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J. Richard Wilson

Class : Geology
Group : 4

Geological Engineering Faculty
Padjadjaran University
Title :
Minerals & Rocks

Keywords :

Journal/Books/Chapter :
Author :
J. Richard Wilson

Important References :
Introduction :
The solid part of the earth is made up of the rocks, and rocks are
formed by minerals. Before study further about rock, mineralogy has
to be studied first. Mineral form the specific kind of rock; different
minerals form a different rock.

Methodology :
Crystallography method
Chemical composition & physical properties
Rocks based on mineral composition
Result :

Crystallography Method
Hexagonal/ trigonal

Chemical Composition

Discussion & Conclusion :

Introduction of Minerals

Mineral is an element or compound that has specific chemical composition,
naturally formed by geological process, and usually found as a homogenous
Mineral has some classifications such as:
Cleavage or fracture: Tendency for minerals to break in
preferred direction.
Luster : The quality and intensity of light
reflected from a mineral .
Habit : Three dimensional appearance
Color : The color of minerals.
Streak : The individual color of mineral
Hardness : Defined by Mosh Scale of relative
Tenacity : The resistance that mineral offers to
breaking, crushing, bending or tearing.
Density : Mass per unit volume.

Systematic Mineralogy

Its divided to two types, silicate minerals and the other one is non silicate
Those differential is caused of the huge amount of silicate in the crust of
the earth.
Silicate minerals are minerals that contains silicate in its structure, and non
silicate doesnn contain silicate in it.
Silicate minerals have a classification,based on the structure of the atoms
forming it into 6 different classes, those are:
o Nesosilicate
o Sorosilicate
o Cyclosilicate
o Inosilicate
o Phyllosilicate
o Tectosilicate
In non silicate theres alot of other classes from different structure and also
composition of that mineral itself
Igneous Rocks

Magma are formed by the partial melting of rocks in the Earths crust or
Magma reach the surface where they are erupted
Composition and viscosity are the factors of the way in which magma is
erupted at the surface.
The kind of eruption of magma :
Explosive eruptions
- Involve volatile-rich magmas with high viscosities, elevated gas
content. It causes the formation of pumice.
- The products of vulcanism are pyroclastic rock (consolited material)
and tephra (uncosolited material).
- Decompression of the rising magma result in the rapid escape of
huge volumes of hot gas, tephra falls and pyroclastic flows.
Non-explosive eruptions
- Involve magmas with low amounts of dissolved gas and low
viscosities, usually involving basaltic magma.
- It formed vesicles, amygdules, or pillow lava.
The shape of volcanoes :
- Shield volcanoes, has diameters of over 100km. The slopes of young
shield volcanoes are usually between 5
and 10
- Tephra cones, has slopes are tipically about 30
- Stratovolcanoes, is because the lava cannot flow very far and the
tephra deposits close to the vent. It consist more viscous than basalt,
produce pyroclastic material.
Caldera is a circular depression caused an explosive eruption.
Plutonic rocks are the crystalline products of magma.
Different types of plutons are named according to size and style :
- Minor Intrusions (dykes and sills). The magma subsequently
solidifies to form a tabular and cut across horizontal sedimentary
rocks called dykes. Sheet-like bodies that form parallel to the
layering are called sills. If form a bulge by pushing up th overlying
rocks to form a dome-shape feature called a laccolith.
- Major Intrusions (plutons). The largest kind is called a batholith
have surface areas of several 100km
The basaltic magma is erupted more or less continously along mid-ocean
ridges and forms new oceanic crust, formed in the mantle, erupted from
Andesitic volcanism occurs both on oceanic and continental crust, and its
magmas is related to convergent zones.
Rhyolitic volcanism is restricted to the continental crust and is explosive in
Magmas change composition as they crystallize because the minerals that
are formed have different composition.
Fractional crystallization, which is a very important process in igneous
petrology takes place in magma chambers.
Bowens reaction series is used to the crystallization of igneous rocks,
divided to continuous reaction series and discontinuous reaction series.
At continuous reaction series, has mineral gradually changes composition,
is formed from plagioclase with calcium-rich to sodium-rich.
At discontinuous reaction series as one mineral is followed by another.
More lower of Bowens reaction series, the minerals more stabil and more
rhyolitic, the temperature cooler, the color of minerals brighter.
Magmatic processes are responsible for the formation of a variety of
economic mineral deposite, the one of them is igneous mineral deposits.
Igneous rocks can be classified according to many criteria,such as
texture,crystal or grain size , colour, mineralogy, chemical
composition,mode of occurence and genesis
Two terms used in connection in grain size are pharenitic and aphanitic
Igneous rocks are divided into two main groups on the basis of their
field relation are plutonic and volcanic
All igneous rocks are formed by the solidification of molten rock
Basaltic magma is formed by the partial melting of mantle peridotite
(an ultramafic rock consisting mostly of olivine and pyroxenes)

Sedimentary Rocks
Chemical sedimentary rocks formed by the precipitation of minerals
from aqueous solutions. The three main types of chemical sediments
Chemical sedimentary rocks formed by the evaporation of salt
water. The first mineral to form is gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O)
followed by halite (NaCl) and the last possibility minerals to form
is sylvite (KCl).
Travertine is the chemical variety of limestone. Water, especially
acidic water can dissolve calcite in limestone and separate with
carbonate material. The carbonate material commonly precipitated
Dolomite and Chert
Dolomite and Chert formed by the replacement of other rocks.
Dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2 is carbonate mineral which half the
calcium mineral in calcite replaced by magnesium. Meanwhile
chert is an extremely fine-graded (cryptocrystalline) variety of
6.4 Sedimentary Structures
Most sedimentary rocks contain structures that bear witness to process that took
place during their formation.
6.4.1 Layering (bedding)
Differet laers reflect changes in the type of material deposited and/or in the
conditions during deposition.
6.4.2 Surface Markings
The bedding planes of sediments sometimes contain structures that reflect
processes that took place during their formation, e.g ripple marks that form in the
tidal zone of beaches.
6.4.3 Graded Bedding
Graded bedding commonly formed in marine environment and where the
turbidity current happen. It formed the sediment that forms in size-graded with
sand or gravel at the base and mud or cla at the top.
6.4.5 Mud Crack
Wet sediments that are exposed to the air can dry put and form characteristic
series of polygonal cracks such as we usually met in rice field.

6.4.6 Trace Fossils

Some organisms that live in somewhere the sediment formed can leave marks at
the surface of the sediments.

6.5 Where do Sediments Form
There are two main environment where the sediments form, there are land or
terrestrial and under the sea or marine.
6.5.1 Terrestrial Environments
Glacial Environment
Mountain Stream Environment, the common products are breccias
(angular fragments) or conglomerate (rounded fragments)
Mountain Front Environment, the common product is alluvial fan
consist dominantly of coarse clasts and the resulting sediment is
Desert Environment, the common product is sand dunes that form
depending on the wind strength and direction.
Lacustrine Environment, sediments deposited in lakes which are
relatively has fine grained and laminated.
Fluvial Environtment the common products are sandstone, siltstone
and shale.
6.5.2 Marine Environment
Delta Environtment
Coastal Environtment, the common product is ripple mark.
Shallow Marine Environtment, the common product are trace fossil,
deposites include carbonate sand, silt and mud and material that
develops into coralliferous limestone.
Deep Ocean Environtment, the sediments that formed here are in fine
grained and graded sediments.
Every Rock on earth surface effected by erosion phenomenon. That
erosion phenomena form sediments.
Every sediments material will form a compact form by the time, that
called sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary rocks usually occurred in layer,
which reflected the age of layer. The youngest layer must be on top if
there is no tectonic event in there.
Sedimentary rocks cover over 80 % of earth surface,but only contribute
1% mass of earth. Sedimentary rocks are very important, because it
contains economical resource such as oil, coal, and gas.
On sedimentary rocks occurred a process that make it altered. That
process called weathering and has two type, it is chemical and physical.
Physical process make the sedimentary rocks breaking into smaller
Size of the fragment has various name, that is boulders, cobbles and
pebbles are coarse-grained, sand is medium-grained, and silt and clay
are fine-grained.
There is various type of physical weathering that result joint.
Type of joint is depend on kind of rock involved. Joint can occur when
rocks buried under earth and underpressure because of weight on the
surface, when pressure reduced because of erosion and uplift then joint
formed as the result.
There are several agents that cause joint. That is frost-wedging (water
enters cracks and expands on freezing), root-wedging, salt-wedging,
thermal expansion and animal influence (including humans).
Other weathering process is chemical weathering. Water has the key
role of this weathering process, because of chemical reactions with
rock-forming minerals.
Chemical weathering most effective occur in warm climates. Water
can react with almost all minerals, except quartz. Quartz is chemically
resistant and is often the only mineral to survive extensive chemical
Oxidation also has the key role in the chemical alteration of minerals.
Iron is the critical element in this context because it exists in two
oxidation states, Fe2+ and Fe3+. The oxidation (rusting) of iron is a
well-known phenomenon, that we can see on daily life.
Physical and chemical weathering process occur together. Physical
process make more crack, that mean more surface area. Chemical
process which occur on surface, make weathering occur more quickly.

Metamorphic Rocks
7.1 Introduction
All kinds of rocks can be subjected to changes in temperature an/or
They can be heated and deformed so that their appearance changes
Metamorphic processes take place in solid state
7.2 Metamorphism
Rocks become metamorphosed because of the influence of heat, hot water,
pressure, or differential stress
7.2.1 Heat
Pure limestone consists of calcite.
If limestones is heated, calcite grain boundaries migrate and tge grain size
7.2.2 Pressure
Pressure increases with depth below the surfaceof the earth simply because
of the weight of the overlying rocks
7.2.3 Water
Hot water that passes through rocks at depth below the surface dissolves
some materials and deposites others.
7.2.4 Differential stress
Material subjected to different pressures in different direction becomes
7.3 Types of metamorphic rocks
There are two main groups of metamorphic rocks, those that are foliated
and those that are not.
7.3.1 Non-foliated metamorphic rocks
Non- foliated metamorphic rocks form when methamorphism takes place
under constant pressure.
Two important non- foliated rock types are marble (metamorphosed
limestone) and quartzite (metamorphosed sandstone).
7.3.2 Foliated metamofphic rocks
The first foliated metamorphic rock to form during metamorphism of
pelitic rocks is slate
The metamorphism and deformation of mafic rocks gives four important
rock types, they are greenshit, amphibolites, blueschists, and marble.
7.3.3 Types of ptotolith
All kinds of sedimentary or igneous rock can become metamorphosed and
can also be metamorphosed more than once.

7.4 Grades of metamorphic
Metamorphism takes place in response to change in temperature and
As metamorphism progresses from low to high grade, rocks generally
become coarser grained and drier-water-bearing minerals break down with
increasing metamorphic grade.
7.4.1 The progressive metamorphism of shale
Shale consists dominantly of clay minerals and minute quartz grains,
together with water in the pore spaces and in the structure of the clay
The progression from shale through slate, phyllite, schist, and gneiss
reflects metamorphism under increasing temperature and pressure
condition so called prograde metamorphism.
7.4.2 Index minerals and metamorphic zones
Some of the minerals that form in metamorphic rocks (garnet,polymorphs)
do not occur (or rare relatively rare) in sedimentary and/ or igneous rocks.
Certain minerals are a good indicator of metamorphic grade since they only
appear when specific PT conditions are reached.
7.4.3 Metamorphic facies
Which minerals occur in a metamorphic rock depend on the grade of
metamorphism and the nature of the protolith.
7.4.4 Geothermal gradients
A key factor is the rate at which the temperature increases relative to the
increase in pressure- the geothermal gradient.
7.5 Environments of metamorphism
Different metamorphic facies series clearly develop under different
geothermal gradients.
These occur in specific geological settings or environments.
Several of these environments are related to subduction zones.

7.5.1 Burial metamorphism
This type of metamorphism occurs simply as a result of the increase of the
temperature with depth.
With greater depth the conditions may approach those of low grade
Burial metamorphism only effects sedimentary rocks (and any minor
intrusions (dyke, sills) that may have been emplaced in the basin).
7.5.2 Blueschist facies and eclogite facies metamorphism
The low geothermal gradient necessary for blueshiet facies condition
requires relatively rapid pressure increases in relatively colds.
7.5.3 Regional metamorphism
Regional metamorphism tahe place as a result of the combined effect of
devormation and heating and also known as dynamothermal
7.5.4 Thermal metamorphism
This is also known as contact because rocks are heated in the prozimity of
an intrusion of magma.
7.5.5 Dynamic metamorphism
The geologicalirontment in whick dynamic metamorphism occurs is in the
vicinity of faults
7.5.6 Metamorphism at mid-ocean ridges
The oceanic crust forms at mid-ocean ridges and consists dominantly if
basaktuc rocks
7.6 Where di metamorphic rocks occur?
In the Precambrian sheld areas and mountains belts

Critics & Comments :

The diction used is the basic, so it makes easier to be understood by the
novice reader.
This is a good one, but unfortunately there are too many ads on it, make it
some confuse to the readers.
The pictures of the example given arent good enough, just not so
Some chapters do explain some good points, but dont bring up the basics
too much, so it wont be easy for someone whos not very familiar with the
subject thats explained. Rather, this book is better as a reference for reader,
not theory nor concept. Quite consistency of images, even not all of them
have it