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Facilitated by:
By providing qu!i"y #$rvi%$ &or our
)$ in%r$#$ "*$ pro++i!i"y "*"
qu!i"y #$rvi%$ )i!! !#o +$ provid$d &or
W$ !#o in%r$#$ "*$ $-%i$n%y o& "*$ +u#in$##(
r$du%$ &ri%"ion +$")$$n %o!!$gu$#(
And !ign o+.$%"iv$# "*roug* "*$ +u#in$##/
Meets people who come to the ofce
Reads, sorts and organizes incoming mail
Takes dictation and transcribes notes on the typewriter
omposes letters and assists in preparing reports
!nswers the telephone and places o"tgoing calls
Makes appointments #or the employer and keeps track o# them
!rranges materials needed d"ring con#erences
Files papers o# many types so that they can be #o"nd promptly
Types materials #rom the employer$s long hand, or #rom ro"ghly types notes
Types materials to be printed
Takes and types min"tes o# the meetings
Types speeches the employer will deli%er
Records speeches
&rders s"pplies and e'"ipment #or the ofce
(ses adding, calc"lating and d"plicating machines
)repares b"dgets and payrolls
*eeps +nancial records and e,pense acco"nts
*eeps personal records #or the employer and does personal banking
Makes hotel reser%ations and tra%el arrangements
Maintains a clipping +le on the employer$s interests and concerns
-er%es as a .b"/er0 or go1between #or the employer
-"per%ises other employees or ser%es as ofce manager
L$rn Sp$%i!i6$d S7i!!#
3o" may need to be pro+cient in science, mathematics, comm"nication skills or
p"blic relations4 !d"lt ed"cation pro%ed long time ago that it is possible to teach an
old dog new tricks, so it will ne%er be too late #or yo" to go back to school in some
capacity and e,tend yo"r knowledge, skills and interests4
!ny e,ec"ti%e with whom yo" might talk can gi%e yo" a word pict"re o# the
competent and s"ccess#"l secretary4 )ersonnel directors and placement ofcers in
schools and employment agencies can also en"merate '"alities and skills
considered essential4 ! composite o# these opinions indicates areas which will
in5"ence yo"r s"ccess on yo"r secretarial 6obs4
S$$ your#$!& # o"*$r# *op$ "o #$$ you
7ncl"ded in all the hoped1#or abilities and '"alities o# the s"ccess#"l secretary is
$8%$!!$n%$ in "*$ 9$%*ni%! #7i!!#: !s one s"per%isor phrases it, She turns
out letter-perfect work. This means that yo"r shorthand and typing are acc"rate
and speedy, the #ormat o# yo"r letters is attracti%e and yo"r typing is sharp4
losely related to the mechanical skills is the e,pressed hope that the secretary will
also be good at detail4 This calls #or standardising yo"r ro"tine 6obs so that errors
can be a%oided, and working o"t systems #or #ollow1"p4 3o" will also need to learn
to organize yo"r sched"le to do the r"sh and important 6obs +rst4
7n the past, m"ch has been said abo"t the clothing and personal appearance o#
secretaries4 &ne e,ec"ti%e said, .7 want my secretary to be attracti%e to look at40
This is not m"ch help, #or what is attracti%e to one person may be rep"lsi%e to
another4 The area o# dress sho"ld be yo"r personal decision hope#"lly based on
what is sometimes called common sense4 3o"r company may ha%e %ery speci+c
r"les, in which yo" #ollow them4 7n any e%ent, clothing sho"ld be personally
becoming and somewhat simple4 3o" wo"ld, o# co"rse, be s"re that it is clean,
#reshly pressed and smart4 8airstyles sho"ld be neat and manageable4
The '"estion o# make"p is e'"ally contro%ersial4 8ope#"lly, yo" will not "se
e,cessi%e amo"nts4 ! n"mber o# years ago, a #amo"s m"sic critic said, .7 like my
secretary to "se make"p, b"t not too m"ch that 7 #eel 7 m"st b"y a ticket to see
B$ good "$9 9$9+$r
3o"r direct s"per%isor is the one with whom yo" work most closely b"t both o# yo"r
work most closely b"t both o# yo"r work with other persons in the organization4
First, howe%er yo" sho"ld learn yo"r immediate s"per%isor$s pre#erences on work
ro"tines4 !s yo" start work, yo" sho"ld ask what the pre#erred times #or doing
certain tasks might be, s"ch as the time #or dictation and the ro"tine #or reading
and signing mail4
3o" will also need to learn yo"r employer$s and:or the company$s policies abo"t
helping other secretaries when a hea%y work load de%elops in other departments,
whether yo" may ask others to help yo" when the load is hea%y in yo"r ofce, and
whether there are other e,ec"ti%es who may ask yo" to do work #or them4
;eing a good team member also means that yo" are a responsible person4 3o"
realize the %al"e o# time and yo" do not gossip, in or o"t o# the ofce, abo"t
company b"siness or secrets4 3o" learn where to get in#ormation and ass"me as
m"ch responsibility as yo"r e,ec"ti%e is willing to delegate4
!s a responsible team member yo" m"st ha%e the capacity to take an enth"siastic
interest in the ideas and plans o# yo"r employer4 7# yo" are impatient on the 6ob
beca"se o# the importance o# yo"r personal plans and li#e, then yo" will not be a
good team member4 <orking as a secretary means that yo" energies, time and
tho"ghts are at the disposal o# someone else4
Teamwork calls #or gracio"sness on yo"r part so that the ofce is a pleasant place4
3o" will need to ha%e or to de%elop the ability to ad6"st to the moods o# others4 !
real skill that yo" will need to ac'"ire is the ability to protect yo"r employer against
"nnecessary intr"sions witho"t o/ending the caller, whether on the phone or in
D$v$!op po#i"iv$ p$r#on!i"y "ri"#
Real teamwork, thro"gho"t the entire organization o# any company or b"siness,
hinges on the abilities o# all persons in%ol%ed to get along together4 -ince the
person yo" can most e/ecti%ely in5"ence or control is yo"rsel#4 3o" might begin to
de%elop certain positi%e traits4 3o" will be #ort"nate i# yo" are employed in a
company where the persons with whom yo" work e,ercise patience, respect each
other, and share a desire to do things in the most efcient manner possible4
8igh on the list o# positi%e traits is dependability4 This is apparent in many small b"t
important ways = being on time #or work, clearing "p yo"r desk properly be#ore
lea%ing in the e%ening, being "sre that yo"r ofce is not le#t "nattended4 7# no other
worker can be on d"ty d"ring the l"nch ho"r, be s"re that the ofce is properly
locked4 Follow instructions and see that tasks for which you are
responsible get done.
T%" nd .udg9$n"
These traits, #re'"ently mentioned, are somewhat related4 7# yo" de%elop them,
they will help yo" to know when to talk and when to remain silent4 <hen yo" talk,
yo" will learn to phrase things positi%ely4 -"ggestions or criticisms sho"ld be
constr"cti%e in tone4 7# they are not accepted, or it they are resented, try p"tting
yo"rsel# in the other person$s place and see it #rom his point o# %iew4 7t is good
6"dgment, in asking #or assistance or help, to ask in '"estion #orm = not as a
R$9in %!9 nd %on"ro!!$d
The persons with personalities yo" most admire are those who "nderstand yo", who
e,hibit patience "nder trying circ"mstances, and who remain at all times calm and
sel#1controlled4 To become that kind o# person yo"rsel#, yo" might practice these
14 ooperate with yo"r #ellow workers in all areas possible
24 Try to learn the backgro"nd o# persons whose actions yo" cannot
34 ?o not 6"dge persons too hastily
24 Think be#ore yo" act
94 ?o not ha%e .temper tantr"ms0 in the ofce
>4 @ook #or good points in others that might balance their weak points
)oise is a '"ality that has been described as the ability to raise ones eyebrow
instead of the roof. Respect #or others, work e,perience, and the acceptance o#
the #act that e%ery department in a company m"st ha%e a head person who is
responsible, will help yo" de%elop poise4
! poised secretary is one who #eels s"re o# hersel#, her abilities and her knowledge
so that she can cope gracio"sly with sit"ations as they arise4
Adp"+i!i"y nd r$#our%$&u!n$##
! world1class secretary can adapt in a sit"ation, doing 6obs "nder less than ideal
circ"mstances or with inade'"ate materials4 -he is also reso"rce#"l in that she can
+nd or locate in#ormation and tools with which to do a 6ob4
A%ery a"thority in the +eld o# secretarial science stresses the importance o# a good
memory = for details, names, faces, facts and policies. -ince all secretaries ser%e
their e,ec"ti%es in a receptionist capacity, remembering names and #aces is
important beca"se it 5atters the callers to be remembered4
7# yo" are not one o# those persons especially gi#ted with "n"s"al powers o#
memory, yo" m"st work to de%elop that skill4 First, o# co"rse, yo" m"st really want
to de%elop the ability to remember4 Then, as yo" do yo"r work each day, try these
14 onnect each person with a special #act abo"t him = s"ch as a hobby or
24 )ick o"t a key word #rom yo"r con%ersation with a person and repeat it
se%eral times to .tie it0 in yo"r memory
34 Cot a note to yo"rsel# on anything that will need to be recalled
immediately a#ter a completing a con%ersation or transaction Dreading the
note later will bring it all back to yo"E4
7# yo" really )n" to remember, yo" m"st act"ally "nderstand whate%er it is trying
to remember4 7t is essential that yo" gi%e it yo"r "ndi%ided attention at the moment
yo" are trying to learn it4 ?on$t worry to remember e%erything abo"t a sit"ation,
b"t pick o"t the most important items and concentrate on them4
D$v$!oping r$ding #7i!!#
losely related to remembering and "nderstanding sit"ations and in#ormation is the
ability to read4 7t is generally accepted in modern li#e that all o# "s co"ld pro+t #rom
being able to read more rapidly and with more "nderstanding or comprehension4
7# yo" decide to make reading a sel#1impro%ement pro6ect, here are some
14 Read by phrases. ?e%elop a wide eye span4 The #ewer times yo"r eyes
stop in reading a page, the #aster yo" will read4
24 Do not vocalise. <hen reading silently, do not mo%e yo"r lips, or #orm
the words in yo"r throat4
34 Sustain attention. oncentrate on the material being read4 ?o not let
yo"r mind wander4
1no) "*$ %orr$%" )y "o do "*ing#
)leasant personal relationships in yo"r day1to1day acti%ities on any 6ob are yo"r
responsibility as well as a responsibility o# yo"r s"per%isor4 You r$ " !$#" ;<=
r$#pon#i+!$ &or "*$ %!i9"$ in ny )or7ing #i"u"ion: 3o" ha%e no do"bt
heard people say a n"mber o# times, .7 am willing to go hal#1way40 I& you r$!!y
)n" "o +$%o9$ "op>ig*" #$%r$"ry( you 9y n$$d "o go ?<<= o& "*$
)y: <hat are some o# the things which yo" need to do correctlyF
Ati'"ette is somewhat an old1#ashioned word, b"t i# yo" will think o# it as a special
set o# manners or cond"ct "sed in yo"r b"siness or pro#ession, yo" will easily
de%elop the needed ro"tines4 P!$#n" p$r#on! r$!"ion#*ip# r$ your
r$#pon#i+i!i"y # #$%r$"ry:
!ny company or b"siness organization m"st ha%e a line o# a"thority or .chain o#
command0 i# it is to #"nction efciently4 3o" will be e,pected to know that line and
honor it4 !ny employee, whether in the secretarial ranks or e,ec"ti%e branch, m"st
r$#p$%" "*$ %*nn$!# o& %o99uni%"ion and not go o%er the immediate
s"per%isor$s head4
Hoing thro"gh the proper channels is as important i# yo" need to go .down the
ladder0 as it is in going "p4 3o" may ha%e an assignment to hand o%er the typing
pool4 Hi%e it to the s"per%isor, not directly to the typist yo" know will the best 6ob4
3o" don$t need M!IIAR- i# yo" are444
! b"m444
! hermit444
-hipwrecked and all alone on an island444
! con%ict on death row444
!n inmate in a mental instit"tion444
@i%ing alone and ne%er coming o"t o# yo"r ho"se444
;eing consistent with yo"r li#etime habits o# not e%er br"shing
yo"r teeth,
taking a bath, and changing clothes444
! beggar444
-till in yo"r mother$s womb4

B$ und$r#"nding
Do learn to recognize and appreciate the emotional stresses and strains on your
employer. The more responsible position he has, the more important decisions he is
responsible #or, and the more people he m"st direct in their work4
Remember that age and gender ha%e %ery little Di# anythingE to do with a person$s
s"per%isory skills4 3o" may, at some time, ha%e an employer who is yo"nger than
yo" are or a woman #or a s"per%isor4 ;oth sit"ations may well be among the most
constr"cti%e yo" will e,perience4
A%%$p" Di@$r$n%$#
@earn to accept the di/erent personality traits o# yo"r co1workers = all o# whom will
be indi%id"ally di/erent 6"st as yo" ha%e yo"r "ni'"e characteristics4
!sk yo"r s"per%isor to gi%e yo" constr"cti%e criticisms o# yo"r secretarial
per#ormance so that yo" may impro%e in wisdom and stat"re4 7# yo" are made
"nhappy when someone makes a s"ggestion abo"t yo"r work, it will be difc"lt #or
yo" to grow on the 6ob4
In"rodu%ing P$op!$
*nowing how to make introd"ctions correctly is one way to be a gracio"s person4
8ere are the basic s"ggestions on which most a"thorities agree:
14 7ntrod"ce a man to a woman4
24 7ntrod"ce a yo"nger person to an older person Da man is "s"ally presented
or introd"ced to woman e%en tho"gh he may be the olderE4
34 7ntrod"ce a person o# lower rank in a company to one who is his s"perior4
T8A -7M)@A-T R(@A 7-:
T*$ )o9nA# n9$ i# 9$n"ion$d Br#"
The less #ormal way to introd"ce one person to another is to say: .Mrs4 ;rown, this
is Mr4 Cones40 7# yo" wish to introd"ce two people witho"t emphasizing any
distinction between them, simply repeat the names: .Mrs4 ;rown, Mr4 Cones40 L"ite
o#ten yo" may be in a position to introd"ce two men within yo"r company, or a
%isitor to the ofce4 7n doing this, it is #re'"ently more important to gi%e an
.identity0 to the two rather than be concerned with which one is presented to the
other4 For e,ample: yo" might say: .Mr4 -mith, this is Mr4 !nderson, who has
recently become a member o# o"r sales Hro"p4 Mr4 -mith is in o"r Tr"st
?epartment, Mr4 !nderson40
M7ing 0roup In"rodu%"ion#
7# yo" are introd"cing a man to se%eral persons in a room, pr$#$n" *i9 "o "*$
)o9$n Br#" nd "*$n "o "*$ 9$n: There will probably be a b"ss o# con%ersation
going on, so yo" sho"ld be s"re to raise yo"r %oice to a %ol"me le%el Dnot a high
pitchE to grain the attention o# persons to whom yo" are introd"cing the latest
7# it is a large gro"p, yo" might in"rodu%$ "*$ !"$#" p$r#on "o &$) p$r#on#
# you %o9$ in"o "*$ roo9 and let the person introd"ce himsel# #rom that point
In"rodu%ing your#$!&
3o" will also +nd yo"rsel# in the sit"ation #rom time to tome o# ha%ing to introd"ce
yo"rsel#4 !s a receptionist #or yo"r e,ec"ti%e, yo" will be greeting callers with or
witho"t appointments4 <hen someone comes in whom yo" do not know, yo" can
make it %ery simple: 0ood 9orning( I 9 Mi## 4$nny Di6( Mr: C#"roA#
#$%r$"ry: My I *$!p youCD
W*$n do you #"nd &or in"rodu%"ion# nd )*$n #*ou!d you #*7$
Men "s"ally rise #or introd"ctions, whether to another man or a woman4 <omen
"s"ally stand i# they are being introd"ced to persons who are ob%io"sly
considerably older or M7)s4
Men rather generally shake hands when being introd"ced to each other4
! woman may o#er to shake hands or not, as she wishes = either proced"re is
correct4 W*$n you do #*7$ *nd#( 97$ i" Br9 nd +ri$& E not a .6elly+sh0
B$%o9$ good %onv$r#"ion!i#"
B$ing good %onv$r#"ion!i#" )i!! i9prov$ your #$!&-%onBd$n%$ nd dd
"o your gr%iou# pp$rn%$:
!n honest interest in what others are saying and the ability to e,press yo"rsel# in an
interesting manner is probably the basis #or becoming a good conser%ationist4 3o"
m"st talk with a person, not up to him, down to him, or at him4
E8"$nd rng$ o& 7no)!$dg$
nterest is the key word in that yo" m"st know interesting things to disc"ss as well
as an interesting proced"re #or disc"ssion4 *now what is going on in the world now
and something o# what has happened in the past4
B$ %oop$r"iv$
(nless yo" can work harmonio"sly with the other persons within the
company, yo" will ha%e difc"lty in working e/ecti%ely with the c"stomers o#
o"r b"siness or organization4 7t has been said that .p"blic relations, like
charity, begins at home40 A%ery ofce has its problems beca"se workers are
h"man beings, or more acc"rately = h"man .becomings40 Io one is e,actly
the same persons tomorrow that he is today4
<hat daily energy leaks keep yo" #rom being #oc"sedF
8ow do yo" replenish yo"r energy reser%eF 8ow o#tenF
8ow many energy leaks do we ha%e in o"r daily li%esF @eaks s"ch as angry words,
distractions or tampering in someone else$s b"siness while neglecting o"r own4
To be a top1notch secretary:leader re'"ires a tremendo"s amo"nt o# energy4 Most
leaders are int"iti%e or they wo"ld not be able to hear and see things that on one
else can see or hear4 @eaders m"st there#ore be aware that their energy is s"b6ect
to depletion, and they m"st make g"arding that energy reser%e a priority4
A%eryone needs to be in t"ne with her or his so"rce o# energy4

-el#1esteem is the +rst key to +nding happiness on the 6ob: 7t is that deep1
down #eeling in yo"r so"l o# yo"r own sel#1worth4
7ndi%id"als who en6oy their work de%elop strong belie#s o# sel#1worth and sel#1
con+dence4 They weren$t necessarily born with these good #eelings4 They
might ha%e e%en been made to #eel cl"msy and st"pid in their yo"th4 ;"t as
working ad"lts, they learned to like themsel%es thro"gh practice4
8ealthy sel#1esteem is not narcissistic, sel#1ind"lgent or arrogant4 8ealthy
sel#1esteem means to appreciate the %al"e o# yo" as a "ni'"e h"man being
with yo"r own special talents and abilities4 7ndeed, the word .esteem0 is
#o"nded in @atin, meaning .to %al"e highly40
7t wo"ld be impossible to %al"e another person witho"t +rst #eeling %al"e #or
yo"rsel#4 <hen yo" place %al"e on yo"r own work and e/orts, yo" can begin
to +nd the %al"e in the work o# others4 ts in your power to encourage self-
esteem and well-being at your place of work. !ou can feel self-esteem e"en
though you may not ha"e done anything yet, but simply because you ha"e
the capability for it.
Pro%"iv$ p$op!$ #oc"s their e/orts in the ircle o# 7n5"ence4 They work on things
they can do something abo"t4 The nat"re o# their energy is positi%e, enlarging and
magni#ying, ca"sing their ircle o# 7n5"ence to increase4
R$%"iv$ p$op!$ #oc"s their e/orts in the ircle o# concern4 They #oc"s on the
weakness o# other people, the problems in the en%ironment and %ir%u9#"n%$#
ov$r )*i%* "*$y *v$ no %on"ro!: Their #oc"s res"lts in blaming and acc"sing
attit"des, reacti%e lang"age and increased #eelings o# %ictimization4
The negati%e energy generated by that #oc"s combined with neglect in areas they
co"ld do something abo"t, ca"ses their ircle o# 7n5"ence to shrink4
Co99i" "o qu!i"y n $8%$!!$n%$ in #9!! nd BI0 "*ing#:
The commitments we make to o"rsel%es and to others, and o"r integrity to those
commitments is the essence and clearest mani#estation o# o"r being proacti%e4
7t is also the essence o# o"r growth4 Thro"gh o"r h"man endowments o# self-
awareness and conscience, we become conscio"s o# areas o# weakness, areas #or
impro%ement, areas o# talent that co"ld be de%eloped, areas that need to be
changed or eliminated #rom o"r li%es4 Then, as we recognize and "se o"r
imagination and independent will to act on that awareness = making promises,
setting goals, and being tr"e to them = we b"ild the strength o# character, the being
that makes possible e%ery other positi%e thin in o"r li%es4
7t is here that we +nd two ways to p"t o"rsel%es in control o# o"r li%es immediately4
<e can make a promise = and keep it4 &r we can set a goal = and work to achie%e
it4 !s we make and keep commitments, e%en small commitments, we begin to
establish an inner integrity that gi%es "s the awareness o# sel#1control and the
co"rage and strength to accept more o# the responsibility #or o"r own li%es4 ;y
making and keeping promises to o"rsel%es and others, little by little, our *onor
+$%o9$# gr$"$r "*n our 9ood#:
#he power to make and keep commitments to oursel"es is the essence of
de"eloping the basic habits of e$ecti"eness. *nowledge, skill, and desire are all
within o"r control4 <e can work on any one to impro%e the balance o# the three4 !s
the area o# intersection becomes larger, we more deeply internalize the principles
"pon which the habits are based and create the strength o# character to mo%e "s in
a balanced way toward increasing e/ecti%eness in o"r li%es4
There is one #acet o# working Dand li%ingE that yo" can co"nt onO change is constant4
A%ery single day there is a shi#t in the economy = in cons"mer demand and in the
ability to s"pply that demand4 Iew prod"cts and ser%ices are being created and
others are losing their competiti%e edge4 )ower str"ct"res shi#t in ofces and
man"#act"ring plants, and technology o"tpaces deli%ery capabilities4 There is an
"n'"enchable h"man thirst #or something new, something di/erent4
&n a smaller scale, change is also constant at the workplace4 Iew tasks m"st be
carried o"t, di/erent acco"nts are assigned, the boss makes new demands as he or
she responds to the market, an old prod"ct line is scrapped, a new one introd"ced,
personnel lea%e #or better positions, new people are hired4
Rep"tation is not character4
haracter is what a man isO rep"tation is what he is tho"ght to be4
haracter is withinO rep"tation is witho"t4
haracter is always realO rep"tation may be #alse4
haracter is s"bstantial and end"ringO rep"tation may be %apory and 5eeting4
haracter is at home, rep"tation is abroad4
haracter is in a man$s own so"lO rep"tation is in the mind o# others4
haracter is the solid #ood o# li#e, rep"tation is the dessert4
haracter is what gi%es a man %al"e in his own eyesO rep"tation is what he is %al"ed
at in the eyes o# others4
haracter is his real worthO rep"tation is his market price4
! man may ha%e a good character and a bad rep"tationO a man may ha%e a good
rep"tation and a bad character4 !s we #orm opinion o# men #rom what they appear
to be, and not #rom what they really are4
Mo#" 9$n r$ 9or$ n8iou# +ou" "*$ir r$pu""ion "*"
"*$y r$ +ou" "*$ir %*r%"$r: T*i# i# no" rig*":
W*i!$ $v$ry 9n #*ou!d $nd$vour "o 9in"in good
*$ #*ou!d $#p$%i!!y !+or "o po##$## good %*r%"$r:
Hnd!ing S"r$##( Ang$r nd Cu#"o9$r Co9p!in"#
Ampathize and show that yo" want not help, not con#ront4
?emonstrate interest4
*eep yo"r own emotions in check4
)robe tact#"lly #or details4
oncentrate on the problem, not the person
(se the words that prod"ce cooperation, not con#rontation4
?ecide who sho"ld handle the problem
!ct promptly and decisi%ely4
Make the c"stomer yo"r partner in the decision4
Amphasize the bene+ts o# the sol"tion4
?e%elop standard operating proced"res #or handling complaints or
@et management know abo"t complaints and sol"tions:e/orts made4
Anco"rage c"stomers and clients to make s"ggestions related to
ser%ices, needs, prod"cts and approaches4
Be very good at what you do.
Be a successful leader.
Save your organization money.
Make money for your organization.
Learn whats really important to your boss.
Learn your bosss expectations of you.
Get feedback on your performance.
See that most problems are solved before they come to the bosss attention.
See that both bad news and good news come from you.
Volunteer for difcult and unwanted assignments.
Sell only worthwhile ideas.
Dont ask for unnecessary guidance.
Dont complain about other people.
Be a tough self-critic.
S$n#i+!$ ##u9p"ion# +ou" %o99uni%"ionG
omm"nication -kills are ac'"ired more than they are inborn4
!ss"me that the ne,t message yo" send will be mis"nderstood4
?on$t worry abo"t being clearO worry abo"t being "nderstood4
The meaning o# a word cannot be #o"nd in a dictionary4
The meaning people get #rom yo" comes less #rom what yo" say than #rom
how yo" say it4
<hene%er two people are in each other$s presence, they comm"nicate4
GBP o# the in#ormation stored in people$s minds entered thro"gh their eyes4
omm"nication is a comple,, ongoing, dynamic and changing process4
T*$ E##$n%$ o& Co99uni%"ion
Assential !ttit"des Towards
A,cellent omm"nication
ll make them glad they met me.
ll brighten their day with what say.
ll make them glad they talked to me.
T*$r$ I# No Ind$8 o& C*r%"$r A# Sur$ # "*$ Voi%$
An A""r%"iv$ nd C*r9ing Voi%$ i#G
)leasant and Fle,ible
-ympathetic and -incere
F"ll, Rich and Mibrant
A,presses meaning with #eeling
?ynamic and A,pressi%e Dalm, A%en, )ositi%eE
Wy# To L$rn Mor$ A+ou" Your#$!& A# A Co99uni%"or
!sk #or Feedback
@ook #or Feedback
Tape Record 3o"r Moice
Record 3o"rsel# on Mideo Tape
@ook in a Mirror
@isten to 3o"rsel#
T$%*niqu$# "o I9prov$ Your Li#"$ning
-h"t "p4
Recognize that listening is something yo" do #or person s"ccess4
<ant to listen better4
;ecome less sel#1centered4
)repare to listen4
<ork hard at listening4
heck #or non1%erbal c"es4
8old 3o"r Fire4
?on$t plan yo"r response while the person is talking4
&%ercome distractions4
<hen yo" need to hear e%erything a person is saying, say to yo"rsel# %ight
now, understanding this persons feelings is the most important thing in my
)ractice making the decisions yon need to make abo"t people and e%ents
witho"t coming to +nal concl"sions abo"t them4
Wy# To S$nd M$##g$# Wi"*ou" Word#
)ersonal -pace
Tip# in "*$ E@$%"iv$ '#$ o& "*$ T$!$p*on$
Make appointments #or the date and time o# yo"r call4
;e#ore calling, o"tline the topics to disc"ss and the speci+c o"tcomes yo"
;e#ore dialing, pict"re the other person4
;e kind to phone answerers4
@ea%e messages that get res"lts4
<hen the other person answers yo"r call, ask whether he or she has time to
onsider answering yo"r own telephone and placing yo"r own calls4
?on$t allow telephone screener to ask, .May 7 tell Miss Maldez what yo"r call
is in regard toF0
Make a special e/ort to "se %i%id lang"age, detailed stories and #"ll
e,planations on the telephone4
!%oid doing something else while talking4
<hene%er yo"r message contains comple,, detailed or critical in#ormation,
comm"nicate in person or writing4
Follow "p important phone con%ersations with a con+rming memo4
&nce yo" achie%e yo"r ob6ecti%es, end the con%ersation4
Make a record o# important telephone calls4
1. Know, Master yor S!"e#t so well that you can discuss it confidently and
naturally. Knowledge is the foundation and source of good writing. Dont write
about anything of which you are not very familiar.
$. Use S%ort &ara'ra(%s. Paragraphs in letters should average about 60 words, or
from 6 to 7 lines.
). Use S%ort Senten#es to mae your letter easily understood. !he longest sentence
should contain no more than "0 words. #eading tends to become hard when
sentences e$ceed "0 words.
*. A+o,- nee-.ess wor-s lie the underlined in the following e$amples.
%void needless words lie& that your appeal for an e$tension of your
fellowship has been approved.
'tart outright with your appeal(
)our fellowship is e$tended to enable you to complete all the re*uirements for
a masters degree.
/. Do not re(eat w%at ,s sa,- ,n a .etter yo are answer,n'.
+ere are e$amples of repetitions&
a, -e have your letter of . /ay 0116, in which you ased if one of our
e$tension worers could give a lecture on procedures at your in2service
training program
b, !his is to acnowledge your letter of 0 3une 0117, in which you re*uested
permission to use our social hall on 00 3uly 0117, for a demonstration on
business machine and e*uipment.
0. A+o,- 'o!!.e-y'oo1 an- .e'a. "ar'on. !he dictionary gives the meaning of
gobbledygook as a -ordy and generally unintelligible 4argon. %nd jargon means,
among other things, the technical terminology or characteristic idiom of a special
activity or group, obscure and often pretentious language mared by circumlocutions
and long words.
5ircumlocution means the use of an unnecessarily large number of words to e$press
an idea6 or evasion speech.
Pretentious means maing usually un4ustified claims 7as of value or standing,, or
8egal words should not be used in ordinary business and social letters.
2. Use s%ort wor-s. 9ever use a long word when a short one will do.
3. Don4t !e ser+,.e, as illustrated in the following e$amples&
9otice the underlined words&
: shall be deeply honored if you will accept this invitation to(
%llow me to tae the liberty of respectfully re*uesting you to (
5. Don4t !e arro'ant, as shown in the following e$amples&
-e made it clear when you came last that you need to submit your re*uest before
the following fiscal year.
%s we have said to you several times, no vacancy shall be filled this year.
16. Yor .etter 7st !e 7o-ern. Discard the following hacneyed e$pressions&
!his is to acnowledge receipt of your letter of /ay ; (
-ith reference to your letter of (
-e have your letter before us(
%ttached, please find(
: have the honor to (
-e beg to be advised(
#egarding the matter(
<e direct, dont beat around the bush.
11. Don4t 8a.,9y yor state7ents w,t% ,rre.e+ant IFs. =ne of the best ways to
avoid e$planations that begin by saying the law provides or regulations provide.
:n any general statement under a law or regulation you may be forced into a series
of ifs to be strictly accurate. 'ee how confusing the following paragraph is&
:n reply to your letter of /ay 0117, you are advised that Public 8aw provides
that an individual, or his estate in the event of death, may, if application is
made to this 5ommission within 10 days following the date of the damage
alleged to have been sustained, or buy ; 3une 0117, whichever is the later
date, and if such documentary evidence as may be re*uired by the
5ommission is submitted, establish entitlement to reparation in an amount
not e$ceeding the amount of the fair maret value of the losses proved to
have been sustained.
1$. Use na7es an- (ersona. (ronons. % person feels chilled when he gets a letter
that is addressed to him as an applicant, producer, client, etc. +e feels worse
when the letter comes from this department, this office, this company, etc.
:nstead of taling lie a department to an applicant, write about I, we, mine, etc.
to you, yours, his
1). A-7,t 7,sta1es.
1*. T%,n1 o9 yor rea-er4s (ro!.e7, not o9 yor own.
1/. A##ent t%e (os,t,+e.
10. Don4t 'et t%e ,-ea t%at e+ery .etter nee-s a 9,n,s%,n' to#% such as >Please
let me now if you can be of further help.? 8et the genuine *uality of your service
mae its own pleasant speech.
12. A+o,- (art,#,(,a. en-,n' such as the following&
+oping this meets with your approval, we remain.
!rusting to merit your patronage, we are.
:nstead, end your letter with a direct statement, thus6
-e hope this meets your approval.
-e trust we merit your patronage.
14 Hi%e o%er%iew abo"t the re'"est and its p"rpose4
24 A,plain details abo"t the re'"est4
34 -tate what yo" e,pect t the reader to do ne,t4
24 -how appreciation4
14 Hi%e o%er%iew abo"t the in#ormation and the p"rpose #or its dissemination4
24 A,plain details abo"t the in#ormation4
34 -"mmarize and state what yo" e,pect the reader to do ne,t4
14 Het the reader$s attention4
24 reate interests by stating bene+ts to the reader4
34 Anco"rage the reader to take action4
14 Hi%e o%er%iew abo"t the complaint and the p"rpose #or writing4
24 )ro%ide details abo"t the complaint4
34 -tate what yo" e,pect the reader to do ne,t4
14 -how acknowledgement and appreciation4
24 )araphrase to clari#y client$s concern4
34 &/er sol"tions or s"ggestions4
24 -how appreciation and willingness to help the writer4
14 -how acknowledgement and appreciation4
24 -hoe empathy4
34 !pologize4
24 -tate actions taken to help the client4
94 -how appreciation and willingness to help the writer4
14 -how acknowledgement and appreciation4
24 !pologize #or being "nable to grant re'"est4
34 A,plain reason4
24 &/er alternati%es4
94 -how appreciation and willingness to help the writer4
!he primary purpose of minutes is to provide a written record of meetings conducted in an
organi@ation. /inutes of the meeting may also be used by the attendees as a reminder of
what they are to do following the meeting. Ainally, the also provide information about what
too place in the meeting to those who were not able to attend.
Berbatim minutes record everything that has been said in a meeting. :t is usually all2
inclusive and impartial, but may reveal personal clashes and acrimonious situations in a
meeting. !o produce verbatim minutes, a writer will find it useful to use a tape recorder and
then type up the notes from the recording.
9arrative minutes show how a meeting proceeded, form the beginning to the end. !his type
of minutes emphasi@es details of the arguments for or against specific points in the meeting.
9arrative minutes usually include basic points made by each person, points of agreement or
disagreement, and actions to be taen after the meeting.
=utline minutes provide the shortest account of a meeting. !hey focus on what was decided
upon and actions to be taen after the meeting.
9ame of meeting
%ttendees e$pected
%ttendees present
Decisions made
%ction plans
%genda for future meeting
9ame of minutes taer
Date of compilation
9ames of people circulated
Monthly Departmental meeting
Date Participants of the Meeting:
Item 1:
Discussion Action Agreed Person Involved Time Table
Item 2:
Discussion Action Agreed Person Involved Time Table
Item :
Discussion Action Agreed Person Involved Time Table
E7a,. Et,8ette
:%at ,s e7a,. et,8ette<
Cmail eti*uette refers to a set of dos and donts that are recommended by business and
communication e$perts in response to the growing concern that people are not using their
email effectively or appropriately.
'ince email is part of the virtual world of communication, many people communicate in their
email messages the same way they do in virtual chat rooms& with much less formality and
sometimes too aggressively. Cmail eti*uette offers some guidelines that all writers can use
to facilitate better communication between themselves and their readers.
=ne overall point to remember is that an email message does not have non2verbal
e$pression to supplement what we are Dsaying.D /ost of the time we mae 4udgments about
a persons motives and intentions based on their tone of voice, gestures, and their pro$imity
to us. -hen those are absent it becomes more difficult to figure out what the message
sender means. :t is much easier to offend or hurt someone in email and that is why it is
important to be as clear and concise as possible.
How -o I 1now ,9 I a7 s,n' t%e #orre#t et,8ette<
!here are a number of things to consider before clicing the DsendD button on your email.
+ow should : format my emailE
!o whom am : sending my emailE
5an : send attachmentsE
+ow long should my email beE
%m : flaming someoneE 7%nd what does DflamingD meanE,
-hen should : not send an emailE
How s%o.- I 9or7at 7y e7a,.<
)ou are most liely familiar with the general rules about formatting email but here are some
tips to eep in mind.
!ry to eep the email brief 7preferably to one page, so that readers do not have to
scroll. FFF
#eturn emails in the same day that you would a phone call.
Gse capitali@ation and punctuation in the same way that you would in any other
Aormat your email to be sent in plain te$t.
-rite a salutation or greeting for each new sub4ect email. FFF +owever, if you
e$change several emails over the same topic 7for e$ample, a meeting day and time,
it is not necessary to include a greeting because it is as though you are carrying on a
conversation. -hen we carry on conversations, we do not say hello each time we
<e sure to write an appropriate and specific sub4ect in the sub4ect line so that the
recipient nows what to e$pect. Aor e$ample& D%pril "" production team meeting
agendaD instead of Dmeeting.D
To w%o7 a7 I sen-,n' 7y e7a,.<
:t is always important to now who will receive your email, including the number of people
you have on the mailing list. !his helps you in two ways. Airst, it helps you thin about the
tone of your writing.
Aor e$ample, while you still want to follow the traditional rules of writing, emails that you
send to your employer or professor may be more formal and brief than to a colleague or
classmate. )ou will need to decide whether you need to use a persons title or if writing the
first name is appropriate.
'econd, if you send an email to more than four people regularly you should create mailing
groups so that the recipients do not need to scroll through names before they can get to the
content of the email. :t also helps to eep some email addresses anonymous, as some
perceive it as rude for their names and email addresses to be posted for strangers to see.
)ou will need to tal with the technical support in your office or use the DhelpD option on
your computer if you do not now how to create a mailing group. % mailing group is a list of
email addresses assigned to one name 7lie, newfacultyHsla.purdue.edu,. )ou want to use
names that mae sense to you so that you can remember them. !his is especially helpful
when you are managing several mailing group lists.
Cmails are public documents, despite the fact that you may send an email to someone
privately. !herefore, only include those statements in email that you can openly defend
should your message be circulated or shown to other parties. Gsing emoticons 7smiley
faces3, wins, etc.,, and other virtual gestures may be appropriate in some cases, but not in
all casesI :t is always essential to consider the type of relationship you have with the
receiver of your message before including virtual non2verbals. :f your relationship is more
casual, then using the symbols is fine. :f your relationship is more formal, then it is best to
refrain from using them.
=an I sen- atta#%7ents<
)es, as long as you are sure that your recipient can receive them. 'ending attachments is a
normal practice when you are submitting documents for review or e$changing information in
the worplace. +ere are some tips to consider before attaching a document.
!itle the document that you are attaching in a way that is easy for the recipient to
find once he or she downloads it to his or her files.
Aor e$ample, if you are sending a document that is a goal statement then title it
:n the content of your email, tell your recipient what type of software was used to
create the document, the yearJversion, and the title of the attachment.
Aor e$ample& D!he file attached is called Kgoalstatement.doc and it is in /'-ord
/ae sure that you do not send overly large attachments unless you are sure that
your recipientLs :nternet connection and email client can handle them. Aor e$ample,
a user on a .6K dialup would have to spend a long time downloading a ./
PowerPoint file, whereas a co2worer on a fast wor connection would have no
DonLt send unnecessary attachments 22 if youLve already presented all of the relevant
information in an email message, donLt attach a -ord document repeating the same
How .on' s%o.- 7y e7a,. !e<
:n general, the email should be appro$imately one page printed or the length of your
computer screen before scrolling. +owever, there are times when email messages need to
be longer to convey important information. =ftentimes organi@ations seeing to reduce their
paper costs will use email as their primary source of communication. 8onger emails
generally consist of& =rientation schedules and information, memos, convention information,
newsletters, and policy changes.
-hen you need to write a long email try to include three essential elements at the top of
the email& 7a, an e$ecutive summary at the top of the document, 7b, how soon a response
is re*uired from the recipient7s,, and 7c, a table of contents.
An e>e#t,+e s77ary
!his is a short summary of everything in the email document including the main goal of the
email or the Dbottom line.D F
For e>a7(.e? D-elcome to MDA 5ompany. !his email contains important information about
your orientation wee. )ou will find the five day schedule, names of the speaers, the menu,
hotel arrangements, and testimonials from employees who previously participated.D
Re8,re- res(onse
<ecause your reader is most liely going to read the first few lines of your document
thoroughly and browse through the rest, if you need to have him or her respond by a
certain time with certain information, that should be stated within the e$ecutive summary.
For e>a7(.e? DPlease let me now by -ednesday whether you are attending the meeting.D
Ta!.e o9 #ontents
% table of contents allows the reader to pic and choose what sections of the email are most
relevant to him or her.F % person is most liely to comply with your re*uests when you
mae it easy for him or her to navigate your materials.
For e>a7(.e?
!able of 5ontents
2 Aive Day 'chedule
2 'peaer 8ist
2 /enu
2 #egistration Aorm
2 +otel %rrangements
2 !ravel #eimbursement Policy
A7 I 9.a7,n' so7eone< @An- w%at -oes A9.a7,n'A 7ean<B
Alaming is a virtual term for venting emotion online or sending inflammatory emails. F :t is
best to avoid flaming because it tends to create more conflict and tension. Alames are
virtual food fights and are unproductive and in4urious to the parties involved.
-hat you say cannot be taen bac. /isinterpretations happen very easily in neutral emails
because there is a lac of nonverbal e$pression to cue the recipient about your motives and
intentions. )ou can imagine how much misinterpretation can occur when you are e$pressing
frustration andJor anger.
!hings to consider before venting in email&
-ould : say this to this persons faceE
%m : putting the receiver in awward positionE
+ow would : feel if : got this email messageE
Gsually, by the time you consider the above *uestions you will be calm enough to write your
message with a different approach. 5atching someone by surprise in a flaming message is a
*uic way to alienate your reader mainly because they will react with anger or
<elow are some e$amples of flaming messages and then some suggestions on ways to re2
word them in more sensitive and thoughtful ways.
F.a7eC,na((ro(r,ate 7essa'e Not a 9.a7eCa((ro(r,ate 7essa'e
D!his pro4ect really sucs and : cannot believe
that he is maing us do this. :m sic and tired of
all these dumb assignments. +e needs to get a
D!his assignment came at a tough time. :
wasnt e$pecting so much wor. : cant
wait till the end of the semester.D
D:f you dont fi$ this problem then : am going to
*uit !=/=##=-IIIIIIII : am sic and tired of
/arthas incompetenceIIID
D:m growing increasingly frustrated by the
current situation. 5an we set up a time to
tal about this moreED
:%en s%o.- I not sen- an e7a,.<
!here are many sub4ects that are too sensitive to discuss over email mainly because
misinterpretation could have serious conse*uences. 'ome topics that should generally be
resolved outside of email are&
Disciplinary action
5onflicts about grades or personal information
5oncerns about fellow classmatesJwormates
-hen it appears that a dialogue has turned into a conflict, it is best to suggest an end to the
swapping of email and for you to tal or meet in person. :f you receive a flaming email try
to respond in a short and simple response. :f that does not appease the flamer than mae
contact with him or her outside the virtual realm.