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Endocytosis and Exocytosis

Endocytosis = The process of taking materials into a cell by


surrounding them with part of the plasma membrane, which then
pinches off to form a vesicle inside the cell. This is an active process
involving ATP.- Textbook ; -------is an energy-using process by which
cells absorb molecules (such as proteins) by engulfing them. It is used by
all cells of the body because most substances important to them are
large polar molecules that cannot pass through the hydrophobic plasma
or cell membrane. The opposite process is exocytosis.- Wikipedia.;


Exocytosis = The process of removing materials from the cell by fusing vesicles
containing the material with the plasma membrane - Textbook--------- is the durable, energy-
consuming process by which a cell directs the contents of secretory vesicles out of the cell
membrane and into the extracellular space. These membrane-bound vesicles contain soluble
proteins to be secreted to the extracellular environment, as well as membrane proteins and lipids
that are sent to become components of the cell membrane.- Wikipedia

Neuron A (transmitting) to neuron B (receiving)
1. Mitochondrion
2. Synaptic vesicle with neurotransmitters
3. Auto receptor
4. Synapse with neurotransmitter released (serotonin)
5. Postsynaptic receptors activated by neurotransmitter (induction of a postsynaptic potential)
6. Calcium channel
7. Exocytosis of a vesicle
8. Recaptured neurotransmitter components of the cell membrane.



Type of bulk transport Description/ definition Examples



Phagocytosis


One of three types of endocytosis. It means cellular eating, part
of the plasma membrane engulfs the particle. Mainly used by
unicellular protists, and white blood cells.




Pinocytosis


Another type of endocytosis. Small vesicles pinch off from
the plasma membrane, bringing small dissolved substances. It
means cellular drinking




Receptor meditated
endocytosis


Used by animal cells to capture specific macromolecules from
the cells environment. This process uses



Endocytosis

Composed of 3 different methods that a cell can absorb
substances that are bigger and/or polar which the cell
membrane cannot allow through since it is semi-permeable.



A) Secretory vesicles: The secretary vesicle is a type of transporter organelle that is used to deliver particles
within the cell or from the cell to outside of the cell.
B) Invagination : the action or process of being turned inside out or folded back on itself to form a cavity or
pouch.#
2. a) ----
2. b) The hypothalamus is responsible for regulating the release of
hormones from the pituitary gland. It is responsible for secreting releaser
factors which instruct the pituitary gland to secret certain hormones. This is
illustrated below.

In Figure 1 above, the releaser hormone from the hypothalamus finds
its target tissue, a pituitary cell. It binds to the receptor where a
chemical messenger instructs the cell to release the desired hormone.
In figure 2, the messenger may instruct the release of the hormone, or
bind to the receptor and enter the nucleus to instruct the production
of a particular hormone
Finally, the secreted hormone will target a specific tissue (for instance the thyroid gland) and instruct the
tissue to produce a particular substance source -----
http://www.biology-online.org/3/3_hormone_production.htm

-It is important that this happens fast and this is done by the use of Pinocytosis. This means that the hormone is
released and absorbed quickly, using the same process.