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Personality- A stable set of characteristics representing internal properties of an individual, which are

reflected in behavioral tendencies across variety of situations.


THE BIG 5 PERSONALITY TRAITS
Extraversion- The degree to which an individual is outgoing and derives energy from being around other
people.
Conscientiousness- The degree to which an individual focuses on goals and works toward them in a
disciplined way.
Agreeableness- The degree to which an individual is easygoing and tolerant.
Emotional Stability- The degree to which an individual easily handles stressful situations and heavy
demands.
Openness to Experience- The degree to which an individual seeks new experiences and thinks creatively
about the future.

Cognitive Properties- Properties of individuals perceptual and thought processes that affect how they
typically process information.
Motivational Properties- Stable differences in individuals that energize and maintain overt behaviors.

COGNITIVE CONCEPTS
Locus of Control- The degree to which an individual attributes control of events to self or external
factors.
Authoritarianism- The degree to which an individual believes in conventional values, obedience to
authority, and legitimacy of power differences in society.
Social Dominance- A general attitudinal orientation concerning whether one prefers social relationships
to be equal or to reflect status differences.
Self-Monitoring- The degree to which an individual attempts to present the image he or she thinks
others want to see in a given situation.



MOTIVATIONAL CONCEPTS
Achievement Motivation- The degree to which an individual desires to perform in terms of a standard
of excellence or to succeed in competitive situations.
Approval Motivation- The degree to which an individual is concerned about presenting himself or
herself in a socially desirable way in evaluative situations.

Intelligence- General mental ability to used in complex information processing.
Number Aptitude- the ability to handle mathematics.
Verbal Comprehension- the ability to understand written and spoken words.
Perceptual Speed- the ability to process visual data quickly.
Spatial Visualization- the ability to imagine a different physical configuration.
Deductive Reasoning- the ability to draw a conclusion or make a choice that logically follows from
existing assumptions and data.
Inductive Reasoning- the ability to identify, after observing specific cases or instances, the general rues
that govern a process or that explain an outcome.
Memory- the ability to store and recall previous experiences.

Attitudes- A persistent tendency to feel and behave in a favorable or unfavorable way toward a specific
person, object, or idea.
Affective Commitment- Organizational commitment due to ones strong positive attitudes toward the
organization.
Normative Commitment-Organizational commitment due to feelings of obligation.
Continuance Commitment- Organizational commitment due to lack of better opportunities.
Cognitive Dissonance- An uneasy feeling produced when a person behaves in a manner inconsistent
with an existing attitude.



Emotions- Complex subjective reactions that have both a physical and mental component.
Emotional Contagion- Phenomenon where emotions experienced by one or a few members of a work
group spread to other members.
Emotional Labor- The process whereby the associates must display emotions that are contrary to what
they are feeling.
Emotional Intelligence- The ability to accurately appraise ones own and others emotions, effectively
regulates ones own and others emotions, and use emotion t motivate, plan, and achieve.
Self-awareness- Associates with high self-awareness understand how their feelings, beliefs, and
behaviors affect themselves and others.
Self-regulation- The ability to control ones emotion.
Empathy- Effectively empathy means thoughtfully considering others feeling when making decisions
and weighting those feelings appropriately, along with other factors.
Social-skill- The ability to build effective relationships with the goal of moving people toward a desired
outcome.