role: It is important to identify the learners need at the time of
teaching. Things like application form initial literacy and numeracy
test, pre-course communication gives you an opportunity to
identified the inside requirement of a learner. Usually we get
Identify Needs
Plan & Design
Deliver
Assess
Evaluate
3
Shivani Gupta
learners from different educational, cultural, and professional
backgrounds. So it is always appropriate to start a new group of
learners by identifying their needs, different style of learning,
visual, kinaesthetic and aural in order to know which method will
be benefit for the student to give a proper learning to them.

iii. Responsibility: There are many duties for which a teacher or a
mentor is responsible for ,they are as follows:
To identify an individual need and help developing their
learning potential.
To prepare lesson meanwhile creating their interest for it.
Identify emotional, intellectual, physical issues if any which
makes the student being feeling out of the class that result
effecting on their learning.
To respect every student by treating equally meanwhile
avoiding the racial discrimination in terms of age, sex,
religion, ethnic background, origin and status.
To prepare resources for the classroom meanwhile researching
information to insure the knowledge.

iv. Boundaries of a Teacher: While identifying the learners needs
teacher must respect the information shared with them. Some time
learners may not want to disclose any personal information so a
teacher is responsible not to discuss it further.
1. Plan & Design: It includes course length, syllabus, resources used, and
teaching methods adopted.
i. Role: After identifying needs of the learner, an effective tutor is
one who primarily plan and design the structure to be followed.
The role of a teacher is to know the topic or subject, teaching and
4
Shivani Gupta
learning method, length of time available, location of teaching
session, access to patience, internet resources.
ii. Responsibilities: The main thing which needs to keep in mind
while planning and designing the lesson plan is Don't try to do
everything at once. While designing the lesson plan the trainer
need to keep in mind that the course must be designed for the
students or learners not for the teacher or experts.
iii. Boundaries: While planning and designing the course for the
learner the tutor needs to aware the requirement of health and
safety rules, ground roles, awarding body.

2. Delivery of Lesson Plan: This is very important to understand that best
plan is worthless without the effective delivery procedure and good
classroom management techniques.
i. Role: After identification of a learners need the role of a teacher is
to plan and design the course in a manner so that it can efficiently
completed by the learner in an available time.
ii. Responsibilities: The main responsibilities which a trainer or
teacher need to keep in mind while delivering the lesson plan are:

While delivering the lesson plan you should be clear and coherent.
You need to engage the learners by asking questions or by giving
breaks between the workshops when required.
As a trainer you need to use expressive body language and speech
rhythms, but make sure that youre not using any gestures which
are irritating the learners.
You always need to maintain the eye contacts with the learner not
with the screen if you are using PowerPoint presentation for the
delivery of the lesson.
5
Shivani Gupta
3. Assess the learners: While accessing, the role of a teacher is to look
after each and every student or learners performance meanwhile checking
their involvement and understanding the knowledge of lesson deliver to
them. Responsibility-The teacher is responsible to check the initial
assessment before providing the beneficial subject learning to a particular
learner. While accessing the learning needs the teacher should give a
proper feedback in order to provide a motivation and development in
knowledge, skills, behaviour. While accessing a trainer or teacher ensures
that the assessment is delivering in such a way so that a learner should be
able to achieve and gain something in spite of losing anything.

4. Evaluation: While evaluating the entire learning experience of a learner,
a teacher has to observe the challenges faced by learners. A teacher can
do this by doing a necessary observation, keeping record track, providing
regular feedback and most importantly asking a self-assess of a learner. A
teacher can also evaluate by doing a formal meeting in terms of one to
one session if and when required. While evaluating a trainer should
evaluate in accordance with the targets set by the awarding body and their
code of conduct.

At the end we can conclude, that a trainer or teacher needs to keep in mind all
the steps of training cycle and meanwhile providing effective and efficient
knowledge for the continues growth and development of a learner which can
only be possible by identifying needs, planning and designing the course
structure, delivering the necessary requirement, accessing the standards and at
last evaluating the areas of a learners strengths and weakness.



6
Shivani Gupta
REFRENCES

1. Petty G. (2009). Teaching Today: A practical guide. 4th edition, Cheltenham: Nelson.
P54-60.

2. Ade-Ojo, Gordon O. (2010). Designing and piloting PTLLS ESOL.
Available:http://gala.gre.ac.uk/8374/1/LSIS_funde_ESOL_pTLLS_WCS_Final_Repo
rt_App_4.pdf (Last accessed Nov 12)

3. Jackyn Williams. (2012). Meeting the Lifelong Learning professional teaching
standards.
In: Gravells Ann Study Skills for PTLLS. 2nd ed. Cornwall: TJ International Limited,
P24-28.

4. Tessa Woodward (2012), Planning Lessons and Courses: Designing Sequences of
Work for the Language Classroom (Cambridge Handbooks for Language Teachers)
14th ed, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, P78-82.

5. Curzon L.B. (2008) Teaching in Further Education: An outline of principles and
Practice6th ed, P 82.

6. Phases of the Evaluation Process (2010),
Available: https://www.k12.gov.sk.ca/docs/calc30/evaluation.htm (Last accessed Nov
11)

7
Shivani Gupta
Question 2: To identify the key aspects of current legislative requirements and
codes of practice relevant to your subject and the type of organisation with in
which you would like to work.
I want to be a successful running teacher of foreign languages in England like
the way I was in my home country. To be a successful education teacher, I have
to follow the current legislative requirement and code of practice relevant to my
teaching. They are as follows:-
1. Special education and disability act (SENDA) 2001-According to this act,
an individual who is disabled holds an equal opportunity to gain
knowledge .A teacher should respect and identify special education needs
of a particular learner and should deliver the lessons in accordance to
their needs. A teacher should not treat a learner less favorably related to
their disability and should provide necessary adjustment for these
students.
2. Health and safety Act (1974) - This act ensures the safety measures of
every individual learner who comes in the premises. As a teacher in class,
It is necessary to explain these measures in the beginning of a session and
preferably daily and should make necessary arrangements if necessary in
order to ensure safe learning and teaching environment .These measures
includes the 3 Fs i.e. Fire drill, First aid and Facilities like Kitchen and
washroom. As a teacher I should be fully aware of all safety measures so
that I can always make my class aware of it confidently for avoiding the
hazards.
Risk Assessment- It is an important step in protecting learners at the time
of learning environment. Law does not expect to eliminate all risk but, it
is necessary to understand the practical application of risk assessment
techniques with an ability to categorize and evaluate risk.


8
Shivani Gupta
3. Sex and Racial Discrimination Act (1975 and 1976) - This act
discriminates an individual on the ground of sex, race, color, nationality,
ethnic, origin. A teacher should not discriminate any learner on these
grounds meanwhile consider it an everyday part of teaching which help
enhancing the confidence of an individual and a motivation for them.
4. Data protection act (1998) - This act aims at safeguarding the personal
information shared at work or learning environment. It is a responsibility
of a teacher to keep a safe track record that hold personal and confidential
information of each learner. A teacher has to make sure that the
information about learners is to be kept confidential and only be used
professionally when required. A teacher can also keep a record of current
enhanced disclosure checks by CRB in order to safeguard the lives of
learners from criminal tendencies.
REFRENCES

1. DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION IN EDUCATION (2001),
Available: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2001/10/part/2 (Last accessed 11
NOV)

2. Reece W. and Walker S. (2008), Teaching, training & Learning: A practical
guide. 6th ed. Tyne & Wear, Business Education Publishers Ltd

3. Data Protection Act(1998)
Available: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1998/29/contents (Last accessed
12 Nov)

4. Petty G. (2009) Teaching Today: A practical guide. 4th ed. Cheltenham, Nelson
Thorns

5. Equality and Human Rights Commission Available at
http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/ (Last accessed 12 Nov 2012)

6. Great Britain. Parliament. 2001. Special Educational Needs and Disability Act
2001.Chapter 10. London: The Stationary Office


9
Shivani Gupta

Question 3: Explain how you could promote inclusion, equality and diversity
with your current/future learners. Identify other points of referral available to
meet the potential needs of learners?
A teacher has to find out the ways to promote equality and diversity by
identifying the barriers and boundaries of learner till the end of the session
meanwhile encouraging an inclusive learning environment. A great deal of
research has proven that inclusion helps the learner to adapt to the subject being
taught effectively, with a greater level of understanding.
According to educationscotland.gov.uk, Inclusion is about all learners and
about taking action to remove barriers to participation and learning. Inclusion
also involves eliminating discrimination and promoting equality.
Inclusive learning helps each student, as when done correctly no matter what
their learning style each student is given the attention they require. It is creating
a secure and motivating environment where every learner achieves some quality
education and knowledge. While delivering workshop, a trainer needs to keep in
mind that students should actively participate. By asking question during the
workshop, a trainer can ensure that the students are getting the things which are
being taught.
Simply put we can say that Equality is about creating a fairer society, where
everyone has equal opportunity to participate to fulfil their needs. In the
classroom, a trainer needs to keep in mind that all students are from the
different backgrounds, whether it be religion, culture or race all should be
treated with respect and without prejudice and discrimination. Within the class
all the learners should participate in the workshops by asking question, group
activities and input in the discussion despite any differences.
Diversity literally means difference. In a classroom a trainer might need to
respond appropriately and sensitively to this diversity. Learners or students in
the workshops will reflect this diversity around gender, race, ethnicity,
10
Shivani Gupta
disability, religion, sexuality, class and age. But the teacher/trainer needs to
make sure that all the learners are treated equally and they all are working in a
group, enjoying the learning by completing the task by discussing their thoughts
with the other students or learners. If problems arise, a trainer will discuss
privately with the learner what is bothering them and if needed go through
proper procedure.
The lesson plan is important for many reasons from helping adjust layout of the
classroom and understanding what our requirements to teach are. Blooms
taxonomy points out that we should cater the needs of activists, theorist,
reflectors and pragmatists. To make the plans more effective the teacher needs
to have a good interaction with the learners to create a non-threatening
environment in the class. This will help the learner to progress professionally
and personally. The teacher also needs to motivate the learner during the
learning journey and needs to facilitate the one to one session if required. To
maintain the interest of the students, trainer can also organise the small quiz
which can help the learners to keep their interest in the subject.
REFRENCES

1. Inclusion and equality
Available:http://www.educationscotland.gov.uk/supportinglearners/positivelearni
ngenvironments/inclusionandequality/index.asp (Last accessed 13 Nov)

2. What is equality and diversity? (2012)
Available: http://www.faculty.londondeanery.ac.uk/e-learning/diversity-equal-
opportunities-and-human-rights/what-is-equality-and-diversity (Last accessed 13
Nov 2012)

3. Age discrimination, (2010)
Available: http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/equalities/equality-act/ (Last accessed
13 Nov 2012)

4. Toward a Psychology of Maslow
Available: www.businessballs.com/leadership/management (Last accessed
13/11/2012)

5. Reece W. and Walker S. (2008), Teaching, training & Learning: A practical
guide, 6th ed., Tyne & Wear, Business Education Publishers Ltd. P 32-35.
11
Shivani Gupta
Question 4 . Analyse the different ways in which you would establish ground
rule with your learners, which underpin behaviour and respect for others?

While establishing ground rules with the learners, it is important for a trainer to
make them with learners mutual consent. They should include necessary
condition for getting learning work done easily in the class without any future
interruption. When a trainer and learner establish a ground rule, these rules have
to be established by thinking carefully, expressing carefully and enforcing
consistently. Ground rules can also be called as operating guidelines that are
important for the success of team if followed. These rules are based upon
educational, moral and safety criteria and for mutual benefit in order to develop
healthy working relationships and respect for others in classroom.
Rules such as
Punctuality- be on time without any late arrivals
Attendance- attend the classes regularly for positive learning
Mobile phone on silent
No consumption of food during lessons.
Respecting others in terms of other learners contribution meanwhile no
interrupting fellow student.
Behave with courtesy and respect for the staff and other learners.
Follow health and safety guidelines by not putting self and others on risk
Learning commitments by attending workshops
No discrimination in terms of age, sex, religion or disability, ethnic
background, origin, nationality.
Avoid copying somebody ideas instead sharing your own ways to put the
answers.

The best way sometime a trainer adopts is an icebreaker method to set ground
rules by indulging each student to generate their own ideas and after a positive
12
Shivani Gupta
collection, discuss them with the class. If anyone is reluctant to take part in the
icebreaker, the trainer can then motivate them to take active participation.

Ground rules should be based on educational, moral, and safety criteria only.
Some ground rules should be negotiable such as standard of dress. A trainer can
also produce hand-outs with the list of ground rules set for each individual
learner or simply by putting it on the class board, so that they can either read it
daily to keep them in mind. ]#

As a teacher I will be fully prepared for the class, be punctual with start and
finishing time for each session and marking to be completed on time. I will
encourage each learner to participate equally in all the discussion done in class.
I will be polite, dedicated, honest and most of all patient with all the learners in
class.
REFRENCES

1. Ground Rules Essay (2009)
Available: http://www.antiessays.com/free-essays/252662.html (Last accessed 13
Nov 2012)

2. Frederick Herzberg Motivational Theory
Available http://www.businessballs.com/herzberg.htm (Last accessed 12 Nov
2012)

3. T Soininen, I Niemel, J Tiihonen, R Sulonen (2000) Unified Configuration
Knowledge Representation Using Weight Constraint Rules , pp. 3-4

4. Petty G. (2009) Teaching Today: A practical guide 4th ed, Cheltenham,
Nelson Thornes

5. Learning Strategies or Instructional Strategies
Available: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/strategy.html (Last accessed 14
Nov 2012)
Q5. Evaluate a range of ways to embed elements of functional skills in your
specialist area? (400-500) words
13
Shivani Gupta

Functional skills are an individual key to success. They allow individual to
work confidently, effectively and independently in every walk of life. These
skills can be introduced in learner by indulging them to do the practical and
theoretical assessment. According to Legislation, it is necessary to develop
these skills in every learner by a teacher in order to improve their literacy,
numeracy and ICT. My specialized area is languages and I am going to discuss
about the functional skills of the English language.
According to Edexcel website, The functional skills English qualification
design to give learners the key skills to operate confidently, effectively, and
independently in education, work and everyday life.
In English language a trainer needs to work with the learner and Edexcel divide
the Functional Skills English into three Components.
1. Speaking, Listening and Communication: In the this Component the
learner needs to complete two activities:
i. Formal Communication: A formal communication means when
the people are using the rules of languages in their conversation
with the standards and processes and avoids using slang
terminology. Interview is the best example of formal
communication.
ii. Informal Communication: Informal Communication means when
the people are using slang during the conversation and there is no
role of languages. The example of informal communication can be
when 2 friends are talking to each other and discussing their
routine.
2. Reading: In this component the learner needs to complete the read and
understand the range of straight forward texts. The learner has to
complete the assessment in the form of narrative and informative
assessment.
14
Shivani Gupta
3. Writing: This component of functional skills is used to check the
spelling, punctuation and grammar of the learner. For the assessment of
this component learner need to complete the written task on based on that
task the tutor will mark the learner results.
To improve the learner in functional skills of English language a trainer needs
to design organise the learning activities in such a way so the learner can use it
in the real world. The trainer needs to do the progress review on time to find the
areas where learner lacking and needs to take action for improving the learner
functional skills in language
REFRENCES:
1. Functional Skills(2010)
Available: http://www.ocr.org.uk/qualifications/type/fs_2010/ (Last accessed 14
Nov 2012)

2. Bhupindra . (2011), Elements of Functional Skills
Available: http://www.studymode.com/essays/Explain-Ways-To-Embed-
Elements-Of-592089.html (Last accessed 14 Nov 2012)

3. Robert E. Kraut, Robert S. Fish, Robert W. Root, Barbara L. Chalfonte (2009),
How and why people Twitter: the role that micro-blogging plays in informal
communication at work. Informal Communication in Organizations: Form,
Function, and Technology. pp 4-5

4. Rebecca Marschan, Denise Welcht and Lawrence Welch (1996), Control in Less-
hierarchical Multinationals: the Role of Personal Networks and Informal
Communication, Control in Less-hierarchical Multinationals vol 5, pp 138-
141.

5. Principles of functional skills
Available:http://curriculum.qcda.gov.uk/key-stages-3-and-4/skills/functional-
skills/index.aspx (Last accessed 25/09/2011)

6. Curzon L.B. (2008) Teaching in Further Education: An outline of principles and
practice. 6th ed. London, pp. 142-143


Question 6. Justify the need for keeping records and describe the types of record
you would maintain?
15
Shivani Gupta

Managing the paperwork is the most difficult task which a trainer needs to
learn. The trainer always has to keep the record of the learner it can be
computerized or manual record keeping system. The main reasons to maintain
the paper work can be:
Check the Progress of the learner.
To show Support evidence.
Quality Assurance Systems.
Health and safety Management.
Financial Accountability.
Auditing Purposes.
There are various ways to maintain the record of the learner. Either maintaining
them electronically by using Client Management System or maintaining them
manually the trainer can use the various forms:

1. Enrolment forms: In the Enrolment forms the basic information
regarding the learners needs to record along with the basic information
and requirement regarding the course are maintained. For example a
learner go to any public funding institute for the functional courses the
institute will keep all the basic information of the leaner like Name,
Contact number, Address, current employment status. This enables the
institute to check to whether the learner is eligible for the course or not.
Institute keep these forms as an evidence that the learner is interested
doing a course if they currently dont have any batches than they can call
the learner for the next batch.
2. Registration forms: The registration form is used to register the learner
with the awarding body. The institute used to fill this form after the
assessment of the learner, only if the learner is eligible for the program.
Along with the basic information of the learner this form will also carry
the starting date and the expected finishing date of the course. This form
is signed by both learner and the awarding body representative. After
filling the form the learner will get a copy of receipt which he/she paid to
the institute for the course and the copy of ID proofs, Address Proof, and
certificates also attached with this form.
3. Individual Learning Plan (ILP): ILP contains all the information of the
learner which includes the personal information, program name, Program
duration, Special needs if learner required delivery method and the
program justification etc. The tutor needs to complete this forms during
the learning journey of the program by doing progress review with the
learner. This will help to identify the issues which the learning is facing
during the course. The tutor can analyze the issues by doing progress and
16
Shivani Gupta
can write the action plan which needs to be taken to make the learning
journey successful by the end of the course.
As discussed above the sensitive information of the learner kept in the ILP. The
tutor also has to keep in mind the Data Protection Act (1998).
According to Data Protection Act (1998), The personal information the tutor
needs to keep safe and secure from the unauthorized user.
The tutor needs to use specialized filing system which can make sure that the
personal information save on the system is secure and can be updated easily
when required.

4. Support Log: The Support log filled by the tutor during the learning
journey of the candidate. In support log the support which is provided by
the tutor to resolve the learners issues which are being faced and how the
trainer provide support to the learner with the additional recommendation
is mentioned. These forms are mandatory especially in the public funded
institute.
5. Final Assessment: The final assessment can be computerized or a
manual page in which tutor needs to mark the learner on the bases of the
exam and the tutor needs to put comments.
6. Audit Report: The Audit reports are the being generated to check
whether the information stored in the system is correct, if there is any
mistakes then it can be rectified or if any information is missing then it
can be added to the system. The internal audits will check the information
first, then external audit will come from the awarding body to check
information which is required is up to standards or not.

These are the various forms which are being used by the Institutes to record the
data on the system and to ensure that they are storing the information up to
standards. In the big center the enrolment and the registration may be done by
the different department, but most of the work needs to do be done by a tutor
because he/she is the only one who spends maximum time with the learner.

17
Shivani Gupta

REFRENCES:

1. James Dallas(2012), Establishing Productive Record Keeping
PracticeAvailable:http://teachersnetwork.org/ntol/howto/align/c15768,.
htm (Last accessed 15 NOV 2012)

2. Donna Maxim and Cora Lee Five (1997), Record Keeping Classroom
Practices That Monitor and Inform Learning, Vol 3 (Part 2), pp 1-4.

3. Vitalicy Chifwepa (2005), Managing records at school level London:
The Stationary Office, pp 14- 16.

4. Curzon L.B. (2008), Teaching in Further Education: An outline of
principles and practice 6th ed, London, Continuum

5. Personal information online, Available:
http://www.ico.gov.uk/for_organisations/data_protection/topic_guides/on
line.aspx (Last accessed 15 Nov 2012)

















18
Shivani Gupta



Q7. Review a range of different assessment methods available and explain the
ones you would use for your subject area. Evaluate the use of different
assessment methods in different context, including references to initial
assessment. Justify the types of assessment records would complete and explain
why?

Assessment is vital in an entire teaching learning journey. Teaching and
learning process are completely dependent on each other like the way a teacher
and a learner are connected with each other. Assessment deals with how well
student is learning and how well teacher is training. It is a reflective tool
designed to check understanding and development within any subject area.
Assessment aimed at understanding and improving how well a student learning
done .For students, assessment is beneficial because it provides constructive
feedback about their understanding, on the other hand, For teachers assessment
is intended to answer the question have students learned. Teachers analyse the
assessment result to determinate the individual learner performance whether
further instruction are required by them or not.

When considering assessment methods, it is important to analyse what qualities
you are seeking to produce in learners contribution .An effective assessment
is:-
That guides and encourage effective approaches to learning
Assessment that measures expected learning outcomes
Assessment that protect academic standards.

We can also consider various types for assessing a learner
Checklist
Observation
Paired work
Rating scales
Portfolios
Project work
Written work
Individual presentation

There are three major types of assessment methods as follows:-
19
Shivani Gupta
1. Diagnostic assessment
2. Formative assessment
3. Summative assessment









Diagnostic Assessment- This type of assessment is used to determine the
current level of knowledge and skill of a learner. It is to be considered before
the learning or prior to teaching to ascertain learners strength and weakness. It
helps to identify learning strengths and needs and usually follows an initial
assessment at the beginning of learning program.
Diagnostic assessment simply signifies the information gathered from initial
assessment or pre-assessment. It includes:-
Initial Questionnaire - To check their basic knowledge regarding the
course.
IAG assessment To check their functional skills in English, math and
ICT

Formative Assessment

It is an integral part of teaching, it is to be considered during the learning or in
other words it is a self reflective process through which a learner can see what
they need to develop further in order to promote self attainment. Formative
assessment includes:-
Observation Teacher can do this by roaming in the class to check the
student work in group or individual. This can be only possible if she
wishes to monitor and can make notes of their performance during live
work.

Worksheets and handouts- A teacher can distribute explanatory handout
and necessary exercise sheets to check comprehensive and apprehensive
knowledge of individual learner.

Summative
Assessment
Formative
Assessment
Diagnostic
Assessment
Before Learning After Learning

Before Learning
20
Shivani Gupta
Quizzes- A teacher can also check the comprehensive knowledge by
doing short apprehensive quiz activities which can also refresh the
students mind in other words learning by Fun.

Journals- In this type of assessment students are required their thoughts
and feeling how they are progressing in the class. They can also mention
their likes and dislikes about the programme they are doing.

Visual representation It includes use of photos, pictures, PowerPoint
slides, flash cards, writing on white board sheets etc. It a quick way of
assessing student depth of understanding by creating an immediate
learning.

Kinaesthetic assessment It is a good way to add movement in the
classroom .This can be done by drilling or involving each individual
learner by doing activity.

Peer/self assessment- For students, It allows them to evaluate their
learning by rating their understanding through comments. For teachers , It
allows the effectiveness of her teaching by assessing student
understanding
With these assessments a teacher can develop learning areas by creating
appropriate lessons which in turn help learners to set goal for improvement.

Summative Assessment It is an assessment which allows a trainer to gain in-
depth knowledge of student after the completion of learning program. It is
important to check the student ability, knowledge and progress throughout the
entire learning process. It is usually taking place at the end of program. The
various ways through which summative assessment can be done:-
Multiple choice test questionnaire
Writing essay or report.
Dissertation.
Submitting assignments
Written and oral examination
Semester exams
Submitting portfolios.

Summative assessment is more goals and target oriented which gives a platform
and idea of an individual success. Grades and marks are usually an outcome of
summative assessment.

21
Shivani Gupta
REFRENCES:

1. Personal information online, Available:
http://tsegaygirmay.com/2010/09/15/teaching-and-learning-in-higher-
education-workshop-in-bahir-dar-university/ (Last accessed on 15 NOV
2012)

2. Tricia Hedge (2001), Teaching and Learning in the Language
Classroom Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp 137.

3. Barbara L.McCombs. (2000). Assessing the Role of Educational
Technology in the Teaching and Learning Process: A Learner-Centred
Perspective , The Learner-Centred Principles as a Framework

4. Toward a Psychology of Maslow Available:
www.Beingwww.businessballs.com leadership/management (Last
accessed 15 Nov 2012)
5. Frederick Herzberg motivational theory Available:
http://www.businessballs.com/herzberg.htm (Last accessed on 15 Nov
2012)