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Introduction:

The word crime is derived from the Latin word krinos which means to accuse. it covers
those acts which are against social order and deserve disapprobation and condemnation of
society.
In General sense, crime means which violate law rules, regulation or which harmful or
destroy human society or resources or which create problems in human life.
The word Crime has not been defined in the Bangladesh Penal Code. In its broad sense,
however, it may be e!plained as an act of commission or omission which is harmful to
the society in general. But all acts tending to pre"udice the community are not crime
unless they are punishable under the law.
#ccording to $sborn, crime is an act or default which tends to the Pre"udice of the
community, and forbidden law on pain of punishment inflicted at the suit of the %tate. In
its legal sense, therefore, crime includes such offences being acts or defaults which have
been made punishable by the Bangladesh Penal code.
It is apparent from the above that there is nothing which by itself is a crime, unless it has
declared by the legislature as punishable.
Object of the Research paper:
The research was started with few ob"ects. They are mentioned below.
&. To find out the present conditions of Crime in Bangladesh
'. To find out the problem of Crime in Bangladesh
(. To )now whats the reason of crime increasing day by day.
*. To find out the solution of Crime problem in Bangladesh.
+. To )now the )nowledge of about crime and early concept of its.
Methodology
#s the ,esearch Paper is that -Some aspects of crime in Bangladesh. I have submitted
a critical review of the problems and the study intends to cover almost all the
circumstances that have an influence on defining the standards of #nd I also submitted
the recent report that is '.&. year and some previous year which is related about the legal
education and crime in Bangladesh with special/ %uggested solutions have also been
provided. To ma)e this research paper I have to collected t two types of data first one
definition of crime and second one some aspect crime in Bangladesh. Primary data have
been collected from the different sources of various persons such as legal authorities,
some e!perienced persons, the person who have research on the same topic. The
secondary data have been collected from various boo)s written by various e!perienced
scholars from some public universities and private universities and some website. These
two types of data have been combined to complete my research paper. In my
research Paper I also have shared the observations, comments and
recommendations of various authors.
Definition of Crime
#ccording to 0,.!ford #dvanced Learners dictionary activities that involve brea)ing
the law1
#ccording to Blac)s Law 2ictionary1 #n #ct that the ma)es punishable3 the breach of a
legal duty treated as the sub"ect matter of a criminal proceeding.
#ccording to Legal and Commercial %ection1 $rdinarily a crime is a wrong which affects
the security or well being of the public generally so that the public has an interest in its
suppression. # crime is fre4uently a moral wrong in that it amounts to conduct which is
inimical to the general moral sense of the community. It is, however, possible to instance
many crimes which e!hibit neither of the foregoing characteristics. #n act may be made
criminal by parliament simply because it is criminal process, rather than civil, which
offers the more effective means of controlling the conduct in 4uestion.
#ccording to 5enny - Crimes are wrongs whose sanction is punitive, and is in no way
remissible by any private person, but is remissible by the Crown alone, if remissible at
all/. But this definition has evo)ed criticism on the ground that there are indeed a number
of compoundable offences that are remissible by the consent of the parties.
6!pressing his view on definition of crime, ,oscoe Pound commented that -a final
definition of crime is impossible, because law is a living and changing thing, which may
at one time be based on sovereign will and at another time on "uristic science, which may
at one time be uniform and at another time give much room for "udicial discretion, which
may at one time be more specific in its prescription and at another time much more
general./
Cross 7 8ones define crime as a legal wrong the remedy for which is punishment of the
offender at the instance of the %tate.
8ohn Gillin defines crime as an act that has been shown to be actually harmful to the
society, or that is believed to be socially harmful by a group of people that has power to
enforce its beliefs and that places such at upon the ban of positive penalties. Thus he
considers crime as an offence against the Law of the Land.
#ccording to Blac)stone, a crime is an act committed or omitted in violation of a Public
Law either forbidding or commanding it. 9e, however, reali:ed at a later stage that this
definition may be proved to be misleading because it limits the scope of crime to
violations of a -Public Law/ which normally covers political offences such as offences
against the %tate. Therefore, he modified his definition of crime and stated,/ a crime is a
violation of the ;Public rights and duties due to the whole community, considered as a
community/.
%tephen, the editor of Blac)stones commentaries, further modified the above definition
and said -a crime is a violation of a right, considered in reference to the evil tendency of
such violation as regards the community at large/
Thus both, Blac)stone and %tephen stress that crimes are breaches of those lows which
in"ure the community.
%tephen further added that ;crime is an act which is both forbidden by law and revolting
to the moral sentiments of the %ociety/.
,e"ecting this "udicial concept of crime, the well )nown Italion criminologist ,affeale
Garofalo Preferred sociological definition of crime and stated that crime is an act which
offends the basic sentiments of ;pity and ;probity. <et another view about crime is to
treat it as an anti social behavior which is in"urious to society.
%upporting this contention %utherland characteri:es crime as a symptom of social
disorgani:ation. The tendency of modern sociological penologists is, therefore, to treat
crime as a social phenomenon which receives disapprobation of the society.
#ccording to 2onald Taft, ;Crime is a social in"ury and an e!pression of sub"ective
opinion varying in time and place/.
In the words 9alsbury, ; Crime as an unlawful act which is an offence against the public
and the perpetrator of that act is liable to legal punishment./
# precise definition of ;Crime is by no means an easy tas). Generally spea)ing, almost
all societies have certain norms, beliefs, customs and traditions which are implicitly
accepted by its members as conducive to their well=being and heathy all round
development. Infringement of these charished norms and customs is condemned as
antisocial behabiour. Thus many writers have behavior. Thus many writers have defined
;Crime as an antisocial, immoral, or sinful behaviour. 9owever, according to the legal
definition, ;Crime is any form of conduct which is declared to be socially harmful in a
%tate and as such forbidden by law under pain of some punishment.
>rom the foregoing definitions, it may be said that a crime is a wrong to society involving
the breach of a legal wrong which has criminal conse4uences attached to it i.e.
Prosecution by the %tate in the Criminal Court and the possibility of punishment being
imposed on the wrongdoer.
It is significant to note that though the legal definition of crime has been criticised
because of its relatively and variable content yet 9alsburys definition is perhaps the most
acceptable one as compared with other definitions because of its elaborate and specific
nature and element of certainty. It also provides for the machinery and produce to
determine the violations and to identify the offenders.
Criminal a!: "ature and #lements
The Importance of criminal law in relation to crime need hardly be emphasised. 2r #lleh
has defined law as something more than a mere command. 9e observed1 it is the force of
public opinion which attempts to enforce, as far as possible, good morals for the benefit
of the society and its members. ?arett views law as the authoritative regulation of social
relation. It therefore follows that law is a relative term and pervasive in nature. In other
words it is a varying concept which changes from society to society and time to time. The
divergence between the 9indu and ?ohammedan personal law of marriage, divorce,
succession, legitimacy, legislation on prohibition, abortion C$>6P$%#, etc can be cited
in support of this contention. Thus the criminal law of a place can be defined as the body
of special rules regulating human conduct promulgated by %tate and uniformly applicable
to all classes to which it refers and is enforced by punishment. It should, however, be
noted that law is simply a means to an end and should not be treated as an end it itself. Its
ultimate ob"ect is to secure ma!imum good of the community.
In order to be effecti$e% criminal la! must ha$e four important elements $i&%
@iA Politically3
@iiA %pecificity3
@iiiA Bniformity and
@ivA Penal sanction.
'olitically:
Politically implies that only the violation of rules made by the %tate are regarded as
crime.
Specificity:
%pecificity of criminal law connotes that it strictly defines the act to be treated as crime.
In other words, the provisions of criminal law should be stated in specific terms.
(niformity:
Bniformity of criminal law suggests its uniform application throughout the country
without any discrimination, thus imparting even handed "ustice to all ali)e. The purpose
is to eliminate "udicial description in the administration of criminal law. It must however
be noted that recent legislations are providing scope for more and more "udicial discretion
through "udicial e4uity to attain offenders reformation which is the ultimate goal of
criminal "ustice.
'enal Sanction:
>inally, its is through penal sanctions imposed under the criminal law that the members
of society are deterred from committing crime. Co law can possibly be effective without
ade4uate penal sanctions.
Classification of Crimes
The e!istence of crime in a society is a challenge to its members due to its deleterious
effect on the ordered social growth. In fact, it leads to a colossal waste of human energy
and an enormous economic loss. Therefore, with the advance in the field of criminology
and behavioral sciences, efforts are being constantly made to wor) out a commonly
acceptable classification of crimes and criminals for providing a rational basis of
punishment for various categories of offenders.
)here are a $ariety of crimes such as *
Diolent personal crimes3
$ccasional property crimes3
$ccupational crimes3
Political crimes3
Public order crimes3
Conventional crimes, $rganised crimes3
Professional crimes3
Ehite collar crimes3
%e!ual crimes3
Crimes against property3
Crimes against person3
Crimes against decency3
Crimes against public order etc.
Broadly spea+ing% these may be categorised into three heads% mainly%
&. I. $ffences falling under Code of Criminal Procedure3
'. II. $ffences under local or special laws or enactments.
%ome writers have preferred to classify crimes into=
egal Crimes:
Legal crimes can be termed as traditional crimes such as=
Theft3
,obbery3
2ocoity3
,ape3
9urt and
,ioting etc.
'olitical Offences:
The Political offences are those which are motivated politically or committed in the
violation of the election Laws or norms set out for the politicians in course of their
political activities or to achieve something by way of illegal means.
#conomic Crimes:
)he #conomic crimes include !hite collar offences such as ,
Te!3
6vasion3
%muggling3
Prostitution3
Gambling3
>oreign e!change violations3
Social Crimes:
%ocial crimes are those which are committed under social legislation such as=
The Child ?arriage ,estraint #ct, &FGH3
The Protection of civil ,ights #ct, &F++3
The Immoral Traffic #ct, &F+I3
The Indecent ,epresentation of women #ct, &FHI3
The 2owry Prohibition #ct, &FI&3
The 8uvenile 8ustice #ct, '...3
The %cheduled Castes and %chedule Tribes #ct, &FHF etc.
Characteristics of Crime
There are certain characteristics of a crime which ma)e an unlawful act or omission
punishable under the law of the land. The main characteristics of a crime are as follows
&. 6!ternal conse4uences1 Crimes always have a harmful impact on society may it
be social, personal, emotional or mental.
'. #ct1 there should be an act or omission to constitute a crime. Intention or mens=
rea alone shall not constitute a crime followed by some e!ternal act Generally,
omitting to do will not amount to actus reus or an offence. The criminal law
punishes individuals for positive conduct and not for inaction. There are however,
some notable e!ceptions. >or e!ample, a police officer may, a duty to act to
prevent an assault and if he does not, he will be liable to be punished under the
law.
?ens=rea or guilty mind= ?ens=rea is one of the essential ingredients of a crime. It may,
however, be direct or implied.
Insanity under Bangladeshi Criminal a!
Bnder the Penal Code of Bangladesh insanity has been accepted as a defence to a charge
of crime. %ection H* of the Penal Code of Bangladesh give immunity from criminal
liability to a person, who, by reason of unsoundness of mind, is unable to )now the nature
of the act or is unable to )now that he is doing either wrong or contrary to law/. In
recognising a state of mind on the part of the accused as a complete defence criminal
responsibility, the law postulates that it is futile to punish a person who does not )now the
nature of his act, or that what he is doing is either wrong or contrary to law. -The mind, in
the real sense, does not accompany the physical act. To punish the conduct of such a
person would be abuse of law without any practical utility. If a person does not possess
)nowledge about the nature of the act, then he will not appreciate what he is being
punished for. #nd, if he does not appreciate that much, then the ob"ective of punishment
will not be achieved. In fact, punishment is intended to ac1 on the mind of the person
punished and to alter the direction in which his mind has been wor)ing so far. If the mind
was not in substance a party to the conduct, then the 4uestion of changing the direction of
mind cannot arise.
In cases where the defence of insanity is set up under %ection H* of P.C., it is
material to consider the circumstances which have preceded, attended and followed the
crime3 whether there was deliberation and preparation for the act, whether it was done in
a manner which showed a desire to concealment of consciousness of guilt and whether
the accused made any efforts to avoid detection and whether after arrest he offered false
e!cuses or made false statements etc.
Ehere in the morning the accused behaved normally, went to and came from his
office alone, wrote an application for leave and at .&.*+ P? )illed a child and stabbed
two others and on his arrest soon after '.*+ pm gave normal and intelligent answers to the
Investigative officers, it was held that the accused was not insane at the time of
commission of offence and therefore can not be allowed the defence of insanity under
section H* of penal code.
Some crimes of Bangladesh :
Bangladesh is a small and poor country. It has many problems li)e, poverty, illiteracy,
unemployment, over population etc. %o, many cases crimes are related or create to this
problem. %uch as Theft, 2acoity Terrorism, 8uvenile delin4uency, %muggling, >raud,
Diolation of human rights, Illegal drug manufacturing etc.
"o! discuss in belo! some aspect of crime !hich happened in Bangladesh
a$ailable:
)heft:
#ccording to section (GH of penal code, theft means= whoever, intending to ta)e
dishonesty any movable property out of the possession of any person without that persons
consent, moves that property in order of such ta)ing said to commit heft.
Theft is a highly organi:ed criminal activity effecting the whole word. theft may be
mobile phone, ornaments, any valuable product etc.
-ollo! a chart of registered cases:
<ear Cumber of $ffence
'..I H'(*
'..G HI.+
'..H H&.&
'..F H(('
'.&. &'.&+
%ource1 Bangladesh Police Eebsite .
.uto theft:
The purposes of the groups related to auto theft are numerous. JIhe vehicles are not only
stolen for their own sa)e3 sometimes they are traffic)ed to finance other crimes. They can
also be used as bomb carriers or in the perpetration of other crimes.
The Interpol General %ecretariat has developed the #utomated %earch >acility=%tolen
?otor Dehicle @#%>=%?DA database to support police in member countries in the fight
against international vehicle theft and traffic)ing. #t the end of 8une '..G, the database
held more than (.H million records of reported stolen motor vehicles, dose to &*I
countries use the database regularly. $f these, &&+ countries have shared their national
stolen vehicle database records with Interpol.
?ore than &I,... motor vehicles were discovered worldwide until 8une '..G through the
#%>=%?D database.
<ear Cumber of Dehicles %tolen
'..( '*FH+*(
'..* 'I..''G
'..+ 'I*&(IF
'..I 'G.'G..
'..G ('(IIH+
'..H ('FI'I(
'..F (IGGHFH
'.&. @up to 8uneA (H&&G+G
%ource1 Interpol website
Drug )raffic+ing :
#lcoholism and drug addiction maybe conceptuali:ed as crime without vitamin addict
himself is the victim who become a pry of its mires. It gives rise to criminality and
criminal behaviour which eventually leads of social disorgani:ation. Though alcoholism
and drug addiction are victimless crime, they do carry with them secondary victims such
as family dependents, friends, ac4uairetance etc.
The drug trade invades growers, producers covriers, suppliers, dealers and useps, The
glabal abuse of dregs and the drug fraffic)ing situation in becoming more comple!, in
part due to political and economic changes arourd the world which have led to
increasingly open borders between many counties.
#mong the organi:ed activities, illegal drags cannabis, cocaine, heroin, synthetic
drugs are related to the crimes of drug traffio)ing. To days Bangladesh, illegal drugs are
available. ?en are going to destroy for this illegal drugs. They commit many )inds of
crime for effect of crime. >ollow a statistics of drug traffic)ing1
<ear Cumber of drug traffic)ing
'..+
'..I
'..G
'..H
'..F
'+.F+*'
'GH.IG
'IF(+(
'F,*+*F
'H.(+F
%o its says that as Bangladesh perspective drug traffic)ing is big crime, because
%pecially its destroys our young generation, where create family problem, %ocial
problem, %tate problem.
Cyber crimes :
In General since cyber crime can be defined as the use of computer technology to
commit crime. There are some offences which can be committed by using computer only
but with the assistance of information and communication technology the area of crime
has become wider and various crimes can be included in this aree of crime of twenty first
century.
Some of the notable reasons of cyber crimes:*
&A 6!pertise of offenders in technology.
'A 2ifficulties for the comminssiom of crimes in ordnary way
(A increasing dependence on computers and information technology
*A Carelessness and onslilled be haviour of users of computers and internet
+A Problems in identification of offenders.
Cyber crime can be drided in to t!o broad categories :
&A Crimes where computer used as a tool of offence
'A Crimes where computer used as a target of offence.
)ypes of Cyber crime :
There are different types of cyber crime. %uch as1
>inancial crimes, Cyber pornography, sale of illegal articles, online gambling. Intellectual
property crimes, >orgery, Cyber defamation, theft of information contained in electronic
form, data diddling, virus attac)s, web "ac)ing, theft of computer system etc.
The parliament of Bangladesh has enacted Information and communication
Technology #ct, '..I which defines certain activities as crime. These activities are1 &A
?ischief of computer and computer system.
Cyber Crime : Bangladesh 'erspecti$e:
The parliament of Bangladesh has enacted Information and Communication Technology
#ct, 'C.I which defines certain activities as crime. %o we can say that, the activities
which made punishable under the Information and Technology #ct of '..I shall be the
cyber crimes for the territory of Bangladesh. These activities are=
&. ?ischief of computer and computer system.
'. #lteration of source code of computer.
(. 9ac)ing in computer system.
*. Publication of false, indecent and defamatory statement or information in electronic
form.
+. #ccess in reserve system
I. >alse representation and concealment of information.
G. >alse electronic signature certificate.
H. Transmission of secrecy.
F. 2isclosing electronic signature for cheating.
&.. Committing crime through computer.
/uman )reaffic+ing:
This illicit trade in persons is a multimillion=dollar, criminally organi:ed global industry.
The traffic)ing of human beings is the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or
receipt of people for the purpose of e!ploitation. Traffic)ing involves a process of using
illicit means such as threat, use of force, or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of
fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability.
/uman traffic+ing: Scenario of Bangladesh
The present situation in Bangladesh, however, is becoming more complicated.
Bangladesh is identified as a source country from where about &.,... to '.,... women
and girls are traffic)ed annually to India, Pa)istan, Bahrain, 5uwait and the B#6 for the
purposes of se!ual e!ploitation, involuntary domestic servitude and debt bondage.
Bangladesh is a source and transit country for men, women, and children for the purposes
of se!ual e!ploitation, involuntary domestic servitude, child camel "oc)eying, and debt
bondage.
)errorism:
Terrorism which was a domestic disaster or at best crisis of a few states, is now
considered as a threat to global peace and security.
Some Major )errorist Incidents in Bangladesh
Bangladesh has been facing terrorist activities since its inception. The last decade
witnessed some ma"or incidents that got international attention. 9ere is a list of terrorist
incidents from &FFI though the number of incidents is more than these mentioned here.
<ear ?onth Terrorist incidents
&FF' %eptember #bduction and )illing of (. bangli people by a rebellion
group of shanti bahini.
&FF( $ctober Bomb blasting at the mos4ue of Ahmadia @5hulnaA
&FF* ?arch Bomb blasting in a cultural programme at 8essore.
&FF+ 8uly #ttempt to )ill former Prime ?inister %hei)h 9asina at
Gopalgon".
&FFI #pril Bomb blasting at Carayangon" Awami League office
&FFG 2ecember %eries bomb blasting at four cinema hall of ?ymensingh.
&FFH %eptember #ttac)ing police camp and )illing * police personnel at
Bel)uchi of %hera"gon" by Purba Bangla Communist Party.
&FFF ?arch %eries bomb blasting at 5hulna.
'... ?arch Bomb blasting at International Trade >air, 5hulna.
'..& 8anuary 5illing of H villagers by bomb attac) at Tangail.
'..' #ugust Grenade attac) in the public meeting of former Prime
?inister %hei)h 9asina. &F persons were )illed and another
'.. were in"ured.
'..( ?ay Collision between Purba Bangla Communist Party and
Ganomukti Foitj Cadre.
'..* ?ay Grenade attac) on #nwar 9ossain, the British 9igh
Commissioner at the shrine of %hah"alal @,ahA, %hylhet.
'..+ 2ecember %uicidal bomb attac) in front of the Udichi Shanskritik
Goshti Cetro)ona.
'..I Covember 5illing of two "udges of 8hala)athi by the member of suicidal
s4uad of 8?B.
'..G $ctober 5illing of + member of Bangladesh Cationalist Party by the
member of Purba Bangla. Communist Party !"anajuddha#.
'..H #ugust, &G %eries bomb blasting in the I. districts of Bangladesh at a
time within the short span of (. minutes. #bout +.. bombs
were e!ploded by the member of 8?B Kamatul ?u"ahidin
BangladeshA.
'..F 8anuary Grenade attac) on former minister # ? % 5ibria at public
meeting, 9obigon".
'..&. 8une Collision between ,#B and Purba Bangla Communist Party.
0iolation of !omen rights:
In todays Bangladesh, violation of women rights is a ma"or problem. Eomen are
placed at various disadvantageous positions due to gender discrimination and bias. In the
male dominated society, women have been victims of violence and e!ploitations. There
are thousands of women who are sub"ected to various )inds of violence within their
domestic home. The domestic violence manifests as verbal, physical or psychological
abuse of women.
The role of women in Bangladesh is confined to that of a daughter, housewife and
mother. Bnfortunately women are not safe even within the four walls of their homes.
9ousewifes are sub"ected to psychological and physical torture irrespective of their
economic, status, religion, caste and creed.
>ollow a chart of Cruelty to women of registered cases.
<ear Cumber of Cruelty to Eomen
'..I '.'*'
'..G &'H&+
'..H &&*'I
'..F &&.IH
'.&. &*'+.
%ource 1 Bangladesh Police website.
Eomen are vulnerable to acts of violence in the family which include feticide,
infanticide, marital cruelty, dowry, murder, child abuse, incest, battering etc. #t the
community level, they face violence in the form of rape, se!ual harassment, eve=teasing,
traffic)ing and se!ual discrimination. # murderer destroys the physical body of his victim
but a rapist degrades the very soul of helpless female. >ollow chart where women are
sub"ected to rape or eve=teasing or se!ual harassment1
<ear of '.&. Dictim
?ay &I
8une 'G
8uly (&
#ugust 'H
%eptember (I
%ource 1 The daily news paper ;Bangladesh Protidin
2ate 1 '( $ctober, '.&..
Giving of dowry in the marriage of a daughter is an age old crime in Bangladesh. $f late,
the greed for ac4uiring more and more property in the form of dowry has reached a stage
when married women are sub"ected to physical and mental torture by the husband or her
in laws for non=fulfillment of the demand of dowry by girls parents. ?any a time this
torture leads to unnatural death of the married women or she is compelled by
circumstances to commit suicide.
In a word violation of women rights are increasing day by day where women are affected
in house or wor)place, or mar)et or road. The cause of these crimes is lac)ing of proper
educations, and lac)ing of enforcement of law or lac)ing of security.
Suggested changes in Criminal a! 1 'rocedure
>rom the point of view of social perspective and suppression of criminality, the following
changes in the Bangladesh criminal law and procedure may be suggested to ma)e it
responsive to the needs of the %ociety of Bangladesh=
@iA The e!isting law does not sufficiently provide for reparation or compensation to
victims of the crime for in"uries caused or loss suffered by them due to the offenders
criminal act. Punishment of the accused may offer some consolation to the victim but it
offers no pecuniary satisfaction to him. It is, therefore, desired that compensation be
awarded to the in"ured parties particularly, in cases of crime relating to property. The
payment of compensation may be made from the money recovered by the %tate from the
offender by way of fine.
'. %alving 1 -,ule of law in Criminal 8ustice/ in 6%%#<% IC C,I?IC#L %CI6CC6
@&FI& 6d.A Chap. +
@iiA The e!istence of double sets of law for creation offences present difficulties for the
magistracy to determine punishment for offenders in such cases. To ta)e a concrete
illustration , the law relating to bribery in Bangladesh. is governed by two different sets
of laws, namely. %ection &I& of the Bangladesh Penal Code and the prevention of
corruption #ct, &FHH. %o also in the case with the offences relating to traffic)ing in girls
and minors for immortal and illegal purposes.
@iiiA In view of the changed socio=economic conditions of the present time, there is an
urgent need to re=classify the offences contained in the Bangladesh Penal Code. Eith the
growing political indiscipline in the country and criminalisation of Bangladesh politics, it
has become necessary that political offences be included in the Penal Code under a
separate chapter.
@ivACrimes relating to person should be punished with a term of imprisonment while
those relating to property should be punished with fine or reparation of damages to the
affected parties. Bnnecessarily long terms of sentences should be avoided to ma)e
rehabilitation of the offender possible after his release. Li)ewise, too short a sentence will
also defeat the ob"ect of punishment.
@vAThe modern western trend favours deletion of all such offences from the Penal Code
which are solely dependent on morality. Thus in 6ngland, homose!uality is no longer an
affiance if committed in non=public place. %o is the case with gambling and -%atta/ etc.
which have become a common menace these days. It is true that there are many offences
which can not be suppressed by legal penalties alone unless the members of society
voluntarily begin to thin) that what they are doing is morally wrong and against social
interest.
@viAThough the 9abitual offenders #ct in various %tates provide for regulatory measures
such as reporting by the habitual offender about his whereabouts or residence at fi!ed
intervals, domiciliary visits of police officers to the residence of potential offenders,
e!ternment, security bond under section &&. of the Code of Criminal Procedure, &FG(,
etc.
@viiA#s to the retention or abolition of capital punishment the generally accepted view is
that its abolition should not be over emphasi:ed. The retention of death sentence
undoubtedly serves as an efficient deterrent for recidivists and hardened criminals. The
retention of this penalty in the statute boo) is further there "ustified on the ground of
protection of society from dangerous and incorrigible offenders. It would therefore , be
e!pedient to retain death penalty, though in practice, it may be sparingly used in rarest of
rare cases as held by the supreme court in historic case of Bachan %ingh Ds %tate of
Pun"ab.
@viiiA It has been reali:ed that vagrancy may be a potentia
#ccording to 0,.!ford #dvanced Learners dictionary activities that involve brea)ing
the law1
#ccording to Blac)s Law 2ictionary1 #n #ct that the ma)es punishable3 the breach of a
legal duty treated as the sub"ect matter of a criminal proceeding.
#ccording to Legal and Commercial %ection1 $rdinarily a crime is a wrong which affects
the security or well being of the public generally so that the public has an interest in its
suppression. # crime is fre4uently a moral wrong in that it amounts to conduct which is
inimical to the general moral sense of the community. It is, however, possible to instance
many crimes which e!hibit neither of the foregoing characteristics. #n act may be made
criminal by parliament simply because it is criminal process, rather than civil, which
offers the more effective means of controlling the conduct in 4uestion.
#ccording to 5enny - Crimes are wrongs whose sanction is punitive, and is in no way
remissible by any private person, but is remissible by the Crown alone, if remissible at
all/. But this definition has evo)ed criticism on the ground that there are indeed a number
of compoundable offences that are remissible by the consent of the parties.
6!pressing his view on definition of crime, ,oscoe Pound commented that -a final
definition of crime is impossible, because law is a living and changing thing, which may
at one time be based on sovereign will and at another time on "uristic science, which may
at one time be uniform and at another time give much room for "udicial discretion, which
may at one time be more specific in its prescription and at another time much more
general./
Cross 7 8ones define crime as a legal wrong the remedy for which is punishment of the
offender at the instance of the %tate.
8ohn Gillin defines crime as an act that has been shown to be actually harmful to the
society, or that is believed to be socially harmful by a group of people that has power to
enforce its beliefs and that places such at upon the ban of positive penalties. Thus he
considers crime as an offence against the Law of the Land.
#ccording to Blac)stone, a crime is an act committed or omitted in violation of a Public
Law either forbidding or commanding it. 9e, however, reali:ed at a later stage that this
definition may be proved to be misleading because it limits the scope of crime to
violations of a -Public Law/ which normally covers political offences such as offences
Causes of 2u$enile Delin3uency in Bangladesh
# considerable segment of people of this country are very poor. Parents want their
children to assist them in wor) field instead of going to educational institutions. %ome
times parents cannot provide their children with all basic necessities of human life,
specifically food and clothing. Then the poor children set their legs out towards criminal
activities. The children do not )now which activities are lawful and which are not. They
re4uire some wor) which can provide their food and clothing. $rganised gangs deploy
poor children in criminal activities by ta)ing advantage of their vulnerable economic
condition. %tatistics show that, huge number of poor children @under &I years of ageA of
8essore and 5hulna has been deployed in carrying Phensydil, and other contraband drugs.
%ome poor children become members of pic) poc)et gangs and petty thievery.
%urrounding environment of slum area, smuggling :one and crime prone areas are very
vulnerable for the "uveniles. Ehen residing in such areas "uveniles come in contact with
criminal pattern and learn criminal techni4ues, then they become notorious criminals.
#ction movies and obscene pictures have negative impact on the mind set of the
"uveniles. The violence and se!uality visualised in the movies ma)e the "uvenile to go
brothel and involvee them with activities.
/uman )reaffic+ing:
This illicit trade in persons is a multimillion=dollar, criminally organi:ed global industry.
The traffic)ing of human beings is the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or
receipt of people for the purpose of e!ploitation. Traffic)ing involves a process of using
illicit means such as threat, use of force, or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of
fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability.
/uman traffic+ing: Scenario of Bangladesh
The present situation in Bangladesh, however, is becoming more complicated.
Bangladesh is identified as a source country from where about &.,... to '.,... women
and girls are traffic)ed annually to India, Pa)istan, Bahrain, 5uwait and the B#6 for the
purposes of se!ual e!ploitation, involuntary domestic servitude and debt bondage.
Bangladesh is a source and transit country for men, women, and children for the purposes
of se!ual e!ploitation, involuntary domestic servitude, child camel "oc)eying, and debt
bondage.
)errorism:
Terrorism which was a domestic disaster or at best crisis of a few states, is now
considered as a threat to global peace and security.
Definition of )errorism
Terrorism has been a ma"or concern in the politico=economic arena of the recent world,
particularly after the massacre of llth %eptember '..& The old adage, 4$ne mans
terrorist is other mans freedom fighter is still alive and well.
8ames ?. Poland views that -terrorism is the premeditated, deliberate, systematic murder,
mayhem, and threating of the innocent to create fear and intimidation in order to gain a
political or tactical advantage, usually to influence a audience.
Ehile terrorism is usually meant to be an act of an organi:ed group of people, or small
group of miscreants, it may also be government controlled or directed. %imilarly, while
terrorist activity sometimes confined within some locality, scope of terrorist activity may
also be e!tended beyond the national boundary. There are several types of motivation
behind the terrorist activities. >or e!ample, ideological terrorism aims at the
revolutionary change of social structures. 6thno=national terrorism strives for the
liberation of certain territory. Dery lately, there is an increasing dominance of religiously
motivated terrorism.
)ypes of )errorist Incidents
.ere are several popular ways of conducting terrorist activities. Eith the passage of time
and development of science and technology, terrorist groups also changed their strategies
and ways of performing activities Todays terrorist groups are financially well=off,
technologically s)illed and more organi:ed than any other time of the historyLThe most
common types of terrorist incidents include1
Bombing
5idnappings and 9otage Ta)ings
#rmed #ttac)s and #ssassinatioins
#rons and >ire bombings
9i"ac)ings and %)y"ac)ings
?urder
,obbery
,ioting
>ollow a chart of ?urder of registered cases.
<ear Cumber of ?urder
'..I
'..G
(*G&
(F.'
'..H
'..F
'.&.
(+F'
*&II
(HI(
%ource1 Bangladesh Police Eebsite
>ollow a chart of ,ioting of registered cases.
<ear Cumber of ,ioting
'..I
'..G
'..H
'..F
'.&.
HF.
G+*
+G.
+G.
'I(
%ource1 Bangladesh Police Eebsite
>ollow a chart of ,obbery of registered cases.
<ear Cumber of ,obbery
'..(I
'..G
'..H
'..F
'.&.
&&G.
&'.G
HFH
H*(
&'FH
%ource1 Bangladesh Police Eebsite
)errorism in Bangladesh :
In general,= teroorism in Bangladesh is not as severe as that in some of the other countries
in %outh #sia. This does not, however, mean that Bangladesh is 4uite free from terrorism.
Bangladesh also has to bear a large cost out of terrorism. 9owever, nature and severity of
terrorism in Bangladesh is somewhat different from that in othercountries in this region.
%everal types of terrorist activities have been observed in Bangladesh. The most severe
type of terrorism is associated with activities of the groups who are ideologically and
politically motivated. This includes1
M activities of outlawed political parties,
M threat from the terrorist group of fundamentalists and
M the terrorism in the Chittagong 9ill Tracts.
?a"ority of the people in Bangladesh is believes in the religion of Islam., They are
basically peace=loving ?uslims who do not support any terrorist activity. L2espite this, a
very small group of Islamic fundamentalist who had been alleged to be involved in many
terrorist activities in the past few years also e!ists This group is called 9ar)at=ul=8ehadie=
Islami, who is committed to establish Islamic hukumat in Bangladesh. This e!tremist
group is believed to have close lin)s with Pa)istan. They were also believed to have a
close tie with Talibans.
The most common terrorism in Bangladesh is the terrorist activities of the miscreant that
is associated with deterioration in the law and order situation. The miscreants become
violent to the civilian population to have unlawful possession over their money and
property. The $mastans% e!erts threat, physical torture, and force on the innocent people to
compel them to surrender to their unlawful will. %evere unemployment problem, influ! of
illegal weapon, patronage from the political parties, along with the inade4uate, inefficient
and corrupt role of the law enforcing agencies are responsible for the rise of general
$mastanism% in the country. Common people of Bangladesh have become captives by the
miscreants.
Some Major )errorist Incidents in Bangladesh
Bangladesh has been facing terrorist activities since its inception. The last decade
witnessed some ma"or incidents that got international attention. 9ere is a list of terrorist
incidents from &FFI though the number of incidents is more than these mentioned here.
<ear ?onth Terrorist incidents
&FF' %eptember #bduction and )illing of (. bangli people by a rebellion
group of shanti bahini.
&FF( $ctober Bomb blasting at the mos4ue of Ahmadia @5hulnaA
&FF* ?arch Bomb blasting in a cultural programme at 8essore.
&FF+ 8uly #ttempt to )ill former Prime ?inister %hei)h 9asina at
Gopalgon".
&FFI #pril Bomb blasting at Carayangon" Awami League office
&FFG 2ecember %eries bomb blasting at four cinema hall of ?ymensingh.
&FFH %eptember #ttac)ing police camp and )illing * police personnel at
Bel)uchi of %hera"gon" by Purba Bangla Communist Party.
&FFF ?arch %eries bomb blasting at 5hulna.
'... ?arch Bomb blasting at International Trade >air, 5hulna.
'..& 8anuary 5illing of H villagers by bomb attac) at Tangail.
'..' #ugust Grenade attac) in the public meeting of former Prime
?inister %hei)h 9asina. &F persons were )illed and another
'.. were in"ured.
'..( ?ay Collision between Purba Bangla Communist Party and
Ganomukti Foitj Cadre.
'..* ?ay Grenade attac) on #nwar 9ossain, the British 9igh
Commissioner at the shrine of %hah"alal @,ahA, %hylhet.
'..+ 2ecember %uicidal bomb attac) in front of the Udichi Shanskritik
Goshti Cetro)ona.
'..I Covember 5illing of two "udges of 8hala)athi by the member of suicidal
s4uad of 8?B.
'..G $ctober 5illing of + member of Bangladesh Cationalist Party by the
member of Purba Bangla. Communist Party !"anajuddha#.
'..H #ugust, &G %eries bomb blasting in the I. districts of Bangladesh at a
time within the short span of (. minutes. #bout +.. bombs
were e!ploded by the member of 8?B Kamatul ?u"ahidin
BangladeshA.
'..F 8anuary Grenade attac) on former minister # ? % 5ibria at public
meeting, 9obigon".
'..&. 8une Collision between ,#B and Purba Bangla Communist Party.
Dacoity :
#ccording to section (F& of penal code when five or more persons con"ointly commit or
attempt to commit a robbery, or whoever the whole number of persons co"ointly
committing or attempting to commit a robbery, and persons present and aiding such
commission or attempt, amount to five or more every person so committing, attempting
or aiding, is said to commit -dacoity/.
In today5s Bangladesh its said that dacoity is a common crime6 -ollo! a chart of
registered cases:
<ear Cumber of 2acoity
'..I F*F
'..G HH+
'..H GFI
'..F GF+
'.&. &.*G
Source Bangladesh 'olice !ebsite6
)he main reason of dacoity is po$erty% illiteracy% drug addiction% etc6
0iolation of Children Rights:
Diolation of children rights are common crime in Bangladesh. Children are affected by
terrorism, communal violence, riots, natural disaster, domestic violence, se! abuse,
traffic)ing, maltreatment, torture and e!ploitation, pornography, prostitution etc. To
protection of children rights should establish children rights accurately.
>ollow a chart of Child abuse of registered cases.
<ear Cumber of Child #buse
'..I *G+
'..G +.(
'..H +++
'..F II'
'.&. FIG
Source: Bangladesh 'olice !ebsite6
0iolation of !omen rights:
In todays Bangladesh, violation of women rights is a ma"or problem. Eomen are
placed at various disadvantageous positions due to gender discrimination and bias. In the
male dominated society, women have been victims of violence and e!ploitations. There
are thousands of women who are sub"ected to various )inds of violence within their
domestic home. The domestic violence manifests as verbal, physical or psychological
abuse of women.
The role of women in Bangladesh is confined to that of a daughter, housewife and
mother. Bnfortunately women are not safe even within the four walls of their homes.
9ousewifes are sub"ected to psychological and physical torture irrespective of their
economic, status, religion, caste and creed.
>ollow a chart of Cruelty to women of registered cases.
<ear Cumber of Cruelty to Eomen
'..I '.'*'
'..G &'H&+
'..H &&*'I
'..F &&.IH
'.&. &*'+.
%ource 1 Bangladesh Police website.
Eomen are vulnerable to acts of violence in the family which include feticide,
infanticide, marital cruelty, dowry, murder, child abuse, incest, battering etc. #t the
community level, they face violence in the form of rape, se!ual harassment, eve=teasing,
traffic)ing and se!ual discrimination. # murderer destroys the physical body of his victim
but a rapist degrades the very soul of helpless female. >ollow chart where women are
sub"ected to rape or eve=teasing or se!ual harassment1
<ear of '.&. Dictim
?ay &I
8une 'G
8uly (&
#ugust 'H
%eptember (I
%ource 1 The daily news paper ;Bangladesh Protidin
2ate 1 '( $ctober, '.&..
Giving of dowry in the marriage of a daughter is an age old crime in Bangladesh. $f late,
the greed for ac4uiring more and more property in the form of dowry has reached a stage
when married women are sub"ected to physical and mental torture by the husband or her
in laws for non=fulfillment of the demand of dowry by girls parents. ?any a time this
torture leads to unnatural death of the married women or she is compelled by
circumstances to commit suicide.
In a word violation of women rights are increasing day by day where women are affected
in house or wor)place, or mar)et or road. The cause of these crimes is lac)ing of proper
educations, and lac)ing of enforcement of law or lac)ing of security.
Bribery :
#ccording to section &G& B of penal code=
@&A Ehoever =
@iA Gives a gratification to any person with the ob"ect of including him or
any other person to e!ercise any electoral right or of rewarding any person for having
e!ercised any such right, or
@iiA #ccepts either for himself or for any other person any gratification as a
reward for e!ercising any such right or for inducing or attempting to induce any other
person to e!ercise any such right.
Commits the offence of bribery :
Provided that a declaration of public policy or a promise of public action shall not be an
offence under this sections.
@'A # person who offers, or agrees to give, or offers or attempts to procure, a gratification
shall be deemed to give a gratification.
@(A # person who obtains or agrees to accept a gratification, and a person who accepts a
gratification as a motive for doing what he does not intend to do, or as a reward for doing
what he has not done, shall be deemed to have accepted the gratification as a reward.
In Bangladesh bribery is a common crime. Ehich happened available. In business,
government wor)places or to en"oy legal rights bribery is a common crime where
ma"ority of #uthorities or wor)man dont do wor) without bribery. >or this reason person
or client fall in problem. There are most of the times law authority or administration
department cant get any action against bribery.
%o this illegal wor) should stop specially for sa)e of poor or helpless people.
Crime 're$ention
The mounting toll of criminality and alarming rise in "uvenile delin4uency has become a
problems of national concern all over the world. ?ost countries now recogni:e that
prevention of crime and treatment of offenders is not an isolated problem that social
defence and correction can not be cosidered as unrelated to the total culture and the social
and economic fabric of society. This is evident from the fact that the -battle against crime
does not end at the court room door but continues through imprisonment to release and
beyond./
Currently, the approach of penologists to crime prevention centers round five ma"or
considerations, namely1
@iAThe offender is essentially a human being. Therefore, greater stress should be on
individuali:ation of the offender for his reformation3
@iiA The ob"ect of imprisonment is to bring about prisoners re=socialisation through the
process of rehabilitation.
@iiiA There is greater need for legislative participation in the shaping of correctional
policy and sub"ection of correctional theory and practice to rule of law in the
administration of criminal "ustice.
@ivA Control of delin4uency implies ecological interpretation of sociological problems.
Therefore, in order to hold in chec) the incidence of crime, the conditions conducive to
criminality must also be )ept under control.
@vAThere is need for ;sociali:ing the administration of criminal "ustice by greater public
participation and intervention by representatives of the community, both in criminal court
proceeding and in the e!ecution of sentences. Thus, criminal "ustice and the community
must be brought closer together, since those who "udge and those who are "udged are both
parts of the same society. %ocial participation in the administration of criminal "ustice is
possible through introduction of "ury system, honorary magistrates, peoples assessors,
technical advisers and administrative Boards.
Suggested changes in Criminal a! 1 'rocedure
>rom the point of view of social perspective and suppression of criminality, the following
changes in the Bangladesh criminal law and procedure may be suggested to ma)e it
responsive to the needs of the %ociety of Bangladesh=
@iA The e!isting law does not sufficiently provide for reparation or compensation to
victims of the crime for in"uries caused or loss suffered by them due to the offenders
criminal act. Punishment of the accused may offer some consolation to the victim but it
offers no pecuniary satisfaction to him. It is, therefore, desired that compensation be
awarded to the in"ured parties particularly, in cases of crime relating to property. The
payment of compensation may be made from the money recovered by the %tate from the
offender by way of fine.
'. %alving 1 -,ule of law in Criminal 8ustice/ in 6%%#<% IC C,I?IC#L %CI6CC6
@&FI& 6d.A Chap. +
@iiA The e!istence of double sets of law for creation offences present difficulties for the
magistracy to determine punishment for offenders in such cases. To ta)e a concrete
illustration , the law relating to bribery in Bangladesh. is governed by two different sets
of laws, namely. %ection &I& of the Bangladesh Penal Code and the prevention of
corruption #ct, &FHH. %o also in the case with the offences relating to traffic)ing in girls
and minors for immortal and illegal purposes.
@iiiA In view of the changed socio=economic conditions of the present time, there is an
urgent need to re=classify the offences contained in the Bangladesh Penal Code. Eith the
growing political indiscipline in the country and criminalisation of Bangladesh politics, it
has become necessary that political offences be included in the Penal Code under a
separate chapter.
@ivACrimes relating to person should be punished with a term of imprisonment while
those relating to property should be punished with fine or reparation of damages to the
affected parties. Bnnecessarily long terms of sentences should be avoided to ma)e
rehabilitation of the offender possible after his release. Li)ewise, too short a sentence will
also defeat the ob"ect of punishment.
@vAThe modern western trend favours deletion of all such offences from the Penal Code
which are solely dependent on morality. Thus in 6ngland, homose!uality is no longer an
affiance if committed in non=public place. %o is the case with gambling and -%atta/ etc.
which have become a common menace these days. It is true that there are many offences
which can not be suppressed by legal penalties alone unless the members of society
voluntarily begin to thin) that what they are doing is morally wrong and against social
interest.
@viAThough the 9abitual offenders #ct in various %tates provide for regulatory measures
such as reporting by the habitual offender about his whereabouts or residence at fi!ed
intervals, domiciliary visits of police officers to the residence of potential offenders,
e!ternment, security bond under section &&. of the Code of Criminal Procedure, &FG(,
etc.
@viiA#s to the retention or abolition of capital punishment the generally accepted view is
that its abolition should not be over emphasi:ed. The retention of death sentence
undoubtedly serves as an efficient deterrent for recidivists and hardened criminals. The
retention of this penalty in the statute boo) is further there "ustified on the ground of
protection of society from dangerous and incorrigible offenders. It would therefore , be
e!pedient to retain death penalty, though in practice, it may be sparingly used in rarest of
rare cases as held by the supreme court in historic case of Bachan %ingh Ds %tate of
Pun"ab.
@viiiA It has been reali:ed that vagrancy may be a potential source of criminality. The
6nglish and the #merican Criminal law have made statutory provisions in their vagrancy
laws to )eep the suspects and undesirable persons well under control and prevent them
from indulging into disorderly behaviour.
@i!A>re4uent interference in investigation of cases by politicians or politically motivated
prosecuting machinery headed by politician lawyers who are more interested in party in
power, has distorted the image of criminal law administering agencies, particularly the
police. Therefore, there is a manifest need for determined efforts to deal with this
problem more effectively.
@!ACrime reporting in Bangladesh continues to be faulty even to this day. #s a result of
this, crimes are either %uppressed, minimi:ed or not reported. The reporting procedure,
therefore, needs to be overhauled.
'roblem :
To Complete this research paper on topic some aspect of crime in Bangladesh. I have
faced following problem1
&. Though there are available crime happened in Bangladesh but, there have no fi!ed
list.
'. ?ost of the offender after commit the crime, try to abolish all )inds of proof. #s
our law and tribunal authority not so strong, they could not handle and noted the
crime, so its difficult for me to )now delays about crime.
(. %pecially, I have faced problem to discuss about selected crime, because different
times happened different types crimes. Though all are happened to violate laws
about there are not sources.
*. There have no available recommended boo)s or lists.
+. #s Bangladesh perspective there have on available Bangladesh recommended
writers boo)s, so I have faced some problem to collect details about crime.
-indings:
&. The present condition of crimes in Bangladesh is very bad condition. In my
research I found the crime respond in the every sector in Bangladesh.
'. The problem of crime in Bangladesh is very difficult. 6very person in every
sector have crime. To day our education sector also affected in crime.
(. The reason of crime
&. 2ishonetery
'. Lower salary
(. 2iscrimination act.
*. Poverty
+. Cow a days we observed that every sector is corrected with different crime
such as.
I. In case of crime. Bangladesh has may law. But theis reason crime increase
day by day.
G. 6very citi:en must have sufficient )nowledge about early concept of
crime.
H. $ne common problem which increasing day by day is every tensing.
#gainst this problem immediately should ta)e necessary steps.
F. Government should ta)e that necessary step which purely and accurately
helps to remove crime.
Conclusion
2espite legal, social, psychological and penal measures for combating crime, the problem
still persists in alarming dimensions. Eith the change of time, new crimes are coming up
and the traditional crimes are vanishing fast. The advancement in )nowledge of human
behavour and growth of commerce and industries have brought in their wa)e new
comple!ities in life. These comple!ities account for the rising incidence of criminality. It
is therefore apparent that crime. There is no reason to be upset with the present increase
in crime rate. Cor should it create a misleading impression that the penal programmes
have totally failed or proved ineffective. It must be stated that criminality in Bangladesh
is for less than in many other countries of the world. The reason being that %ociety of
Bangladesh still retains the virtues of the tolerance, mutual respect and co e!istence
through its social institutions such as religion, family, parental control etc.
Before concluding, a word must be said about the general tendency among people to )eep
away from agencies administering criminal law and "ustice. The root cause of this apathy
is to be found in common mans distrust for law, "ustice, prosecutors and the members of
the bar. Instances are not wanting when people watch a crime being committed in their
resence but they never report in to the police because of the fear of the procedure. #
commoner always prefers to avoid police or law courts even at the cost of suffering a
slight harm or in"ury. 9e refrains from instituting criminal proceedings against the
offender to avoid the botheration of contacting police or visiting law courts. This apathy
of people towards law conforcement agencies provides fertile ground for offenders to
carry on their criminal activities underterred which hinders the cause of crime prevention.
It must be accepted that there is a great divergence in practice and precepts. %o far
wor)ing of police and law courts is concerned. The problem of the day, therefore is to
restore confidence among the public for these agencies of "ustice through an e!tensive
propaganda and convince people that these institutions are meant to help and not to
harass them. Prevention of crime should be treated as everyones concern. Bnless this
broader outloo) is developed among the members of society, elimination of crime seems
rather difficult. In general, the state of lawlessness indicates lapses on the part of the %tate
agencies and the abuse of %tate power by corrupt coteries and their immoral behaviours
by way of deviating from professional standard and accepted norms both within the
organi:ation and the society. This obviously causes the public to harbour a feeling to
distrust and contempt for the law enforcement agencies and authorities on whom the
responsibility of crime prevention devolves. It is, therefore, necessary that the traditional
outloo) that crime prevention is solely the concern of law conforcement agencies, must
be changed and it should be treated as a social cause necessitating involvement of every
citi:en. It is only then that the measures to prevent crimes and criminals can succeed and
public tran4uility maintained in the community.
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