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Software Package

Design Expert version 2.3


RC Expert
Design of reinforced concrete elements

User Manual




















All rights reserved
2013
RC Expert v 2.3/2013
Design of reinforced concrete elements

Page 2 of 16
TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABOUT THE PROGRAM.......................................................................... 2
ENTERING DATA .................................................................................. 2
FILES ................................................................................................... 2
INPUT DATA ......................................................................................... 3
Loads ...................................................................................................................... 3
Cross Section ........................................................................................................... 3
Materials ................................................................................................................. 3
DESIGN TO EUROCODE 2 ..................................................................... 3
Bending with axial force............................................................................................. 3
Shear ...................................................................................................................... 5
Torsion .................................................................................................................... 6
CALCULATION REPORT ........................................................................ 7
EXAMPLES TO EUROCODE 2 ................................................................. 7
Example 1. Shear force design ................................................................................... 7
Example 2. Design of rectangular section for bending .................................................... 9
Example 3. Ultimate bending capacity of rectangular section ........................................ 10
Example 4. Bending design of doubly reinforced seciton .............................................. 11
Example 5. Ultimate bending capacity of doubly reinforced section ............................... 12
Example 6. Ultimate bending capacity of section with flanges ....................................... 13
Example 7. Bending design of section with flanges ...................................................... 14
Example 8. Ultimate bending capacity of section with flanges ....................................... 15
Example 9. Capacity curves for bending and axial force ............................................... 16

About the program
RC Expert is created for design of plain reinforced concrete sections with rectangular, T and I
sections according to Eurocode 2. Calculations are performed for bending, compression or
tension, shear force and torsion. Second order effects are included for columns if effective
lengths are entered. Software is quick and easy to work, with rich functionality and friendly
user interface. Input data and design results can be printed in a professional html report.
Entering data
Input data and results are divided into several pages:

You can switch between separate pages by clicking the corresponding tabs. Enter input data
and click

"Results" to view the report. If file is not saved, you will be prompted to do that.
Input data in each page is filled in text fields or tables. You can move to the next field with left
click or Tab key. With Shift+Tab key combination you can go back to the previous field.
Files
Input data for each problem is saved in a file with extension *. stb. Design output is written to
a *. stb.html file in HTML format. You can open a file by the Open button. You can save
a file by the Save button. If a file is saved for first time, a standard dialog appears where
you should select file path and name. Otherwise, file is saved using current filename. You can
change filename with the "New" command. Input data remains unchanged. In order to
RC Expert v 2.3/2013
Design of reinforced concrete elements

Page 3 of 16
enter multiple elements in one session: input the first, calculate and draw, click Save, click
New, input the second, calculate and draw, click Save and so on.
Input data
Following input data is common for all design checks. There is additional data for different
kinds of checks that is described in the respective chapters.
Loads
Enter ultimate values for internal forces in the section bending moment M
Ed
, axial force N
Ed
,
shear force Q (V
Ed
) and torsion T
Ed
. Axial force is negative for compression and positive
+ for tension.
Cross Section
Enter section dimensions directly into the picture on the right side of the window. You can see
scaled preview of the section by clicking the button. Section can be rectangular, T or I
shaped. Enter zeroes for dimensions of flanges for rectangular section. Concrete cover d1,d2
(a, a) is measured from concrete edge to center of area of main reinforcement.
Materials
Select concrete grade and steel grades for main and shear reinforcement. You can view
detailed tables with design properties of concrete and steel by clicking the button. You can
also modify material properties or add new materials.
Design to Eurocode 2
Bending with axial force
Design can handle all cases of combined bending with
tension (+) or compression (-). Reinforcement can be
either symmetrical or unsymmetrical.
Following assumptions are used in the design:
- concrete tensile stress is ignored and all tension is
carried by the reinforcement;
- stress-strain relationship for concrete is parabolic-
linear with maximum value of f
cd
;
- stress-strain relationship for steel is linear-plastic with
maximum value of f
yd
;
- there is friction between concrete and reinforcement;
- plane sections remain plane after deformation
(Bernoulli case);
- strain in reinforcement and concrete is limited and
section capacity is reached when limit strain is
achieved;
- internal forces in concrete and reinforcement should
balance section forces due to external loads.


for 0 s c
c
s c
c2
-

for c
c2
s c
c
s c
cu2
- o
c
= f
cd

RC Expert v 2.3/2013
Design of reinforced concrete elements

Page 4 of 16

f
yd
s o
s
= E
s
c
y
s f
yd

Unknown values are A
s1
tensile reinforcement area; A
s2
compressive reinforcement
area; c
s1
strain in tension reinforcement; c
c
strain in compressed concrete edge or c
s2

tension strain in top reinforcement for sections entirely in tension. Strain is limited to: c
cu2
s c
c

s 0 for concrete and c
c2
s c
s
s c
yd
for reinforcement. For sections entirely in compression
strain diagram should rotate around point C. Strain in point C is c
c2
and distance of point C to
top edge is equal to a
C
= h(1 c
c2
/c
cu2
). Unknown values are determined by the condition for
balance of internal forces:
N
Ed
+ N
c
+ N
s1
+ N
s2
= 0 (1)
M
Ed
+ M
c
+ M
s1
+ M
s2
= 0 (2)
where M
Ed
and N
Ed
are section loads. Internal forces for concrete and reinforcement and
resulting moments in section center are calculated as follows:
x
N
c
=

o
c
(z)b(z)dz;
0
N
s1
= A
s1
o
s1
;
N
s2
= A
s2
o
s2
;

M
c
= N
c
( z
c
+ h y
c
x);

M
s1
= N
s1
(y
c
d
1
);
M
s2
= N
s2
(h y
c
d
2
);
x
z
c
=

o
c
(z)b(z)zdz/N
c
0

Solution is found by an iterative algorithm as follows:
Initial values for reinforcement are assumed to be minimum allowed values by code.
Iterations are repeated until equation (2) is satisfied as follows:
Strains c
s1
c
c
are calculated by condition (1) using iterative algorithm until
N
Ed
+ N
c
+ N
s1
+ N
s2
< o, where o is the acceptable error.
Then the condition M
Ed
+ M
c
+ M
s1
+ M
s2
< o is verified and if satisfied, calculations are
finished.
If it is not satisfied then values of N
s1
and N
s2
are calculated by equations for balance of
moments about centers of bottom and top reinforcement, respectively:
N
s1
= (M
Ed
M
c2
+ N
Ed
(h y
c
d
2
))/z
s

N
s2
= (M
Ed
M
c1
N
Ed
(y
c
d
1
))/z
s
Moments about centers of bottom and top reinforcement due to concrete stress are as follows:
M
c1
= N
c
(h x

d
1
+ z
c
)

M
c2
= N
c
(x z
c
)
where z
s
is the distance between centers of bottom and top reinforcement.
Necessary areas of bottom and top enforcement are calculated from the respective forces:
RC Expert v 2.3/2013
Design of reinforced concrete elements

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A
s1
= N
s1
/f
yd
if N
s
> 0; A
s1
= N
s1
/f
yd
if N
s1
< 0;
In case of bending where K = M /(bd
2
f
ck
) > K`= 0.168 or in case of compression/ tension
combined with bending, area of compression reinforcement is calculated:
A
s2
= N
s2
/f
yd
at N
s
> 0; A
s2
= N
s2
/f
yd
at N
s2
< 0;
Iteration is repeated.
Second order effects are included for members in compression.
Bending moments due to second order effects are calculated by the equation:
M
Ed
= M
0Ed
/(1 N/N
B
) (Eq. 5.30 from EC2)
First order bending moment M
0Ed
= M + Ne
i
includes initial imperfections.
e
i
= u
i
L
ox
/2 (Eq. 5.2 from EC2)
M
0Ed


Ne
0
e
0
= h/30 20 mm
u
i
= u
0
o
h
o
m
; u
0
= 1/200; o
h
= 2/(L/100)

; o
m
= 1;
N
B
= t
2
EI/L
ox
2
(Eq. 5.17 from EC2)
EI = K
c
E
cd
I
c
+K
s
I
s
(Eq. 5.21 from EC2)
K
s
= 1; K
c
= k
1
k
2
/(1 +
ef
); k
1
= (f
ck
/20)

; k
2
= n/170;
n = N
ed
/(A
c
f
cd
); = L
ox
/i; i = (I
c
/A
c
)


Effective creep factor is calculated by the formula:
ef
= (,t0)M
0Eqp
/M
0Ed
. Ratio M
0Eqp
/M
0Ed
is
entered by the user as Long term load factor. Creep factor (,t
0
) should be also defined by
user according to Figure 3.1 in EC2.
Buckling force N
B
depends on second moment of inertia of reinforcement I
s
and the
reinforcement is unknown at this stage. Several iterations are required in order to obtain I
s
for
the final reinforcement that is designed. Calculations are performed by clicking the Results
button. Following values are calculated:
A
s1
, A
s2
areas of bottom and top reinforcement;

1
,
2
respective reinforcement ratios;
o
s1
, o
s2
stresses at centers of bottom and top reinforcement;
x height of compression zone.
The program provides M-M capacity curve for the section with the calculated reinforcement.
You can set initial reinforcement and obtain the capacity curve for it. Diagram is calculated by
changing strains c
s1
and c
c
within specified limits. Ultimate section resistance is calculated for
each position and is plotted in M-N coordinate system. Diagram is a closed curve. If we plot
external moment and axial force as a point in the same system we can compare it to the
section capacity. If the point is inside the capacity curve then section is OK for the load. If the
point is outside the capacity curve then section will fail. Reinforcement is calculated so that
capacity curve goes through the point of external loads.
Shear
Shear design is performed for elements with vertical or inclined shear links and straight main
bars (no inclined bars). The following additional data is required:
n
w
number of shear link cuts;
d
w
shear link diameter;
c critical crack projection.
RC Expert v 2.3/2013
Design of reinforced concrete elements

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u angle of compression strut;
o angle between links and a vertical line;
A
s
existing tension reinforcement (cm
2
) with sufficient anchorage behind the section
of interest.
The following values are calculated to Eurocode 2:
V
Rd,c
= (C
Rd,c
k(100
l
f
ck
)
0.3333
+k
1
o
cp
)b
w
d

concrete capacity without shear
reinforcement (Eq. 6.2.a)

V
Rd,c
V
Rd,c,min
= (v
min
+k
1
o
cp
)b
w
d (Eq. 6.2.b)

k = 1+(200/d)

; o
cp
= N
Ed
/A
c
< 0,2 f
cd
;
C
Rd,c
= 0,18/
c
;

k
1
= 0.15;
v
min
=0,035k
3/2
f
ck

;
l
= A
s
/(b
w
d) 0.002;
V
Rd,max
= o
cw
b
w
zv
1
f
cd
(cotu +coto)/(1+cot
2
u) ultimate concrete capacity in
the compression strut (Eq. 6.14 from 2). If V
Ed
> V
Rd,max
, section dimensions or
concrete grade should be increased.
z = 0.9d is lever arm of internal forces;
v
1
= 0.6(1 f
ck
/250) - (Eq. 6.6N 2).
Load, carried by shear reinforcement (kN/m): q
sw
= V
Ed
/ (z(cotu +coto)sino)
Area of shear reinforcement (cm
2
/m): A
sw
= q
sw
/(n
w
f
ywd
)
Additional tension force in main reinforcement: F
td
= 0.5V
Ed
(cotu coto)
Additional main reinforcement to take this force: A
sln
= F
td
/f
yd
V
Ed
= V is the shear load entered by the user.
If angle u is entered to be u 0, the specified value is used in calculations. If angle is u = 0, it
is calculated by the condition V
Rd,max
= V
Ed
, providing that 21.8 u 45 (1 cotu 2.5).
Link spacing is calculated by the formula:
s = A
sw
/(td
2
/4) < s
max
= 0.75d(1 + coto).
Torsion
All section parts are included into calculations for I and T sections. Total torsional moment is
distributed among separate parts proportionate to their torsional stiffness. Additional main and
shear reinforcements are calculated to those by other analysis. Design of each rectangular part
of the section is described below.
Concrete cover a
w
is defined to the center of main reinforcement.
The following checks are performed for combined torsion with shear force:
Concrete capacity without shear reinforcement: T
Ed
/T
Rd,c
+ V
Ed
/V
Rd,c
> 1 (6.29)
Ultimate concrete capacity in compression struts:T
Ed
/T
Rd,max
+ V
Ed
/V
Rd,max
< 1 (6.31)
Ultimate torsion without shear reinforcement: T
Rd,c
= 2A
k
t
ef
fctd
Ultimate torsion for the concrete section: T
Rd,max
= vo
c
f
cd
A
k
t
ef
sin(2u ) (6.30)
T
Ed
= T is the torsional moment entered by the user.
Values for V
Ed
V
Rd,c
V
Rd,max
are calculated as described in chapter "Shear" above.
Reinforcement is calculated as follows:
RC Expert v 2.3/2013
Design of reinforced concrete elements

Page 7 of 16
Shear reinforcement: A
sw
= P / (f
yw
cotu)
Main reinforcement: A
stot
= PU
k
cotu / f
yd
(6.28)
Effective thickness: t
ef
= bh / (2b + 2h)
t
ef
is taken not less than 2a
w

Effective cross section area: A
k
= (b - t
ef
)(h - t
ef
)
Perimeter of effective area: U
k
= 2(b + h 2t
ef
)
P = T
Ed
/ (2A
k
)
Results are provided separately for each part of the section.
Calculation report
Professional html report can be generated for each problem by clicking the

"Results"
button. Report is displayed in Internet Explorer by default but other web browsers can be
used. Most office programs like MS Word can edit html files. Report filename is
data_file_name.html. It comes together with a folder data_file_name.html_files. Always
keep together report file with the folder. Otherwise pictures and formatting will be lost.
Examples to Eurocode 2
Example 1. Shear force design
Design with RC Expert
Cross section
b = 20,0 cm h = 80,0 cm
b
f1
= 0,0 cm h
f1
= 0,0 cm
b
f2
= 0,0 cm h
f2
= 0,0 cm
d
1
= 5,0 cm d
2
= 5,0 cm
Section Loads
Bending moment - M
Ed
= 0,0 kN.m
Axial force- N
Ed
= 0,0 kN
Shear Force - V
Ed
= 600,0 kN
Torsional moment - T
Ed
= 0,0 kN.m
Long term load factor - K
G
= 75,0 %


Materials
C
= 1,50
S
= 1,15
Concrete grade C30/37 E
c
= 32,0 MPa f
ck
= 30,0 MPa f
ctk,0.05
= 2,0 MPa
Main reinforcement grade S500 E
y
= 200,0 MPa f
yk
= 500,0 MPa f
yd
= 435,0 MPa
Shear reinforcement grade S450 E
yw
= 200,0 MPa f
ywk
= 450,0 MPa f
ywd
= 391,0 MPa
Shear Force Design
Shear links cuts - n
w
= 2
Shear links diameter - d = 12 mm
Compression strut angle - u = 28,7 deg
Shear links angle - o = 90,0 deg
RC Expert v 2.3/2013
Design of reinforced concrete elements

Page 8 of 16
Tensile reinforcement - A
sl
= 0,0 cm
2

Results - Shear Force Design
Concrete only resistance - V
Rd,c
= 80,0 kN
Concrete ultimate resistance - V
Rd,max
= 600,0 kN
Shear reinforcement area - A
sw
= 6,2 cm
2
/m
Required shear reinforcement - 12/17,5 cm
Shear reinforcement ratio -
w
= 0,6 %
Additional tensile reinforcement - A
sl
= 12,6 cm
2
> A
sl


Manual verification
V
Ed
= 600 kN; f
ck
= 30 MPa; f
cd
= 20 MPa; f
ywd
= 391 MPa
d = h a = 750 mm; z = 0.9d = 0.9750 = 675 mm
v = v
1
= 0.6(1 f
ck
/250) = 0.528
Calculation of compressive strut angle for V
Rd,max
= V
Ed
:
=


=
o

= 28.7
675 200 0 2 0.528 1
600000 2
arcsin
2
1
z
2
arcsin
2
1
w cd cw
Ed
b f v
V
> 21.8; cotu = 1.82
Calculation of required shear reinforcement:
mm / mm 1.249
1.82 391 675
600000
cot
2
ywd
Ed sw
=

=

=
f z
V
s
A

For one cut: m / cm 24 . 6
2
12.49
2
w
sw
= =
n s
A
; Required links are C12/175 mm
Additional tensile force: F
td
= 0.5V
Ed
cot = 0.56001.82 = 546 kN
Additional tensile reinforcement for that force: A
sl
= F
td
/f
yd
=546/43.5 = 12,6 cm
2

RC Expert v 2.3/2013
Design of reinforced concrete elements

Page 9 of 16
Example 2. Design of rectangular section for bending
Examples 4 to 10 are developed using the book "Reinforced concrete design to Eurocode 2" -
Bill Mosley, John Bungey, Ray Hulse, 2007 (Examples 4.1 - 4.10). Formulas are obtained
assuming o
cc
= 0.85. Concrete design resistance is f
cd
= o
cc
f
ck
/
C
. Calculations by the program
are performed with parabolic-linear stress-strain relationship. Manual verification is performed
with rectangular stress distribution and height of compression zone equal to s = 0.8x.
Design with RC Expert
Cross section
b = 26,0 cm h = 48,0 cm
b
f1
= 0,0 cm h
f1
= 0,0 cm
b
f2
= 0,0 cm h
f2
= 0,0 cm
d
1
= 4,0 cm d
2
= 4,0 cm
Section Loads
Bending moment - M
Ed
= 185,0 kN.m
Axial force- N
Ed
= 0,0 kN
Shear Force - V
Ed
= 0,0 kN
Torsional moment - T
Ed
= 0,0 kN.m
Long term load factor - K
G
= 75,0 %


Materials
C
= 1,50; o
cc
=0,85
S
= 1,15
Concrete grade C25/30 E
c
= 31,5 MPa f
ck
= 25,0 MPa f
ctk,0.05
= 1,8 MPa
f
cd
= 14,1 MPa f
ctd
= 1,0 MPa
Main reinforcement grade S500 E
y
= 200,0 MPa f
yk
= 500,0 MPa f
yd
= 434,8 MPa
Shear reinforcement grade S220 E
yw
= 200,0 MPa f
ywk
= 220,0 MPa f
ywd
= 191,3 MPa

Input Data for Bending And Axial Force Design
Existing Reinforcement
Bottom A
s,ini
= 0,0 cm
2

Top A`
s,ini
= 0,0 cm
2

Results for Bending With Axial Force Design
Reinforcement Area Reinf. ratio Reinf. stress
Bottom A
s
= 11,3 cm
2
= 1,0 % o
s
= 434,8 MPa
Top A`
s
= 0,0 cm
2
`= 0,0 % o`
s
= -434,8 MPa
Out of plane A
s,tot
= 0,0 cm
2
Compr. zone height x = 16,3 cm
2


Manual verification (Example 4.1)
Ultimate bending moment is given M
Ed
= 185 kN.m. Find required reinforcement area A
s
.
0.167 0.147
25 440 260
10 185
f d b
M
K
2
6
ck
2
< =


=

=

- Compressive reinforcement is not required
mm 373
1.134
0.147
0.25 0.5 440
1.134
K
0.25 0.5 d z =

|
.
|

\
|
+ =

|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2
6
yk
s
mm 1140
373 500 0.87
10 185
z f 0.87
M
A =


=

=
RC Expert v 2.3/2013
Design of reinforced concrete elements

Page 10 of 16
Example 3. Ultimate bending capacity of rectangular section
Design with RC Expert
Cross section
b = 26,0 cm h = 56,0 cm
b
f1
= 0,0 cm h
f1
= 0,0 cm
b
f2
= 0,0 cm h
f2
= 0,0 cm
d
1
= 4,0 cm d
2
= 4,0 cm
Section Loads
Bending moment - M
Ed
= 284,0 kN.m
Axial force- N
Ed
= 0,0 kN
Shear Force - V
Ed
= 0,0 kN
Torsional moment - T
Ed
= 0,0 kN.m
Long term load factor - K
G
= 75,0 %


Materials
C
= 1,50; o
cc
=0,85
S
= 1,15
Concrete grade C25/30 E
c
= 31,5 MPa f
ck
= 25,0 MPa f
ctk,0.05
= 1,8 MPa
f
cd
= 16,7 MPa f
ctd
= 1,2 MPa
Main reinforcement grade S500 E
y
= 200,0 MPa f
yk
= 500,0 MPa f
yd
= 435,0 MPa
Shear reinforcement grade S250 E
yw
= 200,0 MPa f
ywk
= 250,0 MPa f
ywd
= 217,0 MPa

Input Data for Bending And Axial Force Design
Existing Reinforcement
Bottom A
s,ini
= 14,7 cm
2

Top A`
s,ini
= 0,0 cm
2

Results for Bending With Axial Force Design
Reinforcement Area Reinf. ratio Reinf. stress
Bottom A
s
= 15,0 cm
2
= 1,1 % o
s
= 435,0 MPa
Top A`
s
= 0,0 cm
2
`= 0,0 % o`
s
= -435,0 MPa
Out of plane A
s,tot
= 0,0 cm
2
Compr. zone height x = 17,7 cm
2



Manual verification (Example 4.2)
Reinforcement area is given A
s
= 1470 mm
2
. Find ultimate bending resistance M
Rd
.

st cc
F F =
s yk ck
A f 0.87 s b f 0.567 = 470 1 00 5 0.87 s 00 3 5 2 0.567 =
mm 150 s = mm 188
0.8
150
0.8
s
x = = =
kN/m 284 10
2
150
520 1470 500 0.87
2
s
d A f 0.87 z F M
6
s yk st
= |
.
|

\
|
= |
.
|

\
|
= =


RC Expert v 2.3/2013
Design of reinforced concrete elements

Page 11 of 16
Example 4. Bending design of doubly reinforced seciton
Design with RC Expert
Cross section
b = 26,0 cm h = 50,0 cm
b
f1
= 0,0 cm h
f1
= 0,0 cm
b
f2
= 0,0 cm h
f2
= 0,0 cm
d
1
= 6,0 cm d
2
= 5,0 cm
Section Loads
Bending moment - M
Ed
= 285,0 kN.m
Axial force- N
Ed
= 0,0 kN
Shear Force - V
Ed
= 0,0 kN
Torsional moment - T
Ed
= 0,0 kN.m
Long term load factor - K
G
= 75,0 %


Materials
C
= 1,50; o
cc
=0,85
S
= 1,15
Concrete grade C25/30 E
c
= 31,5 MPa f
ck
= 25,0 MPa f
ctk,0.05
= 1,8 MPa
f
cd
= 14,1 MPa f
ctd
= 1,0 MPa
Main reinforcement grade S500 E
y
= 200,0 MPa f
yk
= 500,0 MPa f
yd
= 435,0 MPa
Shear reinforcement grade S220 E
yw
= 200,0 MPa f
ywk
= 220,0 MPa f
ywd
= 191,0 MPa

Input Data for Bending And Axial Force Design
Existing Reinforcement
Bottom A
s,ini
= 0,0 cm
2

Top A`
s,ini
= 0,0 cm
2

Results for Bending With Axial Force Design
Reinforcement Area Reinf. ratio Reinf. stress
Bottom A
s
= 18,0 cm
2
= 1,6 % o
s
= 435,0 MPa
Top A`
s
= 4,3 cm
2
`= 0,4 % o`
s
= -435,0 MPa
Out of plane A
s,tot
= 0,0 cm
2
Compr. zone height x = 20,4 cm
2



Manual verification (Example 4.3)
Design bending moment is given M
Ed
= 285 kN.m. Find required reinforcement A
s
and A'
s
.
0.167 0.226
25 440 260
10 285
f d b
M
K
2
6
ck
2
> =


=

=

- Compressive reinforcement is required.
0.171 0.11
440
50
d
d'
< = =
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
yk
2
ck bal '
s
mm 438
50 440 500 0.87
440 260 25 0.167 0.226
d' d f 0.87
d b f K K
A =


=


=
( )
2
2
'
s
bal yk
2
ck bal
s
mm 777 1 438 1339 438
440 0.82 500 0.87
440 260 25 0.167
A
z f 0.87
d b f K
A = + = +


= +


=
RC Expert v 2.3/2013
Design of reinforced concrete elements

Page 12 of 16
Example 5. Ultimate bending capacity of doubly reinforced section
Design with RC Expert
Cross section
b = 28,0 cm h = 56,0 cm
b
f1
= 0,0 cm h
f1
= 0,0 cm
b
f2
= 0,0 cm h
f2
= 0,0 cm
d
1
= 5,0 cm d
2
= 5,0 cm
Section Loads
Bending moment - M
Ed
= 443,0 kN.m
Axial force- N
Ed
= 0,0 kN
Shear Force - V
Ed
= 0,0 kN
Torsional moment - T
Ed
= 0,0 kN.m
Long term load factor - K
G
= 75,0 %


Materials
C
= 1,50; o
cc
=0,85
S
= 1,15
Concrete grade C25/30 E
c
= 31,5 MPa f
ck
= 25,0 MPa f
ctk,0.05
= 1,8 MPa
f
cd
= 14,1 MPa f
ctd
= 1,0 MPa
Main reinforcement grade S500 E
y
= 200,0 MPa f
yk
= 500,0 MPa f
yd
= 435,0 MPa
Shear reinforcement grade S220 E
yw
= 200,0 MPa f
ywk
= 220,0 MPa f
ywd
= 191,0 MPa

Input Data for Bending And Axial Force Design
Existing Reinforcement
Bottom A
s,ini
= 24,1 cm
2

Top A`
s,ini
= 6,3 cm
2

Results for Bending With Axial Force Design
Reinforcement Area Reinf. ratio Reinf. stress
Bottom A
s
= 24,1 cm
2
= 1,7 % o
s
= 435,0 MPa
Top A`
s
= 6,9 cm
2
`= 0,5 % o`
s
= -435,0 MPa
Out of plane A
s,tot
= 0,0 cm
2
Compr. zone height x = 24,4 cm
2



Manual verification (Example 4.4)
Reinforcement values are given A
s
=628 mm
2
and A'
s
=2410 mm
2
. Find section capacity
moment M
Rd
.
sc cc st
F F F + =
'
s yk ck s yk
A f 0.87 s b f 0.567 A f 0.87 + =
( )
( )
mm 195
280 25 0.567
628 2410 500 0.87
b f 0.567
A A f 0.87
ck
'
s s yk
=


=


mm 244
0.8
s
x = =
0.617 0.48
510
244
d
x
< = = 0.38 0.22
225
50
x
d'
< = =
( ) ( ) = + |
.
|

\
|
= + |
.
|

\
|
= d' d A f 0.87
2
s
d s b f 0.567 d' d F
2
s
d F M
'
s yk ck sc cc

( ) kN/m 443 124 319 10 50 510 620 500 0.87
2
195
510 195 280 25 0.567
6
= + =
(

+ |
.
|

\
|
=


RC Expert v 2.3/2013
Design of reinforced concrete elements

Page 13 of 16
Example 6. Ultimate bending capacity of section with flanges
Design with RC Expert
Cross section
b = 26,0 cm h = 46,0 cm
b
f1
= 0,0 cm h
f1
= 0,0 cm
b
f2
= 80,0 cm h
f2
= 15,0 cm
d
1
= 4,0 cm d
2
= 4,0 cm
Section Loads
Bending moment - M
Ed
= 249,0 kN.m
Axial force- N
Ed
= 0,0 kN
Shear Force - V
Ed
= 0,0 kN
Torsional moment - T
Ed
= 0,0 kN.m
Long term load factor - K
G
= 75,0 %


Materials
C
= 1,50; o
cc
=0,85
S
= 1,15
Concrete grade C25/30 E
c
= 31,5 MPa f
ck
= 25,0 MPa f
ctk,0.05
= 1,8 MPa
f
cd
= 14,1 MPa f
ctd
= 1,0 MPa
Main reinforcement grade S500 E
y
= 200,0 MPa f
yk
= 500,0 MPa f
yd
= 435,0 MPa
Shear reinforcement grade S220 E
yw
= 200,0 MPa f
ywk
= 220,0 MPa f
ywd
= 191,0 MPa

Input Data for Bending And Axial Force Design
Existing Reinforcement
Bottom A
s,ini
= 14,7 cm
2

Top A`
s,ini
= 0,0 cm
2

Results for Bending With Axial Force Design
Reinforcement Area Reinf. ratio Reinf. stress
Bottom A
s
= 14,7 cm
2
= 1,4 % o
s
= 435,0 MPa
Top A`
s
= 0,0 cm
2
`= 0,0 % o`
s
= -234,3 MPa
Out of plane A
s,tot
= 0,0 cm
2
Compr. zone height x = 8,0 cm
2



Manual verification (Example 4.5)

Reinforcement area is given A
s
= 1470 mm
2
. Find section bending capacity M
Rd
.

st cc
F F =
s yk f ck
A f 0.87 s b f 0.567 =
mm 150 h mm 56
800 25 0.567
1470 500 0.87
s f = < =


=
mm 70
8
s
x = = mm 392
2
56
420
2
s
d z = = =
kN/m 249 10 392 56 800 25 0.567 z s b f 0.567 z F M
6
f ck cc
= = = =


RC Expert v 2.3/2013
Design of reinforced concrete elements

Page 14 of 16
Example 7. Bending design of section with flanges
Design with RC Expert
Cross section
b = 20,0 cm h = 40,0 cm
b
f1
= 0,0 cm h
f1
= 0,0 cm
b
f2
= 40,0 cm h
f2
= 10,0 cm
d
1
= 5,0 cm d
2
= 5,0 cm
Section Loads
Bending moment - M
Ed
= 180,0 kN.m
Axial force- N
Ed
= 0,0 kN
Shear Force - V
Ed
= 0,0 kN
Torsional moment - T
Ed
= 0,0 kN.m
Long term load factor - K
G
= 75,0 %

Materials
C
= 1,50; o
cc
=0,85
S
= 1,15
Concrete grade C25/30 E
c
= 31,5 MPa f
ck
= 25,0 MPa f
ctk,0.05
= 1,8 MPa
f
cd
= 14,1 MPa f
ctd
= 1,0 MPa
Main reinforcement grade S500 E
y
= 200,0 MPa f
yk
= 500,0 MPa f
yd
= 434,8 MPa
Shear reinforcement grade S220 E
yw
= 200,0 MPa f
ywk
= 220,0 MPa f
ywd
= 191,3 MPa

Input Data for Bending And Axial Force Design
Existing Reinforcement
Bottom A
s,ini
= 0,0 cm
2

Top A`
s,ini
= 0,0 cm
2


Results for Bending With Axial Force Design
Reinforcement Area Reinf. ratio Reinf. stress
Bottom A
s
= 14,5 cm
2
= 2,1 % o
s
= 434,8 MPa
Top A`
s
= 0,0 cm
2
`= 0,0 % o`
s
= -434,8 MPa
Out of plane A
s,tot
= 0,0 cm
2
Compr. zone height x = 13,4 cm
2


Manual verification (Example 4.6)
Design moment is given M
Ed
= 180 kN.m. Find required reinforcement area A
s
.
1 cf
f z F M = kN/m 180 kN/m 170 10
2
100
350 100 400 25 0.567
2
h
d h b 0.567f M
6 f
f f ck f
< = |
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=


f w
h s s = =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + = + =
6 w
w 2 w w ck 2 cw f
10
2
s
250 s 200 25 0.567 170 z s b 0.567f 170 z F M 180
6 w
w
10
2
s
250 s 2835 170

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = 0 10 7.05 500s s
3
w
2
w = + mm 15 sw =
( ) ( )
0.41d mm 144
0.8
15 100
0.8
s h
x
w f
= =
+
=
+
=
cw cf st
F F F + =
w w ck f f ck s yk
s b 0.567f h b 0.567f A 0.87f + =
( )
3
s 10 610 15 200 100 400 25 0.567 A 500 0.87 = + =
2
3
s mm 1402
500 0.87
10 610
A =

=

RC Expert v 2.3/2013
Design of reinforced concrete elements

Page 15 of 16
Example 8. Ultimate bending capacity of section with flanges
Design with RC Expert
Cross section
b = 30,0 cm h = 60,0 cm
b
f1
= 0,0 cm h
f1
= 0,0 cm
b
f2
= 45,0 cm h
f2
= 15,0 cm
d
1
= 5,0 cm d
2
= 5,0 cm
Section Loads
Bending moment - M
Ed
= 519,0 kN.m
Axial force- N
Ed
= 0,0 kN
Shear Force - V
Ed
= 0,0 kN
Torsional moment - T
Ed
= 0,0 kN.m
Long term load factor - K
G
= 75,0 %


Materials
C
= 1,50; o
cc
=0,85
S
= 1,15
Concrete grade C25/30 E
c
= 31,5 MPa f
ck
= 25,0 MPa f
ctk,0.05
= 1,8 MPa
f
cd
= 14,1 MPa f
ctd
= 1,0 MPa
Main reinforcement grade S500 E
y
= 200,0 MPa f
yk
= 500,0 MPa f
yd
= 435,0 MPa
Shear reinforcement grade S220 E
yw
= 200,0 MPa f
ywk
= 220,0 MPa f
ywd
= 191,0 MPa

Input Data for Bending And Axial Force Design
Existing Reinforcement
Bottom A
s,ini
= 25,9 cm
2
Top A`
s,ini
= 0,0 cm
2

Results for Bending With Axial Force Design
Reinforceme
nt
Area Reinf. ratio Reinf. stress
Bottom A
s
= 27,1 cm
2
= 1,6 % o
s
= 435,0 MPa
Top A`
s
= 0,0 cm
2
`= 0,0 % o`
s
= -435,0 MPa
Out of plane A
s,tot
= 0,0 cm
2
Compr. zone height x = 21,1 cm
2



Manual verification (Example 4.7)
Reinforcement area is giver A
s
= 2592 mm
2
. Find section bending capacity M
Rd
.
kN 957 10 150 450 25 0.567 h b 0.567f F
3
f f ck cf
= = =


kN 1128 10 2592 500 0.87 A 0.87f F
3
s yk st
= = =


( ) ( ) ( ) 150 s 4.25 10 150 s 300 25 0.567 h s b 0.567f F
3
f w ck cw
= = =


cf st cw
F F F = ( ) 957 1128 150 s 4.25 = 190 s =
0.43d mm 2.38
0.8
s
x = = = ( ) kN 170 150 190 4.25 F
cw
= =
kN/m 519 10
2
150
2
190
550 170
2
150
550 957
2
h
2
s
d F
2
h
d F M
3 f
cw
f
cf
=
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=


RC Expert v 2.3/2013
Design of reinforced concrete elements

Page 16 of 16
Example 9. Capacity curves for bending and axial force
Draw capacity curves for bending and axial force for the given section using RC Expert.
Reinforcement is symmetrical A
s1
=A
s2
and d
1
/h=0.1.
Cross section - rectangular
b = 25,0 cm h = 40,0 cm
d
1
= 4,0 cm d
2
= 4,0 cm

C
= 1,50
S
= 1,15
Materials
Concrete grade C20/25 f
ck
= 20,0 MPa
E
c
= 30,0 MPa f
cd
= 13,3 MPa
Main reinforcement grade S500 f
yk
= 500 MPa
E
y
= 200 MPa f
yd
= 435 MPa
Shear reinforcement grade S220 f
ywk
= 220 MPa
E
yw
= 200 MPa f
ywd
= 191 MPa


Absolute coordinates MN Relative coordinates v
A
s1
= 0.00 cm
2
, e=0.0 A
s1
= 6.55 cm
2
, e=0.5

A
s1
= 13.1 cm
2
, e=1.0 A
s1
= 19.6 cm
2
, e=1.5

A
s1
= 26.2 cm
2
, e=2.0

-3,0
-2,5
-2,0
-1,5
-1,0
-0,5
0,0
0,5
1,0
1,5
2,0
0
,
0
0
,
1
0
,
2
0
,
3
0
,
4
0
,
5
0
,
6
0
,
7
0
,
8
0
,
9
1
,
0
= M
ed
/(bh
2
f
cd
)
v

=

N
e
d
/
(
b
h
f
c
d
)
e = 2.0
e = 1.5
e = 1.0
e = 0.5
e = 0.0

e = (A
s1
+A
s2
)/bhf
yd
/f
cd

Diagrams are calculated for c
yu
=10, c
cu2
=3.5, c
c2
=2.0. Same diagrams calculated for
c
yu
= 25 and c
c2
= 2.2 are given on fig. 5.54 In the book "Reinforced concrete NPBSK-
2", K. Roussev, 2008.