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Introduction to Embedded Systems

Chanchal S Chandran
Department of Electronics and Communication
College of Engineering , Thalassery
chanch84@gmail.com
Overview of Embedded Systems
Embedded Systems : can be described as one consisting
of a processor associated with peripherals and software
used for specific purpose
Eg: 1. VCR players very specific task is to record and play
video cassettes
2. mp3 players task is to play mp3 songs
Categories of embedded systems
1. Stand alone embedded systems
Takes input and produces output
eg: process control in manufacturing units and
automobiles
Response time not critical for eg : air conditioning unit
eg: toys,CD players and measuring instruments
2. Real time embedded systems
That are required to carry out specific tasks in a specified
amount of time
For eg: a system that has to open a valve within 30ms
when the humidity crosses a particular threshold
Hard real time embedded systems real time constraints
are to be strongly met
Soft real time embedded systems real time constraints
are present but not critical

3. Networked appliances
Embedded systems that are connected to a network
Eg: monitoring equipment of a manufacturing unit the
system sends the data over a TCP/IP network to a
management system
Eg: web camera
4. Mobile devices
That are capable of supporting high data rate services
addition to voice services Accessing internal services such
as email, the world wide web and so on can be done with
a person is on the move
Powerful mobile OS ,Java enabled, storing database
temporarily eg : palmtops
Requirements of embedded systems
1. Reliability
Rebooting and resetting should be done automatically
2. Cost effectiveness
Embedded systems for mass market
Designers will develop an ASIC
3. Low power consumption
Embedded systems are powered by batteries
Reducing no of hardware components
Sleep mode
4. Efficient use of processing power
Choice of micro processor
Processing power req is generally specified in MIPS
Cost of development tools , support by the vendor
5. Efficient use of memory
Most of them do not have hard disks ,flash memory as a
sec. storage
Microcontroller and DSP with onboard memory is
generally used
6. Appropriate execution time
Special OS called RTOS run on these embedded systems
Timing analysis of hard real time ES is of great importance
Performance analysis
Assembly language for desired real time performance
Challenges and issues in Embedded software
development
1.Co design
Co design issue
TCP /IP stack
2.Embedding an OS
Writng in assembly and C
APIS(Application Programming Interface Software )by the
OS
3.Code optimization
Important constraints memory and execution time
4. Efficient I/O
5. Testing and Debugging
Host system for intital testing
Simulation
The Typical embedded system

Core of the Embedded System
ES are domain and app. Specific and are built around a
central core
The core can be
1. General purpose and Domain specific processors
a) Microprocessor
b) Microcontroller
c) DSP
2. ASIC
3.PLD
4. Commercial Off the Shelf components (COTS)
1. General purpose and Domain specific processors
a) Microprocessor
First Microprocessor
Intel 4004 4 bit - 1971 Nov
1K data memory
12 bit PC
4K program memory
16 Registers
46 instructions
Renamed Intel 4040
Intel 8080 8 bit April 1974
16 bit address bus
16 bit PC
7 8 bit registers
In 1976 Intel 8085
Interrupt Pin
Serial I/O
Clock gen built in
Intel , AMD,Freescale ,IBM,TI ,Cyrix,Hitachi,NEC,LSI Logic
ASIP (Application Specific Instruction Processor )-
Processor + on chip peripherals demanded by the
application req by the program and data memory
Eg: AVR, SoC , DSP
b) Microcontroller
highly integrated chip that contains a CPU ,scratch pad
,RAM ,special and general purpose reg arrays ,on chip
ROM ,flash memory ,timer ,interrupt and I/O ports
TMS 1000 worlds first microcontroller - 1974
In 1971 Intel entered the microcontroller with MCS 48
family
8038HL , 8039HL ,8040AHL,8048H,8049H,8030AH
In 1980s - 8051family MCS 51
PIC from Microchip
Freescale ,Philips , Atmel ,Maxim, Microchip 16 bit
ARM 11
Intel 8051 became general purpose microcontroller
Automotive AVR (Advanced Virtual RISC)- ASIP for
automotive
Microprocessor v/s Microcontroller

c) DSP
Powerful special purpose 8/ 16/32 bit microprocessor
designed for today's embedded audio ,video and
communication applications
2 to 3 times faster than microprocessor in SP applications
High speed computational operations for addition
,subtraction ,multiplication and division
Computational engine with specialized arithmetic units
Applications Audio, video Signal processing telecom
and multimedia
RISC v/s CISC

Harvard v/s Von Neumann architecture


Little endian v/s Big endian
Specifies the order in which data is stored


2. ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit )
Designed to perform a specific or unique application
Integrates several functions into a single chip thereby
reduces system development cost
3. PLD (Programmable Logic Devices )
Logic devices provide specific functions like device to
device communication, data communication ,signal
processing and almost every function a system should
perform
Two types CPLDs and FPGAs
FPGA s provide maximum logic density
PLD

4. COTS
Product which is used as is
No need to modify the product
Plug in device
Eg :COTS product for TCP/IP plug-in

Memory
Program Memory
1. Masked ROM
One time programmable device
Device is factory programmed
2. Programmable ROM
Burning Fuses 1 or 0
Fuses which are not blown 1
3. EPROM (erasable)
Stores the bit information by charging the floating gate of
a FET
UV erasable
4. EEPROM
Electrically erasable
Chip erase mode, erased in few ms
5. Flash
Reprogramming capability of EEPROM and capacity of
ROM
Organised as sectors/ blocks /Pages
Erased as blocks /pages
6. NV RAM
Ram with battery back up
2. RAM
SRAM and DRAM cell

SRAM v/s DRAM
Sensors and Actuators
Sensor
Is a transducer that converts one energy form to
electrical form
Actuator
Is a transducer that converts signals to physical action
I/O subsystem
1. LED
2. Seven segment LED display
3. Opto coupler
4. Stepper motor
5. Relay
6. Piezo buzzer
7. Push button switch
8. Key board
9. Programmable peripheral interface
Communication Interface
1. On board communication
a) I2 C bus ( Inter Integrated Circuit)
Is a synchronous bidirectional half duplex two wire serial
interface bus by Philips semiconductor in the early 1980s
Serlal Clock SCL
Serial Data SDA
Communication Sequence
2. SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface ) interfacing
Is a synchronous bidirectional full duplex four wire
interface bus by Motorola
Shift register mechanism
MOSI Master Out Slave In
MISO - Master In Slave Out
SCL Serial Clock
SS active low for Slave Select


3. UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter)
Settings Baud rate ,No of bits per byte , Parity , no of start and
stop bits

4. I wire interface
Asynchronous half duplex communication protocol
Developed by Maxim Dallas semiconductor

Communication sequence
5. Parallel Interface

External Communication Interface
1. USB (Universal Serial Bus )
Intel , Microchip , IBM, Compaq, Digital and Northern
Telecom
Transmits data in packet format
Host controlling the data communication
Can support connections up to 127
Cable up to 5 meters
Vbus ,D- ,D+, GND
USB supports 4 types of data transfer
Control transfer : to issue commands to the USB device
Bulk transfer : to send a block of data to a device
,supports error checking and correction
Isochronous data : used for real time data
communication, data is transmitted as streams ,doesnt
support error checking ,audio devices and medical
equipment
Interrupt transfer : small amount of data ,polling
technique ,mouse and Keyboard
2. IrDA
is a serial half duplex line of sight based wireless
technology for data communication between devices
Eg: remote control
Infra red Data association
Serial IR : 9600bps to 115.2kbps
Medium IR 0.576Mbps to 1.152Mbps
Fast IR 4 Mbps
Very fast IR 16MBPS
Ultra fast IR 100Mbps
Tx: IR LED ,Rx: Photodiode
Contains Physical Layer ,Media Access control, Logical
Link control
3. Bluetooth
Low-cost low power short range wireless technology for
data and voice communication
Was proposed by Ericsson in 1994
Operates at 2.4Ghz and uses frequency Hopping Spread
Spectrum (FHSS)
Up to 1Mbps
divided into : physical link part and protocol part
Piconet: one as master and more than one device as
slaves
4.WiFi
Follows the IEEE 802.11 standard
Supports IP based communication
Needs Wi-Fi router
Each device contains IP address
Wi-Fi router responsible for restricting the access to a
network assigning IP address routing data packets to the
intended devices
Hardware pa rt is called Wi-Fi radio
2.4Ghz or 5Ghz
Data rate : 1Mbps to 150Mbps
Distance 100 to 300 ft

5. Zigbee
Is a low power ,Low cost , wireless network comm.
protocol based on the 802.15.4 2006 standard
Low power low data rate and secure application for
WPAN
Supports a robust mesh network containing multiple
nodes
2.4 to 2.48 Ghz ,902 to 920Mhz ,868 to 868.8Mhz
Max distance 100 metres
Data rate : 20 to 250kbps
Zigbee coordinator act as the root of the Zigbee
network, initiating the network
Zigbee router for passing info from device to another
device or to another ZB
Zigbee end device - it can talk only to a ZR or ZC and
doesnt have tha capability to act as mediator
Applications home and industrial automation ,home
control, security ,medical patient tracking ,logistics,
sensor networks

6. GPRS (General Packet Radio Service )
Is a comm. technique for transferring data over a mobile
communication network like GSM
Data is sent as packets
Data rate : 171.2Kbps
GPRS modem and GPRS radio
Old technology
Reset circuit
Brown out protection circuit
BJT is turned on only when V
CC
is equal to just above V
BE

+ V
Z

When voltage goes down at brown out BJT is turned OFF
since V
CC
goes below V
BE
+ V
Z

Voltage across R3 goes to zero and produces a active low
reset pulse

Oscillator Unit
Watchdog timer

CPU keep on resetting WDT at regular intervals in the
program
In case it fails due to program hang WDT resets the CPU
Applications of Embedded Systems
1. Consumer electronics
2. Control system and industrial automation
3. Biomedical systems
4. Field instrumentation
5. Hand held computers
6. Data comm. (Modems, Protocol converters, Encryption
devices )
7. Networked info appliances
8. Telecomm. (audio codec,IVR s/s, Video Codec ,GPS rxrs)
9. Wireless comm. (Mobile phones ,PDA, Bluetooth devices
)