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10/30/2013

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Mahasiswa dapat menerapkan Hukum Newton Mahasiswa dapat menerapkan Hukum Newton
untuk menjelaskan gaya dan gerakan
Mahasiswa dapat memahami konsep Diagram Benda
Bebas (Free Body Diagram) dalam analisis rekayasa
Mahasiswa dapat menerapkan prinsip need-know-
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Mahasiswa dapat menerapkan prinsip need-know-
how-solve-(check) dalam menyelesaikan
soal/masalah
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Energy is the capability to do work
Work = force x distance
where distance is the distance over which the force is
applied
Energy Units:
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SI: joules
English: ft lbf foot pound force
Power is defined as time rate of doing work or time
rate of change of energy Work = force x distance
Power = work/time
where time is the time over which the work occurs
Power Units:
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SI: watts (joules/sec)
English: Horsepower (550 ft lbf/s)
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A person takes 2.0 seconds to lift a 1.0 kg book a height of 1.0
meter above the surface of earth. Calculate the power
expended by the person.
Need: Power
Know: mass = 1.0 kg, distance = 1.0 m, time = 2.0 s
How: work = force distance, and power = work/time
Forces = 0
external
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Solve: Work = (m a)/g
c
(distance)
= (1.0 kg)(9.8 m/s
2
)/1 (1.0 m)
= 9.8 kg(m
2
/s
2
) = 9.8 joules
Then, Power = (9.8 joules)/(2.0 seconds) = 4.9 J/s = 4.9 W
Kinetic Energy
Potential Energy

Mechanical energy
Other forms of energy:
Magnetic energy
Electrical energy
Surface energy
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Surface energy
Internal energy etc.
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Also known as Translational Kinetic Energy (TKE)
TKE = mv
2
/g
c
(SI units)
where m = mass, v = speed, g
c
= 1 (dimensionless)
OR
TKE = mv
2
/g
c
(English units)
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where m = mass, v = speed, g
c
= 32.2 lbmft/lbfs
2
What is the translational kinetic energy of an
automobile with a mass of 1.00 10
3
kg traveling
at a speed of 65.0 miles per hour (29.0 m/sec)?
Need: TKE of the vehicle
Know: Mass: 1.00 10
3
kg, velocity: 29.0 m/sec
How: TKE= mv
2
(SI units)
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Solve: TKE = 4.23 10
5
J
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GPE is the energy acquired by an object by virtue
of its position in a gravitational field -- typically by
being raised above the surface of the Earth.
In SI,
GPE = mgh in units of joules
In Engineering English units,
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g ee g gl s u ts,
GPE = mgh/g
c
in units of ftlbf
Mt. Everest is 29, 035 ft high. If a climber has to haul
him/herself weighing 200. lbm (including equipment)
to the top, what is his/her potential energy above sea
level when on the summit. Give your answer in both
in joules and in ft lbf.
Need: GPE in English and SI units
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Need: G gl s a d S u ts
Know: m = 200. lbm = 90.7 kg; h = 29, 035 ft = 8850.
m; g = 32.2 ft/s
2
= 9.81 m/s
2
and g
c
= 32.2
lbmft/lbfs
2
(English) and g
c
= 1 [0] (SI)
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How: GPE = mgh/g
c
Solve: English, GPE = mgh/g
c
g , g g
c
= 200. 32.2 29,035/32.2 [lbm][ft/s
2
][ft][lbf.s
2
/lbm.ft]
= 5.81 10
6
ft.lbf (3 significant figures)
SI, GPE = mgh/g
c
= 90 7 9 81 8850 /1 = 7 87 10
6
J
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= 90.7 9.81 8850./1 = 7.87 10 J
A check direct from the units converter:
5.81 10
6
ft lbf = 7.88 10
6
J OK
GPE is NOT the only form of PE.
Chemical, nuclear and electromagnetic are other forms of PE.
For us, chemical and electrical energy are so important that
we will reserve extra chapters and lectures to them for later
presentation.
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Thermal energy, often referred to as heat, is a very
special form of kinetic energy because it is the
randommotion of trillions and trillions of atoms and
molecules that leads to the perception of
temperature.
All higher forms of energy dissipate thermal energy, the
ultimate energy sink
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ultimate energy sink.
The laws of thermodynamics state:
1) all energy is conserved and
2) that the thermal energy in the universe always increases.
We have defined energy is the capability to do work
But energy comes in different forms gy
Potential, translational kinetic, rotational kinetic, thermal
and others
And energy can be converted from one form to
another
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The energy in the Universe is conserved
A control volume is a subset of the Universe you
construct to isolate the problem of interest. It exchanges
energy with the rest of the Universe
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Energy = F distance is
the generic equation for
energy
: energy exchanges
energy
Energy is conserved
(although it may change
form)
Example of a book lying
System
The Universe
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on a table and then falling
on ground
System energy exchanges 0
Universe energy exchanges = 0
Your class room
This is an example of a Control
Volume (CV)
C.V. boundary
Insulated walls
Door
The energy in the room is
constant unless we allow
exchange with the outside (e.g.,
the Universe)
A person could walk through the
d d dd b
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Control volume
example
door and add or subtract energy
A heating duct could also add
thermal energy
On a winter day, a window could
break and the CV would lose
thermal energy
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Energy exchanges between a speeding car and the
rest of the universe.
Mechanical Power to Accessories (1 kW)
Mechanical
d
Mechanical Power to Accessories (1 kW)
(heat, air conditioning, lighting, etc.) Imaginary
Control
Volume
Thermal Power
in Exhaust (20
kW)
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Thermal Power
through Radiator
(40 kW)
Thermal Power due
to Braking (5 kW)
Power due
to Air
Resistance
(7 kW)
Thermal Power
due to Road
Friction (6 kW)
Mechanical Power Lost
to Internal Friction and
Pumping (1 kW)
In the last slide, we have TKE of the vehicle, RKE of
the wheels, electrical energy in the lights, thermal
energy from the radiator, etc.
We deduce that all these energies are exactly
equal to the loss in chemical (potential) energy in
the fuel that is driving the vehicle.
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We specifically identified kinetic, gravitational,
potential and thermal energy potential, and thermal energy
We learned that energy is conserved in the
universe, but not necessarily within a control
volume.
D fi i i ithi t l l th t
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Deficiencies within a control volume mean that
somewhere energy is leaking in or out of the control
volume at an exactly compensating amount.