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Engineering Design: The science behind hovercraft levitation The Keystone Program Introduction to Engineering Design
Engineering Design:
The science behind hovercraft levitation
The Keystone Program
Introduction to Engineering Design
http://www.keystone.umd.edu
The Autonomous Hovercraft Project
The Engineering Design Process: Tinkering vs. Prototyping Presenter Kevin Calabro kcalabro@umd.edu The science behind
The Engineering Design Process:
Tinkering vs. Prototyping
Presenter
Kevin Calabro
kcalabro@umd.edu
The science behind hovercraft levitation
Video 1 of 3
The science behind hovercraft levitation Video Segment 1A Engineering Design “Scientists discover the world that
The science behind hovercraft levitation
Video Segment 1A
Engineering Design
“Scientists discover the world that exists;
engineers create the world that never was.”
–   Dr. Theodore von Kármán
The science behind hovercraft levitation Video Segment 1A The Product Development Process Select Identify Formulate
The science behind hovercraft levitation
Video Segment 1A
The Product Development Process
Select
Identify
Formulate
Define
Design and
Most
Customer
Product
Alternative
Integrate
Suitable
Needs
Specification
Concepts
Subsystems
Concept
Product Specification
Concept Generation
System Design
& Detail Design
Design
Build, Test,
Produce &
& Build
& Modify
PDP
Track & Assess
Through Life
Cycle
Distribute
Tooling
Prototype
Design
Test &
Life Cycle Tracking
Production
Modification
The science behind hovercraft levitation Video Segment 1A The Design Process (another view) Source:
The science behind hovercraft levitation
Video Segment 1A
The Design Process
(another view)
Source: http://createdu.org/design-thinking/
The science behind hovercraft levitation Video Segment 1A Autonomous Hovercraft Project •   A semester
The science behind hovercraft levitation
Video Segment 1A
Autonomous Hovercraft Project
•   A semester long, multidisciplinary team project:
–   Design a product that meets the product specification
–   Teams must design and build an alpha prototype
•   Subsystem integration required
–   Success is …
•   designing a product that meets the product specification?
•   designing the best product that meets the product specification?
•   designing a product that lets you explore innovative technologies?
•   designing a product that fails to meet the product specification?
… even if through that failure you learn what decisions, assumptions,
team norms, leadership behaviors, task priorities, etc. will allow you to
succeed the next time you attempt the project?
The science behind hovercraft levitation Video Segment 1B So how do you build a hovercraft?
The science behind hovercraft levitation
Video Segment 1B
So how do you build a hovercraft?
The science behind hovercraft levitation Video Segment 1B Levitation components •   Lift fan, ducting
The science behind hovercraft levitation
Video Segment 1B
Levitation components
•  
Lift fan, ducting & plenum (structure), skirt
The science behind hovercraft levitation Video Segment 1B Hovercraft demonstration
The science behind hovercraft levitation
Video Segment 1B
Hovercraft demonstration
What makes a hovercraft float? Plenum pressure Presenter Peter Sunderland pbs@umd.edu The Science behind Hovercraft
What makes a hovercraft float?
Plenum pressure
Presenter
Peter Sunderland
pbs@umd.edu
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation
Video 2 of 3
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation Video Segment 2A Levitation Subsystem Design 1.  2.  3.  Specify
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation
Video Segment 2A
Levitation Subsystem Design
1. 
2. 
3. 
Specify a size and shape for your hovercraft
Design the structure, skirt, and plenum
Select a levitation fan
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation Video Segment 2A Levitation Fans •   A fan is
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation
Video Segment 2A
Levitation Fans
A fan is a device that increases the energy of a fluid stream
–   Fans can increase pressure and/or kinetic energy
•  
Commonplace Examples
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation Video Segment 2A Fan Characteristics •   Given a fan
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation
Video Segment 2A
Fan Characteristics
•  
Given a fan with a fixed size and rotational velocity:
–   How much pressure and flow rate can it produce?
–   This plot is referred to as the “fan characteristic”
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation Video Segment 2B So how much pressure do you need
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation
Video Segment 2B
So how much pressure do
you need to levitate?
W
F p
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation Video Segment 2B Static Equilibrium W = mg W A
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation
Video Segment 2B
Static Equilibrium
W = mg
W
A p
F p
F p = Δp ⋅ A p
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation Video Segment 2B Summary •   Plenum pressure requirement –
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation
Video Segment 2B
Summary
•  
Plenum pressure requirement
–   Vehicle ‘levitates’ when the total weight of the craft is balanced
by the net vertical pressure force in the plenum
–   The pressure necessary to levitate is determined by the vehicle’s
mass and planform area
mg
Δp =
Eq. 1
A
p
How high will my craft levitate? Conservation Principles Presenter Peter Sunderland pbs@umd.edu The Science behind
How high will my craft levitate?
Conservation Principles
Presenter
Peter Sunderland
pbs@umd.edu
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation
Video 3 of 3
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation Video Segment 3A Volumetric Flow Rate •   If Δ
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation
Video Segment 3A
Volumetric Flow Rate
•   If Δ p = W / A p , how high will my craft levitate?
•   The answer depends on your fan choice!
Operating point
(must lie on the
characteristic curve)
Δ p = 60 Pa
Q fan and vehicle size/
shape determine a
hovercraft’s levitation
height (h gap )
Q fan
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation Video Segment 3A Fluids Conservation Equations •   All systems
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation
Video Segment 3A
Fluids Conservation Equations
•   All systems must obey 3 conservation laws:
–   Conservation of mass
•   Mass cannot be created or destroyed
–   Conservation of momentum
•   F = ma applied to fluids
–   Conservation of energy (Bernoulli’s Equation)
•   Energy cannot be created or destroyed
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation Video Segment 3A What is a Control Volume? •  
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation
Video Segment 3A
What is a Control Volume?
A control volume is any fixed volume that moves with your
hovercraft
–   Most control volumes involve fluid flowing in and out
•  
We use control volumes to isolate a flow region of interest
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation Video Segment 3A Fluid Properties 1. Volumetric flow rate (Q)
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation
Video Segment 3A
Fluid Properties
1. Volumetric flow rate (Q) – [m 3 /s]
–   Consider a fluid flowing through a duct:
.
2. Mass flow rate (m) – [kg/s]
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation Video Segment 3B Conservation of Mass Mass cannot be created
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation
Video Segment 3B
Conservation of Mass
Mass cannot be created or destroyed
•  
Incompressible Fluid
–   Flow in which the density of the fluid is constant
–   Water, low speed aerodynamics … up to Mach 0.3 (~225 mph)
–   Hovercraft
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation Video Segment 3B Conservation of Mass Calculate required fan flow
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation
Video Segment 3B
Conservation of Mass
Calculate required fan flow rate (Q fan ) using Conservation of Mass
l
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation Video Segment 3C Conservation of Energy: Bernoulli’s Equation •  
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation
Video Segment 3C
Conservation of Energy:
Bernoulli’s Equation
•  
Relates the amount of work done on a fluid element as it moves
along a streamline
Important restrictions:
–   Inviscid (friction is neglected)
–   Steady
–   Incompressible
–   Applied along a streamline
2
1
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation Video Segment 3C Bernoulli’s Equation (cont.) •   Statement of
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation
Video Segment 3C
Bernoulli’s Equation (cont.)
Statement of Energy Conservation
Energy types
1
2
ρ
V
++
p
ρ
gz
= C
–  
Kinetic energy
Potential energy
Pressure energy
2
•  
For frictionless flow, there are no losses, and C is
the same everywhere
–  
Energy can be converted between these three
energy types, but the total energy is conserved
p
ρV 2 /2 ρgz
Total
Energy/volume
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation Video Segment 3C Bernoulli’s Equation •   Calculate the air
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation
Video Segment 3C
Bernoulli’s Equation
•  
Calculate the air exit velocity (V gap ) using Bernoulli’s Equation
1
2
2 ρV ++p ρ gz = C
V
p
V
gap
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation Video Segment 3C h gap is a design INPUT V
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation
Video Segment 3C
h gap is a design INPUT
V p
V gap
l
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation Video Segment 3C Design Point •   Once you know
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation
Video Segment 3C
Design Point
•   Once you know Δp and Q fan , you can choose a fan!
•   What is your actual (best case) h gap ?
Operating point
(must lie on the
characteristic curve)
Design Point
Δ p = 60 Pa
Q available
Q req = 120 m 3 /hr
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation Video Segment 3C Summary •   Volumetric flow rate requirement
The Science behind Hovercraft Levitation
Video Segment 3C
Summary
•  
Volumetric flow rate requirement
–   The volumetric flowrate (Q) at the required plenum pressure ( Δp)
determines the hover height (h gap )
–   Conservation of mass requires Q gap = Q fan
–   Q fan to levitate at a desired height (h gap ) is a design requirement:
1 / 2
⎛ 2 p ⎞
Δ
Q
=
h
l ⎜
Eq. 2
fan
gap
ρ
air