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%his article is a&out the #artial art. "or other uses$ see !arate (disa#&iguation).
() Karatedo.svg
Hanashiro Chomo.jpg
Hanashiro Chomo
Also known as Karate Do
Focus Striking
Hardness Full contact, Semi contact, ight contact
Countr! o" origin #!uk!u Kingdom
Creator Sakukawa Kanga$ %atsumura S&kon$ 'tosu Ank&$ Arakaki Seish&$
Higaonna Kanr!&
(arenthood 'ndigenous martial arts o" #!uk!u 'slands, Chinese martial arts)*+),+
-l!mpic sport .o
Karate /0) /1k23r45ti51$ 6apanese pronunciation7 )ka8ate+ / listen)) is a martial art
developed in the #!uk!u 'slands in what is now -kinawa, 6apan. 't developed "rom
the indigenous martial arts o" #!uk!u 'slands /called te /0), literall! 9hand9$ tii in
-kinawan) under the in:uence o" Chinese martial arts, particularl! Fujian ;hite
Crane.)*+),+ Karate is now predominantl! a striking art using punching, kicking, knee
strikes, el<ow strikes and open hand techni=ues such as kni"e>hands, spear>hands,
and palm>heel strikes. Historicall! and in some modern st!les grappling, throws, joint
locks, restraints, and vital point strikes are also taught.)?+ A karate practitioner is
called a karateka /0).
Karate developed in the #!uk!u Kingdom. 't was <rought to the 6apanese mainland in
the earl! ,@th centur! during a time o" cultural eAchanges <etween the 6apanese and
the Chinese. 't was s!stematicall! taught in 6apan a"ter the Baisho era.)C+ 'n *D,, the
6apanese %inistr! o" Education invited Fichin Funakoshi to Bok!o to give a karate
demonstration. 'n *D,C Keio Gniversit! esta<lished the Hrst universit! karate clu< in
6apan and <! *D?,, major 6apanese universities had karate clu<s.)I+ 'n this era o"
escalating 6apanese militarism,)J+ the name was changed "rom /9Chinese hand9
or 9Bang hand9))K+ to /9empt! hand9) L <oth o" which are pronounced karate L to
indicate that the 6apanese wished to develop the com<at "orm in 6apanese st!le.)M+
A"ter ;orld ;ar '', -kinawa <ecame an important Gnited States militar! site and
karate <ecame popular among servicemen stationed there.)D+
Bhe martial arts movies o" the *DJ@s and *DK@s served to greatl! increase the
popularit! o" martial arts around the world, and in English the word karate <egan to
<e used in a generic wa! to re"er to all striking><ased -riental martial arts.)*@+ Karate
schools <egan appearing across the world, catering to those with casual interest as
well as those seeking a deeper stud! o" the art.
Shigeru Egami, Chie" 'nstructor o" Shotokan Dojo, opined that 9the majorit! o"
"ollowers o" karate in overseas countries pursue karate onl! "or its Hghting
techni=ues ... %ovies and television ... depict karate as a m!sterious wa! o" Hghting
capa<le o" causing death or injur! with a single <low ... the mass media present a
pseudo art "ar "rom the real thing.9)**+ Shoshin .agamine said, 9Karate ma! <e
considered as the con:ict within onesel" or as a li"e>long marathon which can <e won
onl! through sel">discipline, hard training and oneNs own creative eOorts.9)*,+
'n ,@@D, in the *,*st 'nternational -l!mpic Committee voting, karate did not receive
the necessar! two>thirds majorit! vote to <ecome an -l!mpic sport.)*?+ Karate was
<eing considered "or the ,@,@ -l!mpics,)*C+Phowever at a meeting o" the '-CNs
eAecutive <oard, held in #ussia on %a! ,D, ,@*?, it was decided that karate /along
with wushu and several other non>martial arts) would not <e considered "or inclusion
in ,@,@ at the '-CNs *,Ith session in Quenos Aires, Argentina, in Septem<er ,@*?.
;e< 6apan /sponsored <! the 6apanese %inistr! o" Foreign AOairs) claims there are I@
million karate practitioners worldwide,)*J+ while the ;orld Karate Federation claims
there are *@@ million practitioners around the world.)*K+1
* Histor!
*.* -kinawa
*., 6apan
, (ractice
,.* Kihon
,., Kata
,.? Kumite
,.C Dojo Kun
,.I Conditioning
,.J Sport
,.K #ank
? (hilosoph!
C Et!molog!
I Karate and its in:uence outside 6apan
I.* Canada
I., Korea
I.? Soviet Gnion
I.C Gnited States
I.I Europe
I.J Gnited Kingdom
I.K 'tal!
I.M France
J Film and popular culture
K Karate in miAed martial arts
M See also
D #e"erences
See also7 -kinawan martial arts
Karate <egan as a common Hghting s!stem known as te /-kinawan7 ti) among the
(echin class o" the #!uk!uans. A"ter trade relationships were esta<lished with the
%ing d!nast! o" China <! King Satto o" ChRSan in *?K,, some "orms o" Chinese
martial arts were introduced to the #!uk!u 'slands <! the visitors "rom China,
particularl! Fujian (rovince. A large group o" Chinese "amilies moved to -kinawa
around *?D, "or the purpose o" cultural eAchange, where the! esta<lished the
communit! o" Kumemura and shared their knowledge o" a wide variet! o" Chinese
arts and sciences, including the Chinese martial arts. Bhe political centraliSation o"
-kinawa <! King Sh& Hashi in *C,D and the polic! o" <anning weapons <! King Sh&
Shin in *CKK, later en"orced in -kinawa a"ter the invasion <! the ShimaSu clan in
*J@D, are also "actors that "urthered the development o" unarmed com<at techni=ues
in -kinawa.),+
Bhere were "ew "ormal st!les o" te, <ut rather man! practitioners with their own
methods. -ne surviving eAample is the %oto<u>r!R school passed down "rom the
%oto<u "amil! <! Seikichi Gehara.)*M+ Earl! st!les o" karate are o"ten generaliSed as
Shuri>te, .aha>te, and Bomari>te, named a"ter the three cities "rom which the!
emerged.)*D+ Each area and its teachers had particular kata, techni=ues, and
principles that distinguished their local version o" te "rom the others.
%em<ers o" the -kinawan upper classes were sent to China regularl! to stud!
various political and practical disciplines. Bhe incorporation o" empt!>handed Chinese
Kung Fu into -kinawan martial arts occurred partl! <ecause o" these eAchanges and
partl! <ecause o" growing legal restrictions on the use o" weaponr!. Braditional karate
kata <ear a strong resem<lance to the "orms "ound in Fujian martial arts such as
Fujian ;hite Crane, Five Ancestors, and Fangrou>=uan /Hard So"t Fist$ pronounced
9F&jRken9 in 6apanese).),@+ %an! -kinawan weapons such as the sai, ton"a, and
nunchaku ma! have originated in and around Southeast Asia.
Sakukawa Kanga /*KM,L*M?M) had studied pugilism and staO /<o) Hghting in China
/according to one legend, under the guidance o" Kosokun, originator o" kusanku kata).
'n *M@J he started teaching a Hghting art in the cit! o" Shuri that he called 9Budi
Sakukawa,9 which meant 9Sakukawa o" China Hand.9 Bhis was the Hrst known
recorded re"erence to the art o" 9Budi,9 written as . Around the *M,@s SakukawaNs
most signiHcant student %atsumura S&kon /*M@DL*MDD) taught a s!nthesis o" te
/Shuri>te and Bomari>te) and Shaolin /Chinese ) st!les.)citation needed+
%atsumuraNs st!le would later <ecome the Sh&rin>r!R st!le.
Ank& 'tosu, Frand"ather o" %odern Karate
%atsumura taught his art to 'tosu Ank& /*M?*L*D*I) among others. 'tosu adapted
two "orms he had learned "rom %atsumara. Bhese are kusanku and chiang nan.
)citation needed+ He created the pingNan "orms /9heian9 or 9pinan9 in 6apanese) which
are simpliHed kata "or <eginning students. 'n *D@* 'tosu helped to get karate
introduced into -kinawaNs pu<lic schools. Bhese "orms were taught to children at the
elementar! school level. 'tosuNs in:uence in karate is <road. Bhe "orms he created are
common across nearl! all st!les o" karate. His students <ecame some o" the most
well>known karate masters, including Fichin Funakoshi, Kenwa %a<uni, and %oto<u
Ch&ki. 'tosu is sometimes re"erred to as 9the Frand"ather o" %odern Karate.9),*+
'n *MM* Higaonna Kanr!& returned "rom China a"ter !ears o" instruction with #!u #!u
Ko and "ounded what would <ecome .aha>te. -ne o" his students was the "ounder o"
FojR>r!R, Ch&jun %i!agi. Ch&jun %i!agi taught such well>known karateka as Seko
Higa /who also trained with Higaonna), %eitoku Tagi, %i!aSato EiNichi, and Seikichi
Boguchi, and "or a ver! <rie" time near the end o" his li"e, AnNichi %i!agi /a teacher
claimed <! %orio Higaonna).
'n addition to the three earl! te st!les o" karate a "ourth -kinawan in:uence is that o"
Kan<un Gechi /*MKKL*DCM). At the age o" ,@ he went to FuShou in Fujian (rovince,
China, to escape 6apanese militar! conscription. ;hile there he studied under
Shushiwa. He was a leading Hgure o" Chinese .anpa Shorin>ken st!le at that time.
),,+ He later developed his own st!le o" Gechi>r!R karate <ased on the Sanchin,
Seisan, and Sanseir!u kata that he had studied in China.),?+
Bhis section needs additional citations "or veriHcation. (lease help improve
this article <! adding citations to relia<le sources. Gnsourced material ma! <e
challenged and removed. /%a! ,@*@)
See also7 6apanese martial arts
%asters o" karate in Bok!o /c. *D?@s), "rom le"t to right, Kanken Bo!ama, Hironori
-tsuka, Bakeshi Shimoda, Fichin Funakoshi, %oto<u Ch&ki, Kenwa %a<uni, Fenwa
.akasone, and Shinken Baira
Fichin Funakoshi, "ounder o" Shotokan karate, is generall! credited with having
introduced and populariSed karate on the main islands o" 6apan. 'n addition man!
-kinawans were activel! teaching, and are thus also responsi<le "or the development
o" karate on the main islands. Funakoshi was a student o" <oth Asato Ank& and 'tosu
Ank& /who had worked to introduce karate to the -kinawa (re"ectural School S!stem
in *D@,). During this time period, prominent teachers who also in:uenced the spread
o" karate in 6apan included Kenwa %a<uni, Ch&jun %i!agi, %oto<u Ch&ki, Kanken
B&!ama, and Kan<un Gechi. Bhis was a tur<ulent period in the histor! o" the region. 't
includes 6apanNs anneAation o" the -kinawan island group in *MK,, the First Sino>
6apanese ;ar /*MDCL*MDI), the #usso>6apanese ;ar /*D@CL*D@I), the anneAation o"
Korea, and the rise o" 6apanese militarism /*D@IL*DCI).
6apan was invading China at the time, and Funakoshi knew that the art o" Bang1China
hand would not <e accepted$ thus the change o" the artNs name to 9wa! o" the empt!
hand.9 Bhe d& suUA implies that karated& is a path to sel">knowledge, not just a
stud! o" the technical aspects o" Hghting. ike most martial arts practiced in 6apan,
karate made its transition "rom >jutsu to >d& around the <eginning o" the ,@th
centur!. Bhe 9d&9 in 9karate>d&9 sets it apart "rom karate>jutsu, as aikido is
distinguished "rom aikijutsu, judo "rom jujutsu, kendo "rom kenjutsu and iaido "rom
Fichin Funakoshi, "ounder o" Shotokan Karate
Funakoshi changed the names o" man! kata and the name o" the art itsel" /at least
on mainland 6apan), doing so to get karate accepted <! the 6apanese <ud&
organiSation Dai .ippon Qutoku Kai. Funakoshi also gave 6apanese names to man! o"
the kata. Bhe Hve pinan "orms <ecame known as heian, the three naihanchi "orms
<ecame known as tekki, seisan as hangetsu, Chint& as gankaku, wanshu as empi,
and so on. Bhese were mostl! political changes, rather than changes to the content
o" the "orms, although Funakoshi did introduce some such changes. Funakoshi had
trained in two o" the popular <ranches o" -kinawan karate o" the time, Shorin>r!R and
Sh&rei>r!R. 'n 6apan he was in:uenced <! kendo, incorporating some ideas a<out
distancing and timing into his st!le. He alwa!s re"erred to what he taught as simpl!
karate, <ut in *D?J he <uilt a dojo in Bok!o and the st!le he le"t <ehind is usuall!
called Shotokan a"ter this dojo.
Bhe moderniSation and s!stemiSation o" karate in 6apan also included the adoption o"
the white uni"orm that consisted o" the kimono and the dogi or keikogiPmostl! called
just karategiPand colored <elt ranks. Qoth o" these innovations were originated and
populariSed <! 6igoro Kano, the "ounder o" judo and one o" the men Funakoshi
consulted in his eOorts to moderniSe karate.
A new "orm o" karate called K!okushin was "ormall! "ounded in *DIK <! %asutatsu
-!ama /who was <orn a Korean, Choi Teong>Eui ). K!okushin is largel! a
s!nthesis o" Shotokan and F&jR>r!R. 't teaches a curriculum that emphasiSes
aliveness, ph!sical toughness, and "ull contact sparring. Qecause o" its emphasis on
ph!sical, "ull>"orce sparring, K!okushin is now o"ten called 9"ull contact karate9, or
9Knockdown karate9 /a"ter the name "or its competition rules). %an! other karate
organiSations and st!les are descended "rom the K!okushin curriculum.
Bhe ;orld Karate Federation recogniSes these st!les o" karate in its kata list),C+
%an! additional st!les are descended "rom, or heavil! in:uenced <!, one or more o"
these st!les.
See also7 -kinawan ko<ud& and 6apanese martial arts V (hilosophical and strategic
Karate can <e practiced as an art /<ud&), as a sport, as a com<at sport, or as sel"
de"ense training. Braditional karate places emphasis on sel">development /<ud&).),I+
%odern 6apanese st!le training emphasiSes the ps!chological elements incorporated
into a proper kokoro /attitude) such as perseverance, "earlessness, virtue, and
leadership skills. Sport karate places emphasis on eAercise and competition. ;eapons
are an important training activit! in some st!les o" karate.
Karate training is commonl! divided into kihon /<asics or "undamentals), kata
/"orms), and kumite /sparring).
%ain article7 Kihon
Karate st!les place var!ing importance on kihon. B!picall! this is per"ormance in
unison o" a techni=ue or a com<ination o" techni=ues <! a group o" karateka. Kihon
ma! also <e prearranged drills in smaller groups or in pairs.
%oto<u Ch&ki in .aihanchi>dachi, one o" the <asic karate stances
%ain article7 Karate kata
Kata /7) means literall! 9shape9 or 9model.9 Kata is a "ormaliSed se=uence o"
movements which represent various oOensive and de"ensive postures. Bhese
postures are <ased on idealiSed com<at applications. Bhe applications when applied
in a demonstration with real opponents is re"erred to as a Qunkai. Bhe Qunkai shows
how ever! stance and movement is used. Qunkai is a use"ul tool to understand a
Bo attain a "ormal rank the karateka must demonstrate competent per"ormance o"
speciHc re=uired kata "or that level. Bhe 6apanese terminolog! "or grades or ranks is
commonl! used. #e=uirements "or eAaminations var! among schools.
%ain article7 Kumite
Sparring in Karate is called kumite /7). 't literall! means 9meeting o" hands.9
Kumite is practiced <oth as a sport and as sel">de"ense training.
evels o" ph!sical contact during sparring var! considera<l!. Full contact karate has
several variants. Knockdown karate /such as K!okushin) uses "ull power techni=ues to
<ring an opponent to the ground. 'n kick<oAing variants /"or eAample K>*), the
pre"erred win is <! knockout. Sparring in armour, <ogu kumite, allows "ull power
techni=ues with some sa"et!. Sport kumite in man! international competition under
the ;orld Karate Federation is "ree or structured with light contact or semi contact
and points are awarded <! a re"eree.
'n structured kumite /!akusoku, prearranged), two participants per"orm a
choreographed series o" techni=ues with one striking while the other <locks. Bhe "orm
ends with one devastating techni=ue /hito tsuki).
'n "ree sparring /6i!u Kumite), the two participants have a "ree choice o" scoring
techni=ues. Bhe allowed techni=ues and contact level are primaril! determined <!
sport or st!le organiSation polic!, <ut might <e modiHed according to the age, rank
and seA o" the participants. Depending upon st!le, take>downs, sweeps and in some
rare cases even time>limited grappling on the ground are also allowed.
Free sparring is per"ormed in a marked or closed area. Bhe <out runs "or a HAed time
/, to ? minutes.) Bhe time can run continuousl! /iri kume) or <e stopped "or re"eree
judgment. 'n light contact or semi contact kumite, points are awarded <ased on the
criteria7 good "orm, sporting attitude, vigorous application, awareness1Sanshin, good
timing and correct distance. 'n "ull contact karate kumite, points are <ased on the
results o" the impact, rather than the "ormal appearance o" the scoring techni=ue.
Dojo Kun
%ain article7 Dojo kun
'n the <ushid& tradition dojo kun is a set o" guidelines "or karateka to "ollow. Bhese
guidelines appl! <oth in the dojo /training hall) and in ever!da! li"e.
-kinawan karate uses supplementar! training known as hojo undo. Bhis utiliSes
simple e=uipment made o" wood and stone. Bhe makiwara is a striking post. Bhe
nigiri game is a large jar used "or developing grip strength. Bhese supplementar!
eAercises are designed to increase strength, stamina, speed, and muscle
coordination.),J+ Sport Karate emphasises aero<ic eAercise, anaero<ic eAercise,
power, agilit!, :eAi<ilit!, and stress management.),K+ All practices var! depending
upon the school and the teacher.
Fichin Funakoshi / ) said, 9Bhere are no contests in karate.9),M+ 'n preL;orld
;ar '' -kinawa, kumite was not part o" karate training.),D+ Shigeru Egami relates
that, in *DC@, some karateka were ousted "rom their dojo <ecause the! adopted
sparring a"ter having learned it in Bok!o.)?@+
Karate is divided into st!le organiSations. Bhese organiSations sometimes cooperate
in non>st!le speciHc sport karate organiSations or "ederations. EAamples o" sport
organiSations include AAKF1'BKF, A-K, BK, AKA, ;KF, .;GK-, ;GKF and ;KC.)?*+
-rganiSations hold competitions /tournaments) "rom local to international level.
Bournaments are designed to match mem<ers o" opposing schools or st!les against
one another in kata, sparring and weapons demonstration. Bhe! are o"ten separated
<! age, rank and seA with potentiall! diOerent rules or standards <ased on these
"actors. Bhe tournament ma! <e eAclusivel! "or mem<ers o" a particular st!le /closed)
or one in which an! martial artist "rom an! st!le ma! participate within the rules o"
the tournament /open).
Bhe ;orld Karate Federation /;KF) is the largest sport karate organiSation and is
recogniSed <! the 'nternational -l!mpic Committee /'-C) as <eing responsi<le "or
karate competition in the -l!mpic Fames.)?,+ Bhe ;KF has developed common rules
governing all st!les. Bhe national ;KF organiSations coordinate with their respective
.ational -l!mpic Committees.
Karate does not have ,@*, -l!mpic status. 'n the **Kth '-C Session /6ul! ,@@I),
karate received more than hal" o" the votes, <ut not the two>thirds majorit! needed
to <ecome an oUcial -l!mpic sport.
;KF karate competition has two disciplines7 sparring /kumite) and "orms /kata).
Competitors ma! enter either as individuals or as part o" a team. Evaluation "or kata
and ko<ud& is per"ormed <! a panel o" judges, whereas sparring is judged <! a head
re"eree, usuall! with assistant re"erees at the side o" the sparring area. Sparring
matches are t!picall! divided <! weight, age, gender, and eAperience.
;KF onl! allows mem<ership through one national organiSation1"ederation per
countr! to which clu<s ma! join. Bhe ;orld Gnion o" Karate>do Federations /;GKF)
)??+ oOers diOerent st!les and "ederations a world <od! the! ma! join, without
having to compromise their st!le or siSe. Bhe ;GKF accepts more than one
"ederation or association per countr!.
Sport organiSations use diOerent competition rule s!stems. ight contact rules are
used <! the ;KF, ;GK-, 'ASK and ;KC. Full contact karate rules used <!
K!okushinkai, Seidokaikan and other organiSations. Qogu kumite /"ull contact with
protective shielding o" targets) rules are used in the ;orld Koshiki Karate>Do
Federation organiSation.)?C+ Shinkaratedo Federation use <oAing gloves.)?I+ ;ithin
the Gnited States, rules ma! <e under the jurisdiction o" state sports authorities, such
as the <oAing commission.
Karatekas wearing diOerent colored <elts
See also7 K!R
'n *D,C Fichin Funakoshi, "ounder o" Shotokan Karate, adopted the Dan s!stem "rom
the judo "ounder 6igoro Kano)?J+ using a rank scheme with a limited set o" <elt colors.
-ther -kinawan teachers also adopted this practice. 'n the K!R1Dan s!stem the
<eginner grades start with a higher num<ered k!R /e.g., *@th K!R or 6uk!R) and
progress toward a lower num<ered k!R. Bhe Dan progression continues "rom *st Dan
/Shodan, or N<eginning danN) to the higher dan grades. K!R>grade karateka are
re"erred to as 9color <elt9 or mudansha /9ones without dan1rank9). Dan>grade
karateka are re"erred to as !udansha /holders o" dan1rank). Tudansha t!picall! wear a
<lack <elt. .ormall!, the Hrst Hve to siA dans are given <! eAamination <! superior
dan holders, while the su<se=uent /K and up) are honorar!, given "or special merits
and1or age reached. #e=uirements o" rank diOer among st!les, organiSations, and
schools. K!R ranks stress stance, <alance, and coordination. Speed and power are
added at higher grades.
%inimum age and time in rank are "actors aOecting promotion. Besting consists o"
demonstration o" techni=ues <e"ore a panel o" eAaminers. Bhis will var! <! school,
<ut testing ma! include ever!thing learned at that point, or just new in"ormation. Bhe
demonstration is an application "or new rank /shinsa) and ma! include kata, <unkai,
sel">de"ense, routines, tameshiwari /<reaking), and kumite /sparring).
'n Karate>Do K!ohan, Funakoshi =uoted "rom the Heart Sutra, which is prominent in
Shingon Quddhism7 9Form is emptiness, emptiness is "orm itsel"9 /shiki SokuSe kR kR
SokuSe shiki).)?K+ He interpreted the 9kara9 o" Karate>d& to mean 9to purge onesel" o"
selHsh and evil thoughts ... "or onl! with a clear mind and conscience can the
practitioner understand the knowledge which he receives.9 Funakoshi <elieved that
one should <e 9inwardl! hum<le and outwardl! gentle.9 -nl! <! <ehaving hum<l! can
one <e open to KarateNs man! lessons. Bhis is done <! listening and <eing receptive
to criticism. He considered courtes! o" prime importance. He said that 9Karate is
properl! applied onl! in those rare situations in which one reall! must either down
another or <e downed <! him.9 Funakoshi did not consider it unusual "or a devotee to
use Karate in a real ph!sical con"rontation no more than perhaps once in a li"etime.
He stated that Karate practitioners must 9never <e easil! drawn into a Hght.9 't is
understood that one <low "rom a real eApert could mean death. 't is clear that those
who misuse what the! have learned <ring dishonor upon themselves. He promoted
the character trait o" personal conviction. 'n 9time o" grave pu<lic crisis, one must
have the courage ... to "ace a million and one opponents.9 He taught that
indecisiveness is a weakness.)?M+
Karate was originall! written as 9Chinese hand9 / literall! 9Bang d!nast! hand9) in
kanji. 't was later changed to a homophone meaning empt! hand /). Bhe original
use o" the word 9karate9 in print is attri<uted to Ank& 'tosu$ he wrote it as 99. Bhe
Bang D!nast! o" China ended in AD D@K, <ut the kanji representing it remains in use
in 6apanese language re"erring to China generall!, in such words as 99 meaning
Chinatown. Bhus the word 9karate9 was originall! a wa! o" eApressing 9martial art
"rom China.9
Since there are no written records it is not known deHnitel! whether the kara in
karate was originall! written with the character meaning China or the character
meaning empt!. During the time when admiration "or China and things Chinese was
at its height in the #!Rk!Rs it was the custom to use the "ormer character when
re"erring to things o" Hne =ualit!. 'n:uenced <! this practice, in recent times karate
has <egun to <e written with the character to give it a sense o" class or elegance.
PFichin Funakoshi)?D+
Bhe Hrst documented use o" a homophone o" the logogram pronounced kara <!
replacing the Chinese character meaning 9Bang D!nast!9 with the character meaning
9empt!9 took place in Karate Kumite written in August *D@I <! Ch&mo Hanashiro
/*MJDL*DCI). Sino>6apanese relations have never <een ver! good, and especiall! at
the time o" the 6apanese invasion o" %anchuria, re"erring to the Chinese origins o"
karate was considered politicall! incorrect.)C@+
'n *D??, the -kinawan art o" karate was recogniSed as a 6apanese martial art <!
the 6apanese %artial Arts Committee known as the 9Qutoku Kai9. Gntil *D?I, 9karate9
was written as 99 /Chinese hand). Qut in *D?I, the masters o" the various st!les
o" -kinawan karate con"erred to decide a new name "or their art. Bhe! decided to call
their art 9karate9 written in 6apanese characters as 99 /empt! hand).)*D+
Another nominal development is the addition o" d& /7) to the end o" the word
karate. D& is a suUA having numerous meanings including road, path, route, and
wa!. 't is used in man! martial arts that survived 6apanNs transition "rom "eudal
culture to modern times. 't implies that these arts are not just Hghting s!stems <ut
contain spiritual elements when promoted as disciplines. 'n this conteAt d& is usuall!
translated as 9the wa! o" WWW9. EAamples include aikido, judo, k!udo, and kendo. Bhus
karated& is more than just empt! hand techni=ues. 't is 9Bhe ;a! o" the Empt!
Karate and its in:uence outside 6apan
Karate <egan in Canada in the *D?@s and *DC@s as 6apanese people immigrated to
the countr!. Karate was practised =uietl! without a large amount o" organiSation.
During the Second ;orld ;ar, man! 6apanese>Canadian "amilies were moved to the
interior o" Qritish Colum<ia. %asaru Shintani, at the age o" *?, <egan to stud! Shorin>
#!u karate in the 6apanese camp under Kitigawa. 'n *DIJ a"ter D !ears o" training
with Kitigawa, Shintani travelled to 6apan and met Hironori -tsuka /;ado #!u). 'n
*DIM -tsuka invited Shintani to join his organiSation ;ado Kai, and in *DJD he asked
Shintani to oUciall! call his st!le ;ado.)C*+
'n Canada during this same time, karate was also introduced <! %asami Bsuruoka
who had studied in 6apan in the *DC@s under Bsu!oshi Chitose.)C,+ 'n *DIC Bsuruoka
initiated the Hrst karate competition in Canada and laid the "oundation "or the
.ational Karate Association.)C,+
'n the late *DI@s Shintani moved to -ntario and <egan teaching karate and judo at
the 6apanese Cultural Centre in Hamilton. 'n *DJJ he <egan /with -tsukaNs
endorsement) the Shintani ;ado Kai Karate Federation. During the *DK@s -tsuka
appointed Shintani the Supreme 'nstructor o" ;ado Kai in .orth America. 'n *DKD,
-tsuka pu<licl! promoted Shintani to hachidan /Mth dan) and privatel! gave him a
kudan certiHcate /Dth dan), which was revealed <! Shintani in *DDI. Shintani and
-tsuka visited each other in 6apan and Canada several times, the last time in *DM@
two !ears prior to -tsukaNs death. Shintani died %a! K, ,@@@.)C*+
See also7 Korea under 6apanese rule
Due to past con:ict <etween Korea and 6apan, most nota<l! during the 6apanese
occupation o" Korea in the earl! ,@th centur!, the in:uence o" karate in Korea is a
contentious issue. From *D*@ until *DCI, Korea was anneAed <! the 6apanese Empire.
't was during this time that man! o" the Korean martial arts masters o" the ,@th
centur! were eAposed to 6apanese karate. A"ter regaining independence "rom 6apan,
man! Korean martial arts schools that opened up in the *DC@s and I@Ns were "ounded
<! masters who had trained in karate in 6apan as part o" their martial arts training.
;on Kuk ee, a Korean student o" Funakoshi, "ounded the Hrst martial arts school
a"ter the 6apanese occupation o" Korea ended in *DCI, called the Chung Do Kwan.
Having studied under Fichin Funakoshi at Chuo Gniversit!, ee had incorporated
taekk!on, kung "u, and karate in the martial art that he taught which he called 9Bang
Soo Do9, the Korean transliteration o" the Chinese characters "or 9;a! o" Chinese
Hand9 /).)C?+ 'n the mid>*DI@s the martial arts school were uniHed under
(resident #hee S!ngmanNs order, and <ecame taekwondo under the leadership o"
Choi Hong Hi and a committee o" Korean masters. Choi, a signiHcant Hgure in
taekwondo histor!, had also studied karate under Funakoshi. Karate also provided an
important comparative model "or the earl! "ounders o" taekwondo in the
"ormaliSation o" their art including kata and the <elt ranking s!stem. -riginal
taekwondo h!ung were identical to karate kata. Eventuall! original Korean "orms
/poomse, h!ung) were developed <! individual schools and associations. Although
;BF /-l!mpic) and 'BF are the most prevalent among Korean martial arts, tang soo
do schools where traditional 6apanese karate are regularl! practiced still eAist as the!
were originall! conve!ed to ;on Kuk ee and his contemporaries "rom Funakoshi.
Soviet Gnion
Karate appeared in the Soviet Gnion in the mid>*DJ@s, during .ikita KhrushchevNs
polic! o" improved international relations. Bhe Hrst Shotokan clu<s were opened in
%oscowNs universities.)CC+ 'n *DK?, however, the government <anned karateP
together with all other "oreign martial artsPendorsing onl! the Soviet martial art o"
sam<o. Failing to suppress these uncontrolled groups, the GSS#Ns Sport Committee
"ormed the Karate Federation o" GSS# in Decem<er *DKM.)CC+ -n *K %a! *DMC, the
Soviet Karate Federation was dis<anded and all karate <ecame illegal again. 'n *DMD,
karate practice <ecame legal again, <ut under strict government regulations, onl!
a"ter the dissolution o" the Soviet Gnion in *DD* did independent karate schools
resume "unctioning, and so "ederations were "ormed and national tournaments in
authentic st!les <egan.)CC+
Gnited States
A"ter ;orld ;ar '', mem<ers o" the GS militar! learned karate in -kinawa or 6apan
and then opened schools in the GSA. 'n *DCI #o<ert Brias opened the Hrst dojo in the
Gnited States in (hoeniA, AriSona, a Shuri>r!R karate dojo. 'n the *DI@s, ;illiam 6.
Dometrich, Ed (arker, Cecil B. (atterson, Fordon Doversola, Donald Hugh .agle,
Feorge %attson, and (eter Gr<an all <egan instructing in the GS.
Bsutomu -hshima <egan stud!ing karate under ShotokanNs "ounder, Fichin
Funakoshi, while a student at ;aseda Gniversit!, <eginning in *DCM. 'n *DIK -hshima
received his godan /H"th degree <lack <elt), the highest rank awarded <! Funakoshi.
He "ounded the Hrst universit! karate clu< in the Gnited States at Caltech in *DIK. 'n
*DID he "ounded the Southern Cali"ornia Karate Association /SCKA) which was
renamed Shotokan Karate o" America in *DJD.
'n the *DJ@s, Anthon! %irakian, #ichard Kim, Beru!uki -kaSaki, 6ohn (achivas, Allen
Steen, Fosei Tamaguchi /son o" F&gen Tamaguchi), %ichael F. Foster and (at
Qurleson <egan teaching martial arts around the countr!.)CI+
'n *DJ* Hidetaka .ishi!ama, a co>"ounder o" the 6KA and student o" Fichin Funakoshi,
<egan teaching in the Gnited States. He "ounded the 'nternational Braditional Karate
Federation /'BKF). Baka!uki %ikami were sent to .ew -rleans <! the 6KA in *DJ?.
'n *DJC, Baka!uki Ku<ota relocated the 'nternational Karate Association "rom Bok!o to
'n the *DI@s and *DJ@s, several 6apanese karate masters <egan to teach the art in
Europe, <ut it was not until *DJI that the 6apan Karate Association /6KA) sent to
Europe "our well>trained !oung Karate instructors Baiji Kase, Keinosuke Enoeda,
HirokaSu KanaSawa and Hiroshi Shirai.)CJ+ Kase went to France, Enoeada to England
and Shirai in 'tal!. Bhese %asters maintained alwa!s a strong link <etween them, the
6KA and the others 6KA masters in the world, especiall! Hidetaka .ishi!ama in the
Gnited Kingdom
Xernon Qell, a ?rd Dan 6udo instructor who had <een instructed <! Kenshiro A<<e
introduced Karate to England in *DIJ, having attended classes in Henri (leeNs
Toseikan dojo in (aris. Toseikan had <een "ounded <! %inoru %ochiSuki, a master o"
multiple 6apanese martial arts, who had studied Karate with Fichin Funakoshi,thus
the Toseikan st!le was heavil! in:uenced <! Shotokan.)CK+ Qell <egan teaching in the
tennis courts o" his parentsN <ack garden in 'l"ord, EsseA and his groupo was to
<ecome the Qritish Karate Federation. -n 6ul! *D, *DIK, Xietnamese Hoang .am ?rd
Dan, <illed as 9Karate champion o" 'ndo China9, was invited to teach <! Qell at
%a!<ush #oad, <ut the Hrst instructor "rom 6apan was Betsuji %urakami /*D,K>*DMK)
a ?rd Dan Toseikan under %inoru %ochiSuki and *st Dan o" the 6KA, who arrived in
England in 6ul! *DID.)CK+ 'n *DID Frederick Fille set up the iverpool <ranch o" the
Qritish Karate Federation, which was oUciall! recognised in *DJ*. Bhe iverpool
<ranch was <ased at Harold House 6ewish Qo!s Clu< in Chatham Street <e"ore
relocating to the T%CA in Everton where it <ecame known as the #ed Briangle. -ne o"
the earl! mem<ers o" this <ranch was And! Sherr! who had previousl! studied
6ujutsu with 6ack Qritten. 'n *DJ* Edward Ainsworth, another <lack<elt 6udoka, set up
the Hrst Karate stud! group in A!rshire, Scotland having attended QellNs third NKarate
Summer SchoolN in *DJ*.)CK+
-utside o" QellNs organisation, Charles %ack traveled to 6apan and studied under
%asatoshi .aka!ama o" the 6apan Karate Association who graded %ack to *st Dan
Shotokan on %arch C, *DJ, in 6apan.)CK+ Shotokai Karate was introduced to England
in *DJ? <! another o" Fichin FunakoshiNs students, %itsusuke Harada.)CK+ -utside o"
the Shotokan sta<le o" karate st!les, ;ado #!u Karate was also an earl! adopted
st!le in the GK, introduced <! Batsuo SuSuki, a Jth Dan at the time in *DJC.
Despite the earl! adoption o" Shotokan in the GK, it was not until *DJC that 6KA
Shotokan oUciall! came to the GK. Qell had <een corresponding with the 6KA in Bok!o
asking "or his grades to <e ratiHed in Shotokan having apparentl! learnt that
%urakami was not a designated representative o" the 6KA. Bhe 6KA o<liged, and
without en"orcing a grading on Qell, ratiHed his <lack <elt on Fe<ruar! I, *DJC,
though he had to relin=uish his Toseikan grade. Qell re=uested a visitation "rom 6KA
instructors and the neAt !ear Baiji Kase, HirokaSu KanaSawa, Keinosuke Enoeda and
Hiroshi Shirai gave the Hrst 6KA demo at Kensington Bown Hall on April ,*, *DJI.
HirokaSu KanaSawa and Keinosuke Enoeda sta!ed and %urakami le"t /later re>
emerging as a Ith Dan Shotokai under Harada).)CK+
'n *DJJ, mem<ers o" the "ormer Qritish Karate Federation esta<lished the Karate
Gnion o" Freat Qritain /KGFQ) under HirokaSu KanaSawa as chie" instructor)CM+ and
aUliated to 6KA. Keinosuke Enoeda came to England at the same time as KanaSawa,
teaching at a dojo in iverpool. KanaSawa le"t the GK a"ter ? !ears and Enoeda took
over. A"ter EnoedaYs death in ,@@?, the KGFQ elected And! Sherr! as Chie" 'nstructor.
Shortl! a"ter this, a new association split oO "rom KGFQ, 6KA England. An earlier
signiHcant split "rom the KGFQ took place in *DD* when a group led <! KGFQ senior
instructor Steve Cattle "ormed the English Shotokan Academ! /ESA). Bhe aim o" this
group was to "ollow the teachings o" Baiji Kase, "ormerl! the 6KA chie" instructor in
Europe, who along with Hiroshi Shirai created the ;orld Shotokan Karate>do Academ!
/;KSA), in *DMD in order to pursue the teaching o" ZQudo[ karate as opposed to what
he viewed as Zsport karate[. Kase sought to return the practice o" Shotokan Karate to
its martial roots, reintroducing amongst other things open hand and throwing
techni=ues that had <een side lined as the result o" competition rules introduced <!
the 6KA. Qoth the ESA and the ;KSA /renamed the Kase>Ha Shotokan>#!u Karate>do
Academ! /KSKA) a"ter KaseYs death in ,@@C) continue "ollowing this path toda!. 'n
*DKI Freat Qritain <ecame the Hrst team ever to take the ;orld male team title "rom
6apan a"ter <eing de"eated the previous !ear in the Hnal.
Hiroshi Shirai, one o" the original instructors sent <! the 6KA to Europe along with
Kase, Enoeda and KanaSawa, moved to 'tal! in *DJI and =uickl! esta<lished a
Shotokan enclave that spawned several instructors who in their turn soon spread the
st!le all over the countr!. Q! *DK@ Shotokan karate was the most spread martial art
in 'tal! apart "rom 6udo. -ther st!les such as ;ado #!u, Foju #!u and Shito #!u,
although present and well esta<lished in 'tal!, were never a<le to <reak the
monopol! o" Shotokan.
France Shotokan Karate was created in *DJC <! Bsutomu -hshima. 't is aUliated with
another o" his organiSations, Shotokan Karate o" America /SKA). However, in *DJI
Baiji Kase came "rom 6apan along with Enoeda and Shirai, who went to England and
'tal! respectivel!, and karate came under the in:uence o" the 6KA.
Film and popular culture
Karate spread rapidl! in the ;est through popular culture. 'n *DI@s popular Hction,
karate was at times descri<ed to readers in near>m!thical terms, and it was credi<le
to show ;estern eAperts o" unarmed com<at as unaware o" Eastern martial arts o"
this kind.)CD+ Q! the *DK@s, martial arts Hlms had "ormed a mainstream genre that
propelled karate and other Asian martial arts into mass popularit!.)I@+
Bhe Karate Kid /*DMC) and its se=uels Bhe Karate Kid, (art '' /*DMJ), Bhe Karate Kid,
(art ''' /*DMD) and Bhe .eAt Karate Kid /*DDC) are Hlms relating the Hctional stor! o"
an American adolescentNs introduction into karate.)I*+)I,+ Karate Kommandos, an
animated childrenNs show, with Chuck .orris appearing to reveal the moral lessons
contained in ever! episode.
Film stars and their st!les (ractitioner Fighting st!le
Sonn! Chi<a K!okushin)I?+
Sean Conner! K!okushin)IC+
Hiro!uki Sanada K!okushin)II+
Dolph undgren K!okushin)IJ+
#ati BsiteladSe K!okushin)IK+
%ichael 6ai ;hite K!okushin)IM+
Fumio Demura Shit&>r!R)ID+
Chuck .orris Shit&>r!R)J@+
Don 9Bhe Dragon9 ;ilson F&jR>r!u)J*+
#ichard .orton F&jR>r!u)J,+
Tukari -shima F&jR>r!u)J?+)JC+
eung Siu>ung F&jR>r!u)JI+
;esle! Snipes Shotokan)JJ+
6ean>Claude Xan Damme Shotokan)JK+
6im Kell! Sh&rin>r!R)JM+
6oe ewis Sh&rin>r!R)JD+
Badashi Tamashita Sh&rin>r!R)K@+
%att %ullins Sh&rei>r!R)K*+
Sho Kosugi Shind& jinen>r!R)K,+
%an! other Hlm stars such as Qruce ee, 6ackie Chan, Sammo Hung, and 6et i come
"rom a range o" other martial arts.
Karate in miAed martial arts
%ain article7 %iAed martial arts V Common disciplines
Karate, although not widel! used in miAed martial arts, has <een eOective "or some
%%A practitioners.)I@+)K?+)KC+ Xarious st!les o" karate are practiced7 Chuck iddell,
Frank %ir and Stephen Bhompson are known "or Kenpo Karate.)KI+ !oto %achida and
6ohn %akdessi practice Shotokan.)KJ+ Qas #utten and Feorges St>(ierre train in
See also
(ortal icon Karate portal
(ortal icon %artial arts portal
;ikimedia Commons has media related to Karate.
Comparison o" karate st!les
6apanese martial arts
Karate ;orld Championships
Karate at the ;orld Fames
Higaonna, %orio /*DMI). Braditional Karatedo Xol. * Fundamental Bechni=ues. p. *K.
'SQ. @>MK@C@>IDI>@.
9Histor! o" -kinawan Karate9. ;e<.archive.org. ,@@D>@?>@,. Archived "rom the
original on ,@@D>@?>@,. #etrieved ,@*?>@?>*C.
Qishop, %ark /*DMD). -kinawan Karate. pp. *I?L*JJ. 'SQ. @>K*?J>IJJJ>,. Chapter
D covers %oto<u>r!u and Qugeikan, two NtiN st!les with grappling and vital point
striking techni=ues. (age *JI, Seitoku Higa7 9Gse pressure on vital points, wrist locks,
grappling, strikes and kicks in a gentle manner to neutraliSe an attack.9
Donn F. Draeger /*DKC). %odern Qujutsu \ Qudo. ;eatherhill, .ew Tork \ Bok!o.
(age *,I.
9!"9. Keio Gniv. Karate Beam. Archived "rom the original
on ,@@D>@K>*,. #etrieved ,@@D>@J>*,.
%i!agi, Chojun /*DD?) )*D?C+. %cCarth!, (atrick, ed. Karate>doh Faisetsu )An
-utline o" Karate>Do+. p. D. 'SQ. C>D@@J*?>@I>?.
Bhe name o" the Bang d!nast! was a s!non!m to China in -kinawa.
Draeger \ Smith /*DJD). Comprehensive Asian Fighting Arts. p. J@. 'SQ. DKM>@>
Qishop, %ark /*DDD). -kinawan Karate Second Edition. p. **. 'SQ. DKM>@>M@CM>
Far! 6. Krug /,@@*>**>@*). 9Dr. Far! 6. Krug7 the Feet o" the %aster7 Bhree Stages in
the Appropriation o" -kinawan Karate 'nto Anglo>American Culture9.
Csc.sagepu<.com. #etrieved ,@*?>@?>*C.
Shigeru, Egami /*DKJ). Bhe Heart o" Karate>Do. p. *?. 'SQ. @>MK@**>M*J>*.
.agamine, Shoshin /*DKJ). -kinawan Karate>do. p. CK. 'SQ. DKM>@>M@CM>,**@>@.
9'-C Fact Sheet ,@*,9 /(DF). #etrieved ,@*?>@?>*C.
9Eight sports compete "or inclusion in ,@,@ -l!mpics9. #etrieved ,@*?>@J>,@.
#ogge, 6ac=ues$ #iach, 6ames /,@*?>@I>,D). 9,@,@ -l!mpics7 wrestling, s=uash and
<ase<all1so"t<all make shortlist9. Bhe Fuardian /ondon).
9;e< 6apan9 /(DF). #etrieved ,@*?>@?>*C.
9;KF claims *@@ million practitioners9. Bhekisonthewa!.com. #etrieved ,@*?>@?>
Qishop, %ark /*DMD). -kinawan Karate. p. *IC. 'SQ. @>K*?J>IJJJ>,. %oto<u>r!R \
Seikichi Gehara
Higaonna, %orio /*DMI). Braditional Karatedo Xol. * Fundamental Bechni=ues. p. *D.
'SQ. @>MK@C@>IDI>@.
Qishop, %ark /*DMD). -kinawan Karate. p. ,M. 'SQ. @>K*?J>IJJJ>,. For eAample
Ch&jun %i!agi adapted #okkushu o" ;hite Crane into Bensh&
'nternational #!uk!u Karate>jutsu #esearch Societ! /,@*,>*@>*I). 9(atrick
%cCarth!, "ootnote ]C9. ;e<.archive.org. #etrieved ,@*C>@I>,?.
9Kan<un Gechi histor!9. ;e<.archive.org. ,@@D>@?>@*. #etrieved ,@*C>@I>,?.
Hokama, Betsuhiro /,@@I). *@@ %asters o" -kinawan Karate. -kinawa7 -Sata (rint.
p. ,M.
Competition #ules. Kata and Kumite, ;orld Karate Federation, page ,I)dead link+
9'nternational Braditional Karate Federation /'BKF)9. ;e<.archive.org. #etrieved
Higaonna, %orio /*DMI). Braditional Karatedo Xol. * Fundamental Bechni=ues. p. JK.
'SQ. @>MK@C@>IDI>@.
%itchell, David /*DD*). ;inning Karate Competition. p. ,I. 'SQ. @>K*?J>?C@,>,.
Shigeru, Egami /*DKJ). Bhe Heart o" Karatedo. p. ***. 'SQ. @>MK@**>M*J>*.
Higaonna, %orio /*DD@). Braditional Karatedo Xol. C Applications o" the Kata. p.
Shigeru, Egami /*DKJ). Bhe Heart o" Karatedo. p. **?. 'SQ. @>MK@**>M*J>*.
9;orld Karate Con"ederation9. ;kc>org.net. #etrieved ,@*?>@?>*C.
9Activit! #eport9 /(DF). #etrieved ,@*?>@?>*C.
9;GKF L ;orld Gnion o" Karate>Do Federations9. ;uk">karate.org. #etrieved ,@*?>
9;orld Koshiki Karatedo Federation9. Koshiki.org. #etrieved ,@*?>@?>*C.
9Shinkaratedo #enmei9. Shinkarate.net. #etrieved ,@*?>@?>*C.
Hokama, Betsuhiro /,@@I). *@@ %asters o" -kinawan Karate. -kinawa7 -Sata (rint.
p. ,@.
Funakoshi, Fichin. 9Karate>d& K!ohan L Bhe %aster BeAt9 Bok!o. Kodansha
'nternational$ *DK?. (age C
Funakoshi, Fichin. 9Karate>d& K!ohan L Bhe %aster BeAt9 Bok!o. Kodansha
'nternational$ *DK?.
Funakoshi, Fishin /*DMM). Karate>do .!umon. 6apan. p. ,C. 'SQ. C>KK@@>*MD*>J.
#etrieved ,@*@>@K>*I.
;hatNs 'n A .ame0 How the meaning o" the term karate has changed, evitS,
%aure! /*DDM), .ew (altS Karate Academ!, 'nc.
#o<ert, B. /,@@J). 9no title given9. 6ournal o" Asian %artial Arts /this issue is not
availa<le as a <ack issue) *I /C).)dead link+
9Karate9. Bhe Canadian Enc!clopedia L Historica>Dominion. ,@*@. #etrieved ,@*@>
)*+ Bang Su Do Hak ;ann
9Histor! o" Shotokan /#ussian)9. #etrieved ,@@K>@I>*I.
Bhe -riginal %artial Arts Enc!clopedia, 6ohn Corcoran and Emil Farkas, pgs. *K@L
9Bhe Empt! Hand ^ F'FHB_ %agaSine L Archives9. FightmagaSine.com. #etrieved
GK Karate Histor! at www.<ushinkai.org.uk
9'nternational Association o" Shotokan Karate /'ASK)9. Karate>iask.com. #etrieved
For eAample, 'an FlemingNs <ook FoldHnger /*DID, p.D*LDI) descri<es the
protagonist 6ames Qond, an eApert in unarmed com<at, as utterl! ignorant o" Karate
and its demonstrations, and descri<es the Korean N-ddjo<N in these terms7 FoldHnger
said, 9Have !ou ever heard o" Karate0 .o0 ;ell that man is one o" the three in the
world who have achieved the Qlack Qelt in Karate. Karate is a <ranch o" judo, <ut it is
to judo what a spandau is to a catapult...9. Such a description in a popular novel
assumed and relied upon Karate <eing almost unknown in the ;est.
Schneiderman, #. %. /,@@D>@I>,?). 9Contender Shores Gp KarateYs #eputation
Among G.F.C. Fans9. Bhe .ew Tork Bimes. #etrieved ,@*@>@*>?@.
9Bhe Karate Feneration9. .ewsweek. ,@*@>@,>*M.
96aden Smith Shines in Bhe Karate Kid9. .ewsweek. ,@*@>@J>*@.
9'nternational Karate -rganiSation KT-KGSH'.KA'KA. Domestic Qlack Qelt ist As
o" -ct.,@@@9. K!okushin karate s&kan 7 shin seishin shugi eno s&seiki e
/Aik`&shuppanjig!&k!oku)7 pp.J,LJC. ,@@*. 'SQ. C>M*JC>*,I@>J.
#ogers, #on. 9HanshiNs Corner **@J9. %idori Tama Qudokai. #etrieved ,@ August
Kung"u %agaSine7 E>aine Feature Article)dead link+. ESine.kung"umagaSine.com.
#etrieved on ,@**>**>,*.
9Cele<rit! FitnessPDolph undgren9. 'nside Kung Fu. #etrieved ,@*@>**>*I.
b' -we %! Success to %! Failureb > FE-BX
9Balking ;ithc%ichael 6ai ;hite9. Fianti"e. #etrieved ,@*@>@J>*J.
6apan Karate>Do Fen<u>Kai 'nternational7 Sensei Demura at a glance ...)dead link+
/c. ,@@K). #etrieved on %arch ?, ,@*@.
9Chuck .orris and the %artial Arts9. 00. #etrieved ,@*?>@J>,C. Check date values
in7 ^dated /help)
9%artial Arts egend9. 00. #etrieved ,@*?>@K>,D. Check date values in7 ^dated
Qlack Qelt %agaSine %arch, *DDC, p. ,C. Qooks.google.com. %arch *DDC. #etrieved
9Foju>r!u9. 00. #etrieved ,@*?>@J>,C. Check date values in7 ^dated /help)
9Tukari -shimaNs Qiograph!9. #etrieved ,@*?>@J>,C.
9Foju>r!u9. 00. #etrieved ,@*C>@I>,J. Check date values in7 ^dated /help)
9;esle! Snipes7 Action man courts a new <eginning9. 'ndependent /ondon). ,@*@>
@J>@C. #etrieved ,@*@>@J>*@.
9;h! is he "amous09. ASK %E.. #etrieved ,@*@>@J>*I.
9%artial arts <iograph! > jim kell!9. #etrieved ,@*?>@M>,*.
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'uccal pu#ping
"ro# Wikipedia$ the free encyclopedia
'uccal pu#ping is `&reathing with oneas cheeks`: a #ethod of ventilation used in respiration in
which the ani#al #oves the floor of its #outh in a rhyth#ic #anner that is externally apparent.bcd
et is the sole #eans of inflating the lungs in a#phi&ians.
%here are two #ethods of &uccal pu#ping$ defined &y the nu#&er of #ove#ents of the floor of
the #outh needed to co#plete &oth inspiration and expiration.
c "our stroke pu#ping
f %wo stroke pu#ping
g 'uccal and gular pu#ping in verte&rates
h ieferences
"our stroke pu#ping
"ourjstroke &uccal pu#ping is used &y so#e &asal rayjfinned fish and akuatic a#phi&ians such
as lenopus and A#phiu#a.bcd %his #ethod has several stages. %hese will &e descri&ed for an
ani#al starting with lungs in a deflated state: "irst$ the glottis (opening to the lungs) is closed$ and
the nostrils are opened. %he floor of the #outh is then depressed (lowered)$ drawing air in. %he
nostrils are then closed$ the glottis opened$ and the floor of #outh raised$ forcing the air into the
lungs for gas exchange. %o deflate the lungs$ the process is reversed.
%he Stages of "ourjstroke 'uccal mu#ping
%wo stroke pu#ping
%wojstroke &uccal pu#ping co#pletes the process #ore kuickly$ as is seen in #ost extant
a#phi&ians.bcd en this #ethod$ the floor of the #outh is lowered$ drawing air fro# &oth the outside
and lungs into the &uccal cavity. When the floor of the #outh is raised$ the air is pushed out and
into the lungsn the a#ount of #ixing is generally s#all$ a&out fop.bfd
%he Stages of %wojstroke 'uccal mu#ping
'uccal and gular pu#ping in verte&rates
9ular pu#ping refers to the sa#e process$ &ut acco#plished &y expanding and contracting the
entire throat to pu#p air$ rather than 6ust relying upon the #outh.
%his #ethod of ventilation is inefficient$ &ut is nonetheless used &y all airj&reathing a#phi&ians
and gular pu#ping is utili(ed to a varying extent &y various reptile species.bgd qa##als$ in
contrast$ use the thoracic diaphrag# to inflate and deflate the lungs #ore directly. qanta ray
e#&ryos also &reathe &y &uccal pu#ping$ as #antas give live &irth and e#&ryos are not
connected to their #other &y u#&ilical cord or placenta as in #any other ani#als.bhd
'rainerd$ E. L. (crrr). @ew perspectives on the evolution of lung ventilation #echanis#s in
verte&rates. Experi#ental 'iology snline h$ ccjft.
'rainerd$ E. L. (crrt) qechanics of lung ventilation in a larval sala#ander$ A#&ysto#a
tigrinu#. v. Exp. 'iol. foc:ftrcwfroc
swerkowic($ %o#as(n )olleen 9. "ar#ern va#es W. 7icksn Eli(a&eth L. 'rainerd (h vune
crrr). `)ontri&ution of 9ular mu#ping to Lung Yentilation in qonitor Li(ards`. Science
(www.science#ag.org) fth (xhfo): cyycwcyyg. doi:co.ccfyHscience.fth.xhfo.cyyc. mqe-
%o#ita$ %aketerun qinoru %odan !eiichi zedan Sen(o zchidan !a(uhiro @akaya (fg sct focf).
`Livej&earing #anta ray: how the e#&ryo ackuires oxygen without placenta and u#&ilical cord`.
'iology Letters (rs&l.royalsocietypu&lishing.org) t (x): {fcw{fh. doi:co.cortHrs&l.focf.oftt. mq)
ghhor{c. mqe- ffy{xcg{.
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